Military Review

"Invasion of Twelve Tongues." Who fought against Russia in Napoleon's army

54

To say that in 1812 our land was invaded by the "French army" is just as correct as to continue to say that on June 22, 1941, the Soviet Union was attacked exclusively by Nazi Germany. Historical justice requires admitting: during the Patriotic War, Russia opposed the most real “united Europe” (in the version of the XNUMXth century). So who exactly was uninvited into our borders as part of the Great Army of Napoleon Bonaparte?


It was not for nothing that our ancestors called this invasion "the invasion of two hundred languages." This number, as you might guess, in Old Russian corresponded to the current figure 12. In fact, the enumeration of various nationalities, representatives of which in significant numbers were present in the ranks of the Napoleonic horde, does not even fit into a dozen. There were more of them. Bonaparte himself, according to some recollections, said that in the Great Army, which numbered, according to various sources, from 610 to 635 thousand personnel, "even 140 thousand do not speak French."

A small reservation should be made here. In those days, the natives of some regions of modern France spoke in dialects that today would seem to their distant descendants as sheer gibberish. The "big" states that are familiar to us today, with their capitals Paris, Rome, Berlin, simply did not exist yet. Yes, many modern historians, in order not to go into subtleties, argue that there were about 300 thousand Frenchmen in the Great Army. That is about half.

In second place were the Germans, who gave Bonaparte about 140 thousand soldiers. Let's clarify right away: speaking of conditional Germans, we mean the subjects of Bavaria, Prussia, Westphalia, Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg. And also formations of a lower rank, such as the Hesse, Baden Grand Duchies and very tiny little ones like the "states" of the Rhine Union. All of these were countries that were vassal to Bonaparte's empire, with the exception of Prussia, which had the status of an ally.

The third largest were units and subunits formed from Poles, of whom there were at least 100 thousand in the Great Army. It is worth dwelling on some points in more detail here. Unlike some other non-French people, who were brought to Russia either by the vassal oath of their rulers to Paris, or by the desire to receive a good salary and plunder to plenty, the Poles were eager to fight "for the idea." The idea, in fact, was the desire to destroy our country, in which they saw "an empire of darkness threatening the entire civilized Europe" (a quote from those years) and on its wreckage to arrange, albeit under a French protectorate, "Great Poland can be reached."

If we take in relation to the total population of countries, then France gave the Grand Army 1% of its citizens, and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw - as much as 2,3%.

A considerable contingent was provided to Napoleon by another of his ally - Austria. 40 thousand of her subjects came to trample the Russian land. There were slightly fewer Italians from the Kingdom of Naples and other duchies, principalities, cities and villages scattered across the Apennine Peninsula. Small and seemingly not belligerent Switzerland gave 12 thousand. About 5 thousand - Spain, at one time desperately resisting Napoleonic invasion.

The rest of the non-French contingents, in comparison with those listed above, look much paler: there were only a couple of thousand Portuguese, Dutch and Croats each. But they were! Leading all this international rabble to kill our ancestors, Napoleon Bonaparte, in particular, declared that the purpose of the campaign he had begun was to strive "to put an end to the disastrous influence of Russia, which it had on the affairs of Europe for fifty years!"

Centuries pass ... Nothing changes.
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Photos used:
Wikipedia / Napoleon's Great Army
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  1. svp67
    svp67 18 August 2020 18: 27 New
    +5
    Centuries pass ... Nothing changes.
    Unfortunately...
    According to the recollections of eyewitnesses of those terrible days, it was the Germans and Poles who looted and committed atrocities most of all ...
  2. Undecim
    Undecim 18 August 2020 18: 27 New
    13
    Propagandist Kharaluzhny decided to make a discovery?
    On June 24, 1812, the French army totaling 685 people consisted of:
    • 410 French
    • 95 Poles
    • 35 Austrians
    • 30 Italians
    • 24 Bavarians
    • 20 Saxons
    • 20 Prussians
    • 17 Westphalians
    • 15 Swiss
    • 10 Danes and Norwegians
    • 4000 Portuguese
    • 3500 Croats
    • 2000 Irish
    1. Sergey Valov
      Sergey Valov 18 August 2020 21: 01 New
      -5
      In June, a little more than 400 people crossed the Russian border. There were no Saxons from the word at all. The French were one and a half to two times less.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 August 2020 21: 12 New
        +6
        I didn't write about the army that "crossed the border".
        1. Sergey Valov
          Sergey Valov 18 August 2020 21: 51 New
          0
          "On June 24, 1812, the French army with a total strength of 685 people" - please specify which army in question.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 18 August 2020 22: 01 New
            +2
            please specify which army we are talking about.
            Grande Armee.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 18 August 2020 23: 04 New
              +1
              Oh, what a "people's avenger" with minuses arrived in time.
            2. Sergey Valov
              Sergey Valov 19 August 2020 02: 35 New
              -1
              Too much. Bogdanovich, even with marching units (80 people), is gaining 000 people.
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 18 August 2020 21: 56 New
        +7
        There were no Saxons from the word at all.

