Military Review

How Grozny was turned into "the most terrible Russian tyrant"

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How Grozny was turned into "the most terrible Russian tyrant"
V.M. Vasnetsov. Tsar Ivan the Terrible, 1897


490 years ago, Ivan IV Vasilievich, nicknamed the Terrible, was born. The Russian sovereign, who laid the foundations of the Orthodox "people's" kingdom ", defended it under the blows of the eastern and western conquerors. Our state withstood a massive invasion of Western powers that wanted to turn the Russians into "Indians of Europe."

"Third Rome" and the Russian Horde


Ivan the Terrible, on the basis of the painstaking work of the great princes of Moscow, Ivan III and Vasily III, who rallied specific fragments of Russia around Moscow, held back the onslaught of the collapsed fragments of the Horde kingdom and Catholics, united the traditions of the Second Rome (Constantinople) and the Horde. Moscow became the "Third Rome" and at the same time adopted the traditions of the Great Horde ("Tartaria").

The Russian Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich raised Russia to its full height. She crushed the wreckage of the Horde: the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates. The entire Volga basin and the Volga trade route were part of Russia. At the Battle of Molody, the Russian army utterly defeated the Turks and Crimeans, discouraging the Turks from going north. The Ottomans, with the help of the Crimean khans, wanted to crush Kazan and Astrakhan, to become the heirs of the Horde. However, Moscow was able to do this. Now Russia began to return land in the south, to build huge defensive systems - notches. A large notch line was drawn from Alatyr to Ryazhsk, Orel and Novgorod-Seversky. Fertile chernozem (former “wild field”) was developed under its protection. From Astrakhan, the Russians advanced to the North Caucasus, stood on the Terek. Don, Zaporozhye, Terek and Yaik (Ural) Cossacks became subjects of the Orthodox tsar.

The military power of the Russian kingdom has increased significantly. Cossack troops became the shield and sword of Russia. They will go all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean, jump over it, and create Russian America. They will take Azov, beat the Crimean Tatars and Ottomans, they will conquer the Northern Black Sea region and the Northern Caucasus. From the Urals and Orenburg they will go south. Also, Ivan the Terrible, in essence, created a regular army: the local mounted militia was reinforced with rifle regiments, an outfit (artillery). This immediately affected the growth of Russia's military power.

Pomeranian seafarers mastered the land in the Northern Urals. They built the city of Mangazeya. The Cossacks, under the command of Ataman Ermak, with the support of the tsar's archers, defeated the Siberian Khanate. Another part of the huge Horde became part of Russia. New warriors, merchants, hunters, industrialists and farmers moved after the Cossacks. The Russians were moving towards the sun. Growing into Siberia, Russia again became the "Great Scythia", continuing the tradition of the ancient northern civilization.

Our state has never been isolated from Europe. Since ancient times, Italians, Germans, Scots, Scandinavians, etc., have visited and traded in Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov and other cities. Western embassies have arrived. Under Ivan the Terrible came the British, who had been wrecked in the northern seas, where they were looking for a way to China and India. The British announced in Europe that they had "discovered" Russia. Just like the Europeans "discovered" Africa, America, India, Indonesia and China. But the Russian state during the time of Ivan the Terrible was not an easy prey, like the kingdoms in Africa or America. I had to establish normal trade.

Sovereign Ivan Vasilyevich fought a war for access to the Baltic, began to build a navy so that the Russians themselves could participate in international trade. In fact, he did what Peter the First did at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. Livonia, an old enemy of Russia, collapsed under the blows of the Russian army. But here half of Europe opposed Russia: Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, they were supported by the German emperor and the Pope. The West attacked not only with the usual weapons - swords, spears and guns, but also with ideas and information. The Europeans sought to "reprogram", Westernize the Russian nobility, so that the boyars and princes wanted to live like the Polish lords, without the strong power of the autocrat. They wanted to get "freedom" from permanent service, to live in luxury. Subordinate Russian Orthodoxy to Rome.

Rome, which at that time was the main "administrative center" of the West, inspired, led and organized the anti-Russian coalition. The Holy See created the Jesuit Order. It was, in fact, the first world intelligence service to spread its network over many states. With its intelligence, training schools. Papal agents carried out an operation to merge Lithuania and Poland. The high-ranking Jesuit hierarch Possevino visited Russia, wanted to force Moscow (against the background of defeats on the western front), to subordinate the Russian Church to Rome. But here the papal emissaries were not successful. Russia withstood the massive invasion of the West. The enemy drowned in blood under the walls of our fortresses. Rome received a firm and unequivocal refusal on the proposals of the church union.

"People's" autocracy of Ivan the Terrible


Under Ivan the Terrible, a "people's" monarchy was created. The Russian sovereign relied on his subjects in his struggle against external and internal enemies. And the subjects saw protection in the face of the king. Therefore, folklore assesses Ivan IV positively, as a tsar-father, a defender of light Russia. He was Terrible for the enemies of Russia. A strong central government was complemented by broad zemstvo democracy at all levels. Village communities, city hundreds, ends, settlements chose their own self-government bodies. In the districts, there were three branches of power at once: the voivode, the zemstvo and the laborer. The zemstvo headman and his assistants were elected "by the whole world", were in charge of local issues, taxes, land, construction and trade. Gubny headman was also chosen from among the servants of the county, he obeyed the government, the Rogue Order, and conducted criminal cases. The governor was appointed by the sovereign, he was in charge of military and judicial affairs.

To solve the most important matters, the tsar consulted "with all the earth", convened Zemsky Sobor. They elected delegates from different cities and estates. This practice was also introduced by Ivan Vasilievich. The councils had enormous powers: they approved laws, resolved issues of war and peace, even elected kings.

The system of zemstvo self-government showed high efficiency during the Troubles. The "horizontal" of the authorities was able to temporarily replace the destroyed "vertical". The "earth" formed rati, supplied them, liberated the capital and chose a new ruling dynasty. As a result, it was the zemstvo structures, the habit of the Russians to initiative (no Russian “slave slaves”), that made it possible to independently organize “from below” without orders from “above” and save the state. These same zemstvos allowed to overcome the devastation, to achieve power and prosperity again.

The results of the reign of the Terrible Tsar were truly grandiose. The territory of the state has doubled, from 2,8 million to 5,4 million square meters. km. The Middle and Lower Volga regions, the Urals, Western Siberia were annexed, the forest-steppe and steppe regions of the Chernozem region were developed (after Ivan Vasilyevich, his heirs continued to move to the south and east). Russia is entrenched in the North Caucasus. By area, Rus became the largest state in Europe. It was not possible to break through to the Baltic, but almost all of Europe prevented it! The Russian kingdom withstood the blow of the West and the powerful Ottoman Empire, burying its army. There were severe wars, epidemics, but the population of Russia grew, according to various estimates, by 30-50%.

