Military Review

Jan Zizka. Scary Blind and the father of "orphans"

125
Jan Zizka. Scary Blind and the father of "orphans"

War for the Faith movie poster


In the previous article ("Czech Republic on the Eve of the Hussite Wars") was told about the events in the Czech Republic on the eve of the Hussite wars and the youth of one of the main characters of this country, Jan Zizka. Today we will talk about battles, victories of this commander and his death.


Jan Zizka, engraving

Jan ижižka and the Taborites


Ižka quickly gained prestige among the rebels, becoming the recognized military leader of their left wing - the Taborites. He won universal respect, among other things, with his personal courage: until Zizka lost his second eye, he always personally took part in battles, fighting not with a sword, but with a six-fighter.


Banner of the Taborites from the Tabor Museum. Here, in addition to the bowl, we see the famous battle flail and the weapon Yana Zizki


Zizka at the head of the army. Miniature from the Jena Codex (late XNUMXth - early XNUMXth centuries). In his hand we see a six-man

It was Zizka who managed to create a real army of scattered and poorly armed rebels who were gathering at Mount Tabor.


Jan Zizka, a monument in the town of Tabor, Czech Republic

Jan Zizka's army


As you know, Jan ižka, having under his command, in addition to a certain number of knights, many not trained in military science and weakly armed townspeople and peasants, has achieved tremendous success in wars with professional armies. He owed his successes to new tactics, which provided for the widespread use of the Wagenburgs in field battles.


Wagenburg, from XNUMXth century engraving

Jana Zizki's Wagenburg is not just wagons (wagons) placed in a circle. This had happened before him. Firstly, the carts in the Zizka army were interconnected with chains and belts: the front wheel of one cart was connected to the rear wheel of the neighboring one. Secondly, and this is the main thing, the Zizki Wagenburg consisted of separate tactical units - dozens and rows of carts. Rows of carts, if necessary, could organize their own separate Wagenburg. Both dozens and ranks had their own commanders.


Hussite carriage, reconstruction, Tabora Museum


War wagons of the Hussites, reconstruction of Toman, XNUMXth century

The carriage crews, which numbered up to 20 people, were permanent (and were not recruited from random people before the battle) and spent a lot of time in training to develop the construction of a general Wagenburg.

The warriors attached to the wagon, like the crew of a modern tank, had various combat specialties, and each of them performed only the task assigned to him, without being distracted by outsiders. The crew consisted of a commander, 2 riders, from 2 to 4 spearmen, arrows from a bow and squeaker, chain guards who fought in close combat, and 2 shitniki who covered people and horses.

Hussite cold weapons and firearms:



Thus, the Hussite carts, if necessary, very quickly united into one fortified camp, fiercely snarling at any attempts to attack. And then Wagenburg released swarms of counterattacking warriors who could chase the enemy, or, in case of failure, return to the protection of their wagon.

Another feature of the ižka Wagenburg was the massive use of firearms by its defenders and the presence of field artillery (which ižka created - the first in Europe). So, in the winter of 1429-1430, the Hussite army had about 300 field artillery pieces, 60 heavy large-caliber bombards and about 3 pishchals. Batteries of small cannons (short-barreled howfnits and long-barreled ramsters) on wooden decks, installed in the direction of the main blow, literally swept away the attackers. And for the siege of cities, bombards with a caliber of up to 000 millimeters were used.


A sheet of a German manuscript of the midth century, depicting the Wagenburg of the Hussites, hand-held shooters and ram-rattles on carts

Jan ižka was also the first to use an artillery maneuver - the rapid movement of cannons mounted on carts from one flank to another.

The unsuccessful attempt to use the Czech experience by the enemies of the Hussites in 1431, during the V Crusade, speaks of how difficult the construction and defense of the real Wagenburg was.

The cavalry of the Hussites was few in number and was used mainly for reconnaissance or pursuit of a defeated enemy.

It is believed that it was Zizka in 1423 that developed the military regulations - the first in Western Europe.

Ahead of his troops and even in front of ižka himself was usually the priest Jan Čapek, who composed the famous Hussite hymn Ktož jsú Boží bojovníci? ("Who are God's warriors?").

As for the size of Jan Zizka's army, at different times it was from 4 to 8 thousand people. But she was often joined by the militia from the surrounding villages and towns.

Battles and victories of Jan Zizka


At the end of 1419, ižka, without compromising with the more moderate leaders of the rebels, who had concluded a truce with the king, left Prague for Plzeз.

When in 1420, 75 km from Prague on Mount Tabor, a military rebel camp was created, Jan ижižka became one of the four hetmans of the Taborites, but actually headed them. Even then, it never entered anyone's head to challenge his authority.

In March 1420, the Судižka rebels won their first victory at Sudomerz: his detachment, consisting of only 400 people, repulsed the attack of 2 thousand royal knights during the retreat from Pilsen. Here the Taborites successfully applied the Wagenburg tactics for the first time.

And in July 1420, 4 thousand rebels managed to defeat the 30-thousand-strong army of the crusaders on Vitkov Mountain near Prague, next to which the village of Zizkov was later founded. Now it is part of Prague, and there is a monument on Vitkov Mountain.


Monument to ižka on Vitkov Mountain

The situation then was as follows: the inhabitants of Prague blocked the royal garrison in the fortress, and each side hoped for help. Sigismund I, who led the First Crusade, led to Prague, in addition to his troops, detachments of Brandenburg, Palatinate, Trier, Cologne and Maine electors, dukes of Austria and Bavaria, as well as a number of Italian mercenaries. There were two Crusader armies: one advanced from the northeast, the other from the south.

To the aid of the Hussites came the Taborites, led by Zhizhka. Ižka came first and, contrary to everyone's expectations, deployed his troops not outside the walls of Prague, but on Vitková Hill, building on it a small field fortress surrounded by a moat - two wooden log cabins, walls of stone and clay, and a moat. The Taborites repulsed the first attack in front of the citizens of Prague with great damage to the enemy, and during the second the crusaders were attacked from the rear by the enthusiastic inhabitants of Prague. The victory was complete and unconditional, it led to the demoralization of opponents and the failure of the Crusade.

In November, the rebels won another victory at Pankratz and captured Vysehrad.

This is how the loud glory of Jan Zizka began, and soon it came to the point that the opponents retreated, only having learned whose troops were in front of them.

But at the same time, the contradictions between various groups of the Hussites grew, and in 1421 the troops of ižka defeated two radical sects: the Picarts and the Adamites.

Zizka was not even stopped by the loss of his second eye during the siege of the city of Robi in 1421:

“An arrow dug deep into his only seeing eye. Zeman Kotsovsky was, as they say, the shooter whose arrow hit the famous leader. They also interpret that during that siege, a chip from a pear, split by the enemy's core, flew into the eye of Zhizhka.

After his recovery, ižka continued to accompany his troops on a specially made carriage for him and led them in battles.

In January 1422, his troops defeated the army of new crusaders at Gabr (Second Crusade). However, near the city of Kutná Hora, his army was in a critical situation: the townspeople whom he had come to defend cut the Hussite garrison and opened the gates to the crusaders. Caught between two fires, Zizka surprised the opponents once again: putting artillery pieces on his wagons, he attacked the crusader army under their volleys and broke through the enemy ranks. Sigismund did not dare to pursue him. This was followed by a series of minor skirmishes, in which the crusaders invariably suffered heavy losses. In the end, the aliens decided to leave the Czech Republic, the soldiers of ižka went to see them off, and it all ended in a real flight of the crusaders: they were pursued to Nemetsky Brod, where the Catholics abandoned a wagon train of 500 carts. Then ижižka drove the crusaders away from the town of Zhatets (Zaats).

