Military Review

Hand grenades: power and efficiency

37

This weaponlike hand grenades called "pocket artillery" by army wits, history development is quite long. Throughout this history, the creators of individual means of destruction of enemy manpower and equipment strove to ensure that their creations inflict as much damage on the enemy as possible. Including by increasing the power of the explosive devices they are developing. Some of them managed to achieve quite impressive success in this direction.


Before proceeding to an impartial comparison of the merits of various hand grenades, which are currently in service in certain armies of the world, let us first deal with their main types and types. First of all, "pocket artillery" is subdivided according to its purpose, based on who the owner should use it against: against enemy infantry or armored vehicles. Hence, anti-personnel and anti-tank grenades.

In turn, among those that should sow death and horror in the battle formations of the enemy, offensive and defensive grenades are distinguished. The latter have such a large radius of dispersion of fragments, exceeding the length of the throw, which can be performed by an average soldier, and therefore it is better to throw them from a safe cover. Naturally, each such deadly projectile has its own power, determined by its purpose.

Anti-tank hand grenades today, in fact, are an “endangered species”. With the advent of hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers and portable missile systems to combat armored vehicles in the armies of the world, their age was exhausted. Nevertheless, they are still in service. It is clear that the power of such ammunition significantly exceeds the destructive power of anti-personnel grenades: to set fire to a tank or to turn a pillbox - this is not an infantryman to "demolish".

The US Army uses a high-explosive MK3A2 grenade as "heavy pocket artillery". According to performance characteristics, the radius of guaranteed destruction by it (carried out exclusively by the force of the explosion) is 2 meters. The radius of possible damage is up to 15 meters. Inside itself, this ammunition contains 225 grams of explosive.

Domestic hand-held cumulative grenade RKG-3 surpasses the American one in efficiency, not only because of its large dimensions. Its action is not high-explosive, but cumulative: when using the RCG of various modifications, the target will not be saved even by armor protection up to 150 millimeters thick, which will be burned by a directed stream of liquid fire.

As for the anti-personnel grenades, it is difficult to determine the unambiguous superiority. The American M67 grenade, which is called "baseball" because of the similarity to the ball for this game, carrying a charge of 180 grams of explosive, provides a guaranteed hit within a radius of up to 15 meters and potential - on an area of ​​250 meters. Our most common RGD-5, if it loses to her in power, is not much. But the defensive "old woman" F-1, whose charge is three times less, "covers" an area of ​​200 meters with deadly shrapnel is almost guaranteed. In any case, it is not recommended to stay closer than two hundred meters from its explosion.

The design idea does not stand still. In the near future, the first step of the pedestal in the competition of hand grenades in terms of power and efficiency (at least against enemy manpower) may well deservedly be taken by the domestic RG-60 TB, which was developed two years ago by the federal research and production center - Research Institute of Applied Chemistry. ... Its weight does not reach 400 grams, but the explosion that occurs when using this ammunition can be compared with the effect of hitting a 75-mm artillery shell carrying a charge of 650 grams of TNT.

The whole secret is clear already from the name of the ammunition. TB is "thermobaric". The striking effect of this grenade combines as many as three factors: fragmentation, high-explosive, and volumetric explosion. The radius of guaranteed damage is declared to be only 7 meters. However, at this distance from the explosion, there really will be nothing alive and not burning ... Naturally, in open areas the effectiveness of the grenade is significantly reduced, but in confined spaces it has no equal.

It is not yet known whether this ammunition has been adopted by the army. According to reports, something similar called RGT-27S is going to be produced in Ukraine. Officially, the troops there did not receive a thermobaric grenade, but there is information that this year in the "nezalezhnoy" it was included in the list of military goods for export.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / RKG-3 hand grenade
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 22 August 2020 15: 11
    24
    Poor! Very poor! An article with this title can (and should) be continued!
    History has not been disclosed. When they were still throwing cast-iron cannonballs with a wick.
    World War I grenades are not told.
    World War II, in general, "gave" the world a lot of variations on this theme. And the signal ones?
    And how do RGO and RGN differ from F1?
    And where did the author get the affected area of ​​the last 200 m2?
    In the reference books, the radius of spread is 200 meters, but there is an opinion that this is exaggerated.
    So it's poor!
    1. Brylevsky
      Brylevsky 22 August 2020 15: 49
      11
      In the reference books, the radius of spread is 200 meters, but there is an opinion that this is exaggerated.

