Military Review

How the Russians took Beijing by storm

41
How the Russians took Beijing by storm

Russian troops are fighting in Beijing


120 years ago, Russian troops were the first to break into Beijing. The fall of the Chinese capital predetermined the defeat of the uprising of the ihetuan ("boxers"). As a result, the Chinese Empire fell into an even greater political and economic dependence on foreign powers.

Semi-colony of the West


The opium wars with England and France, which were unsuccessful for the Qing Empire (China), the defeat in the Franco-Chinese War for Vietnam in 1883-1885, the defeat from Japan (1894-1895) were accompanied by the loss of territories, a reduction in the Chinese sphere of influence and led to the transformation Celestial Empire to the semi-colony of the West and Japan. Russia was also involved in this process, as it used the Sino-Japanese War to include in its sphere of influence Northeast Manchuria (“Yellow Russia”) and to occupy Port Arthur.

China was a tasty prey for the imperialist powers. Huge territory, resources, population, market for their goods. Thousands of years of historical and cultural heritage that could be plundered. The West (first of all Britain) put the Chinese people on opium. In return, they exported the treasures of China, its silver. The people were in a narcotic intoxication, the administrative structures were corrupted and corrupted. By the end of the XNUMXth century, a financial noose was thrown on the Celestial Empire. Europeans import capital, but not for the development of the state, but for its further enslavement. They build their enterprises, railways, "lease" land. Foreigners are outside the legal field of the country, which opens up wide opportunities for various abuses and crimes. China is being torn apart into spheres of influence. The central government is weak, local governors and generals rule by foreigners. Conditions have been created for the complete colonization of the country and its division.

At the same time, the West is indoctrinating the population in order to facilitate the final slavery of Chinese civilization. To cut off the people from their origins and roots, to prevent the Chinese from following the path of national revival. Train them to be "humble and submissive." Foreign missionaries were actively promoting Christianity - Catholics and Protestants. In the 1890s, not a single province remained in the Qing Empire where missionaries had not settled. By 1900, there were 2800 Protestant missionaries alone. In Shandong province, where the boxer movement was born, there were over 230 foreign priests with about 60 parishioners. At the same time, the missions intensified the economic exploitation of the Chinese people: they had a large amount of land, could use the Chinese, and stood above the Chinese law (this was also used by local parishioners). That is, another caste of the “chosen ones” was formed.


The division of China by the European powers and Japan. Caricature of 1890's

Hatred of "foreign devils"


It is clear that the shameless robbery of the country and the people, the plundering of the national and cultural heritage, theft and predation of both their corrupted officials and foreigners aroused the hatred of the common people. “Could the Chinese,” V. Lenin wrote in 1900, “not hate people who came to China only for profit, who used their vaunted civilization only for deception, plunder and violence, who waged wars with China in order to obtain the right to sell opium intoxicating people ... who hypocritically covered up the policy of robbery with the spread of Christianity? "

As a result, China was engulfed in a powerful popular uprising (peasant war). In 1898, spontaneous outbreaks of popular riots began everywhere, directed against local officials, feudal lords, foreign missionaries and their followers. The main participants in the movement were the peasants, exploited by both local feudal lords and foreigners; artisans, handicraftsmen, whose products could not withstand competition with cheaper foreign goods produced in an industrial way, and the oppression of high taxes; transport workers (boatmen, longshoremen, coolies) who lost their jobs due to the development of new modes of transport (railways, steamships) associated with foreign influence. Also, the uprising was supported by many Taoist and Buddhist monks who opposed the spread of foreign ideology and the westernization of the country. The struggle of the people was inspired by secret religious and mystical organizations. Also, declassed elements, urban and rural “bottom”, criminals and robbers, whose main motive was robbery, took part in each uprising.

Initially, the struggle of the people against "foreign devils" was supported by many representatives of the Chinese elite, among which nationalist ideas developed. Among them were governors, high dignitaries, representatives of the nobility, the imperial court and officials. Many of them wanted to use the uprising in their own interests, to seize profitable enterprises and lands owned by foreigners, to take higher posts in the empire, etc.

