Military Review

"Our broadswords are wonderful!" Sabers and broadswords 1812

88

This was seen and depicted by the English artist William Heath


Soldiers, brava guys,
Where are your sisters?
Our sisters are lances, sabers are sharp,
That's where our sisters are.
Russian military drill song, widely known in the XIX - early XX century

On the floor beneath him was a wide rug covered with colorful arabesques; another Persian carpet hung on the wall opposite the windows, and on it were pistols, two Turkish rifles, Circassian checkers and daggers.
M. Yu. Lermontov. Princess Ligovskaya


Weapon 1812 year. As for edged weapons, there is a special conversation. After all история it had been counted by the time of the outbreak of the war with Napoleon for ... thousands of years, while firearms - some pitiful four centuries! Therefore, it is not surprising that in the Russian imperial army, as, indeed, in the army of Napoleon, and in all other armies of the world, edged weapons were in service with both the infantry and the cavalry, but only for the latter it was at that time the main one, and here in the infantry (we are, of course, not talking about rifle bayonets) it was auxiliary.

"Our broadswords are wonderful!" Sabers and broadswords 1812

The 1st carabinieri regiment of the French army fights with the hussars of the Izyum regiment during the Battle of Borodino. Rocco Keith artist

Well, we will begin the story about the melee weapons of the Russian infantry, as well as foot artillery and engineering troops from the officer's - the most beautiful and expensive. In 1812, it was an infantry sword model of 1798, which had a single-edged straight blade 86 cm long and 3,2 cm wide. Its total length was 97 cm, and its weight, including the scabbard, was 1,3 kg. Ephesus was wooden, but beautifully wrapped in twisted wire, had a metal pommel and a metal guard.


The privates and non-commissioned officers of the infantry, as a cold weapon, had a cleaver of the 1807 model with a leather sheath, on a moose leather sling, which was worn over the right shoulder. Single-edged blade 61 cm long and 3,2 cm wide, cast brass hilt. Length 78 cm, weight 1,2 kg. A lanyard made of braid with a brush was attached to the hilt. Moreover, the color of the braid mattered: it meant the company and the battalion, but the brush in the infantry was entirely white. In the engineering troops in 1812, a sapper cleaver of the 1797 model was used, which had a blade not straight, but curved in shape, 50 cm long and up to 8,5 cm wide, the butt of which had a saw cut. Ephesus is a simple wooden handle with an iron cross with the ends bent towards the point. It was about 70 cm long and up to 1,9 kg in weight. The scabbard is made of wood, covered with black leather, with a metal device. It could be used both as a combat weapon and as a trenching tool.


The Cossack troops in 1812 (except for the Cossacks of the Guards regiments) were armed with sabers of an arbitrary design, which often passed from hand to hand by inheritance and belonged to fathers and grandfathers. The most accessible for the Cossack was the light cavalry saber of 1809, well, it is clear that the Cossack families kept a lot of captured weapons: Asian, Hungarian, Polish sabers ... The scabbard was the simplest, wooden, leather-covered, with a copper or iron device.



Private of the Life Guards of the Dragoon Regiment (dress uniform) and a private of the St. Petersburg Dragoon Regiment (marching uniform). Artist N.V. Zaretsky. 1876-1959. Russian army in 1812. SPb., 1912

In the Russian heavy cavalry in 1812, the sword was a combat weapon. Moreover, there were several types. So, the dragoons used the broadsword of 1806, again in a wooden scabbard covered with leather and with a metal device. The blade of such a broadsword had a length of 89 cm, a width of up to 38 mm and a total length (with a hilt and in a scabbard) 102 cm and a weight of 1,65 kg. But old samples of the end of the 1811th century were also in use, and even the "Caesar" (Austrian) broadswords, which in XNUMX entered the dragoon regiments from the Moscow and Kiev arsenals.


Breastplate of a cuirassier of the Russian imperial army in 1812 Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore


Cuirassiers had two types of broadswords at once: army and guards, samples of 1798, cavalry guard of 1802 and 1810 with a metal sheath and two rings for attaching harness belts. The sword blade of 1798 had a length of 90 cm, a width of about 4 cm and a guard with a cup, four protective bows and a pommel of the handle, designed in the form of a bird's head. The sword was 107 cm long and 2,1 kg in weight. So it was heavier than even another medieval sword. The cuirassier broadsword of 1810 was longer: 111 cm (blade 97 cm) and the design of the hilt. The officer's broadsword was also provided. So, the officer's cuirassier broadsword of the 1810 model had a blade 91,5 cm long and a total length of 106,5 cm. The handle was not straight, but somewhat curved along the saber.




Cossack and Cossack officer. Engraving by J. Wolz, 1810s State Historical Museum, Moscow

Light cavalry from the era of the Napoleonic Wars used sabers from 1798 and 1809. The first had a wooden scabbard covered with leather, with a metal device that covered almost their entire surface, and the skin was visible only in the slots. The second could have a metal sheath. The total length of the saber was about one meter, with a blade length of 87 cm and a width of up to 4,1 cm. The saber of the 1809 model by 1812 had almost replaced the previous model. The length of her blade was 88 cm, the width was up to 3,6 cm with a reduced curvature of the blade. Weight - 1,9 kg, total length - 107 cm. That is, this weapon was also not an easy one, and to wield such a saber well, considerable physical strength was required.



