Military Review

Taborits and "orphans"

86
Taborits and "orphans"

Wagenburg Hussites


After the death of Jan ižka, his troops, called "orphans", were led by Kunesh from Belovice. Velek Kudelnik and Jan Kralovec, the former Prague craftsman, became his deputies. Now they worked closely with the Taborites, whose authoritative commanders were Jan Hvezda, Boguslav Schwamberk, Jan Rogach.


Taborites, drawing from the Göttingen manuscript, mid-XNUMXth century

And the general leadership of the Hussites was in the hands of Sigismund (Zhigimont) Koributovich from the Gediminich family, the son of the Novgorod-Seversky prince and the Ryazan princess (a little about him was told in the article Jan Zizka. Scary Blind and the father of "orphans").

Sigismund Koributovich and the Spear of Fate


A curious episode of the Hussite wars is connected with this prince - the siege of the Karlštejn castle, where the famous Holy spear was kept, also known as the spear of Phinees (the Hebrew priest) and the spear of Longinus, with which this centurion allegedly pierced the rib of the crucified Christ. According to legend, at different times this spear was owned by Saint Mauritius, the Roman commander Aetius, the Emperor Justinian, Charlemagne, Otto I, Frederick I Barbarossa, Frederick II Hohenstaufen. Finally, Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg (who was also the king of Bohemia) brought him to Bohemia.

Actually, there are three artifacts that claim to be the "Holy Spear". One of them is located in the Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, the second is in the treasury of the Armenian Echmiadzin monastery. And the spear of interest to us is currently stored in the Austrian castle Hoffburg. It was it that, after the annexation of Austria, was transferred to Nuremberg, and then returned by the American General George Patton.

(There was also an Antioch spear, but in the XNUMXth century Pope Benedict XIV recognized it as a forgery, and Krakow, recognized as a copy of a Vienna one.)


Vienna spear from the Hofburg castle

The castle itself was of strategic importance, and it did not hurt to capture it, so that the crusaders would not build views on it. And the possession of the Spear of Destiny was to significantly increase the authority of Zhigimont both among the Hussites and among their opponents.


Karlshteyn Castle

Sigismund-Zhigimont's own warriors set out on a campaign, and the Prague chasters (the Taborite troops and Jan Zhizhka at that time fought against Sigismund of Luxembourg's ally - Prince Oldrich of Rozmberk).

Even taking into account the strength of the Karlštejn walls, the task did not seem impossible at first, since the castle's garrison consisted of only 400 soldiers. But here, as they say, she found a scythe on a stone: 163 days of siege and shelling of the walls of the fortress did not bring success. And then Zhigimont decided to use "biological weapons»: With the help of throwing machines, about two thousand baskets were thrown outside the castle walls, the contents of which were a wild mixture of decomposed human and animal remains, diluted with excrement. But it was not possible to cause a full-fledged epidemic among the besieged.

But Zhigimont, together with the Taborites, drove away the crusaders who were marching to help Karlshtein without a fight. So the Third Crusade against the Hussites ended ingloriously. After that, the defenders of Karlštejn Castle promised to remain neutral for a year. And in March 1423, the failed king of Bohemia, Zhigimont, with great reluctance, but still had to return to Krakow. Many soldiers who came with him from the Russian Voivodeship of Lithuania chose to stay in the Czech Republic.

The fighting of the Hussites after the death of Jan ižka


After the death of ižka, the Taborites and the "orphans" went together to Moravia, and in 1425 they fought against the Prazhans and Chasniks. Old leaders and generals died in continuous battles, and new charismatic leaders took their place. The first to die was the leader of the Taborites, Jan Hvezda, who led the allied army during the siege of the Vožice fortress.

Then, having once again defeated the opponents in Bohemia, the "orphans" and the Taborites in the fall of 1425 again went to Moravia and further to Austria. Here, during the storming of the Retz castle, another Taborit hetman, Boguslav Švamberk, was killed. The Taborites and the “orphans” won, but the death of Jan ижižka, whose name alone thrilled all the enemies of the “God's soldiers”, inspired the opponents of the Hussites. Companions and disciples of the Terrible Blind did not seem so terrible and invincible opponents, and on May 19, 1426, the imperial Diet was held in Nuremberg, which was also visited by the papal legate, Cardinal Orsini. Here it was decided to organize the next Crusade against the Hussites, in which the troops of Saxony, Austria, Poland and many small German principalities were to take part. An external threat temporarily reconciled all Hussite trends. The new leader of the Taborites, Prokop Goliy, was appointed commander of the main army, who was also called the Great - for his high growth (in contrast to Prokop Maliy, who from 1428 headed the "orphans"). And the former utraquist priest from a wealthy Prague family was called Naked not for his poverty and not for his love of “naked nature”, but for walking with a “bare chin,” that is, shaving his beard. However, according to another version, he allegedly shaved his head, and therefore he was sometimes called Bald. But in the portrait below, Prokop's hair is still there.


Prokop Naked

Another leader of the Hussites in that campaign was Sigismund Koributovich, who returned to Prague without permission.