The guiding core of the movement was the secret alliance "Yihetuan" - "Detachments of Justice and Harmony (Peace)". Or, in other words, "Ihetsuan" - "Fist in the name of justice and peace." This society in its ideology, traditions and organization went back centuries. In particular, to the "White Lotus" society. It was a mystical-religious organization whose members often practiced traditional Chinese martial arts. Therefore, they were called "boxers". Over the XNUMXth century, secret alliances radically changed their slogans. At the beginning of the century, they carried out anti-Qing activities with the slogan "Down with Qing, restore Ming!" and for this they were severely persecuted by the authorities. At the end of the century, the main opponents of the "boxers" were foreigners. The slogan "Let's Support Qing, Death to Foreigners!" The rebels did not have a well-developed program. The main task is the destruction and expulsion of "bearded devils" from the Celestial Empire. This was to lead to the restoration of the Chinese Empire. In addition, auxiliary tasks were the "purge" of corrupt officials, the overthrow of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the restoration of the Chinese Ming dynasty.


Ihetuani

The Qing government did not have a unified position regarding the rebels. However, the group, led by the chief of the sacrifice order Yuen Chan and the assistant minister of officials Xu Jing-cheng, wanted to maintain "friendship" with foreign powers and insisted on ruthless reprisals against the rebels. In addition, many dignitaries feared anti-Qing sentiments. Another court faction wanted to use the uprising to limit foreign influence in the country and strengthen the empire. Its leaders were Vice-Chancellor Gang Yi and Prince Zai Y. As a result, the authorities supported the rebels with one hand, established contacts with their leaders, declared that they viewed their troops as patriots who were fighting the "white devils", and with the other hand tried to restrict movement, directed the punishers.

Empress Cixi pursued a "flexible" policy. On the one hand, she wanted to use the ihetuan uprising to strengthen her position in relations with foreigners and crush enemies inside the country. On the other hand, the imperial court was afraid of the rebels, their fraternization with the army and hatred of the Manchu dynasty. In May 1900, the Empress issued a decree supporting the uprising. In June, the Qing Empire declared war on foreign powers. True, the government did not mobilize the country and the people for the war, did nothing to defend the country from the interventionists. And as soon as the Qing dynasty felt the strength of foreign powers, immediately betrayed the rebels and turned government troops against the rebels. In September, Cixi ordered the ruthless suppression of the Yihetuan uprising.


Russians in Beijing


In the spring of 1900, a popular movement swept over a large part of China, including Manchuria. The Chinese had a special hatred for the Russians, who, in their opinion, had forever seized Port Arthur and part of Manchuria, where they were building the railway. Ihetuani destroyed iron and telegraph lines, attacked the buildings of religious missions, foreigners, and some government institutions. A series of attacks and murders of foreigners and Chinese Christians took place. Government troops could not suppress the uprising. The soldiers sympathized with the rebels. At the end of May, the "boxers" moved to Beijing. Empress Cixi in her message to the rebels supported their movement. On June 13-14, the rebels entered the capital and laid siege to the Ambassadorial Quarter, where all foreigners were hiding (about 900 civilians and over 500 soldiers). Government forces joined the rebels. The siege lasted 56 days. The Qing government has declared war on foreign states.

In response, England, Germany, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia, the United States and Japan organized an intervention. Already in May 1900, foreign powers began to transfer additional forces to their bases in China. In particular, Russia deployed reinforcements to Manchuria. The Russian troops were commanded by Admiral Alekseev. The combined fleet of the European powers under the command of British Vice Admiral Seymour arrived at the port of Dagu. The ships of Russia and Japan also headed to the shores of China. Russia began mobilization in the Amur Military District, the Ussuri Cossack army was alerted.

Having received news of the critical situation of the embassies in Beijing, Admiral Seymour marched at the head of a small detachment to the capital. However, he overestimated his strength and underestimated the enemy. His detachment, passing through Tianjin, was blocked by the enemy's 30-strong army. The landing party of Seymur was rescued by the 12th East Siberian regiment of Colonel Anisimov, who landed in the Pecheli Bay from Port Arthur. Seymour, with the support of Russian riflemen, was able to retreat to Tanjin, where he was again blocked by the Chinese. The detachment was released by the approaching 9th East Siberian Regiment, led by the commander of the 3rd Siberian Rifle Brigade, General Stoessel. Anisimov and Stoessel attacked the enemy from two sides and defeated the Chinese.