Zizka won another victory on Mount Vladar near the town of Zhlutits: a swift counterattack led to a panicky flight of enemy soldiers. As a result of these victories, Zizka managed to transfer the hostilities to enemy territory. And the opponents of the Hussites managed to organize a new crusade only in 1425, after the death of the Terrible Blind.

Meanwhile, in Prague, the struggle between moderate Hussites and radicals continued, which ended with the execution of Jan Zelivsky, who organized the defenestration. After that, the inhabitants of Prague decided to invite to the vacant throne first the Polish king Jagiello, then the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vitovt. Those were wary of getting into the Czech adventure, but Vitovt decided to take this country with someone else's hands: he sent to Prague the son of the Novgorod-Seversky prince, Sigismund Koributovich, subject to him.


Diebold Lauber. Zygimont Karybutavic - at the head of 51 Banners in the Battle of Grunwald

The fact is that Sigismund of Luxembourg supported then the worst enemies of the Lithuanians - the Teutonic Order, with which the war was just going on. And hitting him from the rear seemed like a good idea.

Sigismund Koributovich and "Prince Friedrich of Russia"


With Koributovich came a detachment of five thousand from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (it included mainly Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians). Apparently, the Russian commander of the Hussites, Prince Fyodor Ostrozhsky, who is called Frederick in European sources, arrived with him. And then he began to call himself that: "Friedrich, by God's grace, a prince from Russia, Pan on Veseli" or "Friedrich, a prince from Ostrog."

These soldiers were in the Czech Republic for 8 years. But with Fedor it was very interesting. He fought a lot and actively and was taken prisoner, from which, during a campaign in Silesia in 1428, he was rescued by Prokop the Naked. In his army, Fedor became the commander of a detachment of his compatriots. And then the prince suddenly goes over to the side of the Utraquists.

During the battle of Trnava on April 28, 1430, the Russian prince fights against his recent allies. At the head of the Hungarian detachment, he broke into the Wagenburg "orphans" (about them - later) and almost defeated them, but his subordinates too quickly switched to plundering the enemy's property. Velek Kudelnik, who commanded the "orphans", died in this battle. And in 1433, we again see Fyodor of Ostrog as Taborit hetman - he heads the Hussite garrison in the Slovak city of Zilina. In April, he captured the city of Ruzomberok in northern Slovakia, which caused panic in Presburg (Bratislava), where the wife of Emperor Sigismund, Barbara, was. In June 1438, Fyodor found himself in the Polish army heading to Bohemia to support Prince Casimir, who claims the Czech throne. The following year, he is again mentioned among the former Hussite hetmans who, on the border of Moravia and Slovakia, fight against the imperial troops of Gaspar Schlick. And in 1460 in the hired Czech detachment of Mladvanek, hired by the Austrians, there is "Wenceslas, Duke of Ostrog from Russia" - probably the son of this adventurer.

Fyodor Ostrozhsky became an episodic character in A. Sapkovsky's trilogy "God's Warriors", and in the first book the author speaks of him with sympathy, and in the third - derogatory.

But back to Sigismund Koributovich.

Oddly enough, he almost managed to reconcile the warring parties and restore order in the country. But on September 27, 1422, Poland, Lithuania and the Teutons concluded the Treaty of Meln, after which the presence of the Lithuanian appointee in Bohemia became undesirable for everyone. His departure led to a new round of confrontation in the Czech Republic, and Jan ižka had already smashed the chalice near the city of Goritsa.

At this time, he disagreed with the Taborites. Among the reasons is the following:

“All the priests of ižka served Mass in vestments; he did not like the fact that the priests from Tabor perform the rite in worldly clothes and rough boots. That is why, they say, he called them "shoemakers", and they called his priests "rag-pickers."

(A. Irasek, "Old Czech Legends".)

With his troops loyal to him, Zizka established a foothold in the north-east of the Czech Republic - in Hradec Kralove (Small Tabor), where the Orebit brotherhood was founded. From here, in the middle of 1423, улižka moved to Moravia and Hungary. Through the Small Carpathians, his army reached the Danube and then penetrated into Hungary at a distance of 130-140 km. However, here ižka met stubborn resistance, and therefore considered it reasonable to return to the Czech Republic. His enemies considered this expedition unsuccessful and immediately began to prepare for a new battle. In June 1424, in the Battle of Malešov, ižka's troops clashed with the Prague residents and the moderate Calixtian Hussites (better known as the chashniks). They tried to attack the Wagenburg Taborites, but their ranks were upset by the carts with stones lowered from the mountain. After the artillery bombardment, the infantrymen of Zhizhka finally overthrew the Chashniks soldiers, the cavalry completed the rout. After this victory, Zizka occupied Prague.

Meanwhile, Sigismund Koributovich unexpectedly returned to the Czech Republic without permission, which led to some stabilization of the situation. Jagiello and Vitovt confiscated all the estates from him, the Pope excommunicated him from the church, but in Prague he was neither hot nor cold. Having abandoned the tit in his hands, Koributovich chose a crane in the sky.

Looking ahead, let's say that he never managed to catch the crane, and when he returned to his homeland, he did not guess, choosing between the rivaling Sigismund Keistutovich and Svidrigaido Olgerdovich, and was executed by order of Sigismund in 1435.

The death of Jan Zizka


Jan ижižka was at the pinnacle of fame and had no worthy opponents either in the Czech Republic or abroad, but he had only a few months to live.

On October 11, 1424, during the siege of Příbislav, ižka died of a disease that the chroniclers traditionally declared a plague.


A. Liebscher. Death of Jan Zizka on October 11, 1424

Now, at the place of death of the great commander, there is a small village of Zhizhkovo Pole, where in the second half of the 10th century a mound XNUMX meters high was poured and a pedestal was installed, which crowned a bowl. On the stones under the cone, the names of the battles he won are written.


Memorial sign in Zizkovo Pole

Historia Bohemica of Pope Pius II claims that the dying ižka bequeathed that the skin removed from him be pulled onto a war drum so that he could terrify enemies even after death. Georges Sand claimed to have seen a letter from Frederick II to Voltaire, in which the king claimed to have found this drum and, as one of the trophies, took it with him to Berlin. Probably all the same, that we have a place with the next historical descriptions.

Jan ижižka was buried in the Church of the Holy Spirit in Hradec Kralove, and then the body was transferred to Časlav, where his beloved six-man was hanged at the grave.

In 1623, after the defeat of the Protestants at the Battle of White Mountain, Ferdinand II of Habsburg ordered to destroy the grave of the Czech hero, but his alleged remains were found in 1910.

However, let's go back to the XNUMXth century. After the death of their leader, the soldiers of the Zizka army and members of the Orebit community began to call themselves "orphans". A. Irasek describes their grief in the "Old Czech Legends":

“And all hearts contracted with great grief. Bearded, hardened, valiant men shed bitter tears, and since then the people of Zizka have adopted the name of "orphans", likening themselves to children who have lost their father. "

This innocent word soon became known throughout Europe, and the fear that these "orphans" instilled in their opponents was not childish at all. At the head of the "orphans" first appeared Kunesh from Belovice, who acted in close alliance with Jan Hvezda, who commanded the Taborites. However, the most famous leaders of the left wing of the Hussites were two Procopas: Naked, also known by the nickname Great, and Small. They won many victories, but died in a decisive battle with Catholics and Utraquists in 1434.

We will talk about battles and "pleasant walks" (spaniel jizdy) of "orphans" and taborites, their defeat and death of leaders in the tragic battle of Lipany in the next article.
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Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A.Czech Republic on the Eve of the Hussite Wars
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 05: 19 New
    18
    One word - thank you !!!
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. Fat
      Fat 21 August 2020 15: 14 New
      +2
      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
      One word - thank you !!!
      Regards, Vlad!

      Oh yes! Awesome stuff and great presentation. With respect and gratitude.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 August 2020 15: 16 New
        +2
        Quote: Seeker
        NO IN RUSSIAN NAME-VLAD. RUSSIAN NAME-VLADIMIR.

        After reading the comment, I went and looked in the mirror - an incident, I am - my name is not !!!?
        My full name is Vladislav! There was - the holy prince of Serbia - Vladislav, there is - a children's writer - Vladislav Krapivin, there are a couple of Hungarian and Polish princes of the same name as me, one of them is the failed tsar of Russia big, small and white, there is my friend Vladislav Yankin, there are pilots, captains of ships , miners, heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia, but there is no such name, period !!!
        The squalor in the possession of vocabulary and knowledge is leveled by impudence and self-confidence as the highest authority !!!
        You remind me of one priest who tried to tie the name of Svyatoslav to the church!
        Citing a dozen examples of princes of Kiev, Rostov and Starodub, he forgot about the first Svyatoslav Igorevich, who established his name in paganism!
        So, I enlighten you - the two-part names Vladimir, Svyatopolk, Svyatoslav, Vyacheslav, Yaroslav, Mstislav, Bryacheslav, Vladislav, Yaropolk and similar ones are not Russian, but ancient Slavic! Vlad - short for Vladislav, Vova, Volodya - from Vladimir, etc.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 22 August 2020 20: 27 New
          +3
          Greetings, VLADISLAV!
          You are! And in addition to your list.
          Vladislav Tretyak !!!! laughing
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 August 2020 04: 59 New
            +1
            Good morning Sergey!
            We are not there, my uncle said no and that's it! Some Volodka shland with a proud Ruhr name Vladimir !!!
  2. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 20 August 2020 05: 20 New
    15
    Thank you for the interesting article! But at school I don’t remember saying that he was blind in both eyes, or I don’t remember just ... How he commanded in battle, I wonder ...
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 20 August 2020 07: 43 New
      12
      How did he command in battle, I wonder ...
      .... He was described in detail the terrain, the location of enemy troops, constantly reported on the progress of the battle, and he made decisions ..
    2. VIP
      VIP 20 August 2020 15: 55 New
      +3
      It was necessary to have 2-3 intelligent assistants for him to be "eyes", but even in this case it will not be easy.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 20 August 2020 06: 28 New
    12
    Thank! Written MUCH more interesting than in childhood, in the school program!
    I perfectly remember the morning lesson, and the mournful voice of the teacher, who, probably, did not like this section herself. She was talking monotonously about the battle carts and the army of the poor, but I was so sleepy from such boring things!))) ...
  4. Kwas
    Kwas 20 August 2020 06: 55 New
    +7
    Yeah interesting. Here is just one ambiguity. Czech-Hussites traveled quite a lot and far. What was it for, "the opposite crusade" or "proto-international", or simply "for the booty"?
    1. VLR
      20 August 2020 07: 41 New
      14
      Taborites and orphans called their campaigns against neighbors "pleasant walks", which speaks of the horror that everyone experienced in front of them at that time and the level of resistance they showed. About "pleasant walks" - in the next article.
      1. stannifer
        stannifer 20 August 2020 10: 17 New
        +3
        "Nice walks" is not quite the translation. "Beautiful trips" would be more accurate, and sometimes just the name "voyage" was used, meaning either a journey or a sortie.
        1. Ryaruav
          Ryaruav 20 August 2020 18: 44 New
          0
          simpler, the usual medieval robbery with all that it implies, but at that time all people (well, except for the Incas and their reptilian friends) had a completely different psychology from ours, so do not perceive those events from the modern bell tower
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 20 August 2020 07: 50 New
      +6
      We can say the support of like-minded people on foreign territory, the ideas of the Hussites were very popular not only in the Czech Republic, but also in neighboring countries ... Moreover, it is noted, ordinary people, the taborites did not offend, the villagers were not robbed ... The castles and estates of the feudal lords got it ... and the local people ...
    3. Hantengri
      Hantengri 20 August 2020 11: 07 New
      +8
      Quote: Kwas
      Yeah interesting. Here is just one ambiguity. Czech-Hussites traveled quite a lot and far. What was it for, "the opposite crusade" or "proto-international", or simply "for the booty"?

      Kostya, why do you argue precisely from the "or" position? Why can't it be three in one? This, after all, on the one hand, is, slightly, international, within the Holy Roman Empire. And, on the other hand, why not plunder a little while walking for a just cause? Did they go in vain, or what? )))
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 August 2020 12: 58 New
        10
        And, on the other hand, why not plunder a little while walking for a just cause? Did they go in vain, or what? )))
        "Black flight is a loss to the country!"
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 16: 56 New
          +7
          "An empty flight is a loss to the country!"

          Another example:
          - Yes, tell them not to rush back - let Kazan be taken on the way back. Well, so as not to ride twice. ("Ivan Vasilyevich changes his profession").
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 20 August 2020 19: 07 New
          +3
          If you start robbing: it is difficult to stop, and skills are acquired.
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 16: 59 New
        +2
        This, after all, on the one hand, is, slightly, international, within the Holy Roman Empire.

        I remembered another example. The International was near Pskov in 1581. "The Russians fought against the Poles," and it was mainly the Hungarians who came back ... drinks
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 August 2020 07: 08 New
    +8
    The Historia Bohemica of Pope Pius II claims that the dying Zizka bequeathed that the skin removed from him be pulled over war drum - so that he could terrify enemies even after death.

    I recalled:
    "There will be no drum for you!" shouted a white man surrounded by Indians, poking himself with a knife ..


    Generally, a wild desire, especially since the drum has become a trophy of opponents.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 20 August 2020 07: 57 New
    +9
    Prince Fyodor of Ostrog At the end of his life (according to some sources - about 1441, according to others - about 1440) he left all his worldly affairs and took monastic vows at the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery under the name of Theodosius. He lived in the Far Theodosia Cave, where he rested, ending his life. In the late 2002th - early XNUMXth centuries he was canonized. In XNUMX, the monk prince was canonized among the saints of God in the Cathedral of Belarusian Saints.
  7. Evgeny D
    Evgeny D 20 August 2020 08: 01 New
    +2
    Jan Zizka participated in the Battle of Grunwald (Zalgirio). Jagailo is the same Lithuanian, only the king of Poland
    1. VLR
      20 August 2020 08: 23 New
      15
      The participation of ižka in the battles of Grunwald and Agincourt is probably late legends, there is no confirmation in the documents. Yagailo-Vladislav, the grandson of Gedimin and the son of the Tver princess, made an excellent career, but he actually deprived the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the chances of defeating Moscow by collecting Russian lands and becoming the center of the empire and superpower. The Orthodox lands oppressed by the Catholics and the people living there, from that time onward, strove to the east - to their fellow believers.
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 20 August 2020 09: 47 New
    +9
    To the author - Bravo! I have not received such pleasure for a long time, fresh look, competently.!
  10. Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 20 August 2020 09: 52 New
    +8
    I will add an excerpt dedicated to Koributovich from the Czech folk ballad about the battle of Ustem na Labe (from the collection of 1845), in my translation from Czech (don't blame me):

    The Taborites have begun the battle,
    Boldly galloped forward.
    Wherever Orphans Fought
    Bloody streams were

    When the battle began
    The idol of many - Zygmunt prince
    Risked all over the place like this:
    Sparing no life and sweat

    A Pole fought with him at once,
    Czechs and all Moravians
    Brave lords of Prague,
    The whole enemy was beat.
    1. Igor Litvin
      Igor Litvin 20 August 2020 09: 54 New
      +7
      Here is the original:

      Táboři bitvu začali,
      jako muži předse trčeli,
      kdež jsou velnuli Sirotci,
      tekli krvaví potoci.

      Když začalo to bití,
      kníže Zikmund, množství tomu chtí,
      že jest tak hýbal svým životem,
      až se všudy zalíval potem.

      Tatéž jeho Polané,
      Čechové i Moravané,
      stateční páni Pražané
      nepřátely bili udatně.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 12: 19 New
        +6
        Igor is gorgeous, check the forum more often !!!
        Regards, Kote!
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 12: 53 New
          +4
          Igor is gorgeous, check the forum more often !!!

          I will support! drinks
  11. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 11: 16 New
    +9
    Valery - thank you! good Easy and unconstrained, apart from the fact that you can get confused which of the Hussites is who - a bunch of factions. It was no easier for them themselves. laughing Special thanks for the story about Sigismund Koributovich and Fyodor Ostrozhsky - I did not even imagine that it was. hi
    And for the siege of cities, bombards with a caliber of up to 850 millimeters were used.

    And here I have a question! wink It seems that such monster bombards, a la "mad Greta" (the first of three - the second was drawn by Bruegel, and the third threatened us with a greenhouse effect), were works of engineering art of that time. what It seems that it was a "piece goods", and they were made by outstanding craftsmen. hi Where could the noble, but cocky peyzanes on carts with a drekolya acquire such artillery? If only "squeeze" from the Germans? request request If I am wrong in some aspects - correct me, please! drinks
  12. Astra wild
    Astra wild 20 August 2020 11: 23 New
    +9
    Valery, I am delighted: it is interesting and dynamic.
    Once in school I got 5 for it and without reading a textbook. At that time, I came across some book about Zhizhka, which described the moment of Zhizhka's injury. I recounted all this in the lesson, in my own interpretation, everyone listened with open mouths.
    Today I found out that I got 5
    1. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 20 August 2020 13: 26 New
      0
      Vera, do you think you were overrated?)))
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 20 August 2020 19: 47 New
        +2
        They studied the textbook, and I vividly told what was not in the textbook. So what for that period earned
        1. Doliva63
          Doliva63 20 August 2020 20: 56 New
          +4
          Quote: Astra wild
          They studied the textbook, and I vividly told what was not in the textbook. So what for that period earned

          When they studied ancient wars in elementary school, I read "The Book of Future Commanders". All A's were mine, and I was a favorite student of the historian. And how the class liked it! Well I told in detail, there was no time left to ask anyone laughing drinks
        2. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 21 August 2020 12: 29 New
          +3
          I also remember my studies very well, from history. Once for Philip the Great - he told his phrase about a donkey with gold - the teacher made her repeat 5 times))) The second time for the Decembrists, the thought that they all wanted to do for the people but without him. The same teacher and the same 5 times)) As I remember now.
  13. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 11: 25 New
    +9
    Zizka was not even stopped by the loss of his second eye during the siege of the city of Robi in 1421:

    I remembered another Jan - the king of Bohemia, Jan the Blind (Johann of Luxembourg), who lived in the first half of the XIV century. He loved to fight, and the process was more important to him than the result, and by the end of his life he was completely blind. And this handsome man, who no longer saw anything at all, decided to take part in another war, this time Centennial (although no one called her that at that time), on the side of the King of France against the British, came to Crécy, asked to be tied to the saddle and rushed to battle. "Three bodies were found there in the morning" - the king himself and his loyal squires.
    Here is a comparison of these two characters - Jan Zizka and Jan Blind - and you can immediately see who is a real blue-blooded knight, a noble aristocrat, and who is a country man, not familiar with the concept of knightly honor. laughing
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 11: 36 New
      10
      "Three bodies were found there in the morning" - the king himself and his loyal squires.

      The squires died in general stupidly, for this bully mole still tied the reins of his horse to their horses. request
      Here is a comparison of these two characters - Jan Zizka and Jan Blind - and you can immediately see who is a real blue-blooded knight, a noble aristocrat, and who is a country man, not familiar with the concept of knightly honor.

      The next main clown (after the King of Bohemia) was John the Good, who, moreover, blew out the battle of Poitiers, in which the whole color of the brave, but disorganized French knighthood fell (for the French it generally became national fun for three battles - to update the gene pool ), but in addition he himself was taken prisoner along with his youngest son. Was there some kind of astronomical ransom paid for it? what

      But he was a knight of the most knights! wassat
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 12: 28 New
        +9
        And it all ended with Agincourt!
        When the color of the French knightly cavalry was once again mixed with mud, the English yeomen were their dismounted knights.
        By the way, the Czechs like to vaguely hint about the participation in the last Jan Zizka!
        In all these battles, the French lost their scarlet battle banner of Saint Demi !!!
        Conspiracy theory, maybe it was not in vain that France on the eve of World War II merged Chekhov? After all, earlier there was an unambiguous badness of French companies with the participation of the Chekhovs !!!
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 12: 48 New
          +9
          Conspiracy theory, maybe it was not in vain that France on the eve of World War II merged Chekhov? After all, earlier there was an unambiguous badness of French companies with the participation of the Chekhovs !!!

          Vlad, but the Germans quickly "mastered" the Czech industry and Czech tanks. And rushed to France. request
          In all these battles, the French lost their scarlet battle banner of Saint Denis !!!

          Seriously? belay I did not know!
          I have a phrase "Forward, under the banner of Saint Denis! " associated primarily with these two traits laughing good

          and with the "lovely lady" Frenegonda! wink
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 20 August 2020 19: 42 New
            0
            Frenegonda, I don’t remember this
            1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 14: 38 New
          +7
          No, Vlad, it all ended with Castillon in 1453. smile
          As associate professor Oleg Sokolov said well to bad memory, it was "a triumph of organized chivalry."
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          the French were losing their scarlet battle banner Saint Demi

          As far as I remember, the scarlet battle banner of the French crown was called "oriflamma". Saint Denis is kind of just the resting place of the royal family.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 15: 23 New
            +7
            Saint Denis, as far as I remember the saint who was depicted on the oriflamme! He didn't seem to have a head. This is where my knowledge ends. recourse
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 16: 44 New
              +6
              I looked, I found it. smile

              Montjoie! Saint Denis! smile
              And this, in fact, is this very Saint Denis:

              So, yes, not to say that it is completely without a head, but ... to say that the head is in place is also impossible. smile
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 16: 53 New
                +3
                So, yes, not to say that it is completely without a head, but ... to say that the head is in place is also impossible.

                Who is it like that? For what? belay
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 17: 03 New
                  +5
                  The Wiki says that he was the bishop of Paris, then still Lutetia, and then he was executed in Montmartre, so he, according to legend, with a severed head in his hands, reached the temple and only died there. The date of death is counted in different ways, so who is an open question. And for what - it is clear. For the Christian faith. Martyr.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 17: 14 New
                    +4
                    he, according to legend, with a severed head in his hands, reached the temple and only there died. ..... Martyr.

                    It hurts to be an ingenious martyr ... to run around with his head ... Well, the patron saint - everything is clear, a worthy person. Thank! hi
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 17: 25 New
                      +8
                      I myself saw a rooster running around the yard with its head severed. From the course of forensic medicine I know that sometimes people go without a head. Not for long. But in order to pick up your head and carefully walk where you need to - this is impossible without God's help.
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 17: 33 New
                        +1
                        But in order to pick up your head and carefully walk where you need to - this is impossible without God's help.

                        Yes exactly. The main thing is to be careful. what
                      2. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 18: 03 New
                        +4
                        Have you heard the story of the execution of Diez von Schaunburg?
                        When King Ludwig of Bavaria sentenced von Schaunburg and four of his landsknechts to death for mutiny, the monarch, according to chivalric tradition, asked the convict about his last wish. To the great amazement of the king, Schaunburg asked him to pardon those of his comrades, past whom he would be able to run without a head after the execution.
                        Considering this request as sheer nonsense, the king still promised to do it. Schaunburg himself arranged his friends in a row at a distance of eight steps from each other, after which he obediently knelt down and lowered his head on the block standing on the edge. The executioner's sword cut through the air with a whistle, the head literally bounced off the body, and then a miracle happened: the decapitated body of Dits jumped to its feet and ... ran. It was able to run past all four landsknechts, making more than 32 steps, and only after that it stopped and fell.

                        I do not presume to say that it was so, but this story is at least probable.
                      3. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 18: 14 New
                        +4
                        Have you heard the story of the execution of Diez von Schaunburg?

                        We were told about this incident at the university, but I forgot the name and surname of the hero of the occasion. Thank! hi
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 August 2020 18: 12 New
                      +4
                      Poor Professor Dowell! crying
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 20 August 2020 18: 11 New
                    +5
                    Some even manage to ride a horse, according to Mine Reed.
                  3. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 18: 16 New
                    +3
                    Some even manage to ride a horse, according to Mine Reed.

                    You don't know about the male praying mantis yet, that he knows how without a head. But they have a completely different nervous system! laughing
                    While we were flying to the Dominican Republic at the end of 2013, we were shown a Soviet film - "The Headless Horseman" laughing
                  4. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 20 August 2020 18: 51 New
                    +5

                    You still don't know about the male praying mantis what he can do without a head.

                    I know. And I know about female "black widows" ... like: "Honey, have you finished yet?"
                2. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 20 August 2020 20: 00 New
                  +2
                  And carry a marked bullet in my heart
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 August 2020 20: 21 New
                  +1
                  Better a tagged bullet in the heart than a stamp on the ass!
                4. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 21 August 2020 14: 36 New
                  +1
                  This is which side to look at
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 15: 32 New
    +4
    Oriflamma (fr. Oriflamme from Latin aurum - gold, flamma - flame) is a small standard of the French kings, which originally constituted the altar banner in the abbey of Saint-Denis. Oriflamma was the main military banner of the royal French troops. It was first taken from Saint-Denis by Philip I and was used by the troops until 1415, when it last appeared at the battle of Agincourt. Oriflamme was lost in battle at least five times: at Mons-en-Pevel (1304) [1], at Crécy (1346) [2], at Poitiers (1356) [3], at Agincourt [4], and also during the Seventh Crusade

    At the expense of the seventh crusade, alas, I don’t know, but the first four battles are constantly repeated in the historical literature!
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 20 August 2020 20: 44 New
    +1
    Michael, oh Saint Denis, I remember that French kings up to Louis 15 were buried there. During the revolution of 1793 the sansculottes destroyed the graves, and their "owners" were thrown away. Then, during the "restoration", some were found and buried. I know that we were able to “identify” Philip as “handsome,” but I don’t know anymore. Perhaps Valery or Viktor Nikolaevich know more?
    My opinion, on the site 2 HISTORIAN: Vyacheslav Olegovich and Valery, others .... I’m lying, even the Wind has interesting materials
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 21: 01 New
      +2
      I would add Eduard Vaschenko and Andrey from Chelyabinsk, despite the fact that the latter is published in "Armament". smile
    2. Hantengri
      Hantengri 20 August 2020 21: 29 New
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild
      My opinion, on the site 2 HISTORIAN: Vyacheslav Olegovich and Valery, others .... I’m lying, even the Wind has interesting materials

      Sentyabrinka hon, why only 2, i.e. 3 including Winds? But what about Eduard Vaschenko, and Artem (arturpraetor)? And Mikhail himself has very worthy articles on the history of medieval Russia. hi
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 21 August 2020 14: 48 New
        +1
        Khan, I forgot Edward. Talked about the site's in-house historians. Mikhail, with all due respect to him, is not the site's staff historian
        P.
        S.
        If I were Vadim, the chief of our site, I would change places, some authors into readers, and such as Mikhail or Viktor Nikolaevich into authors. It would be more useful
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 14: 25 New
    +5
    King John the Good saw at least something in front of him. smile There is even a chance that he managed to kill some of the Englishmen with his ax, while in relation to Jan the Blind there is a vague suspicion that his only "trophies" in his last battle were just his loyal squires - blindfolded. Zalaya, so to speak, irony. smile
    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    Was there some kind of astronomical ransom paid for it?

    John died in captivity, at least some benefit brought the treasury of France - it became unnecessary to pay a ransom for him.
    True, I remember, for some time he came home on his word of honor, but then he voluntarily returned to captivity, leaving his kingdom. They were strange people ... request
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 14: 40 New
      +7
      John died in captivity, at least some benefit brought the treasury of France - it became unnecessary to pay a ransom for him.

      Another thing is important here. John in captivity agreed to make peace with the British. They kept the lands for themselves, but renounced the rights to the French throne. Plus the ransom is a real benefit!
      Some time after his death, the war broke out again ...
      And yes - after his capture, the levies from peizan were increased, which was one of the reasons for the Paris uprising and Jacquerie. hi
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 August 2020 18: 42 New
        +2
        And yes - after his capture, the levies from peizan were increased, which was one of the reasons for the Paris uprising and Jacquerie.
        The 14th century turned out to be a difficult test for France, it can only be compared with the XNUMXth century for our country, but we did not have a plague pandemic.
    2. VIP
      VIP 20 August 2020 17: 03 New
      +3
      "strange they were people" obsessed with HONOR. I am not much of a connoisseur of France and its kings. I remember some Louis, or maybe Francis, no matter who said: "everything is lost except honor."
      "I came home on my word of honor" NO ONE doubted that he would return. Even in the army I heard the following story: When Kropotkin died, his daughter asked Dzerzhinsky to release ALL anarchists from prisons, to say goodbye to Kropotkin, and in the evening they returned to prison. A beautiful bike.
      Interesting times
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 17: 19 New
        +3
        For a politician, honor is an unaffordable luxury. In general, the concept of honor is ... how to say ... twofold. It is good and wonderful to be honest when only you yourself pay for your honor. Here is a knight whose only horse and squire can defend his honor even to the point of complete depletion of body functions before the count and before the duke, and before the king himself. And when he has a family, children, a castle ... then the sovereign lord will not get nasty. And when you are a king and are responsible for millions of people in your state ...
        And in general, it is somehow ignoble to make those who have nothing to do with this honor pay off for their honor. This is mean and dishonorable. However, if the taxable estates are not considered people, then, perhaps, it can be so. Apparently "Chevalier san per e san reprosh" King Jean the Good was little interested in the affairs of his subjects - "honor", as he himself understood it, was dearer to him than the life and welfare of people.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 17: 29 New
          +3
          Apparently "Chevalier san per e san reprosh" King Jean the Good was little interested in the affairs of his subjects - "honor", as he himself understood it, was dearer to him than the life and welfare of people.

          Michael, "The government lives on another planet, dear!" (film "Kin-Dza-Dza"). John the Good lived in "his own mental world." Surrounded by courtiers, and in thoughts of chivalry. Hence his strange behavior. Rather characteristic of an unhealthy romantic than a "good master".
          And when you are a king and are responsible for millions of people in your state ...

          Uh-huh ... Everyone would think about it ...
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 17: 58 New
            +2
            In short, I'm talking about the fact that it would be better if it was dishonorable. smile
            His own great-great-grandson Louis XI, nicknamed the Fox, understood this perfectly. He lied, humiliated himself, pretended, but achieved his goals and the state under him lived in relative peace.
            By the way, an interesting fact is King Jean the Good - the first common ancestor of two antagonists of the future - Louis XI and Charles the Bold. The very son with whom King Jean was taken prisoner - Philip the Bold, father of Jean the Fearless, grandfather of Philip the Good, great-grandfather of Charles the Bold. And the crown passed by right of birthright successively to Charles V the Wise, VI the Mad and VII the Winner, until Louis XI got the Fox. It's funny - one branch of the Valois over and over again inherited some qualities, the other - others.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 18: 13 New
              +2
              His own great-great-grandson Louis XI, nicknamed the Fox, understood this perfectly. He lied, humiliated himself, pretended, but achieved his goals and the state under him lived in relative peace.

              So Machiavelli, probably, wrote his treatise for a reason! drinks
            2. Hantengri
              Hantengri 20 August 2020 20: 04 New
              +2
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Philip the Bold, father of Jean the Fearless, grandfather of Philip the Good, great-grandfather of Charles the Bold.

              Michael hi If Fearless is Jean, then why isn't Fearless Charles?
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              It's funny - one branch of the Valois over and over again inherited some qualities, the other - others.

              It certainly went, but if we assume that the child (even in the royal family) is really a mother's secret, then everything may fall into place ...)))
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 20: 42 New
                +2
                Quote: HanTengri
                If Fearless is Jean, then why is Bold not Charles?

                I don’t know, I didn’t think about it. In general, I like to call European aristocrats by the names that their contemporaries called them, but sometimes it turns out incomprehensibly - Jean Santer instead of John Landless, for example, or Guillaume Betart instead of William the Conqueror ... although "Charles" will certainly be more correct.
                As for the possible adultery - I do not like to discuss these topics. The children of the same parents are completely different, you must also look at the nature of the mothers. Somewhere more than mom, somewhere dad, plus do not forget about upbringing - it is quite possible that the Burgundian house had its own traditions of upbringing and certain basic concepts were initially put into the children's heads, different from, for example, those basic concepts that were invested in the heirs. royal court.
                1. Hantengri
                  Hantengri 20 August 2020 22: 50 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  As for the possible adultery - I do not like to discuss these topics.

                  And what is there to argue? Only one thing can be said for certain: There is always a nonzero probability that ...
                  A guarantee can only be given insurance policy genetic examination.
                  But, you see, the very fact that in line number 2 (Philip the Bold -> Jean Fearless -> Philip the Good -> Karl the Bold.) "The nature of the breed" (if in "dog" terms) is transmitted with enviable stability, and in the line №1 (Charles V the Wise -> VI Mad -> VII Winner -> Louis XI Fox) with this somehow not very good, and provokes to engage in unscientific speculations on this topic. smile
            3. Astra wild
              Astra wild 20 August 2020 20: 13 New
              0
              Michael, I know Louis 11 from the novel "Quentin Dorward", in my opinion, the author successfully showed the character of Louis: he did not pursue luxury, he was smart, devout, cunning.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 20: 47 New
                +1
                I would recommend that you read the memoirs of Philippe de Commines. Very interesting. He served first to Charles the Bold, but then moved to the service of Louis. The characters of both are described in great detail.
                In "Quentin Dorward" the author still exaggerates many features of both Karl and Louis, which, in general, is understandable - this is fiction, the images should be whole, bright.
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 21 August 2020 15: 02 New
          +1
          "honor for a politician is an unacceptable luxury", which means that we are doomed to tolerate various crooks and semi-decent figures?
          All O. Benders, Podhalyuzins and Vralmans from politics. Mikhail rehabilitated you.
          Just kidding. Intellectually I understand that Mikhail is right, but the soul is sharply opposed!
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 August 2020 18: 30 New
      +4
      The ransom was paid in full. John returned to France, leaving his son Louis hostage.
      The son turned out to be less prone to knightly prejudices, and quickly pulled it off the kichi. John, being shocked by such a "nonsense" freak of his offspring, in a fit of nobility returned to England (1364), where he suddenly died, in the same year, from an unknown illness. Oatmeal, apparently, turned out to be expired ...
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 20 August 2020 18: 42 New
        +3
        I don’t know for sure about the ransom, but, in my opinion, it was never paid, at least in full. Maybe if they paid for the body to take it out ... But somehow it is also not chivalrous - to trade in corpses. smile
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 20 August 2020 19: 08 New
          +2
          My version was "born".
          Three leamas in a minted coin, these are two annual budgets of France at that time (taken from Wiki, I will understand further, because it is very interesting). So, it is quite possible that Louis, a little earlier than the British, learned that compatriots are actively engaged in the production of "fake", and "skipped quietly."
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 August 2020 14: 26 New
    +6
    Was there some kind of astronomical ransom paid for it?
    3 million gold crowns.
  • Evgeny D
    Evgeny D 20 August 2020 12: 15 New
    +5
    "A warrior dies with a sword in his hand ..." (Vikings)
  • Undecim
    Undecim 20 August 2020 11: 46 New
    +8
    And for the siege of cities, bombards with a caliber of up to 850 millimeters were used.
    Another legend, or in modern terms - a fake.
    In the illustrations showing the artillery of the Hussites, such a bombard is depicted regularly.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 20 August 2020 11: 53 New
      10
      However, this bombard has nothing to do with the Hussites. This is the largest forged weapon in the history of European artillery in caliber - the Pumhart von Steyr bombard. Cast at the beginning of the XNUMXth century in Liezen, Styria by order of the Habsburgs. Weighs about eight tons.
      Today it is located in the Vienna Heeresgeschichtliches Museum. By the way, its caliber is 820 mm.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 12: 32 New
        +9
        VikNik is not a bombard! And the mortar !!!
        And in the background, perhaps just a bombard. True, I don't see the breech of the gun, if it's flat then yes! If there are grapes, then options are possible!
        And Viktor Nikolayevich, can a forged tool be cast? Question as a metallurgist and engineer, no banter!
        You can cast bulat steel, which is what they do in Zlatoust. But was it possible to do this in the 15th century?
        Sincerely, sincerely yours Vlad!
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 20 August 2020 12: 57 New
          +9
          Vladislav, at the dawn of "artillery" and until about the end of the XNUMXth century, all artillery pieces were called bombards, regardless of calibers and designs.
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 13: 27 New
          +6
          sincerely yours Vlad!

          Can I fill in a historical question? wink
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 15: 19 New
            +5
            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            sincerely yours Vlad!

            Can I fill in a historical question? wink

            "Bring everyone down, he'll figure it out in heaven" !!! laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 16: 32 New
              +4
              "Bring everyone down, he'll figure it out in heaven" !!!

              Why blame? stop This is not our method. laughing The main thing is to stock up on a barrel of oil ... wink
              Historical question - I read somewhere that the first guns were loaded from the treasury. Is this so, or were they some separate types of tools? hi
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 20 August 2020 17: 01 New
                +8
                Not all, but many. It is inconvenient to load powder pulp into a long barrel from a muzzle.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 17: 10 New
                  +2
                  Not all, but many. It is inconvenient to load powder pulp into a long barrel from a muzzle.

                  Is there some kind of gradation according to the types of the first guns? And which of them were loaded from the barrel, which - from the treasury? drinks
                  And when did the gunpowder change?
                  I glanced briefly at Shirokorad about Tsar Cannon - more and more questions.
                  https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/7951-tsar-pushka-vovse-ne-pushka-chto-zhe-stoit-v-kremle/#full
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 20 August 2020 17: 21 New
                    +4
                    I told you a long time ago, don't read Shirokokrad before dinner. Before breakfast and dinner too.
                    Download Nilus, Andrey Alexandrovich. History of the materiel of artillery, first volume. There, however, the illustrations are bad. But the story is told well.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 17: 35 New
                      +3
                      I told you a long time ago, don't read Shirokokrad before dinner. Before breakfast and dinner too.

                      well, bliiin ... recourse I'm clean, recharge! Oh, what epithets Alexander Borisovich sometimes lets go of about historical figures ... winked drinks
                      Download Nilus, Andrey Alexandrovich. History of the materiel of artillery, first volume.

                      but for this - I bow, Viktor Nikolaevich! yes
      2. VIP
        VIP 20 August 2020 16: 30 New
        +4
        Viktor Nikolaevich, what tools could Zizka use then, after all, this legend did not appear in the wild?
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 20 August 2020 16: 36 New
          +4
          Those that are illustrated in my commentary, except for the Pumhart von Steyr bombard.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 August 2020 19: 44 New
            +4
            Quote: Undecim
            Those that are illustrated in my commentary, except for the Pumhart von Steyr bombard.

            Not all. According to the recollections of eyewitnesses, the Hussites used their artillery from carts (carts). So it is more likely that small-bore falconets with swivels (1-3 pounds) and short-barreled bombards on wooden machines, without wheels, were used. According to our qualifications, "basses", "muffled squeaks", "mattresses or shotguns"! From the first they fired with lead or stone cannonballs, from the second - with iron or stone shot.
            Our walk-cities were armed in the same way!
            According to A. Nilus, a worthy classic work of the beginning of the last century. Alas, Viktor Nikolaevich, many new things have been introduced into scientific circulation over the past century. So as it is not sad, but (in your understanding a ghoul and a compiler) A. Shirokorad owns a much wider range of sources. And if we throw away the husks, he has done a lot to popularize the artillery and the fleet!
            We have already discussed this with you. In my understanding, reading Remy and Vauban is much more interesting than Shirokorad, but it's easier to start with the Primer.
            Regards, Vlad!
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 20 August 2020 20: 18 New
              +2
              over the past century, many new things have been introduced into scientific circulation.
              With regard to the artillery of the initial period, no special information breakthroughs, especially from Shirokorad, are recalled.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 August 2020 04: 20 New
                +2
                Quote: Undecim
                over the past century, many new things have been introduced into scientific circulation.
                With regard to the artillery of the initial period, no special information breakthroughs, especially from Shirokorad, are recalled.

                But no, Viktor Nikolaevich. The Author we are discussing has several good monographs on the Kremlin guns. Basically he started out as an encyclopedist in the history of artillery. It was further, he prohibitively expanded the "horizons". So, as a narrow specialist on cannons, Shirokorad is "good", but otherwise it is the opinion of the person who wrote the encyclopedia about cannons.
                Sincerely, VikNik, I think if you had aimed at something like that, we knew you as the author of the encyclopedia! You definitely can do it !!!
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 21 August 2020 09: 00 New
                  +4
                  if you would have aimed at something like that, then we knew you as the author of the encyclopedia!
                  Thank you for such a high assessment, but it is unlikely that it will be possible to wedge a wedge somewhere between Diderot, Voltaire and Rousseau, and modern "encyclopedists" greatly devalued this title, therefore the laurels of the creator of the next "humble first, the most complete encyclopedia" do not attract me.
                  1. Liam
                    Liam 21 August 2020 09: 03 New
                    -1
                    Quote: Undecim
                    The laurels of the creator of the next "humble first, the most complete encyclopedia" do not attract me.

                    Moreover, it was created a long time ago and is called the Internet)
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 21 August 2020 09: 58 New
                      +4
                      Only the search for information in it is similar to the process of processing gold-bearing ores.
                      1. Liam
                        Liam 21 August 2020 10: 03 New
                        0
                        That is why gold is valued - it is difficult to find and mine.
  • gorenina91
    gorenina91 20 August 2020 13: 34 New
    0
    -You read here you read about these ... worthless "brave daredevils" ... -Just take evil ...
    -And why grappled ??? -Only each other and weakened ...
    - But for this successful warrior Jan Zizka ... - maybe half of Europe would not have fallen under the yoke of the Ottoman Empire for almost 500 years ...
    -This Jan Zizka only weakened and did not allow the powerful European center to be organized; which then could successfully resist the OI ... -Just then the combined knightly military forces could easily pile on the Ottoman Turks and prevent them from invading Europe ... -And so ...- basically the Slavic European peoples fell into such Turkish bondage; which lasted almost 500 years ... -It was the Slavic peoples who basically fell into slavery (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Czechs, Slovaks, Bulgarians ... -Well, other peoples ...- also: -Hungers, Romanians, Greeks and so on ...) and so on ... -There are these peoples that the Turks then drove into slavery; typed; they took away their sons from these peoples ... - strong healthy boys ... - turned them into Turks ... - and thus the power of Ottoman Turkey grew by leaps and bounds ...
    -Here ... -this Jan Zizhka and framed his own Slavs for as much as 500 years ...
    - If it were not for this "brave warrior" ... - Turkey (which has not yet managed to gain its power due to robberies) would have received such a united rebuff from all these European knights, crusaders and other European professionals that the Turks would have forgotten their way to Europe. .. -and many of the lands that Turkey seized ... -would simply return to their rightful masters-peoples ...
    -And this Jan Zhizhika simply "prepared" the ground for the Turks to invade Europe ...
    1. VLR
      20 August 2020 17: 25 New
      +6
      This is one side of the coin. The second side: making sure that the Czechs cannot be easily dealt with, their opponents offer a compromise in time: Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague are rehabilitated, Sigismund does not insist on coronation in the Czech Republic, but appoints one of his vassals as a puppet king, the Hussites are offered communion with a bowl, and Zizka - a high command position in the imperial army, heading against the same Turkey, the people of his troops - a good payment in cash. Indeed, at first there were no irreconcilable contradictions yet. Later, radicalization began and contradictions grew like a snowball.
      But the demands of the Czechs are unacceptable, because they offend the emperor and the Catholic hierarchs for the most sacred thing that they have - for their wallets. And because - what happened happened.
  • VIP
    VIP 20 August 2020 16: 20 New
    +4
    Quote: parusnik
    How did he command in battle, I wonder ...
    .... He was described in detail the terrain, the location of enemy troops, constantly reported on the progress of the battle, and he made decisions ..

    This option is also possible: he became the "banner", and someone else was in command. Do not forget that the tactics of that time were remarkable, you did not need to puzzle over the map.
    In fact, then the guarantee of victory was courage, and ižka slapped such "luli" to the enemy that they already began to "rip" in the name of Жižka. As in WWII the Germans shouted: "Achtung, Achtung Pokryshka"
  • Catfish
    Catfish 20 August 2020 17: 56 New
    +5
    Valery, thank you very much! The banal historical chronicle in your presentation reads like an exciting adventure novel. Brilliantly! good
    I am not at all strong in the history of that time (only high school), and I did not think that it would take me so much.
    And the use of simple carts for the mobility of artillery on the battlefield is generally a masterpiece! It seems that everything is so simple, but after all, nobody thought of Zizka. Zizka, of course, is still a thug, but as an innovator and a wonderful tactician he deserves unconditional respect.
    Please accept my appreciation for the excellent work. smile drinks
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 August 2020 19: 32 New
    +5
    Meanwhile: thank you, Valery!
    Recently, in the midst of the bustle of the work, I forget to thank the authors! Alas for me !!! negative
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 20: 25 New
      +5
      Recently, in the midst of the bustle of the work, I forget to thank the authors! Alas for me !!!

      For your sins, we will give you a separate suggestion, and we will smear it with oil twice. stop That's it. lol
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 August 2020 20: 34 New
        +6
        I’ll give you a hand plaster workshop sometime !!!
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 August 2020 20: 38 New
          +5
          I’ll give you a hand plaster workshop sometime !!!

          good I have no doubts about your talents! drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 20 August 2020 21: 38 New
            +2
            I agree!
            I have only three drawbacks:
            1. I do not like stupid women
            2. I tell you that I do not like stupid women.
            3. I tell stupid women that I do not like stupid women.
      2. bubalik
        bubalik 20 August 2020 20: 42 New
        +6
        ,,, why twice? what
        Nikolay, I welcome hi
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 20 August 2020 20: 45 New
          +5
          For a change, apparently.
          The venerable squires probably have nothing else to do, how to smear the poor fool with oil, dump in feathers, and repeat again!
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 20 August 2020 20: 56 New
            +6
            And anathema to all the clergy and the world. Until he repent publicly! soldier
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 August 2020 21: 06 New
              +4
              Another rotter of Freemasonry has been found! laughing Wasn't it you, about the last year, who boasted of the eldest offspring to teach?
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 20 August 2020 21: 12 New
                +5
                The collective farmer's father-in-law intercepted. He says that a half-Orthodox youth shouldn't be engaged in Freemasonry, plastering and all kinds of obscene and clerical-condemned. Let him first learn to steal in agriculture - for only so will he attain the roots of spirituality of the Raseysky people! fellow
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 August 2020 21: 21 New
                  +3
                  Kolkhoz father-in-law intercepted
                  "Three Greeks are carrying contraband to Odessa" (C)
          2. bubalik
            bubalik 20 August 2020 21: 11 New
            +4
            Good evening!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 August 2020 21: 16 New
              +3
              And you, Sergei, have a boring evening! How are things on the seas during WWII?
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 20 August 2020 21: 53 New
                +4
                It's funny, I read and remembered that after all, I passed Mount Tabor when I traveled by bus across the Czech Republic. She was shown to us, and she did not make an impression on me at all. So ... some kind of hill. So do not think that this is a MOUNTAIN, so ... flat hills overgrown with bushes. The monument is there, yes. But I couldn't get out and see ...
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 August 2020 22: 29 New
                  +4
                  But think, Vyacheslav Olegovich, that the local landscape in those days was not so smoothed out, but a little more extreme.
                  And now knighthood drives up to the "walls", the horses, having accelerated a kilometer and a half back, climb the mountain with a slope of 15-20 degrees a little tired, and the knights, too, urge the cattle ... And then!
                  From firearms on the front line of the attackers - hit!
                  On the second line of crossbows - hit!
                  The third line stumbled over the corpses of the horses of their predecessors, the infantry came out of the Wagenburg to kill the fallen!
                  Ahead of the infantry, cavalry jumped out, few in number, but very adequate in armament to the enemy ...
              2. bubalik
                bubalik 21 August 2020 20: 00 New
                +1
                recourse calm, time is mute.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 21 August 2020 20: 36 New
                  +1
                  How strange! In the calm, usually time "to hell and a little more ..."
  • viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 21 August 2020 08: 32 New
    +3
    Excellent overview ... Jan Zhishka ADVANCED military expert of his time - respect.
  • Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 24 August 2020 22: 21 New
    0
    Quote: VlR
    Taborites and orphans called their campaigns against neighbors "pleasant walks", which speaks of the horror that everyone experienced in front of them at that time and the level of resistance they showed. About "pleasant walks" - in the next article.

    Will there be about Clear Mountain?
    The Hussites asked / demanded from Jagaila to let them pass through Poland to the territory of the Teutonic Order. Jagiello hesitated to answer (the Hussites, of course, are not pilgrims and their tourism is not the most positive event). To make Jagiello think faster, they attacked Czestochowa and staged a massacre in the monastery.
  • Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 24 August 2020 22: 32 New
    0
    Quote: VlR
    The participation of ižka in the battles of Grunwald and Agincourt is probably late legends, there is no confirmation in the documents. Yagailo-Vladislav, the grandson of Gedimin and the son of the Tver princess, made an excellent career, but he actually deprived the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the chances of defeating Moscow by collecting Russian lands and becoming the center of the empire and superpower. The Orthodox lands oppressed by the Catholics and the people living there, from that time onward, strove to the east - to their fellow believers.

    I would argue with you here - not Yagailo, but Kazimir Yagailovich. At the time of Jagailo, the battle on Vorskla took place, which became a bifurcation point for ON. At this time, after the birth of Jagiello, Yadwig's wife died and he ceased to be the Polish king, "went to his Rus', to his fatherland. But the Poles, seeing the radical weakening of Vitovt and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania because of the Vorskla, decided to play a long combination - they called him (together with the right of legacy to Russia) back to the Polish throne. And then there was the enslaving Vilna-Radom and Gorodelsky unions. Well, Kazimir Yagailovich from Moscow and Crimea (the founder Gireyev was born in Lida) made strong and irreconcilable enemies of the ON. Under the influence of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania collapsed, the western lands were scooped up under the crown. But that was in the mid to late 15th century.
  • Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 24 August 2020 22: 53 New
    0
    Quote: VlR
    The participation of ižka in the battles of Grunwald and Agincourt is probably late legends, there is no confirmation in the documents. Yagailo-Vladislav ...

    Can you have any details of Jagaila's participation in the negotiations to resolve the Anglo-French problem? It seems that at the Cathedral of Constance, the British invited Jagiello as a mediator to fix the results of Agincourt. But the French refused, ahead was the campaign of Jeanne dArc. It seems that Barbashev had something on this topic. If there are any details - it will be interesting, I think everyone!