      Yes, there is, and this opinion has a basis: well, all fragments of different masses cannot fly 200 meters. Separate, large, fragments can fly 200 meters or more, but it is far from a fact that they will retain sufficient destructive power. And the body there, during an explosion, does not disintegrate as it is notched ... Almost the same lethal force is retained by fragments of the same weight, and this is already another category of military equipment - directional mines such as "Claymore" or our "honestly spied" MON and its modifications .. .and some anti-personnel mines with ready-made striking elements, - defective balls, rollers, pre-cut metal tape ... Our most massive RGD-5 grenade also, as they say, "is not so simple." Declared, apparently because of "reinsurance", the radius of destruction is up to 25 meters, but this, to put it mildly, does not correspond to reality. The reason is the same - well, 1-3% of the lethal fragments will fly away at 25 m, and what is the probability that they will find their target? Only if there is an explosion in the center of the round dance ... Best of all, this grenade kills at a distance of up to 5 m, and then, not with fragments ... but with excessive pressure, traumatizing the hollow organs of the human body.
      1. phair
        phair 23 August 2020 06: 56
        +3
        Indoors, a terrible force. In the 90s, a bad person (censorship still) threw RGD 5 at a disco. The corpse itself, 2 girls to death and 19 people wounded of varying degrees. P. New, Nadezhdinsky district. Primorsky Krai.
    2. dzvero
      dzvero 22 August 2020 16: 26
      11
      In the reference books, the radius of spread is 200 meters, but there is an opinion that this is exaggerated.

      EMNIP, zone of continuous defeat - up to 10m; growth target affected area (at least one fragment) - up to 20m; scattering of fragments with preservation of destructive power (if it hits or kills or wounds) - up to 50m; scattering of fragments - up to 100m (will not kill / injure, but will scratch). 200m is the minimum safe distance (100% guarantee that nothing will arrive).
    3. mavrus
      mavrus 22 August 2020 19: 02
      0
      And the author did not speak about 200 square meters. He measures the area in meters. The M67 has a target area of ​​250 meters, F1 has a target area of ​​200 meters ...
      And let the reader guess how to understand this ...
      Of course, although not immediately, you understand that the radius, not the area.
      After all, no one gives in the performance characteristics of a grenade "area of ​​potential defeat" - 125 thousand square meters. Try to figure it out a lot or a little right away? And this is the area of ​​a circle with a radius of about 200 meters.
  2. Brylevsky
    Brylevsky 22 August 2020 15: 19
    23
    the target will not be saved even by armor protection up to 150 millimeters thick, which will be burned by a directed stream of liquid fire.

    Mistake. The essence of the cumulative effect is quite different. There is no burn, loss or other heat exposure. There is a metal's yield point and a pressure many times higher. The temperature of the explosion there is generally a side effect, having nothing to do with the case of breaking through the armor. This is just a very well-established myth, just like the fact that the tank's crew is affected by the excess pressure of the explosion, and, according to this myth, to prevent it, the hatches should be kept open.
    1. pv1005
      pv1005 22 August 2020 19: 35
      +4
      Quote: Brylevsky
      the target will not be saved even by armor protection up to 150 millimeters thick, which will be burned by a directed stream of liquid fire.

      Mistake. The essence of the cumulative effect is quite different. There is no burn, loss or other heat exposure. There is a metal's yield point and a pressure many times higher. The temperature of the explosion there is generally a side effect, having nothing to do with the case of breaking through the armor. This is just a very well-established myth, just like the fact that the tank's crew is affected by the excess pressure of the explosion, and, according to this myth, to prevent it, the hatches should be kept open.

      The author is not aware of this, he did not go through this at school. Their OBZh teacher did not serve in the army. laughing
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 22 August 2020 15: 28
    11
    Weak note. The nomenclature is not described, neither past nor modern. The history of development and application is also completely absent. A separate issue is the types of fuses. Note - minus.
    1. Brylevsky
      Brylevsky 22 August 2020 15: 56
      +8
      A separate issue is the types of fuses.

      I agree with you. The issue of the specifics of using the fuses of the UZRGM and those used in the RGO and RGN grenades has been completely bypassed. Simply, if the fuses of the RGD-5, RG-42 and F-1 grenades allow some "liberties" - well, there, to throw a grenade with a safety lever that has already bounced off, with a delay, then an attempt to perform such a trick with the RGO or RGN will lead to that the grenade will explode in the hand of the thrower ...
  4. Siberian 66
    Siberian 66 22 August 2020 15: 30
    14
    The author compares high-explosive and cumulative grenades, and says which one is better)) On the way, he confuses the radius of destruction with the area of ​​destruction. And he does it easily and naturally. And this "Liquid Fire" is something ... laughing laughing Weak. To begin with, I would open the Manual on Small Arms, a section on grenades and learn some more.
    1. cost
      cost 22 August 2020 21: 26
      +4
      Considering the target audience of VO, the article on a weak, weak C grade
      Especially "killed" the author's classification of grenades. belay
      Let's figure out for a start with their main types and types. First of all, "pocket artillery" is subdivided according to its purpose, based on who the owner should use it against: against enemy infantry or armored vehicles. Hence, anti-personnel and anti-tank grenades.
      In turn, among those that should sow death and horror in the battle formations of the enemy, offensive and defensive grenades are distinguished.