Pica - a cavalry weapon rooted in the depths of centuries, was also in service with the light cavalry of the Russian Empire in 1812-1814. The Cossacks were traditionally armed with pikes, but their size of the steel tip, and the length and diameter of the shafts were not regulated in any way. Whoever wanted with what lance, he fought with such. But the differences from the army peaks among the Cossacks were very noticeable: the latter did not have veins at the tip and an inflow at the bottom of the shaft. In 1812, the pikes were in service with the cavalry regiments of the provincial militia, and often this was their only weapon.


Privates of the Ulan Regiment Life Guards 1809-1811. Lithograph of the 1840s. Museum of artillery of engineering troops and signal troops, St. Petersburg.

As for the Lancers' cavalry, they received lances in 1806. It differed from the Cossack's with a long tip (12,2 cm) and a blunt flow. The shaft was painted black and was thinner than that of the Cossacks. The length averaged 2,80-2,85 m. The main difference between the lancers' peak was the cloth flag (weather vane), by the color of which the regiment was determined, and inside the regiment itself - the battalion. During the attack, these weathercocks emitted a whistle and hum from the incoming air. They often write that they had a strong mental impact on the enemy. But ... the thunder of cannon shots, rifle fire, stomping and neighing horses didn't drown him? So this is a rather controversial statement, especially when it comes to battlefields. Also, until the summer of 1812, the peaks of the Uhlan-style, albeit without weathercocks, had the hussars of the first rank of eight regiments out of 12. In this regard, one can often come across statements that during the Patriotic War the Russian cavalry in this regard was superior to the cavalry of the Napoleonic army ... But it is unlikely that the presence of the peak was already so decisive, otherwise they would have been armed with all the cavalry of Europe. While nowhere is it noted that it was the Uhlan cavalry that dominated the battlefield then. Although in the battle of Gutshtadt with Nadezhda Durova, the following incident occurred: “... I saw several enemy dragoons, who surrounded one Russian officer and shot him down from a horse with a pistol. He fell, and they wanted to chop him down. At that very moment I rushed towards them, holding my lance at the ready. One must think that this extravagant courage frightened them, because at the same moment they left the officer and scattered apart. " That is, the dragoons did not dare to contact the piqued Russian lancer, but decided to retreat, despite their numerical superiority. But what played the main role here - her peak or her courage (perhaps both), alas, can no longer be said.




It is important to note that in the Russian army of that time, it was edged weapons that were used not only in battle, but also as a reward for officers. There are two types of such award weapons: "golden weapons" (swords and sabers with a gilded hilt) and Annenskoye (swords and sabers with the insignia of the Order of St. Anna, 3rd class). Since 1788, they have been awarded with golden swords and sabers with the inscription “For Bravery” on the shackle of the guard. Moreover, the headquarters and chief officers of the army and fleet just a weapon with an inscription and a gilded hilt was supposed to, the generals received swords and sabers with diamonds and the inscription: "For bravery", but the commanders of armies or individual corps were awarded weapons in addition to diamonds, decorated with golden laurel wreaths, and the inscription made on them also contained the date and the name of the battle site. Paul I canceled the awarding of such a weapon. However, by decree of November 18, 1796, it was stipulated that the order of St. Anna class 3 should be worn on the hilt of infantry swords and cavalry sabers of gentlemen officers.


Private of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment. Formal dress. Private Izyum hussar regiment. Hiking form. Artist N.V. Zaretsky. 1876-1959. Russian army in 1812. SPb., 1912

Alexander I decided to resume the awarding of golden weapons, and by decree of September 28, 1807, he equated the officers who were awarded with golden weapons to the holders of Russian orders. In 1812, 274 people received golden swords and sabers, and 16 golden weapons with diamonds - 1812. The most massive award of junior officers was the Annenskoye weapon, which in the same 968 was awarded to XNUMX people. Interestingly, in the Napoleonic army, edged weapons were very similar to our Russian, with the only noticeable difference that the handles of the sapper's hatchets of the guards sapper units were cast from brass and for some reason ended in a cock's head.


Imperial Guard. Dragoons of the Empress. 1806-1815 Young Guard uniform, 1813-1814 Illustration by Lucien Rousselo

It can be concluded that in military-technical terms, the Russian and French armies were practically equal in all respects, therefore the victory in the war of 1812 can be called connected to the greatest extent with economic and ... psychological factors. The one who had more reserves and whose soldiers were braver, in the end he had to win this war!
Author:
Articles from this series:
Year XNUMX artillery
Pistols of the war of 1812
Thunderstorm of the twelfth year. Shotguns
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 05: 35 New
    +5
    .Saber Cossack sample 1799 Russia
    Rave. We didn't make sabers for the Cossacks! The presented saber is most likely of the "hussar" model. Well, I could well get to the Cossacks. The Cossack saber has a guard in the form of a cross. "More, I would like to", CIN. repeatBy the way, it is this saber in the engraving below repeat
    Privates of the Ulan Regiment Life Guards 1809-1811. Lithograph of the 1840s. Museum of artillery of engineering troops and signal troops, St. Petersburg.
    1. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 22 August 2020 06: 01 New
      15
      I agree that the author would first go to the Museum of the Don Cossacks in Novocherkassk and get acquainted with what the Cossack sabers looked like. The fact is that the Cossack sabers, with rare exceptions, did not have a closed guard and looked something like this
      In addition, the Cossacks often used captured weapons, mainly Turkish, something like this