Russian cavalry attacking the enemy

Meanwhile, the head of the Russian Pacific Squadron, Admiral Yakov Giltebrandt, who replaced Seymur, decided to seize the enemy's strategic fortress - the Dagu forts, which covered the mouth of the White River - Beihe (Peyho), leading to the Heavenly Capital. Joint efforts of ground forces and fleet the operation was brilliantly performed. On June 4 (17), Dagu was taken. The main role in the assault was played by the Russians on land and at sea: the gunboats Gilyak, Koreets, Beaver and the company of Lieutenant Stankevich's 12th Siberian Regiment, which was the first to break into the fortress.

On June 24 (July 7), the allied forces (8 thousand soldiers, mostly Russians) were headed by Admiral Alekseev. In a battle on July 1 (14), he defeated the Chinese army in the Tanjin region, opening the way to the capital. Large reinforcements from Europe, the United States and Japan soon arrived. The allied army increased to 35 thousand soldiers with 106 guns. The core of the army was still the Russians - 7 thousand Siberian riflemen (2nd and 3rd brigades). Officially, the troops were headed by the German Field Marshal Alfred von Waldersee. But he arrived in the Qing Empire when the Allies had already taken the Heavenly Capital. In fact, the allied army during the campaign against Beijing was led by the Russian general Nikolai Linevich. July 23 (August 5) Linevich led 15 thousand. corps to Beijing. He again defeated the Chinese army and opened the road to the capital.

On July 31 (August 13), the allied forces were at the walls of Beijing. Already on August 1 (14), Siberian riflemen took the Chinese capital, which was defended by up to 80 thousand people. At 4 o'clock, General Linevich with his staff entered the Russian mission. During the storming of Beijing, Russian troops lost 28 people killed and 106 wounded, Japanese troops - 30 killed and 120 wounded. The British and Americans entered the city without a fight, but already in Beijing itself, several people were wounded. The French arrived after the assault. The allies, who entered Beijing on a Russian hump, plundered the Heavenly Capital. The Germans and the Japanese were especially distinguished. The Germans received from their Kaiser a parting word "not to give mercy, not to take prisoners." A German diplomat wrote from Beijing: "I am ashamed to write here that British, American and Japanese soldiers plundered the city in the most vile manner."

Russian General Linevich reported: “I myself saw the mountains up to the ceiling of the looted property from the British. That which they did not manage to send to India was sold for three days at an auction, arranged right in the mission. " Responding to the attacks of the Japanese, Linevich wrote: "With regard to the outrageous correspondence in the Japanese press, I notify that the Japanese in the Pecheliya detachment were the main culprits of all the most outrageous offenses in general and discipline in particular, the aforementioned offenses are even included in the system of warfare" ...


Russian commander Nikolai Petrovich Linevich (1838-1908)

Manchuria


Thus, the uprising was dealt a mortal blow. The Qing government immediately went over to the side of the foreigners. Punitive detachments crushed separate centers of the uprising in various provinces. Russian troops crushed the rebels in Manchuria. Here, the rebels, along with gangs of hunghuz, attacked Russian posts and villages on the East China Railway under construction and seized the entire road. Harbin, downtrodden by refugees, fell under siege. Chinese troops from the right bank of the Amur fired on the almost defenseless Blagoveshchensk.

Russia mobilized the Amur District. But part of the troops was sent to the Pecheli region and left on a march to Beijing. The rest had to be mobilized or even formed anew. Three brigades were transferred from the European part of Russia. In the Amur region, the 4th, 5th and 6th Siberian brigades were formed. In July, Russia was able to launch a counteroffensive. The detachments of Colonel Servianov and Colonel Rennenkampf from Sretensk moved to save Blagoveshchensk. At the same time, a detachment of General Sakharov left Khabarovsk. All troops moved on ships along the Amur.

On July 21 (August 3), Sakharov's detachment saved Harbin, having traveled over 660 miles in 18 days. At the same time, Servianov and Rennenkampf, joining up and crossing the Amur, defeated the enemy troops threatening Blagoveshchensk at Aigun. Rennenkampf's detachment raided deep into enemy territory, inflicted a number of defeats on the rebels and reached Tsitsikar. Colonel Orlov's Cossack detachment pacified Western Manchuria. The detachments of Chichagov and Aygustov defeated the enemy in the east, near Primorye. We took Hunchun and Ningut. In early September, the CER was in our hands. On September 23, Rennenkampf's detachment made a brilliant raid and took Jirin. On September 28, the troops of General Subotin defeated the Chinese near Liaoyang, on September 30 they occupied Mukden. All of Manchuria was pacified.

