Military Review

Development of tank shells based on depleted uranium

117

Scheme of the American M735 projectile in the basic configuration. The upgraded M735A1 differed only in the core material. Figure Steelbeasts.com


The ammunition load of a number of modern main combat tanks includes armor-piercing sub-caliber projectiles with a core of depleted uranium and its alloys. Due to the special design and special material, such ammunition is capable of showing high combat characteristics and therefore is of great interest to the armies. However, only a few countries are still developing such shells.

First american


When developing the future M1 Abrams MBT, the American industry faced the problem of further increasing penetration. For use on the tank, a 105-mm rifled M68A1 gun was offered, the ammunition of which no longer had a serious reserve of characteristics for the future. In the late seventies, this issue was resolved through the development of new BOPS, which were put into service in the eighties.

In 1979, the M735A1 projectile was developed and tested - a version of the M735 product with a uranium core instead of a tungsten core. Despite the advantages over the previous model, this BOPS was not accepted into service. Then the more successful M774 projectile appeared. During the eighties, 105-mm BOPS M833 and M900 with higher characteristics were adopted.


M774 product schematic. Figure Steelbeasts.com

In the course of the development of 105-mm armor-piercing shells, it was possible to obtain sufficiently high characteristics. The initial velocity has reached or exceeded 1500 m / s. Later uranium cores pierced 2-450 mm of homogeneous armor at a distance of 500 km. It was believed that this is enough to combat modern tanks of a potential enemy.

Increased caliber


The modernization project for the M1A1 tank provided for the replacement of the 105-mm cannon with a more powerful 120-mm smooth-bore gun M256. For the latter, a new generation BOPS with higher characteristics was created - M829. In the course of its development, it was decided to finally abandon the tungsten damaging element in favor of a more effective uranium one.

The M829 product received a core 627 mm long, 27 mm in diameter and weighing about 4,5 kg, complemented by an aluminum head fairing and tail assembly. The muzzle velocity was increased to 1670 m / s, which made it possible to increase the penetration to 540 mm per 2 km. The base M829 was put into service along with the M1A1 MBT.

Development of tank shells based on depleted uranium

Shot with BOPS M829. Noteworthy is the short length of the projectile. Figure Inetres.com

By the early nineties, the M829A1 projectile was created and adopted, which received a new core. The 4,6 kg uranium rod had a length of 684 mm and a diameter of 22 mm. The initial speed was reduced to 1575 m / s, but penetration exceeded 630-650 mm, and the effective range increased to 3 km.

Already in 1994, an improved version of the M829A1, the M829A2, appeared. Due to the introduction of new technologies and materials, it was possible to increase the initial speed by 100 m / s and increase the armor penetration. In addition, the mass of the shot has been reduced in general.

At the beginning of the 829s, the M3A800 BOPS appeared, designed to destroy objects with reactive armor. This problem is solved due to the composite core, including the "leading" steel element and the main uranium. The total length of the core increased to 10 mm, and the weight to 1550 kg. With an initial speed of 700 m / s, such a projectile is capable of penetrating at least 2 mm of armor from XNUMX km.


M829A2 split layout. US Army Photos

To date, serial production of the latest BOPS model for the M256 gun has been launched under the designation M829A4. A characteristic feature of this product is the maximum possible length of the core, which made it possible to increase its mass and energy parameters - and, consequently, the parameters of penetration. The M829A4 is intended for use by M1A2 tanks with SEP upgrade packages.

Development results


The American industry took up the topic of tank uranium BOPS in the mid-seventies, and at the beginning of the next decade, the first production samples went to the army. In the future, the development of this direction continued and led to interesting results.

The introduction of depleted uranium allowed the US Army to solve several problems at once. First of all, it was possible to obtain a favorable ratio of the size, mass and speed of the projectile, which had a positive effect on the fighting qualities. When creating the M735A1 BOPS, the increase in armor penetration was less than 10% compared to the tungsten M735, but then more successful samples with a different increase in characteristics appeared.


