Military Review

Murderous "dark skin". The most productive flintlock rifle in the history of war

88
Murderous "dark skin". The most productive flintlock rifle in the history of war

In the era of lush lace, brocade caftans

Someone needed to teach all modesty:
Simple harsh steel overshadowed luxury, shine
"Dark-skinned Liza" is ours, our musket is "Brown Bess".
Her pupil looked straight into the eyes of men,
The whips bowed their wigs before this lady,
And the weighty was the word of her flint lips,
If the swarthy oak camp will embrace the warrior-friend!
Rudyard Kipling. Swarthy Lisa. Translated by Max Iron


Weapon 1812 year. Agree, not every weapon deserves a nickname, not every one. Moreover, the nickname is not by the name of its creator, but by some of its characteristic features. And even more so, not every weapon that has such a nickname is as famous as the "Brown Bess" (English Brown Bess - "Brown Bess", "Dark Bess", or "Swarthy Lisa"), the British flintlock model of 1722. Well, perhaps our "Kalashnikov", but it is still named after its creator, although, of course, it will also be glorified forever. But even he does not compare with this flintlock in the number of those wars on our planet in which it participated. It also took part in the wars with Napoleon. Although its official name is not at all impressive: "Land Pattern Musket", which in Russian at that time was a direct analogue of the word rifle or fuzei. And since we are now talking about the weapon of 1812, it would be simply a sin not to tell about this wonderful gun!


And here in this photo is the Brown Bess castle with a flint case and a brass wind shield!

Let's start especially for connoisseurs who know better than me both the caliber of this weapon and ... English names. That is, with the answer to the question: why Bess - Liza? Yes, simply because Bess is both a surname and a feminine name, an abbreviated form for Elizabeth. And Elizabeth is our Lisa!


Lock with a flint clamped in the trigger. Army Museum in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

The Brown Bess has been the standard weapon of British soldiers for a very long time. Adopted in 1722, the gun served until the Crimean War itself, when it was replaced by the Enfield rifled rifle.

Besides Great Britain, Brown Bess was used in all British colonies. During the War of Independence, the loyalists fired it at the Continentalists, and the first American guns were made in her image. Even during the Civil War, "Brown Bess" was used by the southerners, as they lacked more modern weapons. In New Zealand, Brown Bess guns are historical a gun, after which the bloody "musket wars" with the Maori of the first half of the XNUMXth century are named.


Well, this is she herself in the Missouri Museum of History in St. Louis, USA. "Short sample"

After the Russian-Swedish war of 1808-1809. The British supplied the "Brown Bess" to the Swedes as military aid. In short, where they fired from 1722 to 1854, the "Dark Liza" must have fired. By the way, the "long carbine" that was armed with the famous Nathaniel Bumpo, Fenimore Cooper's Leather Stocking, was also, most likely, this rifle, which at first had a barrel 120 cm long with a total length of 160 cm! Well, the Zulus fired at the British with these guns back in 1879!

Since the popularity of this weapon is undeniable, many researchers have tried to get to the bottom of the origin of this name. It is clear that this gun was not named after Queen Elizabeth. She died long before his appearance. It is precisely found that by 1780 it was already widely known. And in the British Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue in 1785 the following was written: “To embrace Swarthy Bess” - to carry a gun, serve as a soldier ”.

There is a hypothesis that from George I, who was of German origin, this nickname came into English - from the German language, where the word Buss at that time meant firearms (arquebus, blunderboos), and then Buss was changed into Bess. According to another version, "Dark Bess" was a "friend" to "Brown Bill" - an officer's esponton, a variant of the halberd. They were often named for the color of their shafts, "black" and "brown", but there is no real data to support this.

In general, the simplest explanation is the color of the stock and buttstock of this shotgun, which were made from walnut wood, finished with a durable brown varnish.


"Long Sample" of 1727, on display at the National Army Museum in London

Well, this gun appeared like this: at the beginning of the 1722th century, such terms as "model" and "sample" appeared, it finally reached people that the unification of weapons was a profitable business. So now samples of this or that weapon began to be made in a special workshop, after which these "control" samples were sent to the arsenals, where their exact copies were made in mass quantities. And it was England that went first along this path, where just at that time the industrial revolution began! And it so happened that it was "Brown Bess" in XNUMX that became the first standardized gun, adopted by the British army to replace everything else.

However, there were several models of this gun. The "long" model was 62,5 inches (159 cm) long, 46 inches (117 cm) long, and weighed 10,4 pounds (4,7 kg). That is, this gun was not easy, not light at all!


Cartridge bag, bullets, shotgun, flint, cartridge and bayonet

But the caliber of all his models was the same and very large for its time: 0,75 inches (19,050 mm), with a bullet caliber of 0,71 inches (18,034 mm). Such a gap, firstly, facilitated loading, and secondly, it helped to reduce the height of the barrel due to the use of black powder, which gave a lot of smoke and soot. Bullets of 0,735 caliber (18,7 mm) were used by hunters, since they often did not shoot.

All the main parts of the gun, such as the barrel, flintlock and swivels, were made of iron; all other fittings were first made of iron, but after 1736 they were already made of tin. The ramrod was originally wooden, like everyone else's, but then the British were among the first to replace it with an iron one. By the way, they did not introduce an iron ramrod, not because of economy, but for fear of sparks and a flash of gunpowder in the table when loading. But experiments have shown that iron ramrods are safe in this sense.