In 1901, the last centers of the uprising were suppressed. Foreign powers imposed a new unequal treaty on China - the Final Protocol of September 7, 1901. Beijing apologized to Germany and Japan for the murders of their diplomats, pledged to punish the leaders of the uprising and ban all societies against foreigners from paying indemnities. The military forces of the Celestial Empire were limited, the Dagu forts were destroyed, foreigners gained control over a number of strong points from the coast to Beijing, and sent troops to guard the embassies. That is, China's dependence on foreigners has increased.

Russia, on the other hand, did not receive special political benefits from the victories of 1900 (except for 30% of reparations). We returned the Chinese Eastern Railway in a completely destroyed state, it had to be restored. Petersburg did not strengthen its position in China, showed great moderation. Militarily, the quality of the Chinese troops and insurgents was very low. The high fighting spirit of a number of boxing squads could not stop the “white devils” superior in combat training, organization and armament. In fact, the decisive Peking operation in this campaign was carried out by Russian commanders and troops. At the head of the allied army were battalions of Siberian riflemen and Russian naval companies. They rescued Seymour, stormed Dagu, defeated the Chinese army in Tangjin, opening the way to the Heavenly Capital, and took Beijing. The participation of the rest of the foreign troops was mostly demonstrative, with the exception of the Japanese, who fought bravely.


Allied Forces in Beijing
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, https://dic.academic.ru/
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 18 August 2020 05: 34 New
    -7
    Russia was also involved into this process, since used Sino-Japanese War, to turn on into their sphere of influence Northeast Manchuria ("Zheltorosiya") and occupy Port Arthur.
    AUTHOR, how is it with you with the cause and effect?
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 18 August 2020 07: 12 New
      +4
      What's wrong? The author means the war of 1894-95. Or did you mean something else?
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 18 August 2020 08: 08 New
      0
      Well what can I say? We can add to Lenin's words that the virtuous Christian civilization turned out to be not kind at all, but very even bloodthirsty. What were these Christian missionaries doing there, as well as the diplomats at whom the Chinese were so angry? Well, it's clear than the introduction of "Christian values"
      - do not kill, but in order to understand it - kill
      - love your neighbor and at the same time sow discord and hatred
      -Do not acquire and at the same time shamelessly enriched themselves at the expense of a foreign people.

      Throughout its history, the Christian civilization, to the glory of its Lord, lied, misled, destroyed the rebellious, destroyed the cultures of other peoples. And now everyone is wondering why statues around the world were destroyed, why the faces and statues were knocked down, why temples were destroyed? All this was done by Christian civilizers.
      We can say that the so-called Christian civilization is built on a lie. Christians did all this for the glory of Christ, but in fact, the main Christian god is money / golden calf for which Western civilization prays, well, as we see, the civilization built by the Romanovs too.
      The main lie is a large-scale historical lie that the picture of the past was exactly the same as the Christian church describes with its phony "many thousand years" history, with all sorts of "Tatar-Mongol" invasions. They blame all their atrocities on some fictitious peoples, and themselves at this time real peoples are being destroyed and states are being plundered.
      Having numerous historical facts about another past about the Great Tartary, the Christian civilization was able to write a completely false world history and hide the facts of its own crimes.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 18 August 2020 15: 56 New
        +1
        Was it necessary to introduce paganism?
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 18 August 2020 17: 16 New
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          Was it necessary to introduce paganism?

          history you need to know ...
      2. kalibr
        kalibr 18 August 2020 21: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: Bar1
        about Great Tartary, the Christian civilization was able to write a completely false world history

        It means that she was not Great even for a day, if she was gouged like God a turtle. But the Christian civilization is POWERFUL AND GREAT, if it has managed to do it all. There is also a third option, that all the tartars were nuts ...
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 19 August 2020 08: 53 New
          -1
          to know about Tartary you need to do this, you are not marked with such a vision.
          As for Christianity, "mighty and great" does not fit here, but treachery, resourcefulness and criminality are more suitable.
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 19 August 2020 11: 11 New
            -2
            Quote: Bar1
            treachery, resourcefulness and crime.