The most modern BOPS for the M256 is the M829A4. Photo Sturgeonshouse.ipbhost.com

Then the transition to 120 mm caliber began, which made it possible for a new increase in performance. The first sample of the M829 family could penetrate 540 mm - significantly more than the 105 mm predecessors. Modern modifications of the M829 have reached the level of 700-750 mm penetration.

Foreign response


Soon after the United States, the topic of uranium shells for tank guns was taken up in several countries, but only in the USSR and Russia such projects were fully developed. Several such BOPSs have been put into service and new ones have been reported.

In 1982, the Soviet Army received the 125-mm 3BM-29 "Nadfil-2" projectile for the 2A46 gun. Its active part was made of steel and carried a uranium alloy core. Penetration from 2 km reached 470 mm. According to this parameter, the 3BM-29 was ahead of other domestic developments with other cores, but the advantage was not fundamental.


Shell 3BM-46 with a master device. Photo Russianarmor.info

In 1985, a monolithic uranium projectile 3BM-32 "Vant" appeared. A striking element with a length of 480 m and a mass of 4,85 g at an initial speed of 1700 m / s could penetrate 560 mm of armor. A further development of this design was the 3BM-46 "Lead" product, which appeared in the early nineties. By lengthening the core to 635 mm, the penetration capacity was brought to 650 mm.

In recent years, a new generation of tank BOPS has been developed. So, there is a new projectile 3BM-59 "Lead-1". According to various sources, from a distance of 2 km, it is capable of penetrating at least 650-700 mm of armor. There is a modification of this ammunition with a tungsten core. New shots are also being developed for the promising 2A82 gun and larger caliber systems. It is assumed that some of these projects involve the use of uranium alloys.

Mixed nomenclature


Thus, the Soviet and Russian industry took into account their own and foreign experience, which resulted in the consistent creation of several BOPSs with a uranium core. Such ammunition was a good addition to the existing tungsten rounds, but could not supplant them. As a result, the ammunition load of Russian MBTs may include different shells with different characteristics.


General view of the shot 3BM-59/60. Figure Russianarms.ru

At the same time, uranium alloys fully justified themselves and made it possible to obtain a significant increase in combat characteristics in a limited time. The appearance of the first BOPSs with uranium cores provided a jump from 400-430 to 470 mm of penetration, and further development made it possible to reach a higher level. However, it is not only uranium shells that are developing. Traditional cemented carbide designs have not yet exploited their full potential.

Past and future


The uranium core of an armor-piercing projectile has a number of important advantages over steel or tungsten counterparts. Slightly losing in density, it is harder, stronger and more effective in terms of penetrating armor. In addition, fragments of a uranium projectile tend to ignite in the armor space, which turns the ammunition into an armor-piercing incendiary.

The USA has long understood all the advantages of such BOPS, and the result was a complete rejection of alternative designs and materials. In other countries, the situation is different. Thus, NATO members often have a mixed range of weapons in service: at the same time they use hard-alloy shells, incl. own production, and uranium imported from the USA. Russia also uses different classes of BOPS, but produces them independently.

