Military Review

Best Breech-Loader Flint Rifle

62

A shot from a flintlock rifle always created a cloud of smoke not only from the front, but also from the back. The infantrymen were very disturbed by this. Less disturbed to the riders ...


Weapon 1812 year. Any war is an accelerator of progress. So the Napoleonic wars significantly accelerated this process. It took a lot of weapons, which forced the modernization of production, and in addition, it was necessary to improve the weapon itself. It was then that the first unitary cartridge of the Swiss gunsmith Samuel Pauli appeared, and he also created the world's first cartridge gun of 15 mm caliber, a patent for which he received on September 29, 1812. On tests, it showed a rate of fire of 22 rounds in 2 minutes and twice the range and accuracy of army guns. The novelty was immediately reported to Napoleon, he became interested, however, the introduction of new weapons and its subsequent distribution was prevented by the abdication of the emperor, and it is not known how it would develop at all история shooting business. Pauldi himself died in obscurity, and the glory of the creators of new weapons for new cartridges in Europe went to Casimir Lefosha and Johann Dreise ...


Pauli rifle bolt

However, the idea of ​​a breech-loading weapon, albeit without the use of cartridges, is much older. The oldest gun that has survived to this day is the breech-loading arquebus of King Henry VIII of England, dated 1537. Moreover, the king, apparently, loved such weapons, since in his arsenal of such guns after his death there were 139 ...


Shotgun Giuseppe Crespi

Already in 1770, some parts of the Austrian infantry and cavalry received breech-loading flintlocks designed by Giuseppe Crespi, in France in 1778 they adopted the Vincennes rifle, in which the barrel was moved forward for loading. In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, Major Fergusson's crane gun came into use and showed good results. The second, but the best in design, was the breech-loading gun developed by John Hancock Hall, patented by him on May 21, 1811 and entered into service with the US Army in 1819.


Major Fergusson's rifle

Before putting the new gun into service, US Army inspectors conducted tests by forcing a 38-man infantry company to fire at a target from 100 yards (91 m) for ten minutes at their usual rate of fire. At the same time, a comparison was made with the smooth-bore infantry musket and a rifled flint "rifle" which was then in service. And here are the results: “Hall” shots were fired - 1198; muzzle-loading smooth-bore muskets of the army type - 845, "muzzle-loading rifles" - 494. Hits on the target: "Hall" - 430 (36%); musket - 208 (25%); Muzzle-loading rifles - 164 (33%). Therefore, those who claim, including in the comments on "VO", are mistaken, that the accuracy of the flintlock rifles was high, and the design flaws were countered by "personnel training." Nothing of the kind! Nevertheless, tests have shown that in any case it gives more hits than all other samples!


Hall's Flintlock Rifle with Bayonet

But most importantly, it was much easier to load both infantrymen and, most importantly, horsemen! We will not repeat here the description of the process of loading a flintlock, it has already been given in this series of articles. Let's pay attention only to the differences of this process in the Hall gun, associated with its design. Moreover, it should be emphasized that it could be successfully both smooth-bore and rifled, and its convenience was especially noticeable in the version with a rifled barrel.

The gun in the breech had a charging chamber in the form of a metal bar, with a battery-type flint lock attached to it on top. Under the forend there was a lever, by pressing which the charging chamber, and in fact the bolt, was disengaged from the barrel and lifted up. It remained to take the cartridge out of the bag, bite it off and pour the gunpowder into the chamber (after pouring it on the shelf of the castle!). Then a bullet was inserted into the chamber, which, in rifled samples, entered the rifling only after the shot. And it was very convenient. There was no need to drive it into the barrel, deforming it with the blows of a mallet and a ramrod, and the rider had to keep his gun suspended. And then ... the shooter had everything at hand, and the ramrod was not required at all. Then the bolt was lowered and engaged with the barrel by two lugs. The trigger was retracted and you could shoot.