            They are synonymous with power and greatness.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 18 August 2020 05: 34 New
    0
    I hope there will be no more such discord in China ... weak government is not good.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 18 August 2020 05: 37 New
      -5
      Quote: The same Lech
      I hope there will be no more such discord in China ... weak government is not good.

      I hope the opposite, to the collapse of the United States. repeat
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 August 2020 06: 38 New
    +7
    China was a tasty prey for the imperialist powers. Huge territory, resources, population, market for their goods.

    And China, one might think, did not like tidbits, and at the same time: in 1875, the Qing Empire conquered state of Yettishar (Xinjiang) is by far the largest territorial-administrative unit of the PRC in terms of area.,

    Russia, on the other hand, did not receive special political benefits from the victories of 1900 (except for 30% of reparations). We returned the Chinese Eastern Railway in a completely destroyed state, it had to be restored.

    And the return of the road is not a victory?
    WHAT would have happened to the Russian Far East in RYAV, if not for her?
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 18 August 2020 07: 53 New
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      And the return of the road is not a victory?
      WHAT would have happened to the Russian Far East in RYAV, if not for her?

      From the very beginning, it was necessary to build not on the Chinese side, but on the Russian side. It would be 200 km longer, but safer, and would not depend on China and Japan. And so we got a headache for all time.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 18 August 2020 08: 01 New
        +2
        Quote: tihonmarine
        From the very beginning, it was necessary to build not on the Chinese side, but on the Russian side. It would be 200 km longer, but safer, and would not depend on China and Japan. And so we got a headache for all time.

        Cleverly. recourse Here are just the terrain - two big differences, resulting in costs too. request
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 18 August 2020 10: 09 New
          +2
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          Here are just the terrain - two big differences, resulting in costs too.

          The costs would be higher, but they would be justified. And the terrain across China is much heavier than along the Amur. After the boxing uprising, everything had to be rebuilt. They built, and then in September 1905, under the Portsmouth Treaty, the rights to the southern line of the Chinese Eastern Railway from Port Arthur and Dalniy to the city of Chang-chun were transferred to Japan. As a result, the southern line with a length of 230 km with the terminal station Kuanchendzy remained in the CER. Then on September 18, 1931, the Japanese troops invaded Northern Manchuria. In connection with the occupation of Northeast China by Japanese troops, the normal operation of the Chinese Eastern Railway ceased, on March 23, 1935, the Chinese Eastern Railway was sold to Manchukuo (in fact, to Japan).
          And then on December 31, 1952, the transfer of the CEL by the Soviet government to the possession of the People's Republic of China took place in Harbin. Since 1953, the KChR has been renamed into the Harbin Railway.
          This is the question for whom the CER was built? The history of the Chinese-Eastern (Manchurian) railway is closely connected with the construction of the Great Siberian Route - the Trans-Siberian Railway. At the beginning of work on laying the Transsib, two options were considered for its passage from Transbaikalia to the east
          According to the first option, the highway was supposed to pass along the Amur coast and the Russian-Chinese border to Khabarovsk, and according to the second - through Manchuria to the Pacific Ocean. Thanks to O.Yu. Witte for such a "Gift. My great-grandfathers and grandfathers built it, and I was born on this road. Look at the map and you will understand what and why."
      2. Bar1
        Bar1 18 August 2020 08: 22 New
        -4
        Quote: tihonmarine
        Quote: Olgovich
        And the return of the road is not a victory?
        WHAT would have happened to the Russian Far East in RYAV, if not for her?

        From the very beginning, it was necessary to build not on the Chinese side, but on the Russian side. It would be 200 km longer, but safer, and would not depend on China and Japan. And so we got a headache for all time.

        and they built on Russian territory, because the so-called Manchus are Russian Chinese Tartaria.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 18 August 2020 09: 28 New
          +9
          the Manchus are the Russians of the Chinese Tartary.