There are no prerequisites for changing the current situation. Depleted uranium has taken its place in the field of armor-piercing projectiles and will retain it for the foreseeable future. The same goes for other materials. The reasons are simple: the core materials used have not yet reached their full potential. And the further development of tank weapons opens up new horizons for them.
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  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 16 August 2020 05: 46 New
    +1
    Isn't the uranium core a "dirty" weapon?
    If yes, then it might be worth thinking about banning it at the international level, following the example of the bullets of the Dum-Dum arsenal!
    1. Errr
      Errr 16 August 2020 07: 56 New
      +8
      Depleted uranium (U-238) is not a very radioactive isotope (it is weakly radioactive). Due to its high density and low decay activity, it is used to protect against hard gamma radiation and high-energy neutrons. Its high hardness allows you to use it in the booking of tanks, body armoras well as in ammunition for small arms and artillery.
      1. ProkletyiPirat
        ProkletyiPirat 16 August 2020 08: 12 New
        12
        Only at high temperature and pressure (after entering the BBT), it forms various compounds that, when it enters the fauna (including humans), lead to various diseases ... In this case, this uranium is dangerous not as a "radioactive" substance, but as "Chemical substance.
        1. Errr
          Errr 16 August 2020 08: 52 New
          0
          Similarly, in the case of incomplete combustion (with a negative oxygen balance) of the components of "traditional" ammunition, the composition of the explosion products changes towards a decrease in the oxidation state, primarily of carbon. In this case, instead of CO2 dioxide, CO oxide is formed, i.e. just carbon monoxide. Prohibit the most "bearded" shells? wink
          1. ProkletyiPirat
            ProkletyiPirat 16 August 2020 11: 21 New
            0
            CO is a simple molecule that is easily broken down and / or excreted from the body, it is only dangerous in extreme quantities.
            But uranium, in the process of penetration, forms voluminous and complex molecules that do not split and are not removed from the body, while due to the fact that in one of the sections of a complex molecule there are organic compounds, this molecule actively interacts with body molecules, as a result, the work of cells is disrupted and DNA, which leads to oncology.
            That is, one CO molecule will not kill you, but one uranium-based molecule can easily kill, for example, it will enter the fetus in the heart area, and upon reaching 21 people will die due to a micro-tumor of the heart. Or you breathe in the dust from such small cells, they will enter the lungs, from there into the blood, from there into the brain, and then hello there is a stroke or a brain tumor ..
            1. aglet
              aglet 16 August 2020 16: 20 New
              -2
              "Or you breathe in the dust from such small cells, they will get into the lungs, from there into the blood, from there into the brain, and then hello there is a stroke or a brain tumor .."
              do not chalk nonsense. it looks like you, in mosk, already got it. depleted uranium, by itself, is not poisonous and is not radioactive
              1. Technical engineer
                Technical engineer 16 August 2020 17: 36 New
                +2
                Sergei is right. If uranium 238 gets inside the body (the same depleted, but it is Uranium) will lead to very sad consequences. And if we take it as an external source of radiation, then yes, it is not particularly dangerous. Therefore, the use of uranium shells, when a part goes into dust microparticles and gaseous compounds, this can really be interpreted as the use of chemical and radiation weapons.
                1. aglet
                  aglet 16 August 2020 17: 45 New
                  +4
                  "When ingested, uranium 238"
                  like any foreign body, or like a heavy metal, like any dust, in the end, but we are talking about tank shells - penetrating the inside of the tank, the uranium 238 core partially turns into dust, and, possibly, can penetrate the respiratory organs of tankers if they are up to this will not die from being hit by fragments of armor, large fragments of the same core, and a dynamic tail of ammunition that penetrated the armor into an enclosed space. The poisonous properties of uranium dust will no longer matter. Tankers simply will not have enough time to die from this, they will die earlier, in a split second, smeared on armor
                  1. ProkletyiPirat
                    ProkletyiPirat 16 August 2020 19: 26 New
                    +1
                    You do not understand the essence of the proliferation of uranium-based concentration-genic molecules. The problem is not that "a soldier will die earlier from penetration than from oncology" as you describe it, but that these molecules remain on damaged equipment, on the battlefield (TBD) and on the theater of operations (theater of operations), and these particles are stable for hundreds of years and in addition they are easily tolerated by the atmosphere, flora and fauna.
                    For example, in the desert regions where the United States fought, the zone of increased oncology is much larger than the LDP zone, because uranium-based dust is carried by sandstorms and rivers. Moreover, the worst thing is that these molecules are transmitted through the flora. For example, in one of the documentaries on this topic, there was a case when a whole garden of fruit trees was cut down (like they were apple trees, but not a fact), and so, these molecules were stable enough to be transmitted along the chain earth-apple-apple-human digestive tract, in That region had a war decades ago and people are still suffering.
                    Once again, I explain that the combined uranium itself is practically not dangerous, even if it gets inside and even if there are ultra-low doses of radiation from it, then this is not scary because the interaction between uranium and cell molecules will be minimal. This is precisely the problem in large uranium-based molecules where the outer parts of this molecule partially coincide with natural "cellular" molecules, due to which these "organic tails" are carried throughout the body due to "adhesion" to natural organic processes (for example, to the process of transfer oxygen through the blood).
                    1. aglet
                      aglet 17 August 2020 09: 39 New
                      -2
                      You don't understand the proliferation of uranium-based concentration-genic molecules. "
                      Where do these very carcinogenic molecules come from in the case of uranium238? and uranium has large and small molecules, interesting. and small ones are harmless, and large ones are harmful and dangerous? this is undoubtedly a new word in physics. did you come to this conclusion through experiments with uranium238, or did someone tell you about it? this is how you live, and you don’t know that people are making revolutionary discoveries next to you. but before you apply to Nobel committee, read the physics textbook for grade 8. you may be interested in a lot there. "For example, in the desert regions where the US fought a zone of increased oncology"
                      And who has studied these regions, compared with other places? who put them on the map? or again, personal experience and experiments?
                      not only radioactive substances can be carcinogenic, but any excess and unnecessary substances that enter the human body. and these apples, it seems, do not grow in deserts, but where they grow, the war was so long ago that uranium was then used only as a backlight for clocks and compasses. Do you have any facts about these terrible plants, or again, personal experience?
                      and orchards are often cut down at the root, and new ones are planted in their place - renewal of planting material is called
        2. Professor
          Professor 16 August 2020 20: 35 New
          +6
          Quote: ProkletyiPirat
          Only at high temperature and pressure (after entering the BBT), it forms various compounds that, when it enters the fauna (including humans), lead to various diseases ... In this case, this uranium is dangerous not as a "radioactive" substance, but as "Chemical substance.