The enemy troops met at the well-fortified city of Usti (Aussig), in which there was a strong garrison of their main enemy - Sigismund of Luxembourg. The Hussites came first, besieging the city, which was approached by the main forces of the crusaders in June 1426.


Osprey. German medieval armies


Hussites massacre

They say that their army was five times superior to the Hussite. Perhaps this is an exaggeration, but the fact of the enormous numerical superiority of the crusaders no one questions. The most critical historians speak of 70 crusaders (not counting the soldiers of the Usti garrison) and 25 Hussites.

Under the threat of a blow from both sides, Prokop withdrew his army from the city and, according to the tradition established by Jan ižka, placed them on a hill between two streams, surrounding himself with a double ring of carts. But, contrary to the traditions of the Hussite wars, he suddenly suggested that the enemy commanders spare the prisoners and not finish off the wounded. They took this offer as a sign of weakness and arrogantly refused.

On June 16, 1426, the German knights broke through the outer line of the Hussite fortifications, but ran into the inner wall, undergoing massive shelling and flanking attacks. Unable to bear it, they began a retreat, which soon turned into flight. The Hussites pursued them from the town of Usti to the villages of Přeblice and Grabowice, destroying more than ten thousand aliens and capturing rich trophies.

Remember the arrogant refusal of the Crusaders to offer the Czechs mutual mercy on the prisoners? The Hussites accepted these rules of the game and, among others, killed 14 surrendered German princes and barons. The demoralized crusaders retreated, the frightened garrison of Usti surrendered.

It was not possible to completely defeat the enemy due to another split in the ranks of the Hussites. The chashniki refused to obey Prokop and withdrew their troops from his army. The trip to Saxony, planned by Prokop Noly, did not take place, but later he still visited her, as well as Silesia, Bavaria and Austria. In general, this commander was always determined to beat the enemy on his territory.

The first time he did it on March 14, 1427, when the troops of Albrecht of Austria were defeated in the battle of Zwettl. Even the commander-in-chief's banner was captured.

And in May, Prokop, at the head of the Taborites, and Kudelnik with the "orphans" struck Silesia, and the horror of their appearance was so great that the enemy troops fled without risking open confrontation with them.

Meanwhile, the new crusaders to the Czech Republic were led by the half-brother of the English king Henry IV - Bishop of Winchester Henry Beaufort, with whom a detachment of famous English archers came.

The youth left in rows
Pulling on the patches,
Cloak hung with crosses.
All lies, as on icons,
Joy, death, battles and caresses,
Even the blood from the wounds of Christ
Smells like typographic ink
In good old England.

(From the song of the "Tin Soldiers" group.)

No, the pain, blood and death nevertheless turned out to be real: on August 4, 1427, Prokop Bolshoi and Prokop Maly defeated them at Takhov.


The battle of the Hussites with the crusaders, engraving of the XNUMXth century

Prokop Naked did not stop there and followed the crusaders to the Saxon city of Naumburg. The townspeople bought off the Hussites. To pity them, they also sent their children, dressed in white clothes, for negotiations. The touched Prokop, according to the legend, did not cause any harm to innocent children and even treated them to cherries. On the last weekend of June, Naumburg still hosts the annual Cherry Festival, a tradition attributed to these events.


Scary Prokop and an innocent child on notgeld (emergency money) 1920

In the next 4 years, Catholics and Hussites changed places: now the "good Czechs" (as they called themselves) went on campaigns to Germany, Austria and Hungary, in 1430 they reached the Polish Czestochowa, everywhere clearly demonstrating what exactly they were carrying crusading armies to their lands, and inviting the inhabitants of neighboring countries to drink the same cup. They had already learned to fight very well, the fear they instilled deprived the local barons and dukes of strength and courage, and therefore the Czechs themselves called these raids "pleasant walks" or "wonderful trips" (spaniel jizdy).


Hussite treks, map

Things went so far that Joan of Arc entered into correspondence with them, who in her letter urged them to abandon heresy, otherwise promising only heavenly punishment. But the Taborites and "orphans" had their own god - a more correct one, who hated hypocritical Catholic hierarchs, unjust rich men and corrupted lazy monks. With his name, they crushed one army after another.

The pleasant walks of the good Czechs resulted in a series of peasant uprisings in Central Europe. So, after the campaign in Silesia in 1428, it turned out that the army of Prokop the Naked did not decrease, but increased - due to the foreign peasants who joined him. At the same time, the Russian prince Fyodor Ostrozhsky, who was in captivity, joined the Hussites, who began to command his compatriots and Litvin, who had previously come to the Czech Republic with Sigismund Koributovich. On the side of the Hussites, the Polish detachment of the gentry Dobek Puhal also fought.

In the spring of 1430, the taborites of Prokop the Naked marched through Silesia, occupying a number of cities, one of which, Gliwice, was given to the failed Czech king Sigismund Koributovich. "Orphans", commanded by Velek Kudelnik and Prokupek, at that time penetrated through Moravia into Austria and Hungary, and then into Slovakia. Here they entered into a heavy battle with the army of Emperor Sigismund at Trnava. It was then that a detachment of Hungarians under the command of Fyodor Ostrogsky, who had gone over to the side of the enemy, managed to break through to Wagenburg, but the "orphans" survived, although they lost their commander, Velek Kudelnik, in this battle. In the end, they overthrew the Imperials.

In general, the fear of the Catholic neighbors of the Czechs reached such a limit that, despite the growing Ottoman threat, they organized a new, fifth crusade against the Hussites. It was headed by Cardinal Cesarini and two Friedrichs - Saxon and Bradenburg, who led up to 40 thousand horsemen and from 70 to 80 thousand infantry.

The crusaders laid siege to the city of Domažlice, near which the Hussite army waited - 50 thousand infantry, 3 thousand carts, more than 600 artillery pieces of various calibers and 5 thousand horsemen.

On August 14, 1431, the Hussites sang their anthem Ktož jsú Boží bojovníci? (“Who are God's soldiers?”) Moved on the crusaders.


Collection of Hussite hymns, Tabor Museum

Unable to withstand their blow, the crusaders fled, abandoning the train (2 thousand carts), the treasury and all the artillery (300 guns).

The most curious thing is that the cardinal's crusaders this time tried to build their Wagenburg, but they did it clumsily, and their carts were not suitable for these purposes.

Prokop with the Taborites went to Silesia, having returned, joined forces with the "orphans" of Prokop the Small - together they defeated the troops of the Austrian Duke Albrecht.

In the summer of 1433, Jagailo Polsky called on the Hussites to help in another war with the Teutonic Order (and his brother Svidrigailo at the same time). "Orphans" and taborites under the command of Jan Czapek (commander from the camp of "orphans") entered East Prussia through Neumark, occupied Tczew (Dirschau) and reached the mouth of the Vistula and Danzing (Gdansk).


Mikolas Ales. Jan Capek ze San (1901)


A. Liebscher. Czechs on the shores of the Baltic Sea

It seemed that in all of Europe there were no forces capable of stopping them. In January 1433, the Czech delegation was invited to the Cathedral in Basel, and Prokop the Naked was included in it. An agreement could not be reached at that time, but negotiations continued in Prague. Prokop Goliy, disturbed by the compromising moods of the Chasniks, did not even go to war with the Teutons, entrusting the command to Chapek. He had little strength (his army had already unsuccessfully besieged Pilsen for a long time), and therefore, when the chasniks nevertheless reached an agreement with the papists, he was forced to leave Prague, where on May 5 the Old Town met in a battle with Taborite Novy, and died in the massacre many of his supporters. Only the help of the leader and commander of the "orphans" Prokop Maly helped him to safely retreat to Tabor.

Meanwhile, the composition of his army has already changed significantly. The victories of the Taborites had unexpected consequences: in the hope of great prey, European adventurers of all stripes began to adhere to them. And the moderate Hussites now called Tabor "the focus of the rabble and scum of all nations." This could not but affect the fighting efficiency of the Taborite army, but the horror of their name alone was so great that few of the neighbors risked engaging in serious military clashes with them. Now Prokop had to fight with other Czechs, many of whom had gone through the school of Jan Zizka, and the leaders of the Utrakvists were able to draw the right conclusions from the failures of previous battles with the Taborites and "orphans".

In the next article, we will complete our story about the Hussite wars.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A.Czech Republic on the Eve of the Hussite Wars
Ryzhov V.A.Yan Zhizhka. Scary Blind and Father of "Orphans"
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  1. Free wind
    Free wind 23 August 2020 07: 45 New
    +7
    According to legend, the one who wields the spear of fate is invincible in battles. It seems that Hitler had it.
    1. VLR
      23 August 2020 09: 48 New
      +7
      Yes, it was moved to Nuremberg, I wrote about it. The Vienna Spear of Destiny is the most famous of the "Holy Spears" and the largest number of mystical legends are associated with it. But few people know about Armenian. Maybe because in the USSR this artifact was not particularly advertised, and they forgot about it. However, in my opinion, enlightened Europeans have never been particularly interested in Armenia: the natives, even though they are Christians. Yes, and some incomprehensible Christians, they do not recognize the Pope, nor Luther and Calvin.
      Actually, all three spears mentioned at the beginning of this article were made during the early Middle Ages. Spear of Destiny - 6th or 7th century. But the moral significance of owning them is still very high.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 23 August 2020 09: 54 New
        +4
        Let's say in France the Armenians have a very strong diaspora, spread all over the world.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 23 August 2020 19: 29 New
          +6
          In the States too
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 23 August 2020 21: 42 New
            +4
            In the States too

            Albert, you mean the Kardanoshyans in half with the idiot Kanye West? The power of social networks is great! wassat
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 23 August 2020 22: 11 New
              +5
              No way))
              Accountants, IT specialists, restaurateurs, freight carriers, rock musicians, manufacturers, etc.
              1. rich
                rich 24 August 2020 05: 18 New
                +4
                In the 90s, every 10 New York taxi driver was Armenian
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 24 August 2020 06: 08 New
                  +5
                  And every 10th Russian Jew in the 80s))
                  1. rich
                    rich 24 August 2020 06: 19 New
                    +3
                    Good morning Albert hi
                    American Armenians are called - Ամերիկահայեր - Americanier.
                    It is believed that the first Armenian in the New World appeared in 1618 - it was a merchant with the speaking name Martin (Hovhannes) Armenian. A citizen of Persia, Hovhannes arrived from the city of New Julfa (near Isfkhan) and settled in the territory of the modern state of Virginia, where he began to produce silk.
                    But most of today's American Armenians are descendants of settlers from Western Armenia (now the eastern regions of Turkey). These people were forced to flee their homeland after the Ottoman genocide of 1915. There are also quite a few recent economic migrants from Artsakh (Karabakh) and the Republic of Armenia in the United States. And also the Armenians who moved to the United States from Lebanon in the 1970s.
                    All in all, according to demographers' estimates, about two million Armenians live in the United States. For comparison, the Russian diaspora in the United States numbers about three million people. More than one hundred Armenian Christian churches operate in the country
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 24 August 2020 06: 48 New
                      +6
                      Good morning! hi
                      My friends in the States are friends and work with Armenians, both "Soviet" and local and even Syrian (they themselves are Russian Israelis))). And even trained as long as health allowed, with the famous Armenian judoka in the States laughing
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 23 August 2020 16: 28 New
        +6
        Valery, good day. hi
        It was it that, after the annexation of Austria, was transferred to Nuremberg, and then returned by the American General George Patton.

        This is just surprising, given the pathological passion for souvenirs among Americans. Generally speaking, General Patton was a hefty cudgel, which can be traced throughout his military path through Europe. And only the Americans could think of putting him on a par with Napoleon and Caesar. Although ... in the absence of fish and cancer - a fish. laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 23 August 2020 19: 32 New
          +9
          But his phrases:
          I do not want you to die for your homeland
          I want you to make enemy soldiers die for their fucking homeland! laughing good
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 23 August 2020 19: 35 New
            +5
            Yes, what he was noted for in history is his statements: "Let's press and throw the English women into the sea, giving them a second Dunkirk!" And this is about the allies, Ike then had a lot of work to extinguish the scandal that broke out. What can you do - American "Napoleon"! request laughing
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 23 August 2020 19: 38 New
              +5
              Did not forgive the colonialists laughing
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 23 August 2020 19: 55 New
                +5
                To be honest, I don't think he really knew even his own story. A simple country guy, so simple that he had problems with his brains, let alone the language ... Do you remember his argument with Monty (also a strategist) who was the first to "take" Paris? True, Leclerc did not give a damn about both of them and, without permission, drove his tanks there first. laughing
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 23 August 2020 20: 00 New
                  +8
                  With permission and patronage of Hayk))
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 August 2020 20: 10 New
                    +6
                    Yes, sometimes, when you read about them, you get the impression that Hayk was doing nothing but steering everything and letting go of the brakes. He had a lousy position, but then it helped, apparently, when he became president. wink
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 23 August 2020 20: 21 New
                      +7
                      A lot of interests collided there - Churchill with his anti-Sovietism, which didn’t fall for Roosevelt, De Gaulle with his internal French struggle for leadership in France liberated by proxy hands, Montgomery, who, despite everything, was a super-booper strategist, his own “talented” generals like Paton, etc. As for the presidency, Truman had to be unambiguously changed, unlike the isolationist Roosevelt, he got head over heels into the European showdown with the USSR, etc.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 August 2020 20: 35 New
                        +5
                        Yes, Truman got tired on the sidelines, and when he got hold of power, there was a bomb on Hiroshima and all the other things that America had never cared about before.
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 23 August 2020 21: 32 New
                        +6
                        Hiroshima ... let's just say. The combination of three things - hatred for the Japanese, much greater than for the Germans (before the liberation of the concentration camps, the Americans respected the latter), the appearance of the carrier plane and the Nuclear Bomb itself - Roosevelt would also have thrown it off. If there is one, there is a war, and Japanese cities are already being bombed
                      3. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 August 2020 21: 50 New
                        +5
                        The combination of three things - hatred of the Japanese, <.....> the appearance of the carrier plane and the actual Nuclear Bomb - Roosevelt would have thrown it off too. If there is one, there is a war, and Japanese cities are already being bombed

                        The bombing of Tokyo, taking into account the dense wooden buildings, the presence of many strategic bombers and incendiary bombs, brought no less results in destroying the population. hi
                        than to the Germans (before the liberation of the concentration camps, the Americans respected the latter)

                        In Dachau, the guards were shot after what they saw. Ours did the same, I guess. I remember the article "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" for the late 90s and early 2000s. There were the veteran's memories. They liberated a concentration camp, where the Germans took blood from children. Protection, after the battle, in which fellow soldiers died, and from what they saw - to the wall. soldier
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 23 August 2020 22: 09 New
                        +4
                        Hi, Nikolay! hi
                        The guards were running away from ours. The bombardment of Tokyo with napalm - yes, in my opinion, more died than from nuclear weapons
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 August 2020 23: 34 New
                        +4
                        Was there napalm there, the Americans, in my opinion, used it for the first time in Vietnam.
                      6. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 23 August 2020 23: 42 New
                        +5
                        No - in Tokyo.
                        The air raid involved 334 strategic B-29 bombers, each of which dropped several tons of incendiary bombs and napalm. As a result of continuous fires in residential areas built up with wooden buildings, a fire tornado was formed, which did not allow fighting the fire and led to massive loss of life

                        10 March 1945 year
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 23 August 2020 23: 36 New
                  +3
                  Regarding hatred - Iserli wrote not a bomb: "A present for the samurai for those who died in Indianapolis."
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 23 August 2020 23: 44 New
                  +5
                  In the States themselves, the Japanese were taken to concentration camps - a citizen, not a citizen, fig!
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 23 August 2020 21: 51 New
    +6
    Yes, what he was noted for in history is his statements: "Let's press and throw the English women into the sea, giving them a second Dunkirk!"

    Uncle Kostya, he was ready to throw ours too. There is also some similar phrase. That is ... a kind of rip-head with a convolution from a cap.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 23 August 2020 22: 14 New
      +5
      If he had not, the people would not have supported him, and there were not enough bombs. And Europe would be lost - ultimately, except for Great Britain. It took several children of McCarthyism to make Russian enemies out of them - in 45 they were popular in the States, Britain, etc.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 23 August 2020 22: 26 New
        +6
        And Europe would be lost - ultimately, except for Great Britain.

        Their aviation was plentiful, it is true. All the more so - strategic. Well, the fleet is incomparable. hi
        It took several children of McCarthyism to make Russian enemies out of them - in 45 they were popular in the States, Britain, etc.

        An interesting phenomenon.It seems that even the Strugatskys, in their alternative, envisaged that in some year a communist president won in the United States ... what
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 23 August 2020 22: 32 New
          +4
          A natural phenomenon - 82% of the Wehrmacht's losses are the work of the Red Army)).
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 23 August 2020 23: 33 New
      +5
      ... a head with a convolution from a cap.

      As for Patton, I just noticed. He drove around, dr and ch about to the rear in a jeep and took away the comforters from the soldiers - zashibis occupation for the commander of the army. laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 23 August 2020 23: 46 New
        +6
        He tried to accuse one soldier in the hospital of self-shooting in the leg, so he answered him:
        I could have done it in Tunisia or Sicily - why do I need it now? Patton apologized laughing
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 24 August 2020 00: 03 New
          +5
          I read about this story. I also remembered how Montgomery offered to give him all the gasoline, and he advised Patton not to get confused under his feet when he, Monty, trampled on Paris at full speed. Brave George had already sent a parcel from Paris for Monty, who continued to stomp somewhere, either at Antwerp, or at Amsterdam - an empty barrel of gasoline.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 24 August 2020 00: 39 New
            +6
            They were both deviant laughing
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 23 August 2020 23: 39 New
      +6
      Well, our Zhukov, in the sense of throwing them all into the Channel, is also not far from him. But it would be interesting ... wink
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 23 August 2020 23: 47 New
        +6
        I don’t think so. So many corpses would be from strategists, then from nuclear weapons ... it's good that it all ended, how it ended
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 23 August 2020 23: 58 New
          +4
          True, of course, but all of Europe is communist - it's really funny. Purely theoretically.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 24 August 2020 00: 40 New
            +6
            One large DDR with a wall lined up along the English Channel))
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 24 August 2020 01: 16 New
              +4
              The wall along the English Channel is hanging down! laughing Where is Fagotu ...
            2. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 24 August 2020 01: 25 New
              +5
              Fled to the Arab countries of the Maghreb, dying from the crime of white refugees laughing
            3. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 24 August 2020 09: 27 New
              +4
              Fled to the Arab countries of the Maghreb, dying from the crime of white refugees

              Can you imagine how many articles Valery Ryzhov would then write on this topic? wink drinks
            4. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 24 August 2020 10: 05 New
              +4
              If all of Europe were Soviet, then the title of the respected Mr. Ryzhov would be:
              The wretched life of traitors in the Maghreb

              Believing the cheap tricks of American propaganda, some former exploiters and their petty-bourgeois henchmen leave the Italian People's and French Socialist Republics for a chimera of the joys of life under the dominance of capital in Algeria ...
            5. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 24 August 2020 10: 16 New
              +4
              If all of Europe were Soviet, then the title of the respected Mr. Ryzhov would be:

              Ryzhov's handwriting ... what Although, in the world of victorious European socialism and a heap of external enemies, it probably would be so. request I think, on the other hand, something similar would also come out.
            6. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 24 August 2020 10: 35 New
              +5
              On the other hand? Blackened Soviet reality laughing
              For example:
              The richest English woman chooses the color of her cars to match the colors of her favorite evening dresses
              The richest American woman - with her favorite lipstick colors
              And the richest Soviet woman wears whole tights under her jeans drinks
  • rich
    rich 25 August 2020 05: 33 New
    +2
    Interesting Facts
    In 1422, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vitovt sent to the aid of the Hussites a five thousandth Lithuanian army led by Prince Zhigimont Koributovich, which, together with the Hussites, repulsed four crusades of the imperial troops.
    On March 23, 1430, Joan of Arc dictated a letter that called for the crusading army to march against the Hussites until the Hussites returned to the Catholic faith. Her capture by British and Burgundian soldiers two months later "freed" her from this mission.
    In 1452, the Hussite embassy arrived in Constantinople to establish official relations with the Orthodox Church. The delegation was greeted very friendly, but since Constantinople fell the next year, this had no practical consequences.
  • mmaxx
    mmaxx 26 August 2020 08: 48 New
    0
    Just around 1812 the spear belonged to Kutuzov. They wrote about this.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 23 August 2020 08: 02 New
    +4
    Three spears of fate and all real smile Somehow crumpled, it is understandable that hiking is more interesting ... I think if the author told about the programs of the taborites, the chalice would be even more interesting. And the taborites deserve special attention.
    1. VIP
      VIP 23 August 2020 14: 55 New
      +4
      I agree: we do not know the programs: chashniks, taborites, orphans, because they had differences and similarities in programs.
      The author finds that the differences are only in the name.
      1. VLR
        23 August 2020 15: 04 New
        +4
        I thought it was just common knowledge. The difference is in the social base, and this has already determined the ideology. The moderates demanded reform of the Church - to abolish its privileges and land tenure, simplify rituals, and introduce worship in the Czech language. Taborits demanded reform of the whole society: to abolish private property, all duties and taxes. All people were recognized as equal - brothers and sisters.
        1. Operator
          Operator 23 August 2020 15: 23 New
          +1
          You tell about the political demands of the Taborites (as well as about the national base - Czechs, Slovaks, Silesian Poles and other Slavs), tell us in expanded form in the article, otherwise some of them at school obviously skipped history lessons laughing
          1. VIP
            VIP 24 August 2020 13: 47 New
            0
            And some of them sent the traditional history of the forest, and now they admire the tales of Zadornov, Fomenko and Co.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 24 August 2020 09: 38 New
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      Three spears of fate and all real

      “By the way, do not flatter yourself about these relics.” I have seen a lot of fragments of the cross in many different churches. If all of them are genuine, it means that our Lord was tormented not on two crossed logs, but on the whole fence ...
      - Teacher! I cried, shocked.
      “But it is, Adson. And there are even more luxurious relics. Once in the Cologne Cathedral I saw the skull of John the Baptist at the age of twelve ...
      - What a marvel! I replied with admiration. And immediately, doubting, he exclaimed: “But the Baptist died at a more mature age!”
      “Another skull must be in a different treasury,” Wilhelm answered calmly.
      © Umbetro Eco.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 24 August 2020 16: 51 New
        +2
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Umbetro Eco.

        Umberto Eco, of course. fool
  • phair
    phair 23 August 2020 08: 21 New
    +3
    And then there was Luther and the inkwell. 95 and suffered ...
  • Operator
    Operator 23 August 2020 09: 36 New
    +4
    Phinehas' spear is a weapon that killed Jews who converted to Judaism, but then deserted to their distant relatives - the pagan Moabites (by marrying Moabite women who did not convert to Judaism) while walking across the Sinai Peninsula, led by Moses (married to a Moabite daughter a leader who converted to Judaism).

    After numerous excesses, Moses introduced the concept of "God's chosenness" of Jews in the form of a ban on marrying foreign women, which, however, was massively violated right up to the Roman deportation of Jews from Palestine.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 23 August 2020 19: 34 New
      +3
      What does God have to do with being chosen for mixed marriages? lol Gd gave the Torah to the Jews - that's all the selectivity.
      1. Operator
        Operator 23 August 2020 20: 00 New
        +2
        Given that the canonization of "God's chosenness" made it possible to cut off the personal ties of the Jews with their pagan neighbors (by orders of magnitude superior to the Jewish tribe) in order to prevent the erosion of the foundations of monotheistic religion.

        What helped only in part - the return of Jews to paganism for the entire time after the exodus from Egypt occurred many times: starting from the next day after Moses received the first copy of the stone tablets on Mount Zion (when it was necessary to suppress the uprising of Jews who disagreed with the rejection of paganism by cutting out a quarter of the tribe ) and ending with the split of the Israeli state into two (monotheistic Judea and pagan Samaria).

        In addition, after the deportation of the Jews to Babylon, a significant part of them turned to paganism - hence the mention in the Gospel of the pagan Jewish Magi, who came to worship the baby Jesus at the beginning of our era.

        Well, the Greeks / Macedonians, after the conquest of Syria, Palestine and Egypt, broke away from Judaism not childishly - they reformatted the Jerusalem temple and all synagogues into pagan temples in accordance with the pantheon of their gods. So the Jews for 200 years, willy-nilly, had to be pagans of the antique spill until the very uprising of the Maccabees.

        PS Of the 14 million Jews today, about a quarter are pagans because they profess Kabbalah.
        1. Shahno
          Shahno 23 August 2020 20: 21 New
          0
          // Of the 14 million Jews today, about a quarter are pagans because they profess Kabbalah. //
          Kabbalah? You have a very controversial statement ... I wonder which of the pagans preached Kabbalah sad
          1. Operator
            Operator 23 August 2020 21: 13 New
            +3
            Kabbalah is Babylonian neo-paganism; before the Roman deportation, Palestinian Jews who abandoned Judaism professed the West Semitic pagan religion with Baal, Beelzebub, Ishtar, etc. (except for the period of Greek colonization with a pantheon of ancient gods).

            Moreover, after the incorporation of Palestine into the Roman Empire, even Orthodox Jews were forced to violate the canons of their religion, since the Romans demanded that the population of all their provinces must observe public holidays, one of which was dedicated to the current Roman emperor, deified from the moment of the anointing, whose statues were the subject of religious worship.

            Also, the Jewish diaspora in Rome was forced to comply with the city law, which required each diaspora to exhibit a statue of their god in the Roman Pantheon - in other words, local Jews had to make an idol of Yahweh and worship him.

            But on the other hand, no one persecuted the Jewish diaspora with beasts in the arena of the Colosseum, like Christians who refused to make and install a statue of Jesus Christ and worship it in the Pantheon (which, together with the refusal to participate in public holidays, was the formal reason for the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire) ...

            The principled adherents of Christianity (and the anti-chauvinist nature of the doctrine) allowed it to become the first world religion.
            1. Shahno
              Shahno 24 August 2020 11: 11 New
              0
              With all due respect, the Kabbalistic teachings were generated by true Jews ... What came of this, I do not think that it is their fault. I just wanted to breathe new life into the teaching ... You do not think that they are to blame, that the teaching is so attractive to "barbarians" and "atheists."
              Ps. Don't idealize. Neither followers of the Christian idea, nor followers of the Torah.
              1. Operator
                Operator 24 August 2020 12: 50 New
                -1
                Kabbalah is not an innovation, but the restoration of Western Semitic paganism (in a concise form, of course).

                You are right - the Kabbalists (as well as the Sodomites) include people from all monotheistic religions.
  • sivuch
    sivuch 23 August 2020 10: 53 New
    +6
    The Hussites were not very successful with locks. They could not take the Coast Castle either. In principle, the crusaders should have fought on defense, and not climbed on the Wagenburgs. With the advent of normal artillery on carriages (the first known use at Molerie, 1465), nothing shone for the Wagenburgs
    And here's another episode - on August 5, 1421, the Hussite campaign to northern Bohemia ended with a defeat by Frederick of Meissen at the Battle of Most (under Brux - German). Since then and to this day, residents of the Czech town have been celebrating the day of salvation from the Hussites, which is not surprising, given the sad fate of neighboring Catholic cities.
    1. VLR
      23 August 2020 11: 28 New
      +6
      But they also wanted to "eradicate heresy." And how to "eradicate" it, sitting in castles? Again, and
      no prey. If the crusaders sat in castles, there would be no Hussite wars. Because the Taborites and "orphans" only later, already in the process of these wars, pursuing the defeated crusaders, suddenly discovered that their "trips" to their neighbors could be "wonderful" and "pleasant".
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 23 August 2020 12: 47 New
        +4
        The Naglich people fought in a similar way - a combination of predatory Shevoche campaigns with defensive battles. True, this only works as long as the enemy is a ram. And when a competent opponent appears, like B. du Guecklin, it stops working.
  • pytar
    pytar 23 August 2020 11: 33 New
    +4
    It seemed that in all of Europe there were no forces capable of stopping them.