For the sake of the preservation and prosperity of the state, Orthodoxy and the people, Grozny had to resort to harsh measures - oprichnina. But for half a century of his rule, according to researchers, only 4-7 thousand people were executed. Mostly representatives of the nobility and their entourage, also criminals. If we compare with what happened in such "enlightened" European countries as Spain, the Netherlands, England or France, then the Russian tsar will seem like a humanist. There, in a week they could cut, burn, drown or wheel more. About 30 thousand Huguenots (French Protestants) were killed in France during St. Bartholomew's Night alone. Not to mention the extermination of entire tribes, nationalities and states in America, Africa, Asia and Indonesia.

Power under Ivan the Terrible was creative. The country was covered by a network of schools and postal stations. 155 new cities and fortresses were built. The border was covered by a line of notches, fortresses, outposts. Outside the official borders, on the approaches to them, an external defense belt was created - Cossack troops. Zaporozhye, Don, Volga, Terek, Yaik, Orenburg covered the core of the Russian state. Ivan Vasilievich left behind a rich treasury. With the money accumulated under the great tsar, his son began to build a new fortress in Moscow - the White City. In Russia they will continue to build and lay new cities and fortresses. There will be a new line in the south: Kursk, Belgorod, Oskol, Voronezh.

"Russian tyrant"


In Russian sources there is no mass evidence of Ivan Vasilyevich's "bloodiness and atrocities". The people loved the king, it is noted in folklore. Grozny was revered as a locally revered saint. Several icons have come down to us depicting Ivan Vasilyevich, where he is presented with a halo. In 1621, the feast of the "finding of the body of John" was established (June 10, according to the Julian calendar). In some saints, Ivan Vasilievich is mentioned with the rank of great martyr. That is, the fact of his murder was confirmed. Patriarch Nikon, "reforming" the Russian Church, tried to suppress the veneration of Ivan Vasilyevich. However, without much success. Pyotr Alekseevich had a high opinion of Grozny. I considered myself his follower. Peter the Great noted:

“This sovereign is my predecessor and example. I always took him as a model in prudence and courage, but I could not yet equal him. "

Ivan the Terrible was also remembered in the West by those "strong" whom he did not allow to roam. Their descendants dreaming of European “freedom”. Abroad, a new wave of "memories" denigrating Grozny (the first was during the Livonian War, when the West was waging an information war against Russia), took place in the era of Peter I. Russia again cut the road to the seas, which became the reason for fanning the "Russian threat". And to reinforce this image, they recalled the old slander about the "bloody Tsar" Ivan the Terrible. Europe remembered Grozny again during the French Revolution. Somehow he did not please the French revolutionaries who drowned their country in blood. In particular, in just a few days of "popular terror" in Paris, 15 thousand people were slaughtered and torn apart.

In Russia, the myth "about a formidable and bloody tyrant" was approved by the official historiographer Nikolai Karamzin (a fan of France). He turned Ivan Vasilyevich into a fallen sinner, the main antihero stories Russia. As sources, Karamzin used the slander of the fugitive émigré prince and the first Russian dissident Andrei Kurbsky ("The Story of the Great Prince of Moscow Delekh"). The work was written in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the war against Russia and was an instrument of the information war of the West against the Orthodox Tsar. The prince himself hated Grozny and wrote for the Polish gentry. Kurbsky, for Karamzin and other Russian Westernizers, was a colorful figure: a fugitive from a "tyrant", a fighter for "freedom", an accuser of an "immoral despot", etc.

Another "truthful" source for Karamzin was the "testimony" of foreigners. The History of the Russian State by Nikolai Karamzin contains numerous references to the works of P. Oderborn, A. Gvagnini, T. Bredenbach, I. Taube, E. Kruse, J. Fletcher, P. Petrey, M. Stryjkovsky, Daniel Prinz, I. Kobenzl , R. Heydenstein, A. Possevino and other foreigners. Karamzin also took as sources later Western compilations based on the retelling of various rumors, myths and anecdotes. The information in them was very far from objective: from dirty gossip and rumors to deliberate information aggression against Russians, Russia and Ivan the Terrible. Foreign authors were opposed to the "Russian tyrant". The texts were written in countries with which the Russian kingdom fought or was in a state of cultural and religious confrontation.

After Karamzin, this myth became one of the foundational ones in Russian history. He was taken up by liberal and pro-Western historians, writers and publicists. Criticism and protests were ignored and hushed up. As a result, through collective efforts, such a collective opinion was created that when the epoch-making monument "Millennium of Russia" was created in Novgorod in 1862, the figure of the greatest Russian Tsar did not appear on it!
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  1. Grandfather
    Grandfather 25 August 2020 05: 27 New
    +8
    history is written and rewritten to please the ruler at all times. we look at ukrov ... interesting things are hidden from us, everything that they cannot explain is forbidden. [/ quote]Vitaly Sundakov. Forbidden history
    1. Vend
      Vend 25 August 2020 10: 25 New
      +9
      Ivan the Terrible did not have time to pacify the boyars, which is a pity. Outcome of the Troubles. Well at least Russia did not die then.
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 25 August 2020 11: 08 New
        +4
        He could not be the ruler always the ruling class plays.
        1. Vend
          Vend 25 August 2020 11: 26 New
          -1
          Quote: Kronos
          He could not be the ruler always the ruling class plays.

          Ivan the Terrible showed that no
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 25 August 2020 11: 37 New
            +2
            He showed that yes! How ancient childbirth died rose again.
      2. qQQQ
        qQQQ 25 August 2020 11: 26 New
        +5
        Quote: Wend
        Ivan the Terrible did not have time to pacify the boyars, which is a pity. Outcome of the Troubles.

        In my opinion, in those days, troubles were everywhere, where the ruler did not leave behind a legitimate heir. It was the lack of a legal transfer of power that caused further chaos.
    2. Kronos
      Kronos 25 August 2020 11: 09 New
      +4
      Not only is there an alternative with all sorts of tartars for money.
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 26 August 2020 07: 40 New
      +2
      Here is an image of the parsun Ivan4 in the Danish Museum, considered the oldest image of Ivan4.


      TSR AND G'SDAR AND VELIKI KNYAS IVN I VASLEVICH ALL RUS

      this is how it will be more accurate, exactly by letter, what is written in the parsun.

      very awkward expression. We don't say that now. We would say
      The Tsar and Sovereign Grand Prince of All Russia Ivan Vasilyevich. And here, as if not Russian, some German wrote. Well, the Germans wrote us history.

      in the word "rusi" it is written through izhitsa, and in the word "sovereign", for a long time I notice half of the letters are missing and read, like "sdar" almost everywhere in documents and manuscripts of that time. Maybe we should not read "sovereign", but somehow differently, because the vowels have not reached us, how do we know how to correctly? in the word _всiя_ after _в_ above there is a sign of the letter _е_, but without titles, therefore, how to read the word is not clear.
      1. tth
        tth 26 August 2020 10: 15 New
        0
        We must suppose that the Germans also minted money for us in the time of Ivan Vasilyevich ?!
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 26 August 2020 12: 29 New
          0
          Quote: tth
          We must suppose that the Germans also minted money for us in the time of Ivan Vasilyevich ?!

          and what is written?
          1. tth
            tth 26 August 2020 12: 52 New
            +1
            "Tsar and Grand Duke Ivan of All Russia" orthography in those years allowed the omission of some vowels.
    4. nickname7
      nickname7 26 August 2020 12: 11 New
      +1
      history is written and rewritten to please the ruler at all times

      There is no good or bad in politics, these are relative concepts that are imposed by the center of power or the ruling elite. Especially the leaders of the times of crisis and war, they can be exalted and smeared with mud. For example, Churchill committed war crimes, through his fault millions of Bengalis died, but the ruling class decided to consider him a hero, for which writers were hired to exalt.