        There were no Saxons. But there were Saxons.
        7th Corps commanded by General Rainier.
        The Battle of Kobryn - a complete defeat on July 15 (27), 1812 by the Russian troops of the Saxon brigade in the city of Kobryn at the initial stage of the Patriotic War of 1812.
        The city of Kobrin was occupied by a 5-thousandth Saxon brigade under the command of Major General Klengel from the 22nd Infantry. divisions of the Corps Rainier.
        According to the report of Tormasov, up to 2 thousand Saxons were killed, 2 generals were captured, including Klengel himself, 76 officers and 2382 lower ranks, 2 battalion banners, 2 standards and 8 guns were captured. The Russians killed 77 people and wounded 181.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 18 August 2020 21: 58 New
          +3
          There were no Saxons
          This is a technical error. I also meant Saxons.
          1. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov 18 August 2020 22: 11 New
            +1
            Now I understand, thanks.
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 18 August 2020 22: 13 New
            +2
            I actually had no doubts! It's just that Comrade Valov did not understand. Explained a little! hi
        2. Sergey Valov
          Sergey Valov 18 August 2020 22: 11 New
          +2
          Two more Saxon cuirassier regiments were in the 4th cavalry corps.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 18 August 2020 22: 17 New
            +2
            In this case, the Saxons can be direct descendants of the ancient German Saxons!
      3. Fat
        Fat 19 August 2020 15: 34 New
        0
        Not verified! Rather, this campaign was started by about 600 thousand people. Well. The goals of this war are few goals and no reason is found. Lazha.
        Rather, these are internal reasons and within the Napleonic Empire.
        Russia has always interfered with everyone ...
        That's awesome!
        Found a fuin between East and West ...
      4. Tavrik
        Tavrik 19 August 2020 18: 44 New
        0
        Thielemann's Saxon brigade then approached?
      5. podymych
        podymych 24 August 2020 08: 18 New
        0
        They meant, of course, the Saxons, there could even be more of them ... since some were recorded in the wrong place ...
    2. Petrik66
      Petrik66 19 August 2020 09: 39 New
      +1
      IN THE PERIOD from 22.06.1941/2.09.1945/XNUMX to XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX
      Nationality of Prisoners of War Total

      Germans - 2,389560 million people
      Japanese - 639,635 thousand people
      Hungarians - 513,767 thousand people
      Romanians - 187,370 thousand people
      Austrians - 156,682 thousand people
      Czechoslovakia - 69,977 thousand people
      Poles - 60,280 thousand people
      Italians - 48,957 thousand people
      French - 23,136 thousand people
      Yugoslavs - 21,822 thousand people
      Moldavians - 14,129 thousand people
      Chinese - 12,928 thousand people
      Jews - 10,173 thousand people
      Koreans - 7,785 thousand people
      Dutch - 4,729 thousand people
      Mongols - 3,608 thousand people
      Finns - 2,377 thousand people
      Belgians - 2,010 thousand people
      Luxembourgers - 652 people
      Danes - Xnumx of Man
      Spaniards - 452 people (according to other sources 350 Spaniards were captured by the Soviet Union - 94 died, the rest returned to 1954)
      Gypsies - 383 person
      Norwegians - 101 person
      Swedes - Xnumx of Man
      Well gypsies and Jews are overkill
      1. pmkemcity
        pmkemcity 19 August 2020 10: 21 New
        +1
        Quote: Petrik66
        Well gypsies and Jews are overkill

        The Jews quite fought for the Fuehrer - 150 thousand Jewish soldiers and officers, fought as part of the Hitlerite army.

        The term "Mishling" in the Reich called people born from mixed marriages of Aryans with non-Aryans. The racial laws of 1935 distinguished between Mishling of the first degree (one of the parents is a Jew) and the second degree (grandparents are Jews). Despite the legal "corruption" of people with Jewish genes and despite the bitter propaganda, tens of thousands of Mishling lived quietly under the Nazis. They were routinely drafted into the Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine, becoming not only soldiers, but also part of the generals at the level of commanders of regiments, divisions and armies.

        Hundreds of Mishling were awarded Iron Crosses for their courage. Twenty soldiers and officers of Jewish origin were awarded the highest military award of the Third Reich - the Knight's Cross. However, many Wehrmacht veterans complained that the authorities were reluctant to represent the orders and pulled with promotion in the rank, mindful of their Jewish ancestors.

        For a long time, the Nazi press put a photo of a blue-eyed blond in a helmet. Under the picture it read: "An ideal German soldier." This Aryan ideal was the Wehrmacht fighter Werner Goldberg (with a Jewish pope).
        1. Petrik66
          Petrik66 19 August 2020 12: 23 New
          0
          Very interesting, but there were distinctions depending on the degree 1 and 2?
          1. pmkemcity
            pmkemcity 19 August 2020 13: 01 New
            +1
            Quote: Petrik66
            Very interesting, but there were distinctions depending on the degree 1 and 2?

            Before the war, formally, there were. In the literature, for example, cases are described when the right Jews visited their wrong relatives in concentration camps and ghettos, and then back to the front, behind the Fuhrer.
            In my opinion, Heydrich, was a second degree mishling, and nothing, he worked for the glory of Germany.
            1. Petrik66
              Petrik66 19 August 2020 14: 46 New
              0
              We are constantly being told that the SS and especially the SD are just a knightly order. that is what Himmler wanted to achieve. Here is a knight Globocnik for example. There is one rule that when such gifted (Vlasovites, ssesmans, spirits, Hungarians, etc.) fall into the hands of makhras, then they quietly end, so that they do not give more offspring. If there was time, then they were hung, if there was a lot of time, then they asked, and then they were hung.
              1. pmkemcity
                pmkemcity 20 August 2020 05: 29 New
                0
                Goering's phrase went down in history: "Who is a Jew in my ministry and who is not - I decide!"
                Erhard Milch (1892 - 1972) rose to the rank of field marshal and was, in fact, the "father" of the Luftwaffe.
                Helmut Wilberg (1880 - 1941) - one of the first combat pilots in Germany. In 1917-1918, Wilberg had about 70 squadrons under his command, in the 1920s he was considered the leading aviation theorist of the Reichswehr.
                Stormtrooper Maurice took part in the "beer coup" in Munich in November 1923, was arrested and imprisoned with Hitler in the Landsberg prison. In 1925 he was one of the organizers of the SS detachments (membership card number 2), where he subsequently held high posts.
                1. Aaron Zawi
                  Aaron Zawi 20 August 2020 13: 26 New
                  0
                  Quote: pmkemcity
                  Goering's phrase went down in history: "Who is a Jew in my ministry and who is not - I decide!"
                  Erhard Milch (1892 - 1972) rose to the rank of field marshal and was, in fact, the "father" of the Luftwaffe.
                  Helmut Wilberg (1880 - 1941) - one of the first combat pilots in Germany. In 1917-1918, Wilberg had about 70 squadrons under his command, in the 1920s he was considered the leading aviation theorist of the Reichswehr.
                  Stormtrooper Maurice took part in the "beer coup" in Munich in November 1923, was arrested and imprisoned with Hitler in the Landsberg prison. In 1925 he was one of the organizers of the SS detachments (membership card number 2), where he subsequently held high posts.

                  And all these people were Jews?
                  1. pmkemcity
                    pmkemcity 20 August 2020 15: 48 New
                    0
                    Quote: Aaron Zawi
                    And all these people were Jews?

                    It turns out ... were.
                    1. Aaron Zawi
                      Aaron Zawi 20 August 2020 16: 24 New
                      0
                      Quote: pmkemcity
                      Quote: Aaron Zawi
                      And all these people were Jews?

                      It turns out ... were.

                      Well, nonsense. Maybe there was a share of Jewish blood from baptized Jews in them, but to call them Jews is to pull an owl onto the globe.
                      1. pmkemcity
                        pmkemcity 21 August 2020 04: 42 New
                        0
                        Quote: Aaron Zawi
                        Well, nonsense. Maybe there was a share of Jewish blood from baptized Jews in them, but to call them Jews is to pull an owl onto the globe.

                        Would Israel accept such "inferior" Jews if they were citizens of the USSR? And the owl has such eyes precisely because it is pulled on the globe all the time.
                      2. Aaron Zawi
                        Aaron Zawi 21 August 2020 06: 46 New
                        0
                        Quote: pmkemcity
                        Quote: Aaron Zawi
                        Well, nonsense. Maybe there was a share of Jewish blood from baptized Jews in them, but to call them Jews is to pull an owl onto the globe.

                        Would Israel accept such "inferior" Jews if they were citizens of the USSR? And the owl has such eyes precisely because it is pulled on the globe all the time.

                        If they had been baptized, he would not have accepted.
                      3. pmkemcity
                        pmkemcity 21 August 2020 09: 30 New
                        0
                        Come on! And if an atheist, is it possible?
                      4. Aaron Zawi
                        Aaron Zawi 21 August 2020 10: 04 New
                        0
                        Quote: pmkemcity
                        Come on! And if an atheist, is it possible?

                        Someone can.
                      5. pmkemcity
                        pmkemcity 21 August 2020 10: 23 New
                        0
                        Quote: Aaron Zawi
                        Someone can.

                        Was it not about them that they said that Christ was sold?
                      6. Aaron Zawi
                        Aaron Zawi 21 August 2020 12: 14 New
                        0
                        Quote: pmkemcity
                        Quote: Aaron Zawi
                        Someone can.

                        Was it not about them that they said that Christ was sold?

                        What do you care about our Jewish showdown?
                      7. pmkemcity
                        pmkemcity 21 August 2020 13: 48 New
                        0
                        Quote: Aaron Zawi
                        What do you care about our Jewish showdown?

                        What makes you think that this is "your Jewish showdown"? My wife is Jewish, and for 31 years now I have been donating the blood of a "Christian baby" every day.
                      8. Aaron Zawi
                        Aaron Zawi 21 August 2020 14: 36 New
                        0
                        Quote: pmkemcity
                        Quote: Aaron Zawi
                        What do you care about our Jewish showdown?

                        What makes you think that this is "your Jewish showdown"? My wife is Jewish, and for 31 years now I have been donating the blood of a "Christian baby" every day.

                        As a colleague, I can sympathize. laughing
                      9. pmkemcity
                        pmkemcity 21 August 2020 16: 12 New
                        0
                        Sorry, but the work is over. Went to shabbat hi
                      10. Aaron Zawi
                        Aaron Zawi 21 August 2020 17: 05 New
                        0
                        hi Shabbat Shalom.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. The comment was deleted.
  • sleeve
    sleeve 21 August 2020 14: 01 New
    0
    Not. So you can agree to anything. Rosenberg's racial theory indicated that the bearer of the "root" genes was a man. Especially if we are talking about "grandmothers". There is already a "quarter" and the above "gradations" began. "Straight" Jews were really slaughtered, especially in the occupied territories, without a single "garter" in the Reich. In the Reich itself (the metropolis) there really was a lot of muddy. But if you see only "accomplices" and analyze on the basis of this, then you can reach an agreement before denying the Holocaust.
  • Herman 4223
    Herman 4223 20 August 2020 14: 55 New
    0
    This is a list of prisoners in camps for 1946, when a census of prisoners of war was taken, and many did not live up to that time. Since 1943, prisoners from the countries occupied by Germany were sent to national units to fight against Germany.
  • tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 18 August 2020 18: 30 New
    +1
    Historical justice requires admitting: during the Patriotic War, Russia confronted the most real "united Europe" (in the version of the XNUMXth century).
    We have been hitting for more than 200 years, but still we are not satisfied.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 August 2020 18: 32 New
    +6
    "12 thousand gave a small and seemingly not belligerent Switzerland" actually Switzerland traditionally supplied mercenaries. During the French Revolution, the Swiss courageously defended the king's palace. There was about this on the site
    The Pope's guard also consists of Swiss. So the statement "not militant" needs clarification
    1. Karenius
      Karenius 18 August 2020 18: 49 New
      +4
      Smiled :) A very famous Swiss jeweler lived here (well, there were orders from the British and not only the crown) ... so he was seriously sure that Hitler did not dare to attack Switzerland ... :) The opinion that the Germans considered Switzerland only as a "meeting room" for a channel of communication with American bankers, he would be killed ...
  • Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 18 August 2020 19: 23 New
    +5
    "Europe" has such a tradition, once in 100 years to gather in a heap and go to Russia for lyuli.
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 18 August 2020 20: 04 New
    +1
    "The invasion of twelve languages." This number, as you might guess, in Old Russian corresponded to the current figure 12.
    rave. twelve = 2X10 = 20
    This expression appeared after the expulsion of the Great Army from Russia, and in a slightly different form. On December 25, 1812, the Highest Manifesto "On Bringing Thanksgiving to the Lord God for the Liberation of Russia from the Invasion of the Enemy" was promulgated. It said here:
    May they imagine a gathering from twenty kingdoms and peoples, united under a single banner, with which a power-hungry, arrogant victories, a fierce enemy entered Our land
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 18 August 2020 20: 30 New
      +1
      rave. twelve = 2X10 = 20
      Exactly nonsense. I mean what you wrote. Look at Ozhegov's dictionary.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 August 2020 22: 25 New
        +3
        In the dictionary of S.I. Ozhegov on page 149 the words are sequential: Two-faced, Two-legged, Dioxide ... Two-faced is not there.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 18 August 2020 22: 43 New
          +4
          CELEBRATION

          HOLIDAY, -a, m. 1. Day of celebration, established in honor or in memory of someone-che-n. May Day - n. Spring. 2. A day or series of days celebrated by the church to commemorate a religious event or saint. On the day of the temple feast, the Holy See (in honor of a church event or a saint whose name was given to the given church). P. Christmas. Christian, church holidays. 3. Leaving, non-working day. P. New Year. 4. Day of joy and celebration for the popovoda of something. Family n:. At the soul n. (Trans.: Joyfully). 5. Money, entertainment. Sports p. P. songs. * Twelve feast days - Orthodox Christianity: twelve main church holidays: Nativity of Christ, Baptism, Annunciation, Meeting, Palm Sunday (Entry of the State Day in Jerusalem), Ascension, Trinity, Transfiguration, Dormition, Nativity of the Virgin, Exaltation (of the Cross of the Lord), Introduction (of the Virgin in temple). On holidays (colloquial) - on holiday days. On holidays he stayed with relatives. There will be a holiday on our street - and there will be joy and celebration for us. A holiday, which is always with you - about someone with something. constantly pleasing. Like sitting at a holiday (colloquial disapproval) - sitting, doing nothing, in idleness. II adj. Festive, th, th. P. day.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 19 August 2020 07: 11 New
            +3
            Thanks for the link. Estessno, "twelve" is 12, not 20. He did not single out this obsolete word separately, put it in the explanations for the "Holiday".
  • iouris
    iouris 18 August 2020 21: 08 New
    +2
    Who fought? European Union.
  • Liam
    Liam 18 August 2020 23: 26 New
    +4
    The "big" states that are familiar to us today, having their capitals Paris, Rome, Berlin, simply did not exist yet.
    France by 1812 for a century and a half at least was already a unitary state within more or less modern borders
  • 1536
    1536 19 August 2020 15: 35 New
    0
    One stroke. Retreating from Moscow Napoleon made a bet on "winter rest" in Minsk. It was ordered to bring food, fodder, weapons to the city. However, on November 16, 1812, the Russian army of Admiral Chichagov captured Minsk and did not let the French into winter quarters. And even earlier, the retreating demoralized, hungry and frostbitten Napoleon's soldiers plundered food warehouses in Minsk. Napoleon's plans were not destined to come true. The subsequent defeat of the French army near the village of Pleshchenitsy (65 km from Minsk) on December 13, 1812, from the Russian army under the command of Chichagov, played a decisive role in the subsequent final disorderly flight of the "Great Army" from Russia. However, Napoleon himself left the troops and fled to France even after the defeat of his troops near Smolensk in early November. But Minsk became an extreme point of defeat for the invasion of "twelve languages". Some historians point out that 90% of all hostilities in that war were on the territory of Belarus... But, unfortunately, the Belarusian nobility almost completely took the side of the French, and took their defeat as their own. Many of the nobles fled with the remnants of the French army to Europe. Therefore, apparently, the plan for the restoration of the city was adopted only by 1817 and stretched out for many years.
    1. Tavrik
      Tavrik 19 August 2020 18: 47 New
      +2
      But, unfortunately, the Belarusian nobility almost completely took the side of the French, and took their defeat as their own. Many of the nobles fled with the remnants of the French army to Europe.

      Why be surprised? People lived in the Polish state. They were "sawed" and attached to Russia. Not everyone was happy with this.
  • 1536
    1536 19 August 2020 16: 17 New
    0
    Quote: Liam
    The "big" states that are familiar to us today, having their capitals Paris, Rome, Berlin, simply did not exist yet.
    France by 1812 for a century and a half at least was already a unitary state within more or less modern borders

    Interestingly, by 2012, “big” states still existed in Europe, or the so-called European Union united the aspiration of European peoples, those “twelve lingual” ones, to create a single living space, for which the robbery of neighboring territories is simply necessary in the reproduction of the life cycle?
  • nnz226
    nnz226 19 August 2020 21: 37 New
    0
    We went well ... then we put almost 90% of this gang into the ground!
  • cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 20 August 2020 00: 22 New
    +1
    They came - robbed, burned and left ... whoever could "left". But no one bore responsibility, everyone was forgiven, but it would be necessary to "lower three skins" to recover losses from the "Europeans". Forgiven enemy - does not become a friend ...