      Who is he writing this for? After all, any freshman cadet knows that grenades are classified according to various criteria.
      1. According to the method of throwing, grenades are divided into:
      1.1 manual - throwing by hand at a distance of 15-50 m,
      1.2. Rifle - average firing range - 100-400 m,
      1.3. Grenades for grenade launchers (under-barrel) - firing range up to 2 thousand meters [1].
      2.By purpose, grenades are divided into:
      2.1 main purpose (intended for direct destruction of the enemy):
      2.1.1 anti-tank (high-explosive, cumulative)
      2.1.2. Anti-personnel (fragmentation, high-explosive, high-explosive)
      2.2.2..incendiary
      2.3. Special purpose:
      2.3.1. Smokestacks
      2.3.2. Lighting
      2.3.3.Signal
      2.3.4. Light and sound
      2.3.5. gas, etc.
      2.4. training and simulation training (have the shape and weight of a combat grenade).
      3.By the method of undermining:
      3.1. Impact action - exploding when meeting with any obstacle;
      3.2. Remote - exploding at a certain point of the flight path
      3.3. Slow action - exploding at a certain time (from timers, radio signals, etc.)
      4. Along the radius of damage
      4.1 Defensive
      4.2 Offensive
      And even about the author's confusion of the radius of defeat and the area of ​​damage, as well as about the essence of cumulativeness - this is simply from ignorance of the topic about which he writes sad
  5. svp67
    svp67 22 August 2020 15: 38
    +2
    "Thermobaric"
    So far, more exotic, since its military operation has revealed a big drawback, in rainy weather or in fog, its combat effectiveness tends to zero ...
  6. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 22 August 2020 17: 15
    +3
    Short and crumpled. Apparently the author was distracted by everyday affairs from writing an article.
  7. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 22 August 2020 18: 44
    +2
    When you clean up apartments in houses, rooms ... you throw an efie and then the beauty is there ... perfect, but if there are two ... it's just a disaster))))
  8. Stas1973
    Stas1973 22 August 2020 19: 18
    +2
    Is this an article from the physics of Pelerman chtoli downloaded?
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 22 August 2020 19: 45
    +2
    "The story has not been disclosed ..." Why disclose it? How many articles have been "about grenades" ... from all "angles"! Just, the topic is no longer revealed: hand grenades of the 21st century! (How much more will hand grenades be "relevant" in the "third millennium"? What shape will they take in years ... in 5 ... 10?) Something can be assumed, but something was already presented in concepts already at the end of 20 century! The journal "Foreign Military Review" (ZVO) will not let you lie! It turns out that, in principle, there is "little material" on this topic (!) ... and therefore it is a pity that the Author did not think about it! Well, if on "little things", then, without much straining, you can offer for the "near future" a hand grenade in the form of a radio-controlled micro-helicopter with a TV camera! And if we turn to the "concepts", then you can present from the ZVO grenades with grousers ... with electronic (microprocessor-based) fuses ... with fiber-optic communication lines ... universal (grenade, "tension" and "push" mines ...) and other ... By the way, RKG-3 were used in Donbass ... from this we can conclude that they are still there ...
    1. garri-lin
      garri-lin 22 August 2020 20: 24
      0
      RKG 3 is good for making all kinds of holes and for demolishing reinforced doors.
  10. Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk 22 August 2020 19: 50
    +6
    There are grenades!
    And even five types, two of ours and three not of ours.
    That's all the article told about.
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 22 August 2020 20: 05
    0
    Did the Germans still have their beaters?
    1. Split
      Split 22 August 2020 20: 53
      +1
      EMNIP was found for Danila Bagrov ...
      Quote: Brother 2 "Fascist"
      Anti-personnel grenades, fragmentation grenades. They misfire - about 50/50
      .....
      Danila: Listen ... Where does all this come from?
      Fascist: Echoes of war ...
  12. mark1969
    mark1969 22 August 2020 20: 19
    +3
    "which will be burned by a directed stream of liquid fire."
    1. bk0010
      bk0010 22 August 2020 21: 46
      +2
      And in thermobaric - liquid vacuum!
  13. Split
    Split 22 August 2020 20: 44
    +4
    What is this grade 5 essay?
    which will be burned by a directed stream of liquid fire
    It just killed the faith in humanity ... Probably in 20 years the children of the victims of the ege will write that the armor is burned by an elder pall ... an elder grenade launcher
    ZY Of course, I understand that at the age of 9 I had access to materials on weapons and grenades and explosives, incl. for official use and knowledge of org / inorganic chemistry, etc.
  14. seregarodionov
    seregarodionov 22 August 2020 21: 33
    0
    legend destroyers, more than once it all showed
  15. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 22 August 2020 21: 36
    0
    122 mm grenade of-462 also scatter lethal fragments, but of which 40% is in the ground and in the top, how many ready-made fragmentation elements the f-1 has very little, this grenade is good for lightly armored targets, but the Soviet reference book on foreign armies gives data that a 40mm grenade m-79 grenade launcher gives 5 lethal fragments in a radius of 300 meters, I first believed, but now doubts are gnawing comrades who used our 30mm grenade launchers, tell me about the effectiveness, I think it's not a secret
  16. riwas
    riwas 23 August 2020 05: 50
    0
    But the defensive "old woman" F-1, whose charge is three times less, "covers" an area of ​​200 meters with deadly shrapnel is almost guaranteed.

    F-1 in an explosion may not burst into fragments, but open with a "rose".
    1. Brylevsky
      Brylevsky 23 August 2020 09: 51
      +4
      Doesn't it have a cast-iron body? With steel, such "opening" of the case is quite possible, but with cast iron it is not. If you observed such an effect, then this can only mean one thing: instead of cast iron, steel was used (for what reason, I wonder?), And this is a violation of production technology. And how the batch of such grenades passed the control check ... what
      1. riwas
        riwas 23 August 2020 10: 48
        +2
        Doesn't it have a cast-iron body?

        Steel cast iron is used.
        and this is a violation of production technology

        In three out of ten cases - iron - a grenade does not break into segments during an explosion, but opens up like a rose - such a property of metal.

        https://iz.ru/news/557822
  17. riwas
    riwas 23 August 2020 06: 00
    +2
    The US Army uses a high-explosive MK3A2 grenade as "heavy pocket artillery". According to performance characteristics, the radius of guaranteed destruction by it (carried out exclusively by the force of the explosion) is 2 meters. The radius of possible damage is up to 15 meters. Inside itself, this ammunition contains 225 grams of explosive.

    My father said that when working in buildings in the Second World War, a domestic anti-tank high-explosive grenade with 1 kg of explosives was very useful. It is a pity that there is no weapon of this kind now, well, except perhaps the RG60-TB. Weighing only 390 grams, this grenade produces an explosion in power equal to that of 650 grams of TNT.
  18. sen
    sen 23 August 2020 06: 17
    +3
    The Germans in the Second World War had an anti-tank grenade SLOTGONKA. The pomegranate was a glass container that contained chemicals that, when mixed and in contact with air, turned into thick tear smoke. This smoke blinded the crew of the tank, and with a successful coincidence, getting inside the fighting compartment, forced the enemy tankers to leave the car.
    https://warhead.su/2020/05/11/samaya-neobychnaya-protivotankovaya-granata-nemetskaya-slezogonka-protiv-broni-soyuznikov?utm_source=warfiles.ru
  19. DrVintorez
    DrVintorez 23 August 2020 10: 14
    +1
    an area of ​​200 meters ... oh may bastard ...
  20. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 23 August 2020 14: 22
    +3
    The note, to put it mildly, is about nothing. Information is zero. But the comments of people, apparently many times more literate, gave pleasure.
  21. riwas
    riwas 24 August 2020 04: 01
    +2
    During the Second World War, hand grenades were used to organize a "rampart of fire" inside the building. Before entering somewhere they threw several grenades, and then the surviving, but deafened, Germans, were "processed" with machine guns. For example, before the assault on the Reichstag, each soldier was given 18 "lemons" (!), With the help of which, then, a "barrage" was successfully organized inside the building. Amin's palace was taken in a similar scenario.
  22. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 26 August 2020 11: 19
    +1
    And what is the hidden meaning of placing this article in the "opinions" section? And not in the "weapons" section? What, there are no other opinions left? Sad ...
    1. Aag
      Aag 28 August 2020 15: 41
      +2
      Quote: Mikhail3
      And what is the hidden meaning of placing this article in the "opinions" section? And not in the "weapons" section? What, there are no other opinions left? Sad ...

      The author threw a tear gas grenade into the audience at the VO ... So we started to stir, especially literate ones wept ...)))
  23. seacap
    seacap 26 August 2020 11: 53
    +1
    The cumulative jet does not burn through the armor, but pierces, then you can not read fiction.
  24. Whowhy
    Whowhy 13 November 2020 12: 51
    0
    In principle, RKG-3E can be easily converted manually (even at home "on the knee") reactive cumulative grenade, with a throw range of up to 100m (with good accuracy). I don't know why no one has thought of it yet ...