          Bar in its repertoire. The photo shows the Manchus of North China. In Bar's opinion, the photos are typically Russian faces.
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 18 August 2020 10: 40 New
            -7
            Quote: Undecim
            Bar in its repertoire. The photo shows the Manchus of North China. In Bar's opinion, the photos are typically Russian faces.


            there are also other images of the Chinese.



            very Chinese faces. Treaty of Nerchinsk 18th century.
            or it is better to look at the pictures of the "Chinese" Afanasy Kirchner 17th century.



            https://zen.yandex.ru/media/chronoton/tainstvennye-risunki-afanasiia-kirhera-5afd6a1d3c50f78325bda434

            https://vasily-sergeev.livejournal.com/5154408.html

            very, very Chinese faces. Actually, as for the "great inventions" of the Chinese, all this was stolen from the great Tartar people and gunpowder and compass and paper, etc.
            In our country, there are also Mongoloids, Turks, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, and they also build large houses, skyscrapers, but who can say that these structures are Tajik? This can only be said by official historians.
            1. Kronos
              Kronos 18 August 2020 16: 19 New
              +4
              You're also blind in the black and white image of ordinary Asian faces. And all your proofs are prints? Come on, find the images of the Peseheads and tell them they owned the land before.
              1. Bar1
                Bar1 18 August 2020 17: 17 New
                -3
                blind is you ...
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 18 August 2020 19: 36 New
              +5
              Quote: Bar1
              or it is better to look at the pictures of the "Chinese" Afanasy Kirchner 17th century.

              With the same success, it is possible, on the basis of two monuments to Peter I in St. Petersburg (works by Rastrelli and Falcone), to assert that Peter I was the emperor of Rome. And on the basis of the third, Shemyakinsky - that Peter was an alien. smile
              1. Bar1
                Bar1 18 August 2020 20: 09 New
                -1
                Quote: Alexey RA
                Quote: Bar1
                or it is better to look at the pictures of the "Chinese" Afanasy Kirchner 17th century.

                With the same success, it is possible, on the basis of two monuments to Peter I in St. Petersburg (works by Rastrelli and Falcone), to assert that Peter I was the emperor of Rome. And on the basis of the third, Shemyakinsky - that Peter was an alien. smile

                that no, here it is clearly visible that Peter is a Chinese ...
      3. Olgovich
        Olgovich 18 August 2020 09: 16 New
        -1
        Quote: tihonmarine
        From the very beginning, it was necessary to build not on the Chinese side, but on the Russian side.

        1. At that time there was no someone for sure and forever: quite recently Primorye became Russian, according to the Beijing Treaty of 1860 with the same China ..

        With Primorye, it happened, With Zheltorosiya, no.

        But if they did not try, did not try and did not move, then Primorye (Siberia, etc.) would not exist.

        2. Construction in Manchuria was much faster than in Russian territory. Without this, Russia would have met RYAV WITHOUT railroad communication with Primorye.

        And it would be a disaster, possibly with his loss
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 18 August 2020 10: 28 New
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          2. Construction in Manchuria was much faster than in Russian territory. Without this, Russia would have met RYAV WITHOUT railroad communication with Primorye.
          The conditions of the region caused the need to cross a significant number of rivers, streams and dry lands, which required the construction of many artificial structures. More than 21 thousand running meters of artificial structures were built on the CER, with the length of the main track of 2500 kilometers - this is more than 1440 various structures, including: 912 metal and 258 stone (arched) bridges, 230 culverts and chutes, 9 tunnels. -Japanese War 1904-1905. demonstrated to the government the erroneousness of this decision, and on the other hand, accelerated the construction of the Amur section of the railway. And also the construction of the Circum-Baikal railway along the lake shore.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 18 August 2020 10: 46 New
            -2
            Quote: tihonmarine
            Quote: Olgovich
            2. Construction in Manchuria was much faster than in Russian territory. Without this, Russia would have met RYAV WITHOUT railroad communication with Primorye.
            The conditions of the region caused the need to cross a significant number of rivers, streams and dry lands, which required the construction of many artificial structures. More than 21 thousand running meters of artificial structures were built on the CER, with the length of the main track of 2500 kilometers - this is more than 1440 various structures, including: 912 metal and 258 stone (arched) bridges, 230 culverts and chutes, 9 tunnels. -Japanese War 1904-1905. demonstrated to the government the erroneousness of this decision, and on the other hand, accelerated the construction of the Amur section of the railway. And also the construction of the Circum-Baikal railway along the lake shore.

            1.Structure in Manchuria was much shorter in time than its analogue in Russia.