          Just like lead. Heavy metals however. Prohibit the shooter. There are lead bullets. wassat
          1. Technical engineer
            Technical engineer 1 September 2020 18: 48 New
            0
            Professor with all due respect, do not distort the facts. I understand Israel's politics. You cannot be told that uranium is harmful. But, as a person with education, they must understand.
          2. Sergey Gintner
            Sergey Gintner 25 September 2020 04: 06 New
            0
            Exactly ... everyone knows that when a lead bullet enters the body, he gets severe lead poisoning, often incurable ..))))
    2. Monar
      Monar 16 August 2020 08: 32 New
      +7
      This is how to count. The depleted phonite itself is small. Alpha particles in the air then fly a few centimeters, not to mention denser media. Gamma is just a little fonite. So the stories about the general death of American tankers are from the category of tales.
      The metal itself is another matter. From the category of heavy. Well, like lead. Or mercury. You will take figs out of the body. Chemical poisoning. But it is necessary to either gnaw the rod of the projectile, or breathe in vapors.
      But only lead was probably used in millions of tons in wars. But no one gnawed and did not breathe to death.
      1. zenion
        zenion 16 August 2020 14: 48 New
        +5
        You don't know how printing workers die. There, retirement for men is 55 years old with 17 years of experience and for women 50 years with 15 years of experience. The fact is that earlier they used letters based on a lead alloy with zinc, and I don't remember another metal, which gives the letters hardness. It is possible to live up to retirement, but this will not please, as vapors and lead dust enter the body and damage the entire nervous system. Solid lead entering the body is excreted, it does not dissolve, but the dust dissolves in the stomach, settles on the walls of the stomach, enters the bloodstream and first affects the nerves of the limbs, then the brain. A lot of young people have died. In one printing house three people died in six months and no one knows why.
        1. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 16: 30 New
          0
          what kind of horror you rasskazyvete. lead is contained in the fonts-sets, if they are not there, nothing will happen to you.
        2. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 18: 11 New
          0
          "lead vapors and dust enter the body"
          Where will you get lead vapors from the printing house? well, dust, you can grate with a file, and then sniff it, and fumes? to melt lead until it evaporates, and then greedily breathe in its vapors?
          "Solid lead entering the body is excreted, it does not dissolve, but the dust does dissolve"
          that is, you still need to specifically look for soft lead to make dust? lead dust differs from lump lead only in size - both chemical and physical properties are the same
          1. Briz
            Briz 17 August 2020 18: 12 New
            +1
            Do you know what a linotype is?
            1. aglet
              aglet 18 August 2020 08: 07 New
              -2
              "Do you know what a linotype is?"
              I know. It is widely used all over the world (or has been used), including America, Germany, France, the USSR also used it. when used correctly, it is not dangerous to humans. Do you know what ventilation and safety measures are?
        3. Monar
          Monar 17 August 2020 05: 43 New
          +3
          You are confusing soft with green. It's one thing to "grind" lead for decades. A completely different shell. Nobody touches uranium with pens.
          Take any professional military man. Not "generals", but those who serve in the "field". How many pens does he equip over the years of service in stores? And inside the bullet is lead. Did many of them die from heavy metal poisoning?
    3. iouris
      iouris 17 August 2020 11: 48 New
      -2
      Quote: andrewkor
      it might be worth considering a ban