    And someone here on the forums said that "the Czechs do not know how to fight"!
    1. VLR
      23 August 2020 12: 01 New
      +7
      The Czechs of those years and 20-21 centuries are very different. After 300 years as part of Austria - Austria-Hungary (in the next article I will write how this happened), the soldiers became commoners. Prokop Naked, Velek Kudelnik, Jan Rogach turned into the brave soldier Švejk.
      1. pytar
        pytar 23 August 2020 12: 12 New
        +6
        Dear Valery, hi Thank you very much for interesting articles! good I look forward to the next!
        And that the belligerence of peoples has been extinguished over time is a fact. There are many such examples! The history of the Tibetans made a very strong impression on me! At one time they were invincible, merciless wars that even defeated the Mongols! And how did the Tibetans suddenly become so peaceful, humble !? Amazing reincarnation!
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 23 August 2020 12: 30 New
          +6
          And Italy? The Roman Empire conquered half the world and was the center for 500 years. And the Italians now ...
          And Denmark? They were Vikings.
          And Iceland? The most frostbitten and violent Vikings were exiled there.
          There are many such examples. Maybe for the best? recourse
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 23 August 2020 11: 46 New
    +6
    Vienna spear from the Hofburg castle
    I remembered the film "Constantine - Lord of Darkness"
    Thank you, Valery!
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 23 August 2020 14: 23 New
    +7
    In general, I liked the article. He refreshed his memory of the Hussite wars, imbued with the romance of the late Middle Ages. smile
    Personally, since my school days, I have always been interested in the question - how did it happen that the little Czech Republic for fifteen years brought such fear to the whole of Central Europe and why all this extravaganza of courage and valor never ended, because there were no obvious historical consequences of the Hussite wars did not have...
    What is the reason for such tremendous military successes of the Hussites? Discipline? Advanced tactics? Technical excellence? Moral spirit? Of course, all this was ("technical superiority" can be disputed, but that is not the point) and influenced the course of hostilities, but colleagues - fifteen years! Over such a period, discipline will inevitably weaken, opponents will develop their counter-tactics to tactics, technical superiority, if any, is leveled by more industrially developed neighbors, and it is simply impossible to maintain morale at a constant level for fifteen years of continuous wars.
    The role of personality? After the death of Jan ižka, the wars continued for another ten years. National liberation movement? But trips to Saxony, Bavaria, in Pomorie do not fit in with this.
    At the same time, professional warriors - knights fought against the Hussites, the only reason for their existence was, in fact, war, but even they could not offer any intelligible resistance to their troops.
    As a result, only the Hussites were able to defeat the Hussites, after which their entire military organization literally instantly sank into oblivion and was no longer revived.
    But the most interesting thing is that as a result of these wars - successful fifteen-year wars! - in the Czech Republic itself, literally nothing has changed! The realization of this fact literally freezes my brain. No national state was created, no church of its own was founded. Changed Luxemburgs to Habsburgs - and that's all.
    I suppose that contemporaries who survived the Hussite wars, recalling this period, had only one thought: “What was that?”, After which the person shook his head, driving away the haze of the past, and went about his business.
  • VIP
    VIP 23 August 2020 15: 18 New
    +4
    "The army of Prokop the Naked did not decrease, but increased due to the foreign peasants who joined" is not a prototype of the "world revolution"? Local peasants "let the rooster" to their baron and the thief, otherwise the baron's relatives "pour it in."
  • Catfish
    Catfish 23 August 2020 16: 08 New
    +2
    In general, the fear of the Catholic neighbors of the Czechs reached such a limit that, despite the growing Ottoman threat, they organized a new, already fifth crusade against the Hussites

    This is how the Hussites paved the way for the Ottomans to Europe, which, in the comments to the previous article, was already noted by one of our colleagues.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 24 August 2020 20: 11 New
      +5
      Not a fig, they did not paved the way, the plague pandemic and the Little Ice Age paved the way for the Ottomans. Exactly the same as the Arabs and Avars
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 24 August 2020 20: 28 New
        +2
        Aha, and the plague to the Ottomans did not care. laughing
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 24 August 2020 20: 37 New
          +5
          No, they just followed her. You see, historical processes are a very multifaceted crap, and looking at them from "one side" is like living your whole life in one area of ​​a metropolis and broadcasting that they live the same way in other cities.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 24 August 2020 20: 56 New
            +4
            And I did not claim that only the Hussites were to blame. One of the components.
            ... that in other cities they live the same way.

            In other cities, people generally live badly. laughing And some escapes into the zone (do you recognize brother Kolya?) wink drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 24 August 2020 21: 07 New
              +3
              Bravo, Uncle Kostya !!! Let's go to "Brother Kolya", he will laugh!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 25 August 2020 09: 28 New
                +3
                Bravo, Uncle Kostya !!! Let's go to "Brother Kolya", he will laugh!

                Where does it come from?? belay
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 25 August 2020 13: 52 New
                  +2
                  Have you tried to play "Stalker"?
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 25 August 2020 14: 01 New
                    +3
                    Have you tried to play "Stalker"?

                    no ... And it's already scary. belay
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 25 August 2020 14: 03 New
                      +1
                      For the release of "steam" and raising the mood to a higher level - the very thing, I personally checked. ))
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 25 August 2020 14: 12 New
                        +3
                        For the release of "steam" and raising the mood to a higher level - the very thing, I personally checked. ))

                        I like strategy more. From shooters for me personally, the first "FarKray" was cult. good
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 August 2020 14: 21 New
                        +2
                        "Stalker" is not a shooter, there is an open world - you can hang out anywhere and do what you want. It’s strange, what passed by you, if you love the first "Fair Edge" (one of my favorite toys). Now the Fifth is hanging on the computer, but ... with amazing graphics, an absolutely stupid plot. Likewise, the "Mafia" slipped into a "swamp" after the first game.
                      3. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 25 August 2020 14: 27 New
                        +2
                        It’s strange, what passed by you, if you love the first "Fair Edge" (one of my favorite toys).

                        Then the computer did not pull under it, and then did not try. In general, I prefer the well-forgotten old 15-20 years ago. Now the strategies of the late 90s - early 2000s began to sell again in the "incentive". Like an upgrade.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 25 August 2020 14: 35 New
                        +2
                        I breathe evenly for strategies, I prefer action games. I do not like to give advice, but if the computer pulls, then I would just, if I were you, try "Shadows of Chernobyl". What if it does? I have not yet met a single person who climbed into the "Stalker" and did not go through it to the end. Purely friendly recommend.
                        PS I sent you a screen for soap, somehow not everyone will understand ... request
  • Seal
    Seal 25 August 2020 15: 30 New
    +1
    On May 19, 1426, the Imperial Diet was held in Nuremberg, which was also visited by the papal legate, Cardinal Orsini.
    Which of the two popes is he legate? Martin V or Benedict XIV?