            2.Manchuria could become Russia
            1. tihonmarine
              tihonmarine 18 August 2020 11: 34 New
              +1
              Quote: Olgovich

              1.Structure in Manchuria was much shorter in time than its analogue in Russia.
              2.Manchuria could become Russia

              The second option reduced the length of the road by more than 600 kilometers and was significantly cheaper. But taking into account the "boxing uprising", during which the entire built part was destroyed, it turned out more expensive. The CER cost the Russian treasury 460 million rubles. (3/8 of Russian money and 5/8 of French). My great-grandfather built this road, was the head of the site, and his brothers also built it. He died in those places, in 1968 at the age of 92 in the Nerchinsk Mine.
              And Manchuria would lie under Russia, but we missed Korea.
    2. Foul skeptic
      Foul skeptic 19 August 2020 12: 04 New
      0
      in 1875 the state of Yettishar (Xinjiang) was conquered by the Qing Empire

      This interpretation can be misleading to readers.
      The state of Yettishar was the product of anti-Chinese uprisings of local feudal lords in the century-old viceroyalty of the "New Territory" (Xinjiang). And not without the help of the British, who could not calm down after the Opium Wars. Therefore, within the framework of the "imperial paradigm" (undoubtedly close to you hi ) The Qing empire only suppressed by 1875 the lingering separate aspirations on its (since 1760) territory. And within the framework of the same "imperial paradigm," you should only welcome this, since Yettishar, supported by the British, had views of the Ili region (which, of course, we later returned to the Chinese anyway).
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 19 August 2020 12: 35 New
        0
        Quote: A vile skeptic
        This interpretation can be misleading to readers.

        This is not an interpretation, but a fact. hi
        Quote: A vile skeptic
        The Qing empire only suppressed by 1875 the lingering separate aspirations in its (since 1760) territory.

        No: only towards the middle 18 century the Dzungarian state was conquered by the Qing empire.

        In the 19th century, Yettishar was again conquered by China.
  4. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 18 August 2020 06: 55 New
    +3
    artisans, handicraftsmen, whose products could not withstand competition with cheaper foreign goods produced in an industrial way,
    Are you sure that Ros-Royce or Ford is cheaper than Niva? repeat Yes, even slippers! Not overseas goods, and the construction of factories for the production of consumer goods could ruin handicraftsmen.
    take over profitable businesses owned by foreigners
    For sweets: Medal "For a campaign to China" Number of awards 110 silver, 300 bronze
    Diameter 28 mm
    Other members also minted. He was holding in his hands a silver French one, badly mutilated, without a shoe.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 18 August 2020 07: 56 New
      +1
      Well, many wanted to read about the background of the storming of the Dagu forts and about the uprising itself - now they will read about it!
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 18 August 2020 16: 14 New
        +1
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, I would prefer to read it in your presentation. At least it would be more interconnected
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 18 August 2020 21: 50 New
          0
          I'll think about how to do it without repeating someone else's work ...
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 18 August 2020 09: 12 New
    14
    Again Samsonov "corrects" history. This time it went to the Japanese, whom the author identified as secondary negative characters.
    Meanwhile, in the alliance of eight nations, the Japanese contingent was the largest - 21 people against 000 Russians.
    On June 24 (July 7), the allied forces (8 thousand soldiers, mostly Russians) were headed by Admiral Alekseev. In a battle on July 1 (14), he defeated the Chinese army in the Tanjin region, opening the way to the capital.
    Russians and Japanese in the allied forces during the assault on Tanjin were equally divided, 2600 Russians, 2400 Japanese. Accordingly, the Russians made a decisive contribution to the success of the eastern detachment, and the Japanese to the success of the southern.
    The situation was approximately the same during the storming of Beijing. As a direct participant in the events Dmitry Grigorievich Yanchevetsky wrote: "Beijing was taken by the blood and sweat of two loyal allies - the Russians and the Japanese, with whom we, for the first time, under fire and cannonballs, experienced brotherhood in arms."
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 August 2020 16: 52 New
      +2
      I read Yanchevitsky. He has good style and a coherent presentation of events.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 August 2020 17: 01 New
        +3
        His brother also has the famous writer Vasily Yan - his brother.
  6. Kronos
    Kronos 18 August 2020 12: 20 New
    +2
    One of the most shameful pages of Russian history.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 August 2020 17: 02 New
      +3
      Colleague Kronos, what about the suppression of the Hungarian uprising of 1848?
      Caucasian war, development of Central Asia?
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 18 August 2020 22: 32 New
        0
        Likewise, of course.
  7. nnz226
    nnz226 18 August 2020 17: 35 New
    +2
    China has not won a single war with an external enemy ... All films about "cool Chinese fighters" tell about internal Chinese showdowns, starting from the 8th century ...
  8. Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 August 2020 18: 13 New
    +2
    It is better to read about all this: Yanchevitskiy "At the Walls of Immovable China". The author talks about how the "boxing uprising" began. In fact, Qi Xi provoked the uprising. I don't remember literally, but the point is this: kill Christians and the drought is writhing.
    And then the same Qi Xi orders to brutally suppress the performances of the Ihetuan
  9. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 19 August 2020 13: 45 New
    0
    The author beautifully copies Soviet sources, but no one in this war was "angels" - Russians, including those exposed by the authorities, distinguished themselves with the massacres of the Chinese population:

    Annunciation "utopia".

    On July 1, a Chinese battery fired at the Russian steamers Mikhail and Selenga sailing along the Amur.

    On July 2, 1900 (July 15 - new style), a Chinese battery opened artillery fire on Blagoveshchensk.
    As an eyewitness wrote: “Something incredible was happening along the streets! The people, shouting, crying and cursing, poured out into the city. There was a groan in the air from the mixed hum of many voices and the whistle of bullets that flew overhead every now and then. In the very middle of the street, carriages full of riders stretched in a continuous line. " Occasionally, shells exploded or cannonballs fell on the streets. Panic gripped the city. Despite the high intensity of fire - shots from Chinese rifles, according to eyewitnesses, sometimes merged into a continuous cannonade - its effectiveness, fortunately for the townspeople, turned out to be low.


    As soon as the situation escalated in Blagoveshchensk, representatives of the local Chinese diaspora (many Chinese lived in the province, engaged in petty trade, agriculture, working as seasonal workers for migrant peasants, at construction sites serving in rich families), came to Governor Gribsky with a request clarify the situation for them - what can await them and whether there is a need for them to leave the city.
    The governor assured that the Russian empire would not allow to offend civilians.

    Soon, mass pogroms began, the authorities did not take any measures to protect them.

    On July 3, the governor of the Amur Region, Konstantin Gribsky, ordered to gather all the Chinese living in Blagoveshchensk and send them to the village of Verkhneblagoveshchensk.
    On July 4, a convoy of several thousand Chinese, guarded by soldiers, left the city. The settlement chieftain refused to provide boats for the crossing, fearing that they would be used by the Chinese army for an invasion. The Chinese, among whom were old men, women and children, were invited to go swimming.

    The first rows that entered the water began to sink, the rest refused to swim.
    Those who voluntarily did not want to enter the water were driven there by force, first by shooting in the air, then, if people resisted, sensing the inevitable cruel death, with the blows of swords and axes, which the volunteers were armed with. As a result, out of several thousand, about a hundred people sailed to the coast, who on the Chinese coast began to be finished off by their own tribesmen, as traitors who did not support the uprising. The poor Chinese and Manchus were initially doomed: there was no place for them on the Russian coast, where they were considered bandits, and there was no Chinese, where they were considered traitors.


    On the shore downstream, whole heaps of lifeless bodies formed. In the following days, several hundred more people suffered a similar fate. In some of the villages along the Amur, for example in Dzhalinda, Albazin, the Cossacks peacefully ferried the Chinese on their boats. And in some, for example in Sergeevka, they treated the Chinese in the same way as in Blagoveshchensk. For several days the corpses of the unfortunate victims of the conflict floated along the Amur.

    After that, massacres of the Chinese and Manchus began on the Russian bank of the river. According to the reports of the police bailiffs, 8 corpses were found in 444 volosts, however, in the criminal case opened on this occasion, it was noted that the numbers were clearly underestimated.

    On the night of July 20, Russian troops landed on the Chinese coast near Blagoveshchensk. Governor Gribsky issued a decree ordering the destruction of all housing on the Chinese side and taking away all food.


    https://ampravda.ru/2019/07/16/089695.html
    https://ru.krymr.com/a/29358759.html
    https://milomalo.ru/archives/11896

    In China, the museum reminds of this tragedy - that would be remembered.
    1. Sergey Sfiedu
      Sergey Sfiedu 19 August 2020 20: 48 New
      0
      The Chinese, for the most part, still cannot swim. And yes - they remember everything.