Hall carabiner 1843 already capsule and with side lever

Of course, the technology of that time could not yet provide an exact mating of all surfaces. Therefore, there was a small backward gas breakthrough. But ... all the flintlocks already gave both a flash and a cloud of gases in the area of ​​the castle when fired, so a slight increase in its volume did not play a significant role. It was important that the gun was durable. And here there were no comments on the design. It was really strong and could withstand the same as an army infantry musket! The disadvantages of Hall rifles and carbines can be attributed only to the greater consumption of gunpowder in the cartridges, caused by the breakthrough of gases and a decrease in their pressure in the barrel. As a result, the penetration capacity of a .52 caliber bullet for the Hall rifle was only a third of that of standard fittings, and the muzzle velocity of the carbine was 25% lower than that of a conventional smoothbore carbine, despite the fact that they had the same barrel length and used identical 70-facet powder charges. However, neither the smoke, nor the decrease in penetration power were critical for the riders. Therefore, Hall carbines were primarily used in the US Dragoon cavalry.


There were also Hall's pistols, why not?

One of the convenient "highlights" of the design was that by removing the transverse screw securing the bolt in the receiver, it was possible to remove it from the gun. Although this made it easier to clean and also allowed the bolt (which included the entire firing mechanism) to be loaded with gunpowder and bullet separately from the gun and even used as a crude but effective pistol. During the Mexican War, U.S. Army soldiers on leave often did so to provide protection in case they were trapped by angry locals while visiting the cantina.


Flintlock bolt open for loading

It was convenient to load this weapon not only with ball bullets (there was no need to fear that such a bullet would roll out of the gun), but also with Minier's expansion bullets, so that their appearance did not affect the use of Hall's guns.

Hall's original shotgun had a 32,5-inch (825 mm) barrel with right-handed rifling. At the muzzle, the barrel expanded to a depth of 1,5 inches, creating the illusion of a smooth-bore weapon. At the same time, the total length of the gun was 52,5 inches (1333 mm), but could vary from 48 to 60 inches (1,200 - 1,500 mm), and the weight without bayonet was 10,25 pounds (4,6 kg). The rifle fired a 0,525-inch (13,3-mm) bullet weighing 220 grains (half an ounce) using a 100-grain charge of black powder. The carbine was shorter and lighter - 3,6 kg. The effective range of fire was 800-1500 yards.


Flintlock bolt in open position. The powder shelf with the ignition hole is clearly visible

The carbine has been produced since 1833 using a 23 '' smooth barrel. It measured 43 inches in total length, weighed 8 pounds and was the first primer-fired firearm adopted by the US Army. The following year, a 0,69 (18-mm) carbine was prepared for the dragoon regiment, produced in 1836-1837.


View from above. The slot on the aiming bar, shifted to the left, is clearly visible

In 1843, the Hall carbine, also known as the M1843 and the "improved 1840", added a bolt handle designed by Henry North on the side. Such a modernization was needed because there were complaints from soldiers that the notched lower cocking lever of the bolt dug into their back when the rifle was carried on a belt over their shoulders. 11000 Hall-North carbines with a 21-inch barrel and 0,52 caliber were made, after which the production of Hall carbines at the Harpers Ferry arsenal was discontinued in 1844, but between 1843 and 1846 Simeon North also produced 3000 M1843 carbines.

Best Breech-Loader Flint Rifle

View of the shutter with capsule lock


Capsule lock is open, the brand tube and its fence are clearly visible

One of the interesting features of the Hall smoothbore carbine of the 1836 model was the non-removable needle bayonet, which was attached under the barrel in place of the ramrod. If necessary, it could be pulled out of the socket and fixed. After that, it was in no way inferior in its effectiveness to the detachable triangular bayonets, traditional for that time. Well, since the flintlock and the primer were on the bolt from above, the sights on Hall's guns and carbines were slightly shifted to the left.