      Vitaly Sundakov. Forbidden history

      He is a traveler and journalist, not a historian. What Sundakov writes is not forbidden, as it is nonsense. Fantasy takes place separately from science. False historians mislead society, so they are treated badly.
      1. Local from the Volga
        Local from the Volga 26 August 2020 19: 17 New
        0
        Yes! Sundakov is still a tourist historian!
  2. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 25 August 2020 05: 42 New
    26
    How many myths have taken root about Ivan the Terrible, it is incomprehensible to the mind!
    Myth one: atrocity
    During the entire period of his reign, the Russian tsar executed about five thousand people for various crimes. Is this a lot? Here are the data for comparison: the English monarch during his reign executed more than seventy thousand homeless people. In Germany, one hundred thousand peasants who participated in the uprising were killed. In the Netherlands, the Duke of Alba killed one hundred thousand of his citizens. In France, in a few days, they brutally dealt with thirty thousand infidels. And at the same time, European rulers are known in history as revered people, and the Russian tsar is a monster and a villain.
    Myth two: killing your own child
    Many historians were outraged when they saw the painting by I. Repin, which depicts the murder of his son by the tsar. The plot invented by the artist was presented to society as a fact. In none of the manuscripts of those days that have come down to us, there is not a single mention of the murder of the prince. Information about the murder of his son by Ivan the Terrible came to Europe from a Jesuit who visited Russia. Perhaps it was a kind of revenge from the West for the fact that the Russian Church refused to submit to Rome.
    Myth Three: Unreasonable Terror
    No one, even today, denies the existence during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, numerous conspiracies, riots and multi-stage intrigues, the purpose of which was to overthrow the tsar. But not only the boyars distinguished themselves in the fight against their own ruler, the Polish king Sigismund, with the help of the close boyars, organized a conspiracy to remove the king and appoint his puppet, Vladimir Staritsky, to his place.
    He was not pink and fluffy, of course, but he was not the viceroy of the devil on earth.
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 25 August 2020 05: 57 New
      +8
      "If you remove all the lies from history, this does not mean that only the truth will remain, it may happen that nothing will remain at all." (C) Stanislav Jerzy Lec.
    2. TOR2
      TOR2 25 August 2020 21: 26 New
      +4
      I'll add a quote:
      To hunt hares, you need many dogs; to defeat enemies - many warriors; who, having reason, will execute his subjects without reason!
      Ivan the Terrible
    3. Avior
      Avior 26 August 2020 09: 15 New
      +1
      Repin did not invent the plot, he painted the picture according to Karamzin's version.
      Historians of that time - Karamzin, Klyuchevsky, Shcherbatov and others - basically disagreed on the circumstances under which Ivan hit his son, accepting the very fact of this event.
      The event is mentioned in the Mazurin chronicler
      In the summer of 7089, the Tsar Tsar and Grand Duke Ivan Vasilyevich of his great son, Tsarevich Prince Ivan Ivanovich, shining with wise meaning and grace, like an immature dream with plump air, I will tear away from the branch of life with my core, I will tear away the words of fury about him, as if from my father accept his illness, and from illness and death

      as well as "Vedomosti" ("Vedomosti for the seventh thousand from the creation of light in osma in the first years") by clerk Timofeev.

      hi
    4. RUSS
      RUSS 26 August 2020 11: 27 New
      -3
      Quote: Ragnar lodbrok
      During the entire period of his reign, the Russian tsar executed about five thousand people for various crimes

      Novgorod pogrom (defeat) - a campaign of the oprichnina army against Novgorod in 1569-1570 under the personal leadership of Ivan the Terrible, accompanied by massacres. According to various estimates, the victims of the pogrom were from 1 to 5 thousand people. In addition, as a result of the pogrom, hunger and disease began to rage in the city.
      And the fact that the British did not care at all, talk about Grozny. Why compare all the time?
      1. Pravodel
        Pravodel 26 August 2020 14: 21 New
        +2
        In Novgorod, indeed, many were killed. But, most importantly, why did Ivan the Terrible go to Novgorod ?! The answer is simple: Novgorod wanted to fall away from Russia and become a subject of Poles, Lithuania and the Commonwealth. This was the case even under Ivan III, it was repeated under Ivan IV the Terrible.
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 26 August 2020 14: 57 New
          -2
          Quote: The Truth
          In Novgorod, indeed, many were killed. But, most importantly, why did Ivan the Terrible go to Novgorod ?! The answer is simple: Novgorod wanted to fall away from Russia and become a subject of Poles, Lithuania and the Commonwealth. This was the case even under Ivan III, it was repeated under Ivan IV the Terrible.

          Novgorod was independent this time, and two, where is he and from what hangover was he supposed to fall off? A citizen of Catholics?
          1. Pravodel
            Pravodel 26 August 2020 15: 12 New
            +1
            Precisely, in citizenship of the Catholics - the Commonwealth and Lithuania. By the way, there was a union between Lithuania and Poland, and the Jesuits were active in Lithuania, trying to Catholicize the Orthodox. It was not possible to do this completely, but Greek Catholics and Uniates appeared. You can see who they are on the example of modern Ukraine, where the Greek Catholics, the Banderlog, rule.
    5. nickname7
      nickname7 26 August 2020 12: 21 New
      0
      Myth one: atrocity

      It is not correct to measure the Middle Ages with the modern mentality. Then the rulers were wars, they fought in the forefront, and the laws of wartime are cruel. Ivan the Terrible acted correctly based on the challenges of the time.
      There is such a writer Boris Akunin, he moved to London, and so he sprinkled a whole book of denunciations of Grozny, like other anti-Sovietists denounce everything connected with the Russian Federation. Moreover, being a specialist in the history of Japan during the Tokugawa period, where more blood was shed than under Grozny, Akunin criticizes the bloody nature of Russia, inventing new terms and nonsense according to Solzhenitsen's method.
    6. The comment was deleted.
  3. nikvic46
    nikvic46 25 August 2020 06: 19 New
    +8
    There are many treatises regarding the rule of any leader, starting with the princes of Kievan Rus, and they are often opposite in their content. That is, choose according to your taste. Karamzin lived in an era of sentimentalism, which may have postponed a negative view of Ivan the Terrible. And why exactly Karamzin was chosen. We have other historians.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 25 August 2020 07: 08 New
    +4
    "History of the Russian State" by Nikolai Karamzin contains numerous links to the works of P. Oderborn, A. Gvanini, T. Bredenbach, I. Taube, E. Kruse, J. Fletcher, P. Petrei, M. Stryjkovsky, Daniel Prinz, I. Cobenzl, R. Heidenshtein, A. Possevino


    An impressive list. But the author's opus does not contain none links.

    And not for the author to condemn the great Russian historian, the FIRST who told the Russian society the history of the Fatherland.

    By the way, he wrote about the achievements and reform of Grozny, and about the other side of the coin ...

    And yes-Troubles, which threw the country back a century, is also a consequence of the rule of Grozny ..
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 25 August 2020 09: 51 New
      -5
      Quote: Olgovich
      And not for the author to condemn the great Russian historian, the FIRST who told the Russian society the history of the Fatherland.

      And the chronicles? laughing
      By the way, according to summer reckoning, we have summer 7528 in our yard. Where have 5508 years of our history gone? For example, Israel is in 5780, and North Korea is in 109. China, as well as Mongolia, Vietnam, South Korea, etc. 4716.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 25 August 2020 10: 03 New
        -2
        Quote: Boris55
        And the chronicles?

        Present the "Chronicle of the Russian State".

        After that, let's talk.
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 25 August 2020 10: 08 New
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          Present the "Chronicle of the Russian State".

          Before the adoption of Christianity, there was no state as an apparatus of violence by the minority over the majority, therefore there can be no chronicles of the Russian state in principle. There were chronicles of Russia, but the Romanovs cleaned them out and wrote us a new story according to which we were the last to jump from the trees, which made our tails fall off ... laughing

          The question remains. With the transition from the summer of reckoning to the year of reckoning, in 1700 (7208), 5508 years disappeared from our history. Where?
          1. Deniska999
            Deniska999 25 August 2020 10: 39 New
            +3
            And if tomorrow we switch to calculating from Putin's birthday, will you ask hundreds of “stolen” years? What difference does it make from what to count from, from the mythical creation of the world or from the birth of an equally mythical character.
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 25 August 2020 10: 49 New
              0
              Quote: Deniska999
              What difference does it make from what to count from, from the mythical creation of the world or from the birth of an equally mythical character.

              The difference is that we do not know the history before Christian Russia. This is the main reason for the calendar change. This today gives the West a reason to talk about our backwardness, that we still play the balalaika, drink vodka, eat herring and sleep with bears.

              "The second priority of managing humanity is chronological
              "Look back at your backs more often to avoid notable mistakes in the future" Kozma Prutkov

              It is known that a person who has forgotten his history, the history of his Fatherland, is like a tree that has lost its roots. And what will happen if a whole nation forgets its history or believes in some historical myth imposed on it taking into account the interests of external hostile forces? George Orwell once wrote: "He who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past." Rewriting the history of a people inevitably leads to a change in its future. That is why the coming of the new government is always accompanied by the rewriting of history, but at the same time the rulers themselves do not understand how they are used in the dark. This is very clearly manifested today in the former Soviet republics that broke away from the USSR. Therefore, one must always remember that history never teaches anything, it only punishes for ignorance of its lessons. "
              1. Mustached Kok
                Mustached Kok 25 August 2020 14: 17 New
                +5
                I mean, we don't know the history before the baptism of Rus? Have you even opened a simple history textbook? Even in a modern textbook, where they stake on the adoption of Christianity (Nobody wants to upset the ROC), it tells in detail about pagan Rus.
                The fact that we know our history worse than the history of Rome is only a consequence of purely material reasons. The climate that is prevalent in the Mediterranean, and the materials that were used there are better preserved than our materials in our climate. The British, too, have a hard time comprehending the fullness of their history before the appearance of the first kingdoms or colonization by the Romans.
                But at the same time, we do not sit idly by; there are many historians, archaeologists and anthropologists in Russia who study our region and try to learn more about us. And the main thing that prevents them from doing this is the weak funding of science in our country. Although this is partly a crisis of world science, even in wealthy countries, there are areas of science that are poorly funded due to the fact that the ruling class does not see practical benefits for themselves.
              2. nickname7
                nickname7 26 August 2020 12: 51 New
                -1
                This today gives the West a reason to talk about our backwardness,

                What stupidity you write. Development is determined by the current technology, the level of development and the improvement of territories in the country. And with that, the castle is not very good.
                When it rains, they have no mud and puddles, who is to blame for the fact that in the Russian Federation they cannot run into storm drains? More neglected territory and weaker technologies speak of our backwardness, not history.

                1. Local from the Volga
                  Local from the Volga 26 August 2020 19: 25 New
                  +1
                  You are absolutely fucking! can I send you a photo of Harlem or the subway in Paris, smart guy !?
            2. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 25 August 2020 15: 47 New
              +4
              Quote: Deniska999
              And if tomorrow we switch to calculating from Putin's birthday, will you ask hundreds of “stolen” years? Who cares what to count from. .......
              uh, uh, no
              The difference is huge, remember these words spoken in this century ---- ""Russia is a young state. She's only 20 years old.! Medvedev during his presidency. ,
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 25 August 2020 10: 41 New
            0
            Quote: Boris55
            Before the adoption of Christianity, we did not have a state as an apparatus of violence against the majority by the minority, therefore and chronicles of the Russian state can not be in principle

            "Because" no, who gave you the right to declare this?

            Quote: Boris55
            There were chronicles of Russia, but the Romanovs cleaned them out and wrote us a new story according to which we were the last to jump from the trees, which made our tails fall off.

            Chatter about "cleaned-up" chronicles and damned Germans who "wrote the history of Russia" is the least that interests.
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 25 August 2020 10: 53 New
              -4
              Quote: Olgovich
              "Because" no, who gave you the right to declare this?

              History.
              Because the Russian state appeared only in the 10th century.

              Quote: Olgovich
              Chatter about "cleaned-up" chronicles and damned Germans,

              Have you heard of Schlözer, Miller? belay Have you heard of Lomonosov? laughing
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 25 August 2020 11: 41 New
                -3
                Quote: Boris55

                Have you heard of Schlözer, Miller?

                How long can you repeat this nonsense?
              2. Deniska999
                Deniska999 25 August 2020 12: 12 New
                +3
                And what confuses you about the emergence of the Russian state in the 10th century. Must it be as old as Assyria, for example?
                1. Boris55
                  Boris55 25 August 2020 12: 44 New
                  -5
                  Quote: Deniska999
                  How long can you repeat this nonsense?

                  You about it:

                  Isn't it strange to you that the summer was reckoned, but there are no chronicles? laughing

                  Is this Decree of Peter 1 the same nonsense?

                  ".. Decree of Peter I No. 1736" On the celebration of the New Year "

                  7208 in the year of December, on the 20th day, the great sovereign tsar and grand duke Peter Alekseevich, of all the Great and Malaya and Belaya of Russia, pointed out to say:

                  It became known to him the great sovereign, not only in many European Christian countries, but also in the Slovene peoples, who agree with our Eastern Orthodox Church in everything, like: Volokhs, Moldavians, Serbs, Dolmatians, Bulgarians, and his greatest sovereign subjects Cherkasy and all the Greeks, from whom our Orthodox faith was adopted, all those peoples, according to their summer, reckon from the birth of Christ on the eighth day later, that is, January 1, not from the creation of the world, for a lot of strife and reckoning in those years, and now from the Nativity of Christ comes the year 1699, and the future January 1, a new 1700 comes, a new century and a new century; and for that good and useful deed, he indicated that henceforth the summers should be numbered in orders, and in all deeds and fortresses to write from the current General Day from the 1st of the birth of Christ in 1700 ... "

                  Peter 1 was delusional? Or someone else is delusional laughing

                  Quote: Deniska999
                  Must be as old as Assyria

                  Tell me why you are so sausage only because Russia is older than Europe?
                  1. Deniska999
                    Deniska999 25 August 2020 13: 23 New
                    0
                    In fact, I don't care who is older than whom, our localism was canceled long ago. And you stubbornly refuse to understand that the creation of the world does not mean the creation of the Russian state.
                  2. kalibr
                    kalibr 25 August 2020 13: 49 New
                    -1
                    Quote: Boris55
                    Is Russia older than Europe?

                    Archaeological finds do not confirm this!
                    1. Boris55
                      Boris55 27 August 2020 07: 29 New
                      +1
                      Quote: kalibr
                      Archaeological finds do not confirm this!

                      Remind you about Kostenki?
                      1. Boris55
                        Boris55 27 August 2020 07: 55 New
                        +1
                        Shikhans of Bashkiria - unique monuments stories and nature:
                        https://zen.yandex.ru/media/archeostan/shihany-bashkirii-unikalnye-pamiatniki-istorii-i-prirody-5d76952b1ee34f00aef1458f?utm_source=serp

                        "The history of the study shows that shikhans have a high historical and cultural potential and are undoubtedly of great importance for archaeological science."
                      2. kalibr
                        kalibr 27 August 2020 08: 28 New
                        0
                        And what about Kostenki? Found the bones of Adam? Everything is the same as in other places of the Eurasian continent.
              3. Olgovich
                Olgovich 25 August 2020 13: 56 New
                +2
                Quote: Boris55
                History.
                .

                Empty answer
                Quote: Boris55
                Because the Russian state appeared only in the 10th century.

                Oh, but what about the "stolen" (according to your statement) ... FIVE THOUSAND years of history?
                Quote: Boris55
                Have you heard about Schlözer, Miller? Have you heard of Lomonosov?

                And this nonsense and much more .... And?
                1. nikon7717
                  nikon7717 25 August 2020 23: 57 New
                  +1
                  According to all historical data, Ivan 4 was one of the most educated people of his time. The history of his library confirms this.
                  Well, about the chronicles and antiquity. You are now writing in Russian, which does not have the cruel structure of the predicate subject, such as English. This means that the development of the language has a much, much more ancient history.
                  We are now writing these words in Cyrillic, although Cyril and Methodius came up with a verb. winked... I will notice! They made the translation in what is now Bulgaria. And the latest finds of birch bark letters in Novgorod indicate that in less than 100 !!! Years in Russia there was a failed literacy !!! Children wrote notes !!!
                  Now please explain how it is, who enlightened the country !!!
                  1. Shahno
                    Shahno 26 August 2020 00: 11 New
                    0
                    What would you like to say. You are about the Suzdal letters. ..?
                    1. nikon7717
                      nikon7717 26 August 2020 08: 22 New
                      0



                      In the first photo of the stand from the exhibition dedicated to Novgorod's birch bark letters and the Cyrillic alphabet, VDNKh July 2019, you can clearly see on the map where Cyril and Methodius were, and where the birch bark is. Now remember, the percentage of literacy in 1913 and compare with what you received 150 years after the "enlightenment" for the purpose of translating liturgical books. Doesn't fit ...
                  2. nickname7
                    nickname7 26 August 2020 13: 06 New
                    0
                    Now please explain how it is, who enlightened the country !!!

                    So this is your thesis, why should others confirm you?
                    1. nikon7717
                      nikon7717 26 August 2020 19: 55 New
                      0
                      Quote: nickname7
                      Now please explain how it is, who enlightened the country !!!

                      So this is your thesis, why should others confirm you?

                      laughing manipulation? This is not a thesis, but a scientific fact.
                      https://histrf.ru/biblioteka/b/bieriestianyie-ghramoty
                      "" The nature of birch bark letters - messages of ordinary people - is a vivid evidence of the spread of literacy among the population of Ancient Russia. The townspeople learned the alphabet from childhood, wrote their own letters, women also knew literacy. The fact that family correspondence was widely represented in Novgorod speaks of the high position of a woman who sent instructions to her husband and independently entered into monetary relations. (Information source - Istoriya.RF portal, https://histrf.ru/biblioteka/b/bieriestianyie-ghramoty) "
                      And this fact, the broadest literacy of the population (Slavs, Russians, as you like) is not taken into account as the main one, otherwise it becomes necessary to explain the reasons for this literacy. A high level and percentage of literacy can ONLY be associated with a high level of organization of society and with a long history of writing. Therefore, everyone runs from this fact like from fire. It just doesn't fit into the overall story. If you accept it, then a bunch of foundations of modern science just flies (along with titles, degrees, positions) to the tar-tarars. Well, it's not profitable for anyone ...
                      Even here, for comments with evidence, they mold cons.
                2. Boris55
                  Boris55 26 August 2020 08: 15 New
                  -1
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Oh, but what about the "stolen" (according to your statement) ... FIVE THOUSAND years of history?

                  Until the 10th century, there was no state on the territory of modern Russia, and therefore there could not be STATE chronicles. there was no state itself.

                  The society of people was organized according to completely different principles, and there were chronicles in that society. They hide from us knowledge of how people without borders (corrals) can live in peace and harmony. This knowledge will not allow the exploitation of man by man.
                  1. nickname7
                    nickname7 26 August 2020 13: 10 New
                    0
                    chronicles could not be because there was no state itself
                    there were chronicles in that society


                    You contradict yourself.
          3. nickname7
            nickname7 26 August 2020 12: 32 New
            +1
            With the transition from the summer of reckoning to the year of reckoning, in 1700 (7208), 5508 years disappeared from our history. Where?

            The calculus scale is relative, the years have not disappeared, the calendar has changed, but the story has remained the same. Change the time settings in your smartphone from 24 hours to 12 hours, then half a day will disappear.
      2. Local from the Volga
        Local from the Volga 26 August 2020 19: 23 New
        0
        Hmmmmm .... I've seen any lieutenant generals, but this ...
  5. rich
    rich 25 August 2020 07: 10 New
    +2
    Don, Zaporozhye, Terek and Yaik (Ural) Cossacks became subjects of the Orthodox tsar.