      It's too late to think. It is worth conducting a small series of nuclear tests. First, of course, underground. But if the "partners" do not understand or pretend that they did not catch the signal, then ... New Earth is not so new.
    4. max702
      max702 30 September 2020 13: 56 New
      0
      Manufactured in Glazov at ChMP JSC production "300"
      rs: Warehouses are packed to capacity ..
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 16 August 2020 05: 52 New
    0
    The introduction of depleted uranium has allowed the US Army to solve several problems at once
    The main one is the genocide of the Yugoslav people, FDI ...... angry
    1. Professor
      Professor 16 August 2020 20: 37 New
      -3
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      The introduction of depleted uranium has allowed the US Army to solve several problems at once
      The main one is the genocide of the Yugoslav people, FDI ...... angry

      Genocide? You have to learn the terminology so as not to disgrace.
      1. English tarantas
        English tarantas 16 August 2020 21: 42 New
        +1
        Sorry, but genocide is not just about you. Although the comrade is wrong, the genocide there was staged not by the Americans, but by the local
  3. svp67
    svp67 16 August 2020 05: 58 New
    +1
    In addition, fragments of a uranium projectile tend to ignite in the armor-plated space, which turns the ammunition into an armor-piercing incendiary
    And also hitting the crew with radioactive particles ... through the respiratory system.
    With an increase in the "reduced thickness" of armored barriers, the question of increasing the velocity properties of shells, to increase their penetrating qualities, becomes more and more urgent.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 16 August 2020 07: 06 New
      -1
      Quote: svp67
      And also hitting the crew with radioactive particles ... through the respiratory system.

      Do you think this is relevant? And how many people from the crew survive when the armor is "broken"?
      1. svp67
        svp67 16 August 2020 08: 02 New
        +3
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        And how many people from the crew survive when the armor is "broken"?

        BOPS ... as "the card falls", maybe no one will die, and so from one to four of the crew.
        1. Professor
          Professor 16 August 2020 20: 40 New
          +1
          Quote: svp67
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          And how many people from the crew survive when the armor is "broken"?

          BOPS ... as "the card falls", maybe no one will die, and so from one to four of the crew.

          It will not fall asleep. This is not a comultive stream. For BOPS, the reserve action leads to the death of the crew. Almost guaranteed. We teach materiel
          1. svp67
            svp67 17 August 2020 04: 31 New
            +2
            Quote: Professor
            For BOPS, the reserve action leads to the death of the crew. Almost guaranteed. We teach materiel

            Learn for yourself ... How does the crew die when a BOPS hits the tank's MTO?
            And how often the crew dies when the shell ricochets from the armor. Teach materiel
            1. Professor
              Professor 17 August 2020 06: 43 New
              -4
              The crew dies in a terrible way. MTO and the crew are behind the same armor and the fire wall does not help. Read the tutorial. You will not write nonsense. hi
              1. svp67
                svp67 17 August 2020 06: 51 New
                +2
                Quote: Professor
                MTO and the crew are behind the same armor and the fire wall does not help.