      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 06: 04 New
        +3
        Quote: Varyag_0711
        the author would first go to the Museum of the Don Cossacks in Novocherkassk

        I agree. It looks like the author has become a victim of information from the museum, or most likely from the Internet.
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 27 August 2020 04: 32 New
          0
          Truly nonsense, the fact that there were no Cossack sabers, respected Mauritius should have at least basic knowledge before writing so categorically. Obviously, he does not know about the decree of Alexander1, about the arming of the Cossacks with lances of the Uhlan type, but smaller and cheaper, and with outdated hussar sabers. With the aforementioned sabers, the Cossacks went through all the Napoleonic wars. In the Hermitage, by the way, there is a Cossack officer's saber, luxuriously made by Ivan Bushuev himself, made in 1821, and quite having a closed handle with a bow. You can admire the photo of this saber, in the wonderful book by Alla Begunova. And the museum of the Don Cossacks in Novocherkassk, due to its poverty and wretchedness, simply cannot have exhibits of this level. They have an exposition by type, I blinded him from what was
      2. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 22 August 2020 06: 13 New
        +9
        It can be concluded that in military-technical terms, the Russian and French armies were practically equal in all respects, therefore the victory in the war of 1812 can be called connected to the greatest extent with economic and ... psychological factors. The one who had more reserves and whose soldiers were braver, in the end he had to win this war!
        Complete nonsense. And to what category does the author classify Davydov, Figner, Seslavin, von Vizin and other partisans? By the way, those French people were brave. So bravery was not the issue.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 06: 35 New
          +3
          Quote: Varyag_0711
          Complete nonsense. And to what category does the author classify Davydov, Figner, Seslavin, von Vizin and other partisans? By the way, those French people were brave. So bravery was not the issue.
          I agree. When the author has nothing to say in proof, then it remains to recognize his right to the original view. fool France has occupied and mobilized all of Europe with its EU economy.
          The army of France is a "republican" army. And the "social elevators" really worked there. And although the marshal's baton did not shine to anyone, everyone could get the "corporal's stick" for bravery. Therefore, there was enough courage there. And as the corps of Poniatowski ...... although bloody, it also fought steadfastly.
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 27 August 2020 04: 50 New
            -1
            Why is it suddenly bloody? There my direct ancestor fought, and I deeply studied that period, and probably know more than you.
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 27 August 2020 09: 03 New
              +1
              Quote: Icelord
              Why is it suddenly bloody? There my direct ancestor fought, and I deeply studied that period, and probably know more than you.

              Then you should be well aware that the cruelty of the Poles towards the local population and the wounded caused the disgust of the French.
              My direct ancestor fought there,
              Yes Yes. Grandpa was good, on a white horse fool Was he captured and survived?
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 29 August 2020 07: 15 New
                0
                If I had, I would hardly have survived
                1. Mavrikiy
                  Mavrikiy 29 August 2020 07: 18 New
                  0
                  And, so it means he hobnobbed with Kosciuszka and ended up in Siberia, a butcher from the Warsaw Uprising? That's where he is dear. hi
                  1. Icelord
                    Icelord 29 August 2020 07: 25 New
                    0
                    Oh, you do not like people, I even feel sorry for you. He did not get to Siberia, he had nothing to do there
                    1. Mavrikiy
                      Mavrikiy 29 August 2020 07: 32 New
                      0
                      Quote: Icelord
                      Eh you do not love people, I even feel sorry for you. He did not get to Siberia, he had nothing to do there

                      I adore them, you have no idea how, unlike you.
                      The uprising beguiled, sorry. Kostyushka was placed in 1830. hi No wonder. Under our humane rulers, the local braga always wanders.
                      1. Icelord
                        Icelord 29 August 2020 07: 58 New
                        0
                        It is useless to argue with you. So what about Davydov? All to say nothing on the individual pass?
        2. Icelord
          Icelord 27 August 2020 04: 47 New
          -3
          Just don't believe the memoirs of a drunken storyteller, Davydov, about how he convinced stupid Bagration and Kutuzov of the need for partisans, and then defeated all the French
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 27 August 2020 09: 13 New
            +2
            Quote: Icelord
            Just don't believe the memoirs of a drunken storyteller, Davydov,

            Naturally, we will only believe the enlightened ambitious Russophobe. fool
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 29 August 2020 07: 14 New
              0
              Whom to believe in your case, since you don't know the story. Here is the article https://warhead.su/2018/10/06/vraki-davydova-ili-zabytye-partizany-1812-goda
            2. Icelord
              Icelord 29 August 2020 12: 17 New
              0
              That's fine, since there is nothing besides personal attacks, it means that we have dealt with Davydov's lies
              1. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 29 August 2020 12: 38 New
                0
                Quote: Icelord
                That's fine, since there is nothing besides personal attacks, it means that we have dealt with Davydov's lies

                What personal attacks, your grandfather, in the hordes of Napoleon, attacked my homeland, and you want me to love this scum? fool
              2. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 29 August 2020 12: 42 New
                0
                Quote: Icelord
                That's fine, since there is nothing besides personal attacks, it means that we have dealt with Davydov's lies

                Davydov, a hero of the war of 1812, smashed the French, Poles and other evil spirits ... It was he who initiated and took a lively part in organizing partisan detachments. My lowest bow to him for that. And let Goebel's toadstools come on poop. angry
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 1 September 2020 10: 16 New
                  0
                  So the heroic storyteller, you temper your anger there, it is harmful to health))). He did not initiate anything except his own ideas, but the participant then yes
      3. kalibr
        22 August 2020 07: 38 New
        +2
        Quote: Varyag_0711
        I agree that the author would first go to the Museum of the Don Cossacks in Novocherkassk and get acquainted with what the Cossack sabers looked like.

        Been there more than once. And it is unlikely that the Cossacks used such Turkish sabers in 1812. This is a 16th century saber. Razin's Cossacks - yes.
        1. Varyag_0711
          Varyag_0711 22 August 2020 08: 07 New
          14
          kalibr (Vyacheslav)
          And it is unlikely that the Cossacks used such Turkish sabers in 1812.
          In 1812, they even used it very much.
          Been there more than once.
          Here is Platov's saber, find a closed guard on it ... I certainly understand that this personalized weapon was made in a single copy, etc., but the Cossacks' sabers did not have closed guards and later they were reborn into Cossack checkers. But Turkish sabers, even from the 16th and 17th centuries, were even very popular among the Cossacks.
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 27 August 2020 05: 04 New
            0
            Look at the book by Alla Begunova, there is a Cossack officer's saber kept in the Hermitage by Ivan Bushuev, quite with a closed guard, and hussar sabers, which ordinary Cossacks were armed with during the Napoleonic wars, also with a bow. And Platov, of course, could afford at least a katana, at least two-handed)))
        2. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 08: 07 New
          +4
          Quote: kalibr
          And it is unlikely that the Cossacks used such Turkish sabers in 1812. This is a 16th century saber. Razin's Cossacks - yes.

          Well, some of the old blades of variable width can be rejected, but Turkey was the "supplier" of sabers to the Cossacks, and when was the last Russian-Turkish one? Turkey in the 19th century - hoo. The Danube, the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea scattered their weapons to Central Asia, merchants reached. Among the Cossacks, it was Turkish weapons that prevailed. There could be trophies from other "suppliers". But from Tula? ..... belay
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 27 August 2020 05: 09 New
            0
            Are you joking? What you call a blade of variable thickness is probably yelman, and, as it were, it was a distinctive feature of the Turkish saber, and the blades without expansion (yelmani) are Persian. Or, as it is written in the Russian inventories of Persian vyk, there are many of them in the inventories, much more than the Turkish vyk, since Turkey is traditionally an enemy and trade with her was not very much
    2. kalibr
      22 August 2020 07: 36 New
      -2
      I didn't draw it, and I didn't write it. But I know what was drawn from the object, and under it was the signature, what kind of object it was.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 07: 45 New
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        I didn't draw it, and I didn't write it. But I know what was drawn from the object, and under it was the signature of what kind of object it was.

        Clear. Me, not me, and not my horse. It's not the first time I've been catching girls.
        But it says on the fence ... and in the Penza Museum too. You are a historian Vyacheslav, a gunsmith. Old man is your everything, work, hobby, school ...
        And I didn't even ask for a pardon, eh intelligence. He also put on his hat. repeat
        1. kalibr
          22 August 2020 07: 54 New
          -10
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          And I didn't even ask for a pardon, eh intelligence.

          Ugh on you!
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 08: 08 New
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            Ugh on you!
            And I didn't even ask for a pardon, eh intelligence. He also put on his hat. hi
            1. kalibr
              22 August 2020 08: 20 New
              -10
              Ugh, on you again!
              1. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 11: 34 New
                +5
                Quote: kalibr
                Ugh, on you again!

                Vyachik, Vyachik ...
                "You were more than a relative to me.
                You ate from the palm of my hand.
                You look in your eyes and your back is cold " hi
      2. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 22 August 2020 08: 15 New
        11
        kalibr (Vyacheslav)
        I didn't draw it, and I didn't write it. But I know what was drawn from the object, and under it was the signature, what kind of object it was.
        With drawings you really are not very good.
        On the first, the lancers are not in the lancers and instead of sabers they are nogayk, delirious delirium.
        On the second, the allegedly Izyum hussar regiment, only the Izyum hussar regiment at the time of the Borodino battle had just such a form.
        Otherwise, yes, the Chukchi are not a writer ...
        1. kalibr
          22 August 2020 08: 26 New
          -4
          Alexei! Drawings such as those used in the decoration are in themselves historical value. They were made by famous authors and the signatures under them are given in the form in which they are present on the originals. Well, perhaps without YAT and Fit. The fact that they have errors ... Alas, apparently there are. However, the same Zaretsky was the most famous artist of his time. And if he painted that way, then ... it was so. People at that time were very meticulous in this kind of business. The publications have been checked and rechecked many times. So here I disagree with you.
          1. Varyag_0711
            Varyag_0711 22 August 2020 11: 35 New
            12
            kalibr (Vyacheslav)
            Alexei! Drawings such as those used in the decoration are in themselves historical value.
            Are you sure about that?
            Alas, apparently there is.
            Indeed there is!
            And if he painted that way, then ... it was so.
            It's far from a fact, if you don't know!
            People at that time were very meticulous in this kind of business.
            Yeah, something like Vasnetsov with the painting "Heroes" ... Find 33 differences from real heroes.
            So here I disagree with you.
            As I am with you!

            P.S. I just can't understand one thing, the minus players do not agree with what, with the uniform of the Izyum Hussar Regiment?
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 13: 17 New
              +4
              Quote: Varyag_0711
              I just can't understand one thing, the minus players do not agree with what, with the uniform of the Izyum Hussar Regiment?
              Why, what do they understand in it?
              hi - Yes, I do not agree!
              - With whom?
              - With both.
              - In what?
              - Yes, take everything and divide. And then they will divorce boo-boo ... hi As a joke. Mafia and formazones. Spit and "rotate your line" ......
            2. kalibr
              22 August 2020 17: 35 New
              -7
              Alexei! Well, you, as a child, are right. There is no need to compare the epic WEALTHY, where fantasies are quite permitted, with works for museums, and printed publications from serious customers. Inaccuracies are also noted in Viskovaty's work, but it's still not better. I, in my opinion, have already written here more than once about how scrupulously the design for OSPREY books is chosen. But the same took place in the design of encyclopedic editions on the history of uniforms. The same L. and F. Funkenov, for example. By the way, they have a number of books on the Napoleonic wars as well as in the OSPREY publishing house.
              1. Fat
                Fat 23 August 2020 15: 15 New
                0
                Here Olegovich received a wild heap of fuiney. Who! I like knowing
      3. Sanya Terek
        Sanya Terek 22 August 2020 21: 38 New
        +2
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, the saber, which you called "Cossack" in your article, was in service with the Life Guards of the Cossack and the Don Ataman Platov regiments. Other Cossack units armed themselves with what God sent.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 23 August 2020 11: 01 New
          -2
          Quote: Sanya Tersky
          Life Guards Cossack
          Did they take part in the war of 1812? I missed something ... request
          1. Sanya Terek
            Sanya Terek 23 August 2020 17: 18 New
            +2
            The Life Guards Cossack Regiment, consisting of four squadrons (3 Don and 1 Black Sea) participated in the Patriotic War (1st Western Army, XNUMXst Cavalry Corps of Lieutenant General F.P. Uvarov).
        2. Fat
          Fat 23 August 2020 15: 18 New
          -2
          Nut and and would know how meticulous Olegovich
    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 August 2020 19: 22 New
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      .Saber Cossack sample 1799 Russia
      Rave. We didn't make sabers for the Cossacks! The presented saber is most likely of the "hussar" model. Well, I could well get to the Cossacks. The Cossack saber has a guard in the form of a cross. "More, I would like to", CIN. repeatBy the way, it is this saber in the engraving below repeat
      Privates of the Ulan Regiment Life Guards 1809-1811. Lithograph of the 1840s. Museum of artillery of engineering troops and signal troops, St. Petersburg.

      I specially gave you a day to mock. The image shows a saber and a Cossack saber. Similar sabers were forged at the Nyaz-Petrovsky and Kaslinsky factories for the Cossacks of the Isetskaya line (the Ural Cossack army). The analogue of this saber was the hussar - the time of Catherine. In addition to the Ural Cossacks, this type of saber was in demand among the Cossacks of the Orenburg army and the Bashkirs. The latter bought them privately.
      By the way, the author of the drawing made only one mistake 1799 - this is the year of forging a particular saber.
      Respectfully yours, it turns out K.I.N. made you like a boy!
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 August 2020 19: 32 New
        -1
        I forgot!
        In a number of cases, weapons, including cold ones, were issued to the Cossacks in "one-time outfits." For example, lances and sabers were received by the Cossacks before the storming of Izmail. Even earlier, sabers, lances, firearms and ammunition were received by the Cossacks of the Chebarkul district, Kalinovsky and Grobovskaya fortresses during the Pugachev uprising.
        Moreover, in the second case, it is most likely that the Cossacks received - hussar sabers with a closed guard!
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Yaik Cossack
        Yaik Cossack 23 August 2020 01: 39 New
        +5
        The Isetskaya line has never had anything to do with the Ural (Yaitsky) Cossack army. In the Napoleonic wars, no uniform sabers existed in the Ural army.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 August 2020 05: 13 New
          -3
          This means the Orenburg Cossack army.
          I'm not talking about uniformity. We have been buying sabers for the Cossacks (mostly of the hussar type) purposefully since the time of Catherine II. See Works of Soloviev on arms.
          Cossacks, service Tatars, Nagaybaks and Bashkirs bought sabers from the Ural factories independently. And sometimes in large quantities up to 100 pcs. Since the middle of the 19th century, this niche has been tightly occupied by the Artinsky and Zlatoust plants. These yes have already forged checkers. But Nyaze-Petrovsk and Kasli made sabers.
          By the way, the Life Guards Cossacks were initially armed with uniform sabers with a closed guard. The history of the Patriotic Drafts begins in the 19th century.
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 23 August 2020 10: 32 New
            -1
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            But Nyaze-Petrovsk and Kasli made sabers.

            Checkers from iron foundries? fool Insanity grew stronger .....
            By the way, the Life Guards Cossacks were initially armed with uniform sabers with a closed guard.
            No, well, if with soap, then ..... you can slip through.repeat
            His Majesty's Life Guards Cossack Regiment is a cavalry regiment of the Russian Imperial Guard. Traditionally, it was replenished with Don grassroots Cossacks: Cossacks from the Lower Don (horseback Cossacks served in the Ataman regiment)
            Courtiers, frontline Cossacks, there from the Cossacks only origin and form. fool
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 August 2020 05: 25 New
          -4
          Quote: Yaitsky Cossack
          The Isetskaya line has never had anything to do with the Ural (Yaitsky) Cossack army. In the Napoleonic wars, no uniform sabers existed in the Ural army.

          Found a blooper. The centralized one-time supply was taught a lesson by the Cossacks of the Isetskaya line and the Yaitsky Cossacks located in the Klinovskaya and Grobovskaya fortresses during the Pugachev uprising. Apparently those who did not support the uprising and went to the mining region with their families.
          After receiving the "order", the Chebarkul Cossacks joined the rebels. Nyaze-Petrovsky Zavod even managed to work for Pugachev. The rebels burned Kasli.
      4. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 23 August 2020 10: 28 New
        +1
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        it turns out K.I.N. made you like a boy!

        He can't do anyone, by the way, just like you. foolFor delirium is a bad helper.
        In the XNUMXth - early XNUMXth century, in addition to private enterprises and handicraftsmen, five large state enterprises were engaged in the production of edged weapons in Russia: Petrovsky, Olonetsky, Sestroretsky, Tula, Izhevsky
        Craftsmen worked on private, piece orders.
        1. Nyaze-Petrovsky.
        1770 It has a blast-furnace with one blast-furnace, where a tent (hut) for casting cast-iron dishes is attached, two hammer factories, in which there are six valid and two spare hammers, as well as 12 forges; sawmill with two frames, one forge with six forges and a fur factory. Craftsmen and workers, bought from the factory, 250 souls. Back in January 1760, a decree was sent from the Berg Collegium on an urgent establishment at the Nyazepetrovsk plant of a factory for the production of tinned iron for the manufacture of flasks, as well as roofing iron.
        What edged weapon could he make? fool There was no one there not only to make the hilt, but also to forge the blade.
        1776 the manufacture of strip iron increased to 70 thousand From 1809 the factory life became more lively. This was greatly facilitated by the war with Napoleon. Then, by order of the state, about 80 thousand poods of artillery shells were cast, and cannonballs, bombs, grenades, and buckshot were also produced. That is, 1000 tons of cast iron over several years.
        Mainly strip iron casting and forging. Development direction:
        “At different times he was the best in iron making, not only among the Ural factories, but also Russian and foreign. There were several types of sheet iron: glossy, black, matte, red and others ... "

        2. Kaslinsky plant, yes. On May 15, 1746, merchant Kolobov signed a contract with the Orenburg Chancellery for the construction of an iron-making plant. AND? Again casting, krinitsy, strip. They did not make massive cold weapons in Kasli.
        .
      5. Fat
        Fat 23 August 2020 15: 22 New
        -2
        But thanks, cat ...
  2. svp67
    svp67 22 August 2020 05: 50 New
    +6
    About the effectiveness of edged weapons in that war from the recollections of Simon Rüppel, an officer of the 2nd Westphalian Hussars.
    His regiment, in one of the battles, attacked our retreating, after the attack of the Sumy hussar regiment, and in fact the attack turned into a pursuit ...
    "Since the fat mens on their backs well protected the enemy riders from chopping blows that did not bring success, we could only stab with our sharp sabers and achieved several falls of the hussars from their horses, although most, despite the fact that they were probably seriously wounded, were able to resist on the horses flying by the quarry. We sat on their shoulders so much that we almost formed a line interspersed with the back rows of the enemy. I already twice pricked the Sumy hussar galloping next to me, but he did not fall; moreover, he also rushed forward, into the first rows I lost sight of him and, in the heat of the battle, I almost ended up in the first enemy ranks, when a pistol bullet buzzed near my left ear and two saber blows fell on me, which, however, turned out to be ineffective because of my free hanging mentics. It made me stop my hot horse, which was just right. "
  3. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 22 August 2020 06: 12 New
    +7
    Imperial Guard. Dragoons of the Empress. 1806-1815 Young Guard uniform, 1813-1814 Illustration by Lucien Rousselo
    "This is how he sees" The blades of the broadswords are twisted like sabers.
    1. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 22 August 2020 06: 19 New
      11
      I agree, indeed "he sees it this way", and the scabbard is even, as befits a sword, at least for the one on the left. In the background, don't understand who at all. And the rolls over the right shoulder raise doubts about the artist's adequacy.
    2. kalibr
      22 August 2020 07: 48 New
      -2
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Imperial Guard. Dragoons of the Empress. 1806-1815 Young Guard uniform, 1813-1814 Illustration by Lucien Rousselo
      "This is how he sees" The blades of the broadswords are twisted like sabers.

      Yes interesting. It's good that you noticed this. Apparently, it happens to everyone. Although Lucien Rousselo (1900 - 1992) is a recognized master and connoisseur of "Napoleonics". He is a French artist, illustrator and uniformist. Over the years of his long professional career, Lucien Rousselo made a huge contribution, first of all, to the creation of images of the military uniform of the French army from different periods, with the greatest attention to the period of the First Empire. But maybe he drew this tablet when he was old ...
    3. Icelord
      Icelord 22 August 2020 10: 03 New
      -2
      These are heavy cavalry sabers
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 22 August 2020 06: 57 New
    0
    Yes, really ... Wave two kilos! The gym jocks will be jealous.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. I do not understand the intricacies of edged weapons, but I read the technical characteristics with pleasure.
  5. Icelord
    Icelord 22 August 2020 09: 57 New
    0
    Thanks for the article, Vyachislav Olegovich. But in the illustrations signed with a dragoon and cuirassier broadsword, swords
    1. kalibr
      22 August 2020 17: 16 New
      0
      Igor, you are wrong. I do not remember from which exhibit the artist drew the Cossack saber of 1799. But I remember very well about the broadswords that in the original article (and it was first published in the magazine HISTORI ILLUSTREYTID in 2012), their drawings were duplicated by photographs from the SHM funds. And they completely coincided.
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 22 August 2020 20: 58 New
        +1
        Viskovatov is to blame, he has it, but a faceted blade is a sword, he does not chop the current to prick. And for some reason Viskovatov classified it by the handle, and so it went even in museum attributions, but in modern literature, even Leonov understands this in detail
      2. Icelord
        Icelord 22 August 2020 21: 06 New
        +2
        According to modern classification, a diamond-shaped sword is a sword, a lenticular sword is a sword, regardless of the handle. And museum workers, they are so ... museum workers
  6. Liam
    Liam 22 August 2020 12: 01 New
    +1
    the handles of the sapper's hatchets of the guards sapper units were cast in brass and for some reason ended in a cock's head.

    It is the unofficial national symbol of France.
    Gauls-gallus. Used by almost all sports federations in the country on jerseys of national teams for example
    1. IS-80_RVGK2
      IS-80_RVGK2 22 August 2020 12: 37 New
      +5
      Not knowing this is of course a fierce bottom for a historian.
  7. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 22 August 2020 13: 55 New
    +2
    flag (weather vane), by the color of which the regiment was determined, and inside the regiment itself - the battalion

    Cavalry battalions were formed from naval squadrons, right?
    Or were there divisions in the cavalry? Clarify for yourself, but it's like an ancient Egyptian sword and a Carthaginian bayonet. Also, just in case, instead of a company, there is a squadron in the cavalry, and the Cossacks have a hundred. About the peaks. Were the Polish lancers armed with pikes? As an author versed in knightly tournaments and in general in the tactics of horse fighting in the Middle Ages, tell me, is a pike (spear) a plus or a minus during a horse attack? If a plus, then those who mention it are right, if a minus, then why did the knights fiddle with spears?
    1. kalibr
      22 August 2020 17: 26 New
      0
      For the effectiveness of the lancers' cavalry armed with pikes, see the works of Alla Begunova. This is the most affordable in Russia.
      Quote: motorized infantryman
      Also, just in case, instead of a company, there is a squadron in the cavalry, and the Cossacks have a hundred.

      Thank you, I didn’t know ...
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 August 2020 17: 51 New
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        For the effectiveness of the lancers' cavalry armed with pikes, see the works of Alla Begunova. This is the most affordable in Russia.
        Quote: motorized infantryman
        Also, just in case, instead of a company, there is a squadron in the cavalry, and the Cossacks have a hundred.

        Thank you, I didn’t know ...

        Not everywhere and not always! I will not prompt !!!
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 22 August 2020 21: 44 New
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        instead of a company, in a cavalry squadron

        there were times when the cavalry squadron was analogous to the foot battalion and consisted of companies.
        1. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 23 August 2020 01: 41 New
          +4
          The dragoons under Peter the Great. It was called then "shkvadron"
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 24 August 2020 09: 39 New
            0
            Even the Swedes, starting with Gustav Adolf. Most likely they borrowed it.
            And the division in the cavalry of the RIA until 1882 of the PMSM, these are two squadrons united to solve any problem.
      3. Fat
        Fat 23 August 2020 14: 12 New
        -4
        I do not know how you will spread knowledge here. But a squadron ... It's about a platoon. And the Cossack hundred could be from a dozen thugs
        1. Fat
          Fat 23 August 2020 14: 14 New
          -3
          Not a squadron company, but a platoon
        2. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 24 August 2020 09: 33 New
          +1
          Quote: Thick
          But a squadron ... It's about a platoon.

          Where did you see that?
          Unless during the Civil War, then regiments the size of a company happened.
          1. Fat
            Fat 9 October 2020 19: 37 New
            0
            Didn't happen. The scale is not the same. A regiment the size of a division was possible
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 22 August 2020 21: 16 New
      +3
      Quote: motorized infantryman
      Or were there divisions in the cavalry?

      Completely optional. Ulan and hussar 10 and 12 squadron regiments were divided into 2 battalions. In particular, the well-known D. Davydov in the Akhtyrsky regiment commanded just a battalion.
      I'll tell you more, during that war the artillery battalions also met.
      Quote: motorized infantryman
      Also, just in case, instead of a company, there is a squadron in the cavalry, and the Cossacks have a hundred.

      So, just in case, at the indicated time, the Life Cossack regiment consisted of three squadrons.
      Quote: motorized infantryman
      If plus, then those who mention it are right, if minus, then zWhy knights fiddled with spears?

      They had no firearms. As soon as spears appeared, they began to give way to pistols. The last who held on to the knightly spears were the hussars of the Commonwealth, but by the 18th century, these retrogrades also explained the perniciousness of this habit.
      A light lancer or Cossack peak is a different matter. And you can throw, and the infantrymen who did not have time to reload can be chopped.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 August 2020 07: 17 New
        0
        If you think rationally. The pike is not comfortable in a tight formation, in which heavy cavalry attacked, but additional (conditionally) remote weapons of irregular and regular light cavalry. Which were mostly more versatile.
      2. Fat
        Fat 23 August 2020 14: 19 New
        -3
        Well, nifiga yourself a company. But the regiment for them you.
      3. TooL
        TooL 24 August 2020 13: 32 New
        0
        Polish hussars switched to firearms in the 16th century and used it in parallel with the lancers.
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 24 August 2020 16: 21 New
          +1
          I did not write that they did not have a firearm. I wrote:
          The last who held on to the knightly spears were the hussars of the Commonwealth
  8. Normal ok
    Normal ok 22 August 2020 16: 15 New
    +1
    in the Russian imperial army, as, indeed, in the army of Napoleon, and in all other armies of the world, edged weapons on
    was in service with both infantry and cavalry,

    And artillery.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 August 2020 17: 52 New
      -1
      Hi Sergey, then it's worth adding naval crews.
      1. Fat
        Fat 23 August 2020 14: 32 New
        -2
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Hi Sergey, then it's worth adding naval crews.

        And here it is not necessary
        This is a special case
  9. TooL
    TooL 22 August 2020 23: 12 New
    -1
    Melee weapons in the cavalry have never been the main one. And even more so bayonets were not the main weapon in the infantry. Losses from these weapons speak for themselves, 5% from blades and 2% from bayonets. And their low efficiency is reflected in many memoirs.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 August 2020 07: 13 New
      0
      Thanks for the statistics!
      Key phrase "wounds and contusions." When struck with a cold weapon or bayonet, there was little chance of survival! Minor wounds, cuts, apparently, were not included in the number of wounds.
      And we also appreciate our army, which was accustomed to fight for a short time in hand-to-hand combat. In this connection, using your statistics, we can say about the superiority of training to wield knives of our army.
      Although here it is necessary to count, count and count. The jerk will not work.
      Thanks again for the data, share the source.
      1. TooL
        TooL 23 August 2020 11: 48 New
        -1
        In general, on the contrary, edged weapons have a much lower lethality than firearms. Some soldiers might have had a dozen CW wounds, but they survived and got up in line. But there were very few people wounded by bullets twice, as a rule, after that they did not survive, or became disabled. Surgeon Larrey also noted that after a bayonet attack, 95% of the soldiers were wounded by bullets.
        How is the ability to wield cold weapons in our army expressed? belay In our army of the 18-19 centuries, the use of cold weapons was not taught at all! The first instructions on bayonet techniques appeared only in the 1830s. The cavalry did not need fencing at all, for they only cut in the back.
        Source Tselorungo D.G. He analyzed the personal documents (forms) of more than 1300 soldiers and officers of the Russian army at the beginning of the 19th century.
        1. Fat
          Fat 23 August 2020 14: 53 New
          -2
          Well, I really didn't want to .. The beginning of the 19th century is not at all statistics for you, what was it then? Another reform from Muravyov - the hangman?
        2. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 24 August 2020 09: 43 New
          0
          Quote: TooL
          How is the ability to wield cold weapons in our army expressed?

          The fact is that most of the recruits are peasants. Work with a pitchfork in haymaking, sweeping and scattering haystacks and you can turn your enemy on a bayonet from a three-ruler like a hoop.
    2. Fat
      Fat 23 August 2020 14: 35 New
      -2
      Toole. Vopsche Koga thread in a stake about children playing? The post is cool and sensible. Well, there is no victory in a close fight with knives ... Impossible !!!!
      1. Fat
        Fat 23 August 2020 14: 55 New
        -2
        Here I am. To own a knife is more than very important, I live in garlic for half a century. And how peaceful we are ...
        1. Fat
          Fat 23 August 2020 15: 07 New
          -2
          Give the man all your hate and get all the fuinbu back
          But you must?
  10. Icelord
    Icelord 26 August 2020 16: 36 New
    0
    https://warhead.su/2020/07/10/muzeynye-lyapy-kogda-etiketka-porazhaet-bolshe-chem-eksponat
    By the way, here is a great article about GIM attribution. She is not just wrong, she is literally illiterate at the kindergarten level. It is impossible to believe that this is not a banter. But the article explains that the problem is in the Russian system of registration of museum exhibits, it is simply impossible to change the obviously insane attribution.