Carbine М1836 (issue 1839) with a needle bayonet retracted into the forearm and primer ignition

The production of this type of weapon in the United States was massive. A total of 23500 Hall rifles and carbines were produced: 13684 carbines and 14000 Hall - North M1843 carbines.

Interestingly, they were also used during the American Civil War. In the southern states, the bolt was usually cut right in front of the hammer base, and a new stock and hammer were attached at the back, which hit the brand tube on the barrel, which was bored to a .58 caliber.


Model 1819 stock

These Hall carbines were used, for example, by General John C. Fremont's Western Army in the early years of the war. Redesigned by George Eastman's company, they also had barrels bored to .58 caliber, which was done in order to use standard musket cartridges with Minier bullets and even more modern adjustable sights.

Most often, Hall guns were converted into muzzle-loading guns by simply welding the bolt to the rear section of the barrel.


Hall's rifle M1817 with a magazine for bullets in the butt. Missouri Museum of History, St. Louis

Well, many of the lessons learned from the experience of using Hall guns were useful to the designers of a new generation of bolt devices, the creators of the Sharpe rifle (1848), the Spencer carbine (1860) and others.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Murderous "dark skin". The most productive flintlock rifle in the history of war
"Our broadswords are wonderful!" Sabers and broadswords 1812
Year XNUMX artillery
Pistols of the war of 1812
Thunderstorm of the twelfth year. Shotguns
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 3 September 2020 06: 02 New
    +7
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich.
    Only now, in large photos, I realized that a flint gun and an ATRM have similarities - a shifted aiming line!
    1. kalibr
      3 September 2020 07: 16 New
      10
      Glad you like it. And, yes, until you hold the weapon in your hands ... you don't understand a lot. Reading about him is one thing, but holding him, looking at him up close is quite another! It is a pity that it does not always work!
      1. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 3 September 2020 08: 31 New
        +5
        I absolutely agree, it is better to see once than hear a hundred times.
        Even if there is a drawing, it is not always possible to understand how everything functions. And to hold such a rarity in their hands, I think rarely anyone succeeds in such happiness.
        Thanks for your work.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 3 September 2020 11: 50 New
        +5
        Vyacheslav, is there any information about this carbine about its use in battles?

        Written by General Northerners Ambrose Burnside. breech-loading carbine, loaded with a cartridge with a brass sleeve, caliber .0,54. This cartridge was not yet unitary, the primer was inserted separately, which often caused misfires.
        1. kalibr
          3 September 2020 13: 03 New
          +3
          Quote: Sea Cat
          General of the Northerners Ambrose Burnside. breech-loading carbine, loaded with a cartridge with a brass sleeve, caliber .0,54. This cartridge was not yet unitary, the primer was inserted separately, which often caused misfires.

          Didn't I write about him in the series "US Small Arms of the 19th Century". This is a very interesting example. If interested, I can dig deeper. But it seems to me about all the carbines of those years I had ...
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 3 September 2020 13: 20 New
            +3
            I honestly don't remember. And interest about its combat use. Somehow they write not enough about him. Not very good, or did Spencer and Sharps arrive?
            1. kalibr
              3 September 2020 15: 42 New
              +4
              Konstantin! Interested ... I'll try to contact. I was already here when they asked me to contact the shooters from the USA and arrange ... In general, it did not work out. I can't get in touch with the American Rifle Association or a number of magazines. But Barnside and I like it. I promise to dig ...
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 3 September 2020 15: 45 New
                +4
                It would be cool, the carbine really falls out of the general range, and even the general designed it.
                1. kalibr
                  3 September 2020 17: 39 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  and even the general designed.

                  But he did not die as a general. The commander was so bad that he was kicked out of service!
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 September 2020 17: 57 New
                    +3
                    From the very beginning, he needed to open a weapons workshop. Although, albeit unsuccessful, but he had combat experience, he began to understand what a military man needed. Yes, they also have the so-called. there were temporary officer ranks. So it turns out that a general is on the battlefield, and he retires as a major. If memory serves, it was almost until World War II.
    2. kalibr
      3 September 2020 10: 13 New
      +7
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      flintlock

      Dear Nazariy, do not write "silicon". This fashion was taken by "experts" who have no ear or snout. Silicon is an element from the periodic table. Flint is a stone that is processed and inserted into the trigger lips and into the lighter. It's a trifle, but ... it's like that.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 3 September 2020 11: 00 New
        +5
        I will consider. I accept the remark.
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 16: 38 New
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        Dear Nazariy, do not write "silicon". This fashion was taken by "experts" who have no ear or snout.

        I remember how in Soviet times a journalist wrote "a flint gun" in an article "about weapons"! Readers did not forgive him for this "byaka" and began to sneer ... the journalist received a reprimand from the editor-in-chief and a "business trip" to the armory museum!
        1. kalibr
          3 September 2020 17: 35 New
          +2
          Alas, Vladimir! And now they write so. Met more than once. But a comment is one thing and an article is another ...
    3. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2020 10: 27 New
      +8
      Only now, in large photos, I realized that a flint gun and an ATRM have similarities - a shifted aiming line!

      EMNIP, was the line also shifted on the ZB-26 and BREN machine guns? hi as a tribute to the store from above?
      Vyacheslav Olegovich - thank you very much for talking about the weapons that are little known to the domestic reader! drinks
      Colleagues, have a nice day everyone! drinks
      1. kalibr
        3 September 2020 15: 44 New
        +4
        Pan, Panov ... I have joy, and you too. Finally I got to our museum and they promised me to open one curious showcase. Next Saturday at 10.00. It will be something, I won't even go to the dacha!
        1. VIP
          VIP 3 September 2020 20: 35 New
          +3
          Vyacheslav, I'm already looking forward to tell you what's interesting there.
          I noticed that you are informed about the weapon. It's one thing when the author is rewriting someone else's, the site has such, and even clumsy. Another thing is when the author is called "sick" with this topic. This is noticeable
          1. kalibr
            3 September 2020 21: 50 New
            +1
            Oh, they promised me to open windows with the "mitres" of Peter III. So I can see them from all sides, there are still different interesting things ... And then one is worn on the figure of "Suvorov soldier". We will stop this for the rest of the time!
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 September 2020 19: 14 New
        +1
        Russian Groundhog Day.
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 3 September 2020 07: 12 New
    +1
    Napoleon had no time for Pauli, only he came running from Russia out of breath. About 2-3 years ago, then Napoleon would have become interested for sure. But thank God this did not happen. But that's why the British were not interested in this, Pauli moved to England, it's not clear. And Dreise began to invent the hairpin cartridge, although some people like it. Rain, fog, dampness and what kind of shooting is impossible. You need to know the weather forecast before planning a battle.
    1. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 3 September 2020 07: 37 New
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      Dreise began to invent the hairpin chuck

      For hairpin cartridges, this is for Lefosha)
  3. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 09: 16 New
    +5
    Many thanks to the Author for the Hall weapon! Hall's weapon with a folding chamber bolt (this, sometimes, "formulation" I met, once, in "literature" ...) is my favorite! The author spoke in such detail about this weapon (castle) that, in general, there is nothing to add! (So ​​I'm spinning my penny in my fingers .... there's nowhere to insert it!). Unless to add that I have come across images of weapons of other "creators" with locks very similar to the Hall lock ... but folded to the side - to the right or even to the bottom! Alas, I cannot give details; because. I am currently away from my computer "archive" ...
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 3 September 2020 10: 40 New
    +6
    The novelty was immediately reported to Napoleon, who became interested, however, the introduction of new weapons and its subsequent distribution was prevented by the abdication of the emperor, and it is not known how the history of small arms business would develop at all.
    Its subsequent spread was prevented not by Napoleon's abdication, but by the fact that development was ahead of needs. Napoleon himself said about Pauli's system (I cannot vouch for the literary translation): "Inventions ahead of their time remain unclaimed until general knowledge reaches the same level." Soldiers cannot make Pauli's cartridge on their own, and it was difficult to build a full-fledged cartridge production with that level of technology, especially given the sharp increase in consumption. General knowledge is far behind, and the military has not matured either.

    In 1814, Pauli left for England, but even there nobody was interested in his development.
    By the way, Pauli's cartridge was not designed by himself, but together with the French gunsmith François Prélat.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 3 September 2020 10: 48 New
      +5
      And weapons with the Pauli system are still found. Apparently, it was used in hunting weapons for some time.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 3 September 2020 10: 51 New
        +7
        Pauldi himself died in obscurity, and the glory of the creators of new weapons for new cartridges in Europe went to Casimir Lefosha and Johann Dreise ...
        By the way, Dreise worked in Pauli's workshop in Paris since 1809. In 1814, Pauli went to London, and Dreise to Prussia.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 17: 03 New
          +2
          Quote: Undecim
          Pauldi himself died in obscurity, and the glory of the creators of new weapons for new cartridges in Europe went to Casimir Lefosha and Johann Dreise ...
          By the way, Dreise worked in Pauli's workshop in Paris since 1809. In 1814, Pauli went to London, and Dreise to Prussia.

          If I'm not mistaken, Pauli also worked on the ignition of a powder charge from compressed air during rapid expansion! In general ... topic: "unconventional methods of ignition of a powder charge" deserves special attention and a separate article! I mentioned the "pneumatic" method of ignition ... but I also met this: "ignition of a powder charge with a hot needle using a blowtorch ..."! There were attempts to use electricity ... In some "near-fantastic" story, I had to read about a gun with a grater lock with phosphorus balls ...
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 3 September 2020 17: 11 New
            +2
            There have been attempts to use electricity... laser beam ignition, plasma ignition, induction ignition and charge ignition by controlled electromagnetic microwave radiation.
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 17: 24 New
              +2
              Quote: Undecim
              There have been attempts to use electricity

              Quote: Undecim
              laser beam ignition, plasma ignition, induction ignition and ignition of charges by controlled electromagnetic microwave radiation.

              Eka, my friend, where did you get carried away! belay I started modestly like this ... from the 19th century! recourse
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 3 September 2020 17: 46 New
                +4
                I started modestly like this ... from the 19th century
                And in the 19th century, with rapid expansion, the gas temperature dropped, and with compression, it increased. Have you heard about the expander?
                1. Nikolaevich I
                  Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 20: 28 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Undecim
                  during rapid expansion, the gas temperature dropped, and during compression, it increased.
                  I will not argue ... in the first comment I said "without looking"! My goal was to mention the "process" without going into details!
          2. Foul skeptic
            Foul skeptic 3 September 2020 17: 29 New
            0
            ignition of a powder charge from compressed air during rapid expansion

            Vladimir, the process is not entirely clear. For some reason, I remembered "tourist eternal lighters" in my head, when a "ignition" is placed in a homemade small cylinder and when compressed by a piston, the ignition ignites, since when the volume of gas decreases, its temperature increases. I cannot imagine the process you described.
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 21: 39 New
              +1
              Quote: A vile skeptic
              For some reason, I remembered "tourist eternal lighters" in my head, when a "ignition" is placed in a homemade small cylinder and when compressed by a piston, the ignition ignites, since when the volume of gas decreases ...

              I think this is exactly the principle Pauli was trying to apply! For the first comment, I ask you to excuse me; because. my task was to mention this method (principle) without going into details! So I spoke without "looking" (without thinking ...)! That's because of this "without looking", and made a mistake! By the way, NATO was developing prototypes of rifles, cartridges with ignition from "hot" air! So, in this direction you can joke!
              1. Foul skeptic
                Foul skeptic 4 September 2020 09: 00 New
                +2
                The text that you brought interested and prompted further searches, because in my memory I had that the VEC-91 with electric ignition. This is how it looks

                Not entirely clear with the release date. For the first time, the VEC-91 was presented at IWA-1991 (and the numbers 91 in the name of the rifle itself say the same.). I thought that in this case, the numbers in the name of VEC-95 would just speak of 1995, and the delusion crept into my mind simply because the text was poorly composed. With the cartridge it is also unclear - 5,56 - is it just an unsuccessful rounding under the usual ("by ear") caliber? Because here is the VEC-91 cartridge:

                For him, you can find the following designations:
                5.7 mm VOERE Caseless
                5.7x26 UCC (Usel Caseless Cartridge)
                5.7x26 Voere
                5.7 UCC
                5.7x26 RB UCC
                ECRA-ECDV 06 026 KGE 011
                About the VEC-95, a quick search did not give anything, and about the V / L cartridge too ((- maybe it's just prototyping it's over, that's why this pistol is not on the manufacturer's website in the "products" section (although it's strange why not in the "history" section) Although, I think, all the same, traces must remain somewhere. We will deepen))
  5. KSVK
    KSVK 3 September 2020 11: 06 New
    0
    Interesting article. But still, the author, as far as I understand the terminology, a gun is a weapon with a smooth barrel, and a rifle with a rifled one. And the carbine is a somewhat shortened rifle. Those. with a rifled barrel.
    1. kalibr
      3 September 2020 13: 06 New
      +2
      Quote: KSVK
      Those. with a rifled barrel.

      And if with smooth? And so everything is correct.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 3 September 2020 17: 14 New
      +2
      Quote: KSVK
      As far as I understand the terminology, a gun is a weapon with a smooth barrel, and a rifle is a rifled one. And the carbine is a somewhat shortened rifle. Those. with a rifled barrel.

      Oh, be careful! Terminology is such a tricky thing! Like the same cybernetics - "the corrupt girl of imperialism"! Have you read the book "The Last of the Mohicans" about a hunter with a "long carbine"? And in Poland, the usual infantry rifle (rifle) was called a "carbine", and the usual carbine was called a "carbine"! And in 1812, the cavalry fought, acre of cold steel, and smooth-bore "pistols" and carbines!
  6. Catfish
    Catfish 3 September 2020 11: 07 New
    +4
    Vyacheslav, thank you very much! A very interesting article, before I heard something, I heard it, about Hall's rifles, but I specifically knew only about Fergusson's carbine, and information about Pauli somehow slipped past me. We were pleased with new information and excellent photographic material. good drinks
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 3 September 2020 11: 11 New
    +7
    The oldest gun that has survived to this day is the breech-loading arquebus of King Henry VIII of England, dated 1537. Moreover, the king, apparently, loved such weapons, since in his arsenal of such guns after his death there were 139 ...
    But only one survived.
  8. John22
    John22 3 September 2020 12: 00 New
    +3
    It is a shame that there is no photo of the Hall carbine, also known as the M1843 and the "improved 1840", with the added bolt handle designed by Henry North located on the side.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 3 September 2020 12: 42 New
      +4
      That's all I found. hi


      1. John22
        John22 3 September 2020 20: 07 New
        +2
        Thank you. It was interesting how the problem of removing the lever from under the forend would be technically solved.
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 3 September 2020 12: 07 New
    +4
    On the subject of the Civil War in the United States, I found this picture.

    The Confederate lying in the center of the rifle looks like a breech-loading rifle, but what kind of model?

    At first I thought it was Snyder-Anfield, but somehow not very ...