                You climb into the tank and look at its device ... Your textbook was written under the "Tsar Pea", now the MTO is fenced off from the tank by an armored wall
                1. Professor
                  Professor 17 August 2020 06: 55 New
                  0
                  This wall is called the fire wall. The name itself speaks of its purpose. What is the wall thickness?
                  1. svp67
                    svp67 17 August 2020 07: 08 New
                    0
                    Quote: Professor
                    What is the wall thickness?

                    A few tens of millimeters ... it extinguishes fragments quite normally
                    1. Professor
                      Professor 17 August 2020 20: 09 New
                      0
                      Quote: svp67
                      Quote: Professor
                      What is the wall thickness?

                      A few tens of millimeters ... it extinguishes fragments quite normally

                      1. There is no "several tens of mm".
                      3. "Extinguishes" only low-speed fragments. Its purpose is not to resist projectiles. This is a firewall.
    2. Monar
      Monar 16 August 2020 08: 36 New
      11
      Yeah. The tank was set on fire from the inside. They pulled out the charred bodies. And the diagnosis - inhaled uranium vapor. The liver refused.
      1. svp67
        svp67 16 August 2020 09: 22 New
        -2
        Quote: Monar
        And the diagnosis - inhaled uranium vapor.

        Not really ... When microparticles hit and burn, they scatter and fill the volume, and if this particle emitting "A-radiation" gets inside the respiratory tract, then the death of a person is already a matter of time ...
      2. svp67
        svp67 16 August 2020 17: 31 New
        -3
        Quote: Monar
        Yeah. The tank was set on fire from the inside. They pulled out the charred bodies. And the diagnosis - inhaled uranium vapor. The liver refused.

        Okay. Can you imagine a real tank? The BOPS got into the MTO area, the engine went to the trash, its systems to the trash, the transmission to the trash, there was a fire that was extinguished by the PPO system, where in this scenario do you see "charred bodies"? And they breathe not with uranium vapor, but with radioactive microparticles. It is enough to get one of these, the size of an eye of a needle, into your nasopharynx or larynx, and all cancer is provided for you.
        1. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 18: 14 New
          0
          "Good. Can you imagine a real tank? BOPS hit the MTO area,"
          Well? where is MTO, and where is BO?
          1. svp67
            svp67 17 August 2020 04: 32 New
            -1
            Quote: aglet
            where is MTO, and where is BO?

            Excuse me, but MTO is not a tank? And even hitting the armor, in the area of ​​BO and OU, but the projectile ricochets, the crew will die? All at once?
            1. aglet
              aglet 17 August 2020 09: 11 New
              +1
              maybe he will die, maybe not. in MTO, usually, there is no crew, and it is separated from the BO, the crew does not breathe diesel exhaust. but if the projectile ricochets, the pieces of the core will not fall behind the armor. the crew can be hit by spalling armor inside the tank. and in general, it's not about how the crew can die, but about whether uranium238 is radioactive, don't jump off the topic
        2. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 18: 20 New
          +3
          "It is enough for one such, the size of an eye of a needle, to get into your nasopharynx or larynx, and all cancer is guaranteed to you"
          are you sure the tanker will live to see cancer? and why will it arise? uranium238 does not emit radiation in that amount
        3. Oleg Bykov
          Oleg Bykov 9 October 2020 22: 18 New
          0
          And what if the BOPS hit not a tank (this happens), but, say, a building, a stone boulder, or something that was hard enough on the way for the core to collapse? And even if it hits the tank, all the particles of the destroyed core are unlikely to remain in it. Even if you google "depleted uranium health" - the information is very pessimistic
      3. Technical engineer
        Technical engineer 16 August 2020 17: 42 New
        -7
        BOPS does not contain explosives. He can easily break through the armor and the crew will remain alive. Or the mechanic will die, and the rest of the crew will not suffer. Unless he gets poisoned with radioactive compounds. Then, death will overtake them in a certain number of years. And a very difficult death. But, the Americans do not care. They like to burn people with phosphorus and not only the military.
        1. Professor
          Professor 16 August 2020 20: 42 New
          0
          Quote: Technical Engineer
          BOPS does not contain explosives. He can easily break through the armor and the crew will remain alive. Or the mechanic will die, and the rest of the crew will not suffer. Unless he gets poisoned with radioactive compounds. Then, death will overtake them in a certain number of years. And a very difficult death. But, the Americans do not care. They like to burn people with phosphorus and not only the military.

          Do you have examples of surviving crew members when hit by BOPS?
          1. svp67
            svp67 17 August 2020 04: 33 New
            +1
            Quote: Professor
            Do you have examples of surviving crew members when hit by BOPS?

            Enough. Fortunately or grieving, anyone else, but the BOPS is very prone to ricocheting, and even hitting the tank does not penetrate its armor, and the crew gets a shell shock, but remains alive ...
            "... in the mid-1980s, at the US Army National Training Center (Fort Irvine), an incident occurred in which one M60 tank fired at a colleague's turret from a distance of 100 meters. Due to the fact that the projectile passed at an angle, everything turned out to be a scratch on the turret, but the crew of the tank could not fulfill their tasks for a long time. ”According to the loader, at the moment of the shot, the impression was created that“ an unknown force threw the tank for a moment, and then hit it against something loud.
            But this is a tank with homogeneous armor, for tanks with multi-layer armor protection and lining, this damaging factor is again less
            1. Professor
              Professor 17 August 2020 06: 47 New
              +1
              Well, where are the examples of surviving fighters when armor pierced by BOPS?
              Where is the surviving mechanic?
              1. svp67
                svp67 17 August 2020 06: 49 New
                +1
                Quote: Professor
                Well, where are the examples of surviving fighters when armor pierced by BOPS?
                Where is the surviving mechanic?

                No, you first show the DEAD in the presented case ...
                1. Professor
                  Professor 17 August 2020 06: 53 New
                  +1
                  I can imagine a division of survivors when their tank was not hit at all. However, we are talking about the lethality of BOPS when the armor is broken. I repeat, there will be no survivors. Read the book and don't be fantasized.

                  The mechvod will die.
                  1. svp67
                    svp67 17 August 2020 07: 04 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Professor
                    Read the book and don't be fantasized.

                    Watch the video and gain your mind ... "proHfesor"
                    The 30-mm BOPS hits the homogeneous armor of the M60 tank, only the one who gets in the way of the flying fragments will die ... just like in the BMP. I repeat once again that there are many conditions in the equation, people will survive or die ... but you have "obsession"
                    1. Professor
                      Professor 17 August 2020 07: 13 New
                      +2
                      Do you think we are fools? 30 mm is not 125 or even 105 mm. Article about tank BOPSah. Have you read the article?

                      BOPS punches the tank into the side on departure. Penetrates frontal armor, penetrates any MTO including a firewall. There will be no survivors.

                      Do you have any examples of survivors? A rhetorical question.

                      PS
                      Read the book already. I feel ashamed of you.
                      1. Mazuta
                        Mazuta 17 August 2020 08: 22 New
                        0
                        "... breaks through the frontal armor, breaks through any MTO, including the firewall ..." Always breaks through? !!
                        And how long has the motor partition been called the buzzword firewall? In the army of which state?
                      2. Professor
                        Professor 17 August 2020 20: 07 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Mazuta
                        "Always punches? !!

                        Not. From 2 km, half a meter of armor will break through easily.

                        Quote: Mazuta
                        And how long has the motor partition been called the buzzword firewall?

                        Since the British invented the tank.

                        Quote: Mazuta
                        In the army of which state?

                        Burzhuinsky.
                      3. