Military Review

Combined engines for hypersonic vehicles are being designed in the USA

57

The Pentagon has attended to the creation of a combined engine for a promising multipurpose hypersonic missile. At the same time, it is possible that both planes and unmanned vehicles will want to equip such engines.


The main task in the framework of further improving the capabilities of hypersonic vehicles is the development of a multipurpose expendable hypersonic demonstrator with an air engine EHMMAB-D (Expendable Hypersonic Multi-Mission Air-Breathing Demonstrator).

A distinctive feature of a hypersonic ramjet engine from conventional jet engines is the supersonic combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber. Air is supplied to the chamber by direct flow, the use of additional compressors is not required, the air flow enters the air intake, then into the narrowing compressor chamber, and then into the combustion chamber. Engines of this class operate at a speed of at least Mach 5.

For the American military department, a combined engine that combines a hypersonic ramjet engine with conventional jet turbines is now of particular interest. According to experts, such a system will work at lower speeds than Mach 5.

American military observer Joseph Trevithick writes that it is difficult to overestimate the importance of such an engine for the further improvement of both missiles, and aviation... For example, an airplane with a similar engine system will be able to take off like a regular jet plane, accelerate to supersonic or hypersonic speeds in the middle of the flight, and then slow down and land like a regular plane.

If we talk about a disposable aircraft, for example, a rocket, then the ability to accelerate to hypersonic speed without the need for a special rocket accelerator, according to Trevithick, opens up new possibilities for design. The ability of an aircraft or missile to switch between low and high speed modes in the future will allow the concept of "low-slow flight" to be realized, followed by high-speed flight.

Combined engines for hypersonic vehicles are being designed in the USA

The US Air Force is now looking to acquire a test bed to support flight tests of these engine types. The military department has already acquired the X-60A hypersonic test bench, the importance of which in the study of the survivability of materials and the scale of the payload at extreme speeds can hardly be overestimated.

As for the development of a hypersonic engine, the US Air Force signed a research contract in this direction with Hermeus Corporation, which is testing its own prototype of a combined cycle jet engine. In addition, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is implementing its own Full Range Multicycle Advanced Engine (AFRE) program.

In addition, Lockheed Martin also stated that the SR-72 will presumably use the combined cycle engine that the company has been developing since the mid-2000s. The possibilities of designing a hypersonic passenger aircraft of a representative class with a similar combined engine are also being studied.

However, similar developments are underway not only in the USA. Rolls-Royce, headquartered in the UK, which makes traditional jet engines, recently announced a new partnership with Reaction Engines, which is working on combined cycle engines for use on a spacecraft.

If the projects of American corporations cooperating with the Air Force become a reality, they will revolutionize the world of jet engines.
Author:
Photos used:
Hermeus, Lockheed Martin
57 comments
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  1. NordUral
    NordUral 22 August 2020 20: 47
    -1
    Good luck. It's good that the problem is full of nuances and complexities.
  2. Livonetc
    Livonetc 22 August 2020 20: 47
    +3
    Maybe it will, maybe not.
    There are a lot of failed projects.
  3. Operator
    Operator 22 August 2020 20: 52
    11 th
    Noodles on the ears - in the "Zircon" ramjet engine there is no supersonic gas flow rate in the combustion chamber, just African Americans do not know how this is possible, so they post all sorts of fakes about the development of "combined engines" that have no analogues.
    1. Shuttle
      Shuttle 23 August 2020 07: 08
      +2
      Quote: Operator
      Noodles on the ears - in the "Zircon" ramjet engine there is no supersonic gas flow rate in the combustion chamber, just African Americans do not know how this is possible, so they post all sorts of fakes about the development of "combined engines" that have no analogues.


      Explain for "Zircon", please.
      1. Orange bigg
        Orange bigg 23 August 2020 08: 20
        -8
        Can you show you more drawings of Zircon, dear?
        1. Shuttle
          Shuttle 23 August 2020 22: 27
          0
          Quote: OrangeBigg
          Can you show you more drawings of Zircon, dear?