    Snider-Enfield Mk III Long Rifle




    Any opinions on this? hi
    1. kalibr
      3 September 2020 13: 08 New
      +2
      It is seen very poorly, even when enlarging the picture ...
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 3 September 2020 16: 20 New
      +5
      Snider-Enfield Mk III Long Rifle
      It won't do. It was put into service a year after the end of the civil war.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 3 September 2020 16: 52 New
        +3
        Yes, she does not fit anyway, not the same appearance, I just "fucked" with her, that's why I posted it.
        Vic, do you have anything about this?
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 3 September 2020 17: 07 New
          +4
          Not. I went through all the known options, I don't like them all. Maybe the artist sees that? We have to rummage through the books. By the way, a fragment of this picture is on the cover of The Rifle Musket in Civil War Combat: Reality and Myth.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 3 September 2020 17: 11 New
            +3
            In general, the rest of this artist is quite accurate. Today, looking through several paintings of that time, or related to it, I drew attention to the fact that American artists are very meticulous in depicting tools, equipment and forms.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 3 September 2020 17: 14 New
              +3
              Yes, here I am interested. The details are drawn in great detail. And I do not think that the southerner has any unique sample. But I haven't found anything suitable yet.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 3 September 2020 17: 19 New
                +3
                Or maybe some kind of handicraft alteration in a small series in the workshop "for the manufacture of shovels and pans"? I'm serious. After all, they did it.
                1. kalibr
                  3 September 2020 17: 37 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  After all, they did it.

                  Especially for you, Konstantin, I will write what they did. Found something ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 September 2020 17: 52 New
                    +4
                    This is good, but why only for me, everyone will be interested.
                    1. kalibr
                      3 September 2020 18: 20 New
                      +4
                      Your order, everyone will read it! You are the initiator!
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 3 September 2020 18: 32 New
                        +3
                        As in the joke that "an initiative has an initiator." laughing
                2. Undecim
                  Undecim 3 September 2020 17: 41 New
                  +3
                  There may be such an option.
              2. VIP
                VIP 3 September 2020 21: 07 New
                +3
                Guys, what I noticed: the "southerners" were less well supplied with weapons, and for a long time "gave thrush" to the northerners. In fact, the Yankees. Yuuzhan filled up with technical progress.
                When I was a kid and read: "Uncle Tom's hut" or "Tom Soyr" I felt to the northerners.
                PS. At that time, I represented the bad southerners as whites, and the invaders dragged them a bunch of weapons. And now I see that southerners lived poorer
                1. kalibr
                  3 September 2020 21: 54 New
                  +4
                  Quote: VIP
                  And now I see that southerners lived poorer

                  Read about southerners "Gone with the Wind".
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 September 2020 22: 35 New
                    +3
                    Watching is also possible, rather even necessary.



                  2. VIP
                    VIP 4 September 2020 13: 52 New
                    +3
                    Was reading. Actually, "Gone with the Wind" is Fiction.
  10. AK1972
    AK1972 3 September 2020 15: 25 New
    +6
    11000 Hall - North carbines with a barrel were made diameter 21 inches

    21 inches = 533mm. Yes, it's a mortar. Do not take it as a nitpick, it is clear that the length of the barrel was meant, but the mistake came out funny. Thank you for the interesting article, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. kalibr
      3 September 2020 15: 47 New
      +4
      Of course, Alexey, you are right. But when you write quickly, and slowly I would never write so much, you often use cliches and they ... overtake consciousness. Length or diameter ... consciousness says "length" and the hand outputs "diameter". So ... You check the text and you see the "diameter", and the brain reads "length" - that's right!
  11. Undecim
    Undecim 3 September 2020 16: 02 New
    +6
    Of course, the technology of that time could not yet provide an exact mating of all surfaces. Therefore, there was a small breakthrough of gases back
    It's not about time. For caseless systems, the issue of chamber obturation is not fully resolved today. And in revolvers too.
    1. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 3 September 2020 23: 38 New
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      For caseless systems, the issue of chamber obturation is not fully resolved today.

      The ring seal of the Sharps carbine looks pretty good already. This is who could be the perfect breech-loading flintlock. :) The problem is rather in trying to use a removable or movable chamber system.