    In 1552. Ivan the Terrible took Kazan. In the same year, the "Greben Circassians" sent a deputation to Moscow, proposing an alliance against common enemies - the Crimean and Astrakhan khanates. The delegation returned, accompanied by the tsarist ambassador Shchepotev. Since this year, a permanent diplomatic communication has been established between the Russian tsars and the Greben Cossacks.
    After 2 years, Astrakhan was occupied, Russia entered the Caspian. Since 1560, in the North Caucasus, Moscow built and continuously owned the city and fortress of Tyumen (or Tyumen stockade) on a channel called Tyumenka at the mouth of the Terek (this is modern Dagestan).
    In 1557, an embassy from the Kabardian princes Kemirgoko and Temryuk arrived in the Kremlin, accompanied by "Ataman of the Greben Circassians Andryushka Shchedra". They declared that: "if the tsar grants them, then the whole Georgian land will also beat its forehead to the sovereign." Soon Temryuk's daughter married Ivan the Terrible.
    It should be noted that Christianity was the traditional religion in the described times in the Western Caucasus.
    Due to the complications of the political situation, Prince Temryuk asked his son-in-law Ivan to build a fortress on the Terek to protect the entire region of Malaya Kabarda up to Dagestan.
    In 1567, the Tsar sent Prince Babichev and Peter Protasyev for this business, as it is said: "with many people, and the cannons and squeaks." So a new city was built on the banks of the Terek River, near the mouth of the Sunzha. So it was called: "Tersky town" or "Terki". Now near this place are the villages of Staroshchedrinskaya and not far from Chervlennaya. ...
    Ten years later, in 10, the governor of the city of Terki Novosiltsev reported to the Tsar about the passage through the state border of Russia of a large Crimean army, which was going to help the Turks to Persia. The voivode writes that the Crimean prince Aldy-Girey "sent to me, the sovereign governor in Terka," to ask my way, and I would take the sovereigns of the sovereigns from the Greben and Terek family Cossacks, so that the Suncha river would be great to climb over from the sovereign Cossacks. "
    Here, the Combs and free Russian settlers are for the first time officially mentioned by the "Terek Cossacks", and even those who are in the "sovereign" service.
    It was after this mention, since 1577, the seniority of the Tersk Cossack army was considered as a state institution.
    1. rich
      rich 25 August 2020 07: 25 New
      +5
      Soon Temryuk's daughter married Ivan the Terrible.

      a photo. Signet-seal of Queen Maria Temryukovna

      a photo.Dish of Maria Temryukovna. Among the ornament there are six hallmarks with the inscription: "By the grace of the pious tsar and the great prince Ivan Vasilyevich, the sovereign of all Russia, a dish was made to the blessed queen of the great knagin Mareya in the summer of 7000 sixty nine."

    2. Bashkirkhan
      Bashkirkhan 25 August 2020 07: 45 New
      +4
      Quote: Rich
      1552 year. Ivan the Terrible took Kazan

      Kazan nationalists do not approve of these actions of Ivan the Terrible, to say the least.
      1. rich
        rich 25 August 2020 08: 10 New
        +6
        Kazan nationalists do not approve of these actions of Ivan the Terrible, to say the least.

        Not only the troops of Ivan the Terrible participated in the capture of Kazan. But also the large Tatar Kasimov-Kazan army of the nephew of the Great Horde Khan Akhmad - three times Kazan and four times Kasimov Khan Shah-Ali. By the way, a direct descendant of Jochi
        I think the role of Shah-Ali in the history of the Tatar people and their statehood was ambiguous; nevertheless, one should not classify him as a "traitor", as ardent Tatar "patriots" sometimes do. Rather, he was a person who became a hostage of his origin (a branch of the Greater Horde Jochids, who, for a number of reasons, were not loved either in Crimea or in Kazan) and the life circumstances in which he found himself - was born on the territory of the Moscow state and at the same time was brought up in family, where, they still honored the Golden Horde imperial traditions and remembered the times when the Horde was at the peak of its power. All this, most likely, led to the fact that he was perceived as a stranger by the Kazan nobility (do not forget that he was a newcomer to Kazan) and relatively “their” Muscovites, who actively used him for their own purposes. However, it cannot be said that by his actions the khan was always unconditionally on their side. Whose side was his soul on, we will never know.
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 25 August 2020 08: 57 New
        +1
        Quote: Bashkirkhan
        Kazan nationalists do not approve of these actions of Ivan the Terrible, to say the least.

        They beat me badly if they still remember it for 500 years. And now they say that beating is harmful to the child's body, a violation of human rights.
      3. Local from the Volga
        Local from the Volga 26 August 2020 19: 30 New
        0
        And it is high time these Nazis were declassified and dispossessed!
  6. bober1982
    bober1982 25 August 2020 07: 33 New
    +2
    The article is read with interest, but chaotic and confusing to the point.
    The author has rather curious judgments about such concepts as - Moscow-Third Rome or, .... combined the traditions of the Second Rome and the Horde (?) Or, ...... laid the foundations of Orthodoxy and the like.
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 25 August 2020 07: 53 New
    +6
    It is, of course, interesting to read, but sometimes the author gets carried away, in some places he runs 150 years ahead.
    Zaporizhzhia, Don, Volga, Terek, Yaik, Orenburg covered the core of the Russian state.

    The city of Orenburg was founded on the present site in 1743 (in 1735 it was laid on the site of the present Orsk).
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 25 August 2020 08: 50 New
      +2
      Quote: Aviator_
      The city of Orenburg was founded on the present site in 1743

      And about Zaporozhye appeared in 1555 by assumption.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 25 August 2020 19: 32 New
        +1
        And about Zaporozhye appeared in 1555 on the assumption

        But then Zaporozhye was not subordinate to Moscow, or was it already subordinate?
        1. rich
          rich 26 August 2020 02: 30 New
          +1
          I didn’t obey. This happened only under Alexei "Quiet"
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 26 August 2020 07: 46 New
            +1
            Estessno, before the Pereyaslavl Rada was another 100 years. That is, this is another blunder of an overly emotional author - about Zaporozhye as a stronghold of the Moscow lands.
            1. rich
              rich 27 August 2020 04: 05 New
              +1
              And the author is also mistaken about the Volga. Before the defeat of the Nogai horde and the erection of new fortresses of Tsaritsin, Samara, Saratov, Livny and Voronezh, it was not a stronghold, but a wild robber "Bermuda triangle"
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 27 August 2020 07: 54 New
                +1
                In principle, without the defeat of the Astrakhan and Kazan khanates, the Volga river could turn into the "great river Itil", which is part of the Ottoman Empire. Grozny acted very wisely, getting rid of the then ISIS on this territory.
  8. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 25 August 2020 08: 46 New
    +2
    The prince himself hated Grozny and wrote for the Polish gentry. Kurbsky, for Karamzin and other Russian Westernizers, was a colorful figure: a fugitive from the "tyrant", a fighter for "freedom"
    And in our opinion, Kurbsky is just a "nasty lyudin" fighter for freedom, well, just Navalny, and maybe Sveta. Although the Poles also took him away for betrayal and his wife and killed his son, they gave him the gentry. Know the traitor who is the boss. And Ivan the Terrible created a state from the principalities, and to this day Russia is the legacy of Ivan the Terrible.
  9. Free wind
    Free wind 25 August 2020 08: 50 New
    +9
    The author does not seem to know in what year Ivan the Terrible was born. The papal throne did not create the Jesuits; several like-minded people asked for a reception to the Pope with a request to register their community. Ermak the Terrible did not send anywhere. the Stroganovs did it. Moreover, the king demanded to immediately return this gang and punish. Only two years later, in 1583, when messengers came from Yermak to the Tsar, Ivan the Terrible took mercy. Between 1000 and 30000 were killed on Vorfolomey's night, choose any number. In England, up to 1000 heretics were executed during this century. The rest are pirates, bandits, killers, and so on. In Africa, the Europeans did not catch blacks, they themselves caught and sold to each other, and sellers often turned into goods and havchik at the same time. Europeans crossed Africa from west to east in general in the 19th century, so by. In America, the story is the same, for example, the Incas, Aztecs, Maya mutually destroyed each other, I don’t remember exactly who destroyed whom, but the Aztecs remained, the Spaniards were not at all here. On the islands of Polynesia, Europeans at least stopped cannibalism, otherwise they would have devoured each other. ... The author forgot to add that when the Russians discovered Antarctica, only penguins lived there, the Americans and Europeans, all the local tribes of people were destroyed and sold into slavery.
    1. bandabas
      bandabas 25 August 2020 09: 28 New
      +1
      Dear "Free Wind". Can you remember the "electric chair" - a tool of "humanism", when during the first use of the convict burned for half an hour?
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 25 August 2020 10: 05 New
        +3
        Well, it's not on mice to test it, it's not humane. And in essence, there are many ways to take a person's life with tremendous torment. Predators kill their victims as quickly as possible, then they eat. Monkeys, especially hamadryas, baboons try to keep food alive to the last. As you do not want to be like them. And chairs, beds, couches, boots, maidens, bulls, wheels, well, nafig describe all this. And the electric chair, of course, is a terrible thing, only his ancestor was much more terrible.
        1. bandabas
          bandabas 25 August 2020 11: 08 New
          +2
          Initially tested on mice and other hamsters. Read the history of creation. Thomas Edison alone is worth a lot.
    2. Local from the Volga
      Local from the Volga 26 August 2020 19: 33 New
      0
      The Spaniards are not at all aisles here.
      Are you in yourself? or the mood is naughty for funds?
  10. Captivity
    Captivity 25 August 2020 09: 08 New
    -1
    As far as I know, Ivan the Terrible executed up to 5000 noble people.
    And no one counted commoners. Therefore, the number of those executed must be commensurately higher.
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 25 August 2020 22: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: Captivity
      As far as I know, Ivan the Terrible executed up to 5000 noble people.

      I understood that you know. And I realized that you lived at that time, if you know who how much and when.
      Why did I ask you that? Yes, because scientists and those do not know what was then exactly, but only those people who lived during the time of Grozny know.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 26 August 2020 11: 30 New
      -2
      Quote: Captivity
      As far as I know, Ivan the Terrible executed up to 5000 noble people.
      And no one counted commoners. Therefore, the number of those executed must be commensurately higher.

      The results of the oprichnina are obvious - the death of a huge number of people, widespread desolation (at the beginning of the 1570s, only about 16% of arable land was cultivated in the Moscow volost), hunger, epidemics, the destruction of economic ties and the structure of governing the country, a decline in morals. Moscow turned out to be defenseless against the raids of the steppe inhabitants from the south, in the west the Swedes captured Narva, Koporye and other Russian lands, the troops of the Commonwealth practically ousted the Russian armies from the regions captured at the beginning of the Livonian War. The boyars and the service class were divided into "oprichniks" and "zemstchiks", and the mutual grievances will be remembered for several generations. They will backfire even in the Time of Troubles.

      The horror and shock caused by the arbitrariness did not pass immediately, then comprehension began. In hot pursuit, this did not happen - the wounds inflicted on the country were too painful, and the turbulent events of the subsequent troubled years did not contribute to a calm analysis. Perhaps the first to formulate an official position was the court historian Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin - in his opinion, the cause of the oprichnina horror was the pathological and painful cruelty of the tsar, perhaps even his insanity. Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov, Dmitry Ivanovich Illovaisky, and partly Vasily Osipovich Klyuchesky believed in the same way.
  11. Undecim
    Undecim 25 August 2020 09: 16 New
    18
    Another delirium of Samsonov. It is interesting how Solovyov estimated the manifestation of the author's mental activity, who defined reason as the ability to think in general, the ability to analyze, abstract and generalize.
    Moreover, the author does not just gush out, to put it mildly, with fables, he is openly lying, being firmly convinced that the majority of the audience have never read and will not read either Karamzin or Kurbsky, and even more so "Western liberal historians."
    Moreover, the author is lying even where it is absolutely sinful to lie - on the question of the canonization of Ivan the Terrible. The Russian Orthodox Church itself put an end to this issue long ago. The conclusion of the Synodal Commission for the Canonization of Saints, approved by the Bishops' Council in 2004, sounds quite unambiguous: "Having thoroughly and thoroughly studied all the arguments of the supporters of the canonization of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, the Commission came to the conclusion that there is no reason either to glorify him or to refute the authoritative generally accepted conclusions. historical science ".
    As for Karamzin, he, as a historian should, showed both positive and negative aspects of the reign of Ivan the Terrible. To be convinced of this, it is enough to open his "History of the Russian State".
    "... The good glory of Ioannov outlived his bad glory in the people's memory: the groanings ceased, the sacrifices decayed, and the old traditions were eclipsed by the newest; but the name of Ioannov shone on the Code of Laws and resembled the acquisition of the three Mongol kingdoms: evidence of terrible deeds lay in the book depositories, and the people in over the centuries he saw Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia as living monuments of the Tsar-conqueror; he honored in him the famous culprit of our state power., rejected or forgot the name of the Tormentor given to him by his contemporaries, ... until now he is called only Terrible, not distinguishing between grandson and grandfather, so-called ancient Russia more in praise than in reproach. History is more vindictive than the people! "
    After that, there is no point in analyzing the rest of the distortion of facts and events.
    I believe that a resource that posts such hysterical, false-historical, illiterate opuses, designed for a completely historically illiterate audience, discredits itself.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 25 August 2020 11: 50 New
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      designed for a historically completely illiterate audience

      And in general she is! Do you read the comments? Most of them ... are far from common sense. Vaughn below read the "bold plus article."
      1. forester1971
        forester1971 25 August 2020 17: 44 New
        0
        Do you have the right to determine the literacy and knowledge of other people? There may be some mistakes in the article, but in general the role of Ivan IV the Terrible is very important and generally positive in the formation of the Russian State - this is the essence of the article.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 25 August 2020 19: 33 New
          +2
          Quote: Forester1971
          Do you have the right to determine the literacy and knowledge of other people?

          I have and how. For 32 years he taught journalism, communication theory, PR, advertising, technologies for influencing mass consciousness at the VS. He wrote 5 textbooks for universities on these topics, 3 in Russia and 2 in Germany. My book "Soldiers of Ivan the Terrible" was published in England by the Osprey publishing house. The material for her was collected for a long time and carefully. In Moscow, and in Kazan ... Links to literature that do not smell here. In a word, I'm in the subject and for a very long time.
          1. forester1971
            forester1971 25 August 2020 20: 45 New
            +3
            You cannot praise yourself ... But seriously, I read some of your articles - they are undoubtedly competent, with links to a large number of sources, etc., but their general orientation is to slander our past, both Soviet and more distant. It is clear that the documents are correct, but much depends on their selection.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 27 August 2020 08: 36 New
              -1
              Quote: Forester1971
              It is clear that the documents are correct, but much depends on their selection.

              And if there is nothing more to pick up? Only those that are correct, then how?
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 25 August 2020 22: 52 New
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      "... The good glory of Ioannov has outlived his bad glory in the people's memory: the groanings ceased, the victims decayed, and the old traditions were eclipsed by the newest

      That can be said from Ivan the Terrible to J.V. Stalin inclusive.
  12. bandabas
    bandabas 25 August 2020 09: 17 New
    -2
    The article is a fat plus!
  13. bandabas
    bandabas 25 August 2020 10: 00 New
    +2
    He was Rurikovich. After it it started. Who just sat on the throne ... Logically ended in 1917.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 25 August 2020 10: 14 New
      0
      Quote: bandabas
      After it it started.

      After whom exactly it started - there is no consensus.
      After Peter I, after the death of Paul I, during the reign of Alexander II, and so on.
      The choice is great.
      1. bandabas
        bandabas 25 August 2020 11: 16 New
        +2
        When did the Troubles begin? But the fact that Nicholas II clicked through the Country de jure de facto.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 25 August 2020 11: 29 New
          -1
          Quote: bandabas
          But the fact that Nicholas II clicked through the Country de jure de facto.

          The fact of the matter is that they "clicked" to Nicholas II
          The very idea of ​​the Troubles can be interpreted in different ways.
        2. iouris
          iouris 25 August 2020 13: 15 New
          0
          Quote: bandabas
          But the fact that Nicholas II clicked through the Country de jure de facto.

          Not. Chubais is to blame for everything!
          1. rich
            rich 27 August 2020 04: 20 New
            0
            Quote: iouris
            iouris (iouris)
            Quote: bandabas
            But the fact that Nicholas II clicked through the Country de jure de facto.

            Not. Chubais is to blame for everything!

            Pineapple is to blame yes
            For those who do not know, this is how Nicholas II was called in pre-revolutionary Russian society.
            In one of the Tsar's manifestos, the text unsuccessfully and repeatedly used the phrase "And a heavy responsibility fell on us ...", "And a burden fell on us ...", "And on us ...".

            RS.I do not understand, iouris for which you are minus. After all, the irony of your comment is quite understandable.
  14. iouris
    iouris 25 August 2020 13: 13 New
    0
    In the closet, the same England has its own skeletons, for example, Henry VIII. Those were the times. And it is not for us to judge Ivan the Terrible for the fact that he may have been Ivan the Terrible. Moreover, we know very little, and we understand it even less. Any "expert" can inherit on the Internet, and there are no filters. As a result, we "believe", i.e. we are the victims of golim propaganda. History is interpreted by ideologists. Due to the lack of ideology and ideologues, too close attention of propaganda to some historical issues indicates that the propagandists have no picture of the future.
  15. Varyag71
    Varyag71 25 August 2020 13: 22 New
    -8
    If I were president, then one of my first decrees would be the return of our old Slavic chronology.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 25 August 2020 13: 59 New
      +5
      This is the stupidest decision - a single chronology on the planet is pragmatic and convenient.
      1. Varyag71
        Varyag71 25 August 2020 14: 17 New
        -9
        Who decided what was the stupidest thing? Planet? USA? Trump? Jews? Maybe it's time to be an independent nation?
        What year is it from s.m. zh.? 7528? This alone will shut up many throats around the planet.
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 25 August 2020 14: 35 New
          +8
          The forces of the economy or the army can shut up, and not ala, let's return the ancient calendar or wear blouses.
          1. Varyag71
            Varyag71 25 August 2020 14: 58 New
            -6
            Something against kosovorotok, bast shoes, linen shirts and pants? Do you like jeans, an iPhone and gum? Therefore, such cries that you don't need the old calendar? The economy is possible, but not with Putin's power.
            1. Kronos
              Kronos 25 August 2020 15: 36 New
              +6
              The emphasis on national costumes is usually made by those who are always offended and oppressed in their opinion, like Ukrainians, for example. Do you want to be funny like them?
              1. Varyag71
                Varyag71 25 August 2020 15: 51 New
                -7
                I would not be surprised if you are for the abolition of borders and the assimilation of all races
    2. ee2100
      ee2100 25 August 2020 15: 39 New
      +7
      How aggressive you are! Probably you will not be elected president of All Russia. In general, try it.
      There are two theories about the so-called. old chronology. The creation of the world in the starry temple, although the decree of Peter I was cited here, there "and not from the creation of the world,". Although “to create” and “to create” are synonyms. And secondly, 5500 years were added to the birth of Christ, as indicated in the Bible so much time has passed since the creation of life on Earth.
      Choose any.
    3. Undecim
      Undecim 25 August 2020 15: 59 New
      +7
      If I were president, then one of my first decrees would be the return of our old Slavic chronology.
      I wonder what positive aspects of this step can you name and justify?
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 25 August 2020 16: 16 New
        +2
        This will shut everyone's throats!
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 25 August 2020 17: 12 New
          +3
          There are better ways to do this. The individual obviously meant something else.
  16. Maks1995
    Maks1995 26 August 2020 09: 23 New
    +1
    Like, we all know better than the same Novgorodians who did not put the tsar on the monument.
    We know to the point that some argue that de Novgorod was the capital.

    But in fact, even historians who are disposed to him admit: he was a lot of freaks. Oh and weird.
    He didn’t give me a carrot like Peter, only a stick.

    Many ended up badly. Even for a temporary "Tsar" with his family - too.
  17. Catfish
    Catfish 26 August 2020 19: 14 New
    +3
    How Grozny was turned into "the most terrible Russian tyrant"


    "Ivan Vasilich the Terrible, he was named after the rivers,
    For being a serious, respectable person. "(C)

    "At that time, Tsar Ivan ruled in Russia for his cruelty, nicknamed" Vasiyevich "(c). smile
  18. Local from the Volga
    Local from the Volga 26 August 2020 19: 14 New
    0
    That's right! I completely agree!
  19. Vlad world
    Vlad world 31 August 2020 04: 29 New
    0
    Actually, if it is correct, Yermak restored the jurisdiction of Moscow over Western Siberia. Since even under the grandfather of Ivan the Terrible, a detachment of service people under the command of two "boyar children" went to Altai. And then we went down the Ob to the mouth, to the Great Ob. Having taken the local population under the bosom of Moscow, the Grand Duke. Collecting abundant yasak and taking the necessary hostages.
    As for the so-called victims of the Novgorodskys, the skudelnitsy with the victims of Mora were unearthed and passed off as victims of Ivan's troops.
    As for the monument, it was not the Novgorodians who erected it, but the Official Russian Power. He just stands in Veliky Novgorod, in a place like the birth of statehood.
    Some time ago I wrote in my comments about Karamzin, about his lies about Ivan and about his admiration for the French Revolution. So there were such Objections.
    And now an article has been published in which it is mentioned. However, there is some progress.