          In your own words, please. I don't need blueprints.
      2. Operator
        Operator 23 August 2020 09: 18
        -6
        The materials of a scientific-practical conference in Samara (if I am not mistaken) were published on the Internet, where it was proposed to inject water into the combustion chamber of a scramjet engine to reduce the temperature (due to the extraction of heat for evaporation of water) of the gas flow and, therefore, its velocity to subsonic.

        The same effect can be achieved with the injection of liquefied cryogenic fuel. Which variant is implemented in the Zircon engine is the secret of the developers.
  4. Thrifty
    Thrifty 22 August 2020 20: 58
    +4
    What is the nafik revolution? Such an engine is also heavier than a hypersonic one, because it is essentially two in one, more expensive to manufacture and operate, the world manufacturers of aircraft engines have returned to this topic a lot of times already! So far, there is no breakthrough, as previously desired - one engine for all flight modes, from subsonic flight speed to the first space speed. So they cling to such engines - sandwiches, two in one! A real breakthrough, this is an engine capable of operating in all three modes - sound at the start, supersonic during acceleration, and hypersound for entering orbit, for example. But, our earthly technologies for such an engine are still not enough!
    1. Senka naughty
      Senka naughty 22 August 2020 21: 17
      -4
      But, our earthly technologies for such an engine are still not enough!

      Gone are the days when specialists from Alpha Centauri were invited to develop weapons of mass destruction for earthlings. Or is the periodic table not enough for you?
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 23 August 2020 01: 07
      +1
      Quote: Thrifty
      A real breakthrough, this is an engine capable of operating in all three modes - sound at the start, supersonic during acceleration, and hypersound for entering orbit, for example.

      Actually, the Americans were working on a hypersonic CD with a ceramic turbojet engine! Such a CR could reach a speed of 5 M, that is, hypersonic ... but, since the engine was "almost" traditional; that is, a turbojet of the "classic" type ... but the current is ceramic, then there should be no problems, in theory, for flights at supersonic and subsonic ....! I just don't remember the name of the project and why it was closed (suspended ...)! My "archive" is not with me now!
      1. eklmn
        eklmn 23 August 2020 16: 20
        +1
        GE and Rolls-Royce continue to coat turbine blades for aircraft with a special ceramic coating. This technology is called TBC (Thermal Barrier Coatings). If that's what you meant.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 23 August 2020 18: 53
          +2
          Quote: eklmn
          GE and Rolls-Royce continue to coat turbine blades for aircraft with a special ceramic coating. This technology is called TBC (Thermal Barrier Coatings)

          The method of ceramic "sputtering" became known not "today" but much earlier! I was referring to a much more "advanced" ceramic technology!
          1. eklmn
            eklmn 23 August 2020 20: 09
            0
            Unfortunately I didn't find anything on ceramics, but I didn't reach the bottom of the Internet ... winked
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 23 August 2020 20: 45
              +2
              Quote: eklmn
              Unfortunately I didn't find anything on ceramics anymore

              Byvaaaooo! I also had it more than once ... I got into the Internet infa ... I didn't write it down right away or it got lost in my computer ... Time passes, you start looking for the info again and ... you find it! You stay with "memories"! And now I remember that I read information about the still Soviet development of a turbine with "pure" ceramic blades ...! I remember that in the description there was a mention of special channels in the blades for circulating coolant ... Heat-resistant ceramics + cooling = a very good effect is obtained! And if you also make a ceramic combustion chamber, then you can get an awesome heat-resistant turbojet engine that can hold agramad temperatures! Thus, it is possible, perhaps, to obtain a turbojet engine providing hypersonic speed, at least 5 M! Plus the ability to fly subsonic and supersonic!
  5. K-50
    K-50 22 August 2020 21: 13
    -1
    Engines of this class operate at a speed of at least Mach 5 If we talk about a disposable aircraft, for example, a rocket, then the ability to accelerate to hypersonic speed without the need for a special rocket accelerator

    And before with Mach 5, such a dvigun will work if lol , his negroes will push aside? belay laughing
  6. Rusticolus
    Rusticolus 22 August 2020 21: 16
    +1
    That is, the Americans are trying to invent MiG-31, or at least MiG-21. And, they only dream of 100/144 or Concorde? Maybe they can call Estonians as consultants, you see, it will come out faster. And then they themselves are completely "well, stupid"laughing
    1. latgalec
      latgalec 23 August 2020 00: 23
      +2
      There is no need to touch the Estonians, they invented Skype ... so not stupid ..
  7. Andylw
    Andylw 22 August 2020 21: 37
    -8
    yes, it's not for you to eat up the Soviet groundwork ...
    very cool!
    they are creating the future of engine building ...
  8. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 22 August 2020 21: 54
    +3
    Actually, when such engines are on stream, this will become
    the beginning of the hypersonic era in aviation and the Kyrgyz Republic.
    And now Russians and Americans are making surrogates:
    different gliders gliding from 30-50 km with and without hops,
    and BR warheads falling not vertically, as usual, but somehow
    maneuvering at an angle.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 22 August 2020 22: 04
      -1
      In the next five years, new scramjet engines, like missiles with them, will begin to enter service, and by 2030, hypersonic aircraft with combined engines may appear.
    2. Alber alber
      Alber alber 23 August 2020 02: 00
      -3
      The Americans are not doing anything yet, except for exaggerated penguins, but we have zircon flying, x-32 with 16g in service, gzur on trials, and even gliding blocks "reliably controlled throughout the entire flight path" - quote, what the Yankees do is clearly crossing a donkey with a raccoon, sobsno they already tried to do this, i.e. using our Dagger as an example, replace the overclocking carrier in the form of 31 with a built-in turbine, but it still needs one engine, for outputting to hypersound, I think the size of this composite elephant will be rather big, not to mention its own weight and the weight of the filling itself
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 August 2020 09: 26
        +2
        The Americans want to make a CR that could fly horizontally in the atmosphere at a speed of 5-7 MAX. At any altitude: both high at 30 km and low at an altitude of several hundred meters.
        Horizontally, stable and permanently radio controlled.
        It's difficult. We need a smart straight-through combined engine with regulation depending on the density of the atmosphere. And wound electronics.
        1. Alber alber
          Alber alber 23 August 2020 23: 57
          0
          Our x-32 flies 5,4 thousand km / h, horizontally, without any combi engines
          1. Alber alber
            Alber alber 24 August 2020 00: 31
            0
            And KST is controlled and the flight takes place at altitudes up to 40 km
      2. Vadim237
        Vadim237 23 August 2020 11: 41
        0
        X 32 has a TTRD if that.
        1. Alber alber
          Alber alber 24 August 2020 00: 06
          0
          And what follows from this, in addition to this, on the site of the ktrv they write that they are, if that
  9. Griffit
    Griffit 22 August 2020 23: 23
    +2
    I feel something that will be like a hypersound. For 20 years, Americans have been shouting loudly that they are ahead of the rest with hypersound. And then when Russia launched hypersonic missiles, the Americans shouted loudly that it was the Russians who stole everything from them. With this development, I feel everything will be the same.
  10. Angelo Provolone
    Angelo Provolone 23 August 2020 00: 48
    11 th
    sooner or later, the Soviet developments will end and the Americans will get ahead. And with our education, we will slurp soup bast shoes and pray to God ...
    1. Moor_Zeek
      Moor_Zeek 24 August 2020 15: 26
      0
      Educate yourself, citizen: https://aftershock.news/?q=node/897518
      Your American mriyas are too optimistic laughing
  11. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx 23 August 2020 01: 17
    +6
    Interesting ..)) Existing, even the most advanced turbojet engines, cannot accelerate the "body" above 3,5M. And the hypersonic ramjet begins to work somewhere after 4,5M, to which it is accelerated by the rocket engine, which has no speed limits. It turns out a hole that a promising turbojet engine should close. Che, I doubt it, however. And then, on the part of hypersonic aircraft .. Even at 3M speed, there are already a lot of problems with the temperature regime of the glider, unless you are on the border of near space (above it is impossible, since there is no air for the engine, but below it is impossible, since the glider will burn nafig) ... For a rocket that is disposable and is accelerated by rocket boosters, these problems are very orchestral. And how they can be solved for a reusable device, I don’t know, even at the conceptual level. There are a lot of questions about aerodynamics and materials science. It's like doing something like "Buran" or "Shuttle". which takes off on its engines.))
    The Yankees are pushing, I suppose. Or they just cut the budget, and they just throw a fake into the press.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 23 August 2020 09: 31
      +2
      If possible, then a very expensive device. Cooling the front of the airframe can be forced. Liquid nitrogen, for example. Well, organizing radio control is also a wild task. The CD will be ten times more expensive than the most expensive existing ones.
      Therefore, everything slips.
      1. Al_lexx
        Al_lexx 23 August 2020 09: 49
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Cooling the front of the airframe can be forced. Liquid nitrogen, for example.

        At first glance, this is obvious. But this requires additional air intake, most likely a separate air intake, in which a radiator will need to be placed, to cool the nitrogen itself. And this is a significant increase in frontal resistance. And the piping system, and the weight of the coolant itself .. SR71 was cooled by its own fuel, which circulated in the temperature-stressed parts of the airframe and which has the property of running out. And here you are saying that you need to carry cylinders with liquid nitrogen with you. Yes, he flew as much as possible somewhere ("only") about 3600 km / h and in service cost like a whole U2 squadron. At the same time, his payload, if you count as a percentage of the total mass of the aircraft, was quite ridiculous. Moreover, he had to take off with half-empty tanks (just to get his "ass" off the ground), refuel at an altitude of 7 + km, and only then begin to carry out the flight mission. And here the conversation is about the speed of 5M +.
        No, I smell it here as another "moon scam". ))
      2. Vadim237
        Vadim237 23 August 2020 11: 45
        0
        Why cool something - there are a lot of materials with melting points over 2000 degrees the most promising tantalum carbide 3880 melting point - a rocket is a disposable product why bother for it.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 23 August 2020 12: 04
          0
          Electronics still needs to be cooled to work.
          1. ycuce234-san
            ycuce234-san 25 August 2020 03: 10
            0
            Electronics still need to be cooled to work


            Do not. There are silicon carbide chips. But it is possible to refrigerate only the carcasses of pilots in the freezer cabin, in a manned version, and refuse other cooling.

            [media = https: //naked-science.ru/article/sci/inzhenery-nasa-ispytali-mikroshemu]
  12. Alber alber
    Alber alber 23 August 2020 01: 45
    +2
    For partners, the stealth coating will cover when exposed to external, quite ordinary environments, problems with the controllability of f35, somehow solved the problem with disconnecting pilots due to failures of breathing equipment, a bunch of other chronic problems that they simply close and do not solve. But since the Russians with rusty tanks, airplanes, ships and in general a very bad army were able to create families of new weapons based on new physical principles, then the Yankees there, probably someday, something will happen, like with the handsome SR, but judging by the presence the need to solve a lot of interdependent problems, this will not happen tomorrow, an obvious crisis of the approach "we will fill everything up with green fanatics", and then it will somehow do itself, apparently it does not work, but the arms race in the presence of other lumpy problems will only accelerate the fall
  13. And why do you need
    And why do you need 23 August 2020 06: 25
    -4
    Yes, people from Zarogozin also appeared on the site. Elon Musk was not believed either.
    1. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 23 August 2020 09: 09
      -3
      Quote: Why do you need it?
      Yes, people from Zarogozin also appeared on the site. Elon Musk was not believed either.

      Why believe him? Do you remember how under the foolishness he pushed about the super-mega ITS system, which lifts 300 tons to LEO? Where is she? Maskosexuals have forgotten about her, and masturbate on Starshit, which exists only in the form of a jumping barrel.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 August 2020 10: 15
        +2
        Falcon 9 also just bounced slightly at the beginning. Everyone laughed: "a thin pencil with frail legs."
        The Falcon now fly (return) every two weeks, like airliners on schedule.
        They have already stopped writing articles about it - routine, not interesting.
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 23 August 2020 10: 18
          0
          Where's the superfast and cheap Solar-powered Hyperloop?
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 23 August 2020 11: 26
            +2
            There will be Hyperloop, how impatient you are laughing
            Tesla started to make big profits, SpaceX went into profits even earlier.
            There is money. When Starlink launches (11 batches of 60 in space) Musk is projected to become a trillionaire.
            There will be money for small things like HyperLoop
            1. Narak-zempo
              Narak-zempo 23 August 2020 16: 19
              +3
              Quote: voyaka uh
              There will be money for small things like HyperLoop

              Let me remind you that the planokur promised to build cheaper than an ordinary high-speed railroad laughing
              Maskosexuals like to poke at the estimate of the Crimean bridge, but do not notice such sins behind their idol fetish.
              They poke at Rogozin, who abandoned the "Federation" in favor of "Eagle", but they went on to say that ITS had quietly shrunk before Starshit.
            2. Alber alber
              Alber alber 24 August 2020 00: 19
              0
              Tesla in operating profit at the end of 2019, but at a complete disadvantage in front of the shareholders, and when the Chinese batteries are closed by Trump's hands, they will again fly away on the operating system
          2. Topgun
            Topgun 23 August 2020 17: 27
            +1
            you need to update the manual:
            Musk is NOT working on "hyperloop" laughing
            he just once voiced an idea ...
            1. Narak-zempo
              Narak-zempo 23 August 2020 17: 35
              +2
              Quote: Topgun
              you need to update the manual:
              Musk is NOT working on "hyperloop" laughing
              he just once voiced an idea ...

              In Russian it is called "crowed - but at least don't dawn there."
              1. Topgun
                Topgun 23 August 2020 17: 53
                0
                if he took money for it, then yes ...
                and so why dabble with saliva?
                or this is this case: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCW16qzD6m8
    2. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 23 August 2020 17: 35
      -1
      Quote: Why do you need it?
      Yes, people from Zarogozin also appeared on the site. Elon Musk was not believed either.

      https://ruslanostashko.livejournal.com/516572.html
  14. andrewkor
    andrewkor 23 August 2020 06: 35
    0
    And how, in your opinion, to create a supersonic air flow at the stand, so that the engine would work as it should? Install a blower? I do not see any other option. Do not judge strictly an amateur.
    1. Al_lexx
      Al_lexx 23 August 2020 09: 56
      +2
      Quote: andrewkor
      And how, in your opinion, to create a supersonic air flow at the stand so that the engine would work as it should?

      Wind tunnels with supersonic air flow exist. The question is not
      this. The question is. what values ​​of supersonic sound they provide. As far as I know, a little over 1M. The Americans boasted that they were creating an ultra-fast wind tunnel, precisely for the purposes discussed here. But its specific performance characteristics have not yet been announced.
      https://topwar.ru/156209-ssha-hvastajutsja-ajerodinamicheskoj-truboj-dlja-giperzvukovyh-raket-u-rossii-i-kitaja-takoj-net.html
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 23 August 2020 11: 48
        +1
        Such hypersonic blowing pipes are available in Germany and the USA.
  15. eklmn
    eklmn 23 August 2020 16: 48
    +1
    I don't know why talking about CD, but Hermeus developed an engine for an aircraft and the US Air Force was very interested in it.
    This is what the source of the info itself says - the Hermeus company. By the way, a startup company created and tested its engine in 9 months.
    “The Air Force made the investment after Hermeus demonstrated its Mach 5 engine, developed in just 9 months, back in February. This engine is a combined cycle turbofan engine that combines both a conventional turbofan engine and a ramjet engine in a single engine. "
    “Then there is the question of the air temperature in the ramjet. At high supersonic and low subsonic speeds, the temperature of the air entering the engine gradually increases, and this hot air makes the ramjet less efficient. In a press release, Hermeus seems to point out that it has solved this problem with a pre-cooler that cools the air before it enters the engine's combustion chamber. ”
    And the most interesting thing:
    “The company also claims that it could reach speeds higher than the famous strategic reconnaissance aircraft SR-71, having nothing but a serial engine modified by the company. "

    https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/research/a33547925/hypersonic-air-force-one-combined-cycle-engine/#:~:text=The%20Air%20Force%20made%20the,ramjet%20into%20a%20single%20engine.
    1. Operator
      Operator 23 August 2020 17: 05
      +1
      The Hermeus aircraft engine runs on hydrogen, the tank of which is multiples of that of the entire cruise missile.
      1. eklmn
        eklmn 24 August 2020 02: 31
        0
        “The Hermeus aircraft engine runs on hydrogen, which has a tank that is multiples of the size of the entire cruise missile.”
        You are right - on hydrogen. But you are wrong to think that the plane carries hydrogen with it. After reaching the speed of several Machs and still flying in the atmosphere, the aircraft's engine compresses the air to a liquid state and uses hydrogen to fly. No tank!
        “In a ramjet engine, high pressure is created by“ stuffing ”external air into the combustion chamber using the vehicle's speed. The external air supplied to the propulsion system becomes the working fluid, just like in a turbojet engine. In a turbojet engine, high pressure in the combustion chamber is generated by a piece of equipment called a compressor. But there are no compressors in the ramjet. Consequently, the ramjet is lighter and simpler than the turbojet. The ramjet engine creates thrust only when the car is already moving. The ramjet cannot create thrust when the engine is stationary or static. "
        Google Ramjet or ramjet engine.
    2. Alber alber
      Alber alber 24 August 2020 00: 26
      0
      As far as is known, the weight ratios of the engine together with the hydrogen tank and other equipment for ensuring the operation of the engine do not provide any significant payload, i.e. the engine will be able to carry only itself and fuel, but with the rest of the canopy there are problems, and an increase in size will lead to a deterioration in the ratio in progression
      1. eklmn
        eklmn 24 August 2020 02: 37
        0
        "As far as we know, the weight ratio of the engine together with the tank ..."
        Ramjet, or or ramjet engine, ramjet, do not have a tank, because at a speed of several Machs, the air in the engine is compressed and the hydrogen becomes liquid. The engine runs on this hydrogen. No Mach speed - no hydrogen, engine not running.
        1. Alber alber
          Alber alber 24 August 2020 08: 51
          0
          Here is a combi engine, which means at least for the first stage a tank is needed so that the engine can pick up speed up to Machs, well, apparently the compactness of this installation is still limited by the design of the device, although of course the RD is not my element, I may be wrong
  16. Kaw
    Kaw 23 August 2020 19: 24
    0
    For example, an aircraft with a similar engine system will be able to take off like a conventional jet plane, accelerate to supersonic or hypersonic speeds in the middle of the flight, and then slow down and land like a regular plane.

    I wonder why not just put two sets of engines on the plane. Let's say one weak and compact turbojet, on which the plane will take off and accelerate to 500 km / h. And two cruise lines. After acceleration, the ramjet engine would be launched on the turbojet engine, and the turbojet engine would be muffled, and its air intake would be closed with a streamlined plug.