The bayonet was triangular and was 17 inches (43 cm) long. It was fastened nowhere easier: the tube was put on the barrel, and the slot on it went behind a small protrusion-retainer.

It is interesting that until 1811 there was not even a fly on the Bess, and that one was not. Instead, you could aim while looking at the bayonet lock!

The rifles were tested very rigorously during testing: they beat them with butts on the floor, dropped them from a height of one yard (0,9 m) onto stones, and fired with both conventional and reinforced charges. In short, they checked their conscience, which ultimately gave the British army an excellent example of a flintlock rifle. At the same time, the service life for "Bess" was initially set at 10 years.


An Indian-style castle. Oldenburg State Museum of Art and History, Lower Saxony, Germany

As for such an indicator as the rate of fire, it is known that a newly recruited recruit could fire two shots per minute, but an experienced soldier shot almost twice as fast. This was also helped by an amusing trick used by British soldiers: the bitten cartridge was first simply lowered into the barrel, and then nailed to the charge, but not with a ramrod, but with a strong blow of the butt of the gun on the ground. This technique made it possible to do without manipulating the ramrod, and, accordingly, significantly increased the practical rate of fire.


That's how she shot ...

The distance British soldiers had to learn to shoot was 300-400 yards.

They shot at a target measuring 100 by 6 feet, which imitated an infantry line. At the same time, the percentage of hits was equal to: 47% at a distance of 100 steps, 58% at 200, 37% at 300, and 27% at 400. That is, soldiers at that time received only (we emphasize this) minimal shooting training. And it is clear that more thorough training increased the number of hits several times. However, in a combat situation, strong smoke and a stressful situation prevented them from shooting straight.


Lock device. Palo Alto National Historical Park, Texas

The advancement of the Brown Bess was that over time this gun got simpler and simpler finishes, and its barrel got shorter. So, by the end of the 1760s it became clear that the short barrel does not impair accuracy at all, and even vice versa: "short" rifles shoot more accurately because of the better balance.


The uniform of the British 65th Infantry Regiment of the XNUMXth century. Regimental Museum of York and Lancaster

The result of these observations was that in the 1790s, the British East India Company ordered for its own needs precisely shortened rifles, which were primarily cheaper than army ones. And they worked so well that they were later standardized for the entire British infantry.


Butt. Replica of David Pedersoli

In 1839, the "Brown Bess" appeared already under the capsule lock, but because of the fire that happened in the arsenal, they were belated and received the name "Model 1842". It was they who served in the British army until the Crimean War itself, and only then to whom only the British did not supply them.


Lock. Replica by David Pedersoli

It is interesting that the exact copies of "Swarthy Lisa" are produced today by the Italian arms factory of David Pedersoli. Their copy is engraved with the signature of the gunsmith William Grace (and date: 1762), as well as the royal monogram with a crown and the letters GR (George the King). The smooth barrel is made of satin-finished steel and the stock is made of oil-polished walnut wood. You can order, buy and ... shoot! It seems that now the law allows it ...


Barrel and ramrod. Replica by David Pedersoli

Well, to finish the story about "Darkie Lisa" is best of all, again, with Kipling's poems, you simply cannot say better about her role in history:

A soldier in a red uniform was everywhere with her,
Quebec, Cape Town, Acre showed a friend
In Madrid, Gibraltar, deserts and mountains
"Dark-skinned Lisa" was known in campaigns and battles,
Where a well-aimed shot breaks out - there the path is open to the fighter,
Half the world still speaks English,
Everything that was British and that as long as there is -
Merit of "Swarthy Lisa", old woman "Brown Bess"!
Author:
Articles from this series:
"Our broadswords are wonderful!" Sabers and broadswords 1812
Year XNUMX artillery
Pistols of the war of 1812
Thunderstorm of the twelfth year. Shotguns
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  1. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 25 August 2020 18: 21 New
    19
    The famous gun ... a successful and reliable design, a heavy bullet, well, and the quantity ... thanks to the author for a detailed description of this gun.
    1. kalibr
      25 August 2020 19: 44 New
      +7
      Mountain shooter and cards in hand!
      1. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 25 August 2020 19: 49 New
        +5
        Quote: kalibr
        Mountain shooter and cards in hand

        In the mountains I would prefer a "caramultuk" ... As far as I understood from his descriptions, this is such a muzzle-loading pseudo-threaded ... and even a wick!
      2. Anatole Klim
        Anatole Klim 25 August 2020 20: 06 New
        +7
        At the same time, the percentage of hits was equal to: 47% at a distance of 100 steps, 58% at 200, 37% at 300 and 27% at 400.

        And why the percentage of hits is 200 steps higher than 100 can be a typo, because the closer, the easier it is to hit.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 August 2020 20: 50 New
          +7
          Here British troubles with infantry small arms are possible. There was no fly on Bessah. Aim at the bayonet. I dare to guess because of this in the Anglo-Saxon armies there was such a command "aim lower". At 100 yards they were aiming for the legs, at 200 for the stomach. The team remained in service even during the American Civil War. hi
          1. TooL
            TooL 26 August 2020 21: 33 New
            0
            The front sight was just the same on all models. And on the 1805 model for light infantry, a rear sight was also attached, like on old muskets of the 17th century, for better aiming convenience.
        2. kalibr
          25 August 2020 21: 59 New
          10
          It's good that you paid attention. I found this among the British: The results of the practice were as follows: at a distance of 100 yards (91.44 m) 53% hits, 200 yards (182.88 m) 30% hits, 300 yards (274.32 m) 23% hits. There is a typo in our source!
          1. WILL
            WILL 25 August 2020 22: 15 New
            0
            Great Article! On my own I will add, Once shmalnul from a flintlock ... there was no limit to surprise! Something began to blaze in front of ... belay removed the Weapon from his shoulder - and then BANG !!!
            My friend - even manages to shoot aimingly from such a weapon, I'm just afraid to even take it into my hands! crying
          2. TooL
            TooL 26 August 2020 21: 45 New
            0
            More data on accuracy, range and armor-piercing:
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 25 August 2020 18: 22 New
    10
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Pleases us. Interesting article. And the illustrations are great.
  3. Trapp1st
    Trapp1st 25 August 2020 18: 55 New
    +7
    an interesting technique used by British soldiers also helped: the bitten cartridge was first simply lowered into the barrel, and then nailed to the charge, but not with a ramrod, but with a strong blow of the rifle butt on the ground.

    1. Shurik70
      Shurik70 25 August 2020 22: 10 New
      +2
      Here's a better explanation soldier
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 25 August 2020 19: 08 New
    10
    A soldier in a red uniform was everywhere with her,

    Yes, they noted, all over the world they blamed with their "burden of a white man", and needless to say that they brought progress and enlightenment to the world, we know what they carried. And "Half the world speaks English to this day," not from a good life.

    And then laughter, and only - the reenactor firing from "Bess" in modern shooting glasses. laughing

    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you for the interesting material. hi drinks
    1. kalibr
      25 August 2020 19: 42 New
      16
      Quote: Sea Cat
      that they brought progress and enlightenment to the world, we know what they brought.

      Konstantin! I gave lectures to Indian students. You know what they told me ... "They gave us everything: schools, universities, roads, bridges ..." "But what about the uprising ..." "Bad people are everywhere!" And you: "we know what they were carrying." You know from the outside what you were told at school and at the party school. And they know ... because this is their country and they are sure of it. They are wrong, right? I failed to dissuade them!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 August 2020 20: 00 New
        10
        I was not present at the communist school, since I was expelled from the Komsomol in early youth. As for Great Britain, it is, perhaps, the only country in the world that spoiled us purposefully and with consistency. I have no reason to feel any sympathy for this country, the truth is, there is no hatred either. And as for schools, universities and bridges, there were no Englishmen in Latin America, but for some reason everything listed is available.
        1. Clear
          Clear 25 August 2020 20: 43 New
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          As for Great Britain, it is, perhaps, the only country in the world that spoiled us purposefully and with consistency.

          "An Englishwoman crap" is a common expression denoting mainly implicit actions (diplomatic, economic, espionage, propaganda) of Great Britain against Russia. (Skripals, interference in the US elections, Syria, World evil ...)
          1. kalibr
            25 August 2020 21: 23 New
            +7
            By the way, I also recommend you read Kipling's novel "Kim". Just about implicit actions ...
        2. kalibr
          25 August 2020 21: 23 New
          +4
          I don't argue at all. Just letting me know. And I strongly advise you to read Kipling's novel "Kim".
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 25 August 2020 21: 46 New
            +4
            I "grew up" on Kipling, I love both his poetry and prose, no matter how anyone scolds him. From childhood memory: "Poor Mowgli, every man for himself ... and we will go north."
            I, unfortunately, did not read his "Kim", and, I think, it is too late, but I remember Tomlinson quite well:
            "Burning and dying Tomlinson matured and did not see a damn thing -
            Naked stars mocked him, and there was emptiness in him. "
            Honestly wrote.
            1. kalibr
              26 August 2020 05: 49 New
              +2
              Quote: Sea Cat
              did not read his "Kim", and, I think, it's too late,

              I dare not insist, but the book is worth it ...
          2. il-z
            il-z 25 August 2020 23: 26 New
            +4
            "Kim" is wonderful, I first read it in the early 90s as a student, and then reread it for a while every year, now less often ... When I recommend young people to read "Kim", I jokingly say that Kipling wrote about the "Communist Youth International" ))).
            In the mid-2000s, I discovered another Kipling for myself, - "The world's best story" (The most wonderful story in the world; The most amazing story in the world - other names for this story) is something else, there is a delayed desire to read it all.
            1. kalibr
              26 August 2020 05: 50 New
              +3
              Quote: il-z
              "Kim" is wonderful, I first read it in the early 90s as a student, and then reread it for a while every year, now less often ... When I recommend young people to read "Kim", I jokingly say that Kipling wrote about the "Communist Youth International" ))).

              I agree!
          3. Clear
            Clear 26 August 2020 10: 38 New
            +4
            Quote: kalibr
            I don't argue at all. Just letting me know. And I strongly advise you to read Kipling's novel "Kim".

            Thank you, Slava, of course.
            1. kalibr
              26 August 2020 20: 19 New
              +1
              Also check out my novels on the author website. today. There are historical ones, about Indians, and about fashionable people today, and about ... a cat ... A lot of things. You will not regret!
        3. Undecim
          Undecim 25 August 2020 22: 33 New
          +9
          As for Great Britain, it is, perhaps, the only country in the world that spoiled us purposefully and with consistency.
          What propaganda is doing to people.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 25 August 2020 23: 04 New
            +5
            And don't say nightmare! yes
        4. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 26 August 2020 08: 37 New
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          As for Great Britain, it is, perhaps, the only country in the world that spoiled us purposefully and with constant

          Beginning with Ivan the Terrible and ending with the Napoleonic Wars, in the main, interests coincided, so it was not so long ago that it began to "crap". But yes, consistently.
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 25 August 2020 20: 07 New
        +9
        On the one hand, everything is so. In India, before their arrival, there was a bunch of dwarf principalities constantly at war with each other, completely barbaric customs flourished, such as burning widows at funerals and a bunch of other no less cute "traditions".
        On the other hand, India during the British rule was a huge opium plantation that brought fabulous profits to gentlemen.
        And yet, no matter how much Indian students "appreciated" their "enlighteners", their grandfathers in the late 40s thought a little differently :)))
      3. VIP
        VIP 25 August 2020 20: 23 New
        +7
        "I could not dissuade them" probably the Indians were "wrong". Another time, entrust Konstantin to give a lecture.
        Joke
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 25 August 2020 20: 30 New
          +9
          God forbid! I remember how in UDeeNe students from those regions were given underwear, not only bedding, but also underwear (obviously on the eve of the coming winter). The next morning the whole crowd dragged into Eastfiel's dining room in white underpants with footstocks dragging across the floor. laughing
          No, let Vyacheslav educate them himself. drinks
      4. demo
        demo 25 August 2020 20: 26 New
        +7
        Hindus are opportunists.
        As Sasha the Macedonian showed them Kuzka's mother, since then they have not come to their senses! hi
        This is a joke.
        There is no such intertwining of nationalities, religions, beliefs, traditions and everything connected with this anywhere in the world.
        I had a friend - an Indian.
        From Kerala State.
        Dad is a retired military man. Former Chief Military Officer of the State. Our analogue is the commander of the district.
        Dad is a Muslim. Two Hajj to Mecca.
        I have not smoked. I haven't drunk a single gram in my entire life.
        One wife.
        Two sons.
        Follows all the traditions of Islam.
        At the same time, the communists are in power in the state.
        There is no prohibition in the state. But in the hands of a Muslim a bottle is a sin.
        He graduated from medicine in Russia. Pediatrician.
        I didn't want to go home.
        He is engaged in agriculture here. Grows in agrofirms smear and chickpeas. Ships to India and Indonesia.
        I ask - how are you with alcohol?
        Answers. We go to a neighboring state for two or three days. There are Christians. And the Labor Party. Former Portuguese colony.
        Far I ask?
        Well no. 600 km.
        !? I'll give up drinking, than to go so much!
        Before going home, he stops smoking for a month. Afraid that the father will hear the smell.
        And the boy is already over 40.

        I asked a question about the British.
        He answered quite frankly.
        Where can we go?
        They opened the doors to Britain for us (Hindus).
        I can go even tomorrow.
        Universities accept us with pleasure. The fee is half as much as the rest.
        Many preferences.
        Sins are covered up.
        Why bother?
      5. The comment was deleted.
      6. mister-red
        mister-red 25 August 2020 21: 41 New
        +1
        Konstantin! I gave lectures to Indian students. You know what they told me ... "They gave us everything: schools, universities, roads, bridges ..." "But what about the uprising ..." "Bad people are everywhere!" And you: "we know what they were carrying." You know from the outside what you were told at school and at the party school. And they know ... because this is their country and they are sure of it. They are wrong, right? I failed to dissuade them!

        Russia also gave the Asian republics roads, schools, houses, bridges, etc. Only they are treated differently. There are 2 options why this is so and maybe they are both correct.
        1. It was necessary to act as tough as the British
        2. The British have no land borders with their colonies. And this cannot be copied.
        1. kalibr
          26 August 2020 05: 52 New
          +3
          Quote: mister-red
          I had to act as tough as the British

          People only respect strength. The familiarity, so beloved by us, is perceived as weakness.
      7. snake
        snake 25 August 2020 22: 38 New
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Konstantin! I gave lectures to Indian students. You know what they told me ... "They gave us everything: schools, universities, roads, bridges ...

    2. VIP
      VIP 25 August 2020 19: 57 New
      +6
      The cat, on the top illustration: "the execution of the sepoys", I think, 1858?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 August 2020 20: 07 New
        +7
        1857, and the picture is called "Suppression of the Indian uprising by the British" and was written in 1884. By the way, the painting disappeared without a trace and whether it still exists is unknown.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 25 August 2020 20: 42 New
          +6
          Quote: Sea Cat
          By the way, the painting disappeared without a trace and whether it still exists is unknown.

          There are two versions.
          The first / well, not entirely plausible / was bought by the British and destroyed.
          The second / closer to the truth / is bought by unknown people and is in a private collection.
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 25 August 2020 21: 00 New
          +6
          Quote: Sea Cat
          1857, and the picture is called "Suppression of the Indian uprising by the British" and was written in 1884.

          According to the memoirs of Vereshchagin himself, when he exhibited his paintings in London, many Englishmen categorically denied the use of this execution in India, but according to the same recollections, a retired British general approached him and in all seriousness claimed that it was he who invented this execution. , according to some experts, this execution was not applied to the captive sepoys, but to members of the namdhari sect.
          1. Simargl
            Simargl 26 August 2020 21: 00 New
            +1
            Quote: Phil77
            many Englishmen strongly denied the use of this execution in India
            The shot will make a hole in the body, scatter blood, bones, entrails at the gun. Somehow disrespectful to the gunners. Even if they do not wash it all away.
            A shot from 20 meters is quite real.

            Quote: Phil77
            But according to the same recollections, a retired British general approached him and in all seriousness claimed that it was he who invented this execution
            It's strange that one ...
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 27 August 2020 05: 35 New
              0
              This execution was invented by the Hindus, during the Mughal times, the British simply used the local customary version, and only in India, where the hanging of the Sepoys will not be understood and will never be forgiven
              1. Simargl
                Simargl 27 August 2020 20: 23 New
                0
                Quote: Icelord
                The British just used the local familiar version
                For whom is it familiar? For myself - rather grapeshot. And training the calculation in one.
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 29 August 2020 07: 29 New
                  0
                  No, it was Indian folk fun
    3. VIP
      VIP 25 August 2020 20: 08 New
      +6
      In the picture above, the "execution of the sepoys" seems to be 1858? The era of the "Minier bullet"
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 August 2020 20: 24 New
        +5
        In 1849, Claude Mignet proposed his own version of the expansion bullet. It is this variant of the expansion bullet that has become widespread.
    4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 August 2020 20: 43 New
      +5
      [quote = Sea Cat] [quote]

      And then laughter, and only - the reenactor firing from "Bess" in modern shooting glasses. laughing

      Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you for the interesting material. hi drinks[/ Quote]
      Hi guys!
      Konstantin, I'm afraid these are not shooting glasses, but ordinary sunglasses! Apparently the ignition hole is wide, or the shock lock mechanism is worn out. This shouldn't spark when fired.
      The Bess is essentially a publicized English rifle, the superiority of which consisted in the presence of a constant caliber for a century and a half.
      Yes, not bad and technologically advanced, but the advanced continental powers preferred to make their own infantry weapons.
      Moreover, this was at a time when copyright did not stop the War Ministries and Departments.
      Thank you for the article, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 August 2020 21: 01 New
        +7
        And this is at a time when copyright did not stop the Ministry of Defense of the department.

        Who's looking at what when it comes to weapons and military equipment?
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 August 2020 21: 12 New
          +5
          As far as I remember, by 1812 ours ripped off an almost complete copy from a French infantry gun.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 25 August 2020 21: 24 New
            +6
            Yes, they fought each other in a completely shameless way. I have already uploaded a photo of this copy of Colt (GIM), made by our master Goltyakov. Does anyone seriously believe that Goltyakov bought a patent from Kolt? laughing
            1. Senior seaman
              Senior seaman 27 August 2020 09: 46 New
              +1
              In those days, the American patent did not bother anyone in Europe :))) It was necessary to take it separately in each country.
          2. TooL
            TooL 26 August 2020 21: 29 New
            0
            Our 1807 seven-line gun was closer to the Austrian gun. It also had a tapered seed hole and other structural similarities:
            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hohpriqPgEg
      2. Revolver
        Revolver 26 August 2020 02: 44 New
        +2
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Bess is essentially a publicized English rifle

        And where did you find her rifling? She is smooth-bore.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 August 2020 04: 56 New
          +5
          Quote: Nagan
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Bess is essentially a publicized English rifle

          And where did you find her rifling? She is smooth-bore.

          Then he is! As Bess is an infantry musket.
          1. Revolver
            Revolver 26 August 2020 19: 05 New
            +1
            Finally, Bess is a female name. But these Anglo-Saxons, with their gender identity and sexual orientation, will break their legs. lol
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 August 2020 19: 24 New
              +1
              Musket - he!
              The gun is it!
              Fuzea - ​​she!
              I don’t spank in English - the questionnaire says “I read and translate with a dictionary”, but this - “the paper will endure everything”!
      3. Simargl
        Simargl 26 August 2020 21: 02 New
        +1
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        This shouldn't spark when fired.
        What is this? Flintlock rifle. There, on the shelf, seed powder is poured.
    5. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 25 August 2020 21: 56 New
      +3
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And then laughter, and only - the reenactor firing from "Bess" in modern shooting glasses

      Generally speaking, this is a safety technique. The flintlock is not a gift, the blazing gunpowder from the shelf scatters in all directions. There were enough one-eyed people in the European army at that time.
    6. Living7111972
      Living7111972 25 August 2020 22: 54 New
      +4
      So Kipling did not call murder and robbery the white man's burden. He is very nice in his attitude, at least for me.
      Translation by A. Sergeev: as it seems to me the best

      Carry this proud burden -
      Sons went
      To serve you subject
      To the peoples of the ends of the earth -
      To hard labor for the sullen
      Restless savages
      Half demons
      Half the people.


      Carry this proud burden -
      Be even and businesslike
      Don't succumb to fears
      And do not count insults;
      Simple clear word
      Repeat for the hundredth time -
      This to your ward
      Generous harvested.

      Carry this proud burden -
      Fight for the peace of others -
      Make the disease retreat
      And Hunger shut your mouth;
      But how are you closer to success
      The better you recognize
      Pagan Negligence,
      Treacherous Lies.

      Carry this proud Burden
      Not like an arrogant king -
      To hard black work
      Like a slave, self-control;
      You don’t see during life
      Ports, highways, bridges -
      So build them, leaving
      Graves of people like you!

      Carry this proud burden -
      You will be rewarded
      Challenging commanders
      And the cries of the wild tribes:
      "What do you want, damn
      Why confuse minds?
      Do not lead us to the light
      Of the cute Egyptian Darkness! "

      Carry this proud burden -
      Ungrateful labor, -
      Ah, too loud speeches
      Your fatigue is betrayed!
      By what you have already done
      And ready to do more,
      Silent people will measure
      You and your Gods.

      Carry this proud burden -
      Far from youth
      Forget easy glory
      Cheap laurel wreath -
      Now your maturity
      And rebellion to fate
      Appreciate the bitter and sober
      The court of equals to you!

      This can be said about the Soviet
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 26 August 2020 02: 48 New
        +3
        Quote: sala7111972
        Carry this proud Burden

        Bear the burden of the whites -
        Rifle "Brown Bess",
        And also "parabellum" -
        With or without a stock.

        And if unsociable
        You will see the savages -
        Cocking the shutter "Maxim"
        And don't spare the bullet!

        Let them rush to the mountains
        And there they knock on tomtoms,
        Heavy battleships
        Get them there too!

        What the hell is rhyme
        But it fits in a row!
        Add more rhythm -
        Piss them all!

        The barbarians have clubs
        And a fat drum
        Deadly pellets
        Send them a shotgun!

        In the name of a terrible revenge
        We can overcome everything
        Tactical Winchester
        Shoots day and night!

        Brains hung around.
        Will blow them to shreds
        Product of the giants of thought -
        Heavy machine gun!

        Let the cannons shoot
        Shells bring death
        Burn their villages
        Let them die!

        And let the savage brute
        Will immediately fall down,
        Seeing the lord
        What a white and pale face!

        And let it lie timidly
        Suffering from the belly
        And our White Race
        Will remain a slave !!!

        https://amagnum.livejournal.com/85718.html
    7. EvilLion
      EvilLion 26 August 2020 12: 02 New
      +4
      Yes, yes, I recommend remembering the same "Mowgli", I have no reason to believe that he exaggerated the behavior of the locals in any way. The problem is not that the British and Europeans in general cut someone, the locals also did it well, the problem is that at least some ideas of humanity also appeared in Europe.

      And there were also all sorts of good Indians, they loved to rip off scalps, put them on the pillar of death, and generally had fun no worse than Taras Bulba.
      1. VIP
        VIP 26 August 2020 16: 04 New
        +3
        On the site I have already met about the "bad-good" colonizers. We were taught at school: colonialists - beeches and byaks, as soon as the people get rid of the colonialists and there will be heaven on earth. And reality shows that the truth is between the legs: the very same India was united when the whites "left" from Zimbabwe and the country sank to the bottom !!!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 26 August 2020 17: 10 New
          +4
          ... when the whites "left" from Zimbabwe and the country fell into a low state !!!

          Here you are absolutely right. The whites did not leave South Africa, they were "left" from the government of the country and from the army, as a result the leading country of the African continent found itself, if not in the ass, then somewhere very close.
          1. Simargl
            Simargl 26 August 2020 21: 06 New
            +1
            Quote: Sea Cat
            somewhere very close.
            The story is not over yet. She will be there soon. And even deeper. You do not think that they will come to their senses.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 26 August 2020 21: 34 New
              +2
              I have an army friend there at De Beers' dump trucks with mines, he cannot comment on the current situation without a terrible swearing. So I don't have to think too much - first-hand information. Zhenya himself writes that if something happened, he would personally change the steering wheel to an automatic machine like two fingers ... you understand.
      2. kalibr
        26 August 2020 20: 22 New
        0
        Quote: EvilLion
        in general, they had fun no worse than Taras Bulba.

        They stuck a torch into the body of a torch standing by the pillar and set them on fire ... and the person turned into a living torch, but did not burn much ...
  5. matross
    matross 25 August 2020 19: 12 New
    +3
    Good article, thanks.
    Climbed into Wiki - 4300000 copies were produced. Used a lead bullet with a paper cartridge. The maximum firing range is 395 meters.
  6. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 25 August 2020 19: 56 New
    +5
    all other fittings were first made of iron, but after 1736 they were already made of tin.

    Tin?
    okay buttons, but their "tin plague" did not spare them, but ...
  7. VIP
    VIP 25 August 2020 20: 34 New
    +3
    "the signature of the gunsmith William Grace" by Pedersoli. This is actually a copyright infringement. Somewhere on the network I saw: Pushkin "The Captain's Daughter" and the postscript "without the author's permission, you cannot copy" something like this. DIBILISM of pure water!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 August 2020 20: 59 New
      +7
      "Still, it's a pity that it is impossible to dine with Alexander Sergeich in Yar and drop in for at least a quarter of an hour ..." (c)
    2. kalibr
      25 August 2020 21: 28 New
      +5
      Quote: VIP
      "the signature of the gunsmith William Grace" by Pedersoli. This is actually a copyright infringement.

      70 years have passed? It's gone! So you can. In the USA, 100 years ... but also passed ...
  8. Alt 22
    Alt 22 25 August 2020 20: 51 New
    -7
    English "Kalash" of that time. Fortunately, the arrogant did not create anything like the Kalash - their L85 Rifle variant is just a pale shadow of the Russian AK-47 or AK-74M.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Astra wild
    Astra wild 25 August 2020 20: 55 New
    +4
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, or dear Konstantin "cat", do you know what "Nikolai's bullet" was? I read from Zhuk that he experimented with the Minier bullet in the regiment, they said that it was terrible and that the defeat in the Crimean War was also connected with it. I disagree with the latter: the Russians had smooth-bore rifles and they fired a round bullet (I saw such a bullet).
    How was it really?
    1. kalibr
      25 August 2020 21: 29 New
      +5
      Quote: Astra wild
      "Nikolay's bullet1"

      The first time I've heard...
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 25 August 2020 22: 09 New
      +4
      The same "bullet minier" only without the iron cup.
      In Russia, the Minier bullet appeared in 1850.
      The novelty was awarded the most careful study and at the same time at the highest level
      Nicholas 1, having examined the Minier bullet himself, quickly constructed something similar, but better and simpler in design than the original Minier bullet.
      Nicholas 1's bullet did not have an iron cup.
      A bullet of the Nikolay 1 system, when firing from a Hartung rifle, had 300 times more hits (4 out of 13) at a distance of 25 steps than a Minier bullet (3 out of 25), and at a distance of 500 steps, 3 hits out of 25 shots, Minier's bullet had such distance only 1 hit out of 25 shots.

      http://fai.org.ru/forum/topic/9547-vundervaffe-dlya-nikolaya-pervogo/?page=9
      By the way, a similar improvement (rejection of the cup) was introduced in other countries.
      The defeat with it (Nikolai's bullet) cannot be connected in any way, since it was never really implemented.
      By the way, most of the allies' soldiers were also armed with a smoothbore. But ... a Neisler bullet was taken for him, which seriously increased his performance characteristics
      1. Bormanxnumx
        Bormanxnumx 25 August 2020 22: 42 New
        +1
        Quote: Senior Sailor
        By the way, most of the allies' soldiers were also armed with a smoothbore.

        The British formally began the Crimean War with a smooth-bore, but in fact they had rearmament during the delivery of the expeditionary corps to the Crimea. At the beginning of the company, 2/3 of the staff were already armed with Minier P1851 rifles.
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 27 August 2020 09: 39 New
          0
          Quote: BORMAN82
          The British formally began the Crimean War with a smooth-bore, but in fact they had rearmament during the delivery of the expeditionary corps to the Crimea. At the beginning of the company, 2/3 of the staff were already armed with Minier P1851 rifles.

          1) As far as I know, not 2/3, but 1/2 and not at the beginning, but towards the end of the company.
          2) The British never made up more than a third of the Allied expeditionary force. There were also Franks who had about a third of Mignet and Thouvenin's rifles. Turks, for whom everything is generally bad, and Sardinians, about whom, speaking honestly, I do not know.
          3) Limes have not Minier, but Anfield.
          But one must understand that even with such a number, it was possible to have the first ranks armed entirely with rifled weapons, which gave the impression that the enemy had only arrows with rifles.
          1. Bormanxnumx
            Bormanxnumx 27 August 2020 13: 48 New
            0
            Quote: Senior Sailor
            1) As far as I know, not 2/3, but 1/2 and not at the beginning, but towards the end of the company.

            By the end of the campaign, the British armed 3/4 of the composition with rifled guns.
            Quote: Senior Sailor
            3) Limes have not Minier, but Anfield.
            But one must understand that even with such a number, it was possible to have the first ranks armed entirely with rifled weapons, which gave the impression that the enemy had only arrows with rifles.

            Enfield P1853 appeared in the Crimea only in the spring of 1855, the complete rearmament took almost a year and a half. And they started with Minier mod. 1851
            Quote: Senior Sailor
            2) The British never made up more than a third of the Allied expeditionary force. There were also Franks who had about a third of Mignet and Thouvenin's rifles. Turks, for whom everything is generally bad, and Sardinians, about whom, speaking honestly, I do not know.

            In my commentary, I referred only to the armament of the British.
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 26 August 2020 12: 27 New
        +3
        By the way, most of the allies' soldiers were also armed with a smoothbore. But ... a Neisler bullet was taken for him, which seriously increased his performance characteristics

        Hmm .. did not know about such subtleties! Thank you Ivan!
        The same "bullet minier" only without the iron cup.

        Once again I am convinced that Nikolai, like his papa, is drawn too black and primitive in history textbooks ... hi
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 27 August 2020 09: 42 New
          +1
          There is such a thing.
          Meanwhile, Russia was rebuilt in stone, railways and much more appeared. And for the "Code of Laws of the Russian Empire" he definitely needs to erect a monument. Oddly enough, many do not understand the meaning of this.
          In essence, the emperor only failed to end his reign well. Had he died in the late 40s, he would still be considered the best possible.
  11. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 25 August 2020 20: 57 New
    +4
    Very descriptive video
  12. Alexandra
    Alexandra 25 August 2020 21: 41 New
    +1
    By the way, the "long carbine" that was armed with the famous Nathaniel Bumpo, Fenimore Cooper's Leather Stocking, was also, most likely, this rifle, which at first had a barrel 120 cm long with a total length of 160 cm!


    In the United States, it is believed that Nathaniel Bumpo's "long carbine" was one of the earliest examples of a locally made rifle, which are known under the pseudonyms American longrifle, Kentucky rifle, Pennsylvania rifle.

    The first such rifles appeared at the beginning of the XNUMXth century.

    The long rifle was developed on the American frontier in southeastern Pennsylvania, in the early 1700s. It continued to be developed technically and artistically until it passed out of fashion in the 19th century. The long rifle was the product of German gunsmiths who immigrated to new settlements in south eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1700s, and later in Virginia and other territories, reproducing early Jäger (anglicized Jaeger) rifles used for hunting in Germany in the 17th and early 18th century. Tax records from these locales indicate the dates these gunsmiths were in business. Strong pockets of long rifle use and manufacture continued in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio and North Carolina well into the 20th century as a practical and efficient firearm for those rural segments of the nation. Long rifles could be made entirely by hand and hand-operated tooling, in a frontier setting.

    [...]

    In Pennsylvania, the earliest gunsmiths that can be documented are Robert Baker and Martin Meylin. [6] Robert Baker formed a partnership with his son, Caleb and on August 15, 1719 erected a gun boring mill on Pequea Creek. In the tax records of Berks County, Pennsylvania, there were several gunsmiths plying their trade along the banks of the Wyomissing Creek.

    Martin Meylin's Gunshop was built in 1719, and it is here that the Mennonite gunsmith of Swiss-German heritage crafted some of the earliest, and possibly the first, Pennsylvania Rifles.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 August 2020 22: 10 New
      +6
      Yes, the Kentucky rifle, aka the Pennsylvania one, is not for nothing that America's national pride. Against the background of all other smoothbore, it really was a long-range and lethal weapon. And its name "Kentucky", the weapon received during the defense of New Orleans, where a detachment of hunters from Kentucky distinguished themselves.
  13. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 25 August 2020 22: 03 New
    +5
    Historical gun! It's a sin not to remember that. Thanks to the author!
  14. Undecim
    Undecim 25 August 2020 22: 36 New
    +8
    But the caliber of all his models was the same and very large for their time: 0,75 inches (19,050 mm), with a bullet caliber of 0,71 inches (18,034 mm). Such a gap, firstly, facilitated loading, and secondly, it helped to reduce the heat of the barrel due to the use of black powder, which gave a lot of smoke and soot. Bullets of 0,735 caliber (18,7 mm) were used by hunters, as they often did not shoot
    Just the opposite. Black powder does not heat up, it gives carbon deposits, since about 60 percent of combustion products are solid residues. Therefore, the trunk was made with a margin of carbon deposits.
  15. KSVK
    KSVK 25 August 2020 23: 38 New
    +2
    So, by the end of the 1760s it became clear that the short barrel does not impair accuracy at all, and even vice versa: "short" rifles shoot more accurately because of the better balance.

    I will allow myself some clarification:
    Short guns, like rifles, shoot more accurately because of the less criticality to the shooter's tab. The longer the barrel, the more important the tab is so that the rifle / shotgun moves ONE WAY due to recoil. Since recoil occurs not at the moment the bullet leaves the barrel, but at the moment the bullet actually begins to move relative to the weapon. And the longer the barrel, the longer the bullet is in the barrel and the stronger the impact of recoil on the position of the barrel when the bullet leaves it. This is what explains
    displacement of STP when using the same rifle with the same sight with different arrows. And the length of the barrel allows you to get a higher bullet speed, all other things being equal, especially if you use slow black powder.

    Quote: Undecim
    Black powder does not heat up, it gives carbon deposits, since about 60 percent of combustion products are solid residues. Therefore, the barrel was made with a margin for carbon deposits.

    Well, strictly speaking, the smoker also gives off heat, just much less than the pyroxylin powder. And the height is also primarily manifested in the first third of the trunk. It is simply impossible to notice its effect on the accuracy of fire with the accuracy that the gun had .... it is impossible. smile
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 26 August 2020 08: 34 New
      +2
      Well, strictly speaking, the smoker is in full swing too
      Naturally, if there is a shot, then there is an effect on the material of the barrel of powder gases and, accordingly, wear of the barrels. The question is in the speed and intensity of this impact.
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. CTABEP
    CTABEP 26 August 2020 11: 41 New
    +2
    A milestone in arms history and culture. Thank you for the article!
  18. bbss
    bbss 26 August 2020 23: 30 New
    -1
    "... You can order, buy and ... shoot! It seems that now the law allows it ..."[i] [/ i] Do not mislead fraught with criminal punishment! Everyone has heard of many cases with reenactors who were attracted for lesser sins! These toys are firearms and must undergo appropriate modifications to exclude the production of a live shot.
  19. certero
    certero 31 August 2020 06: 14 New
    0
    The long stocking had a rifled so-called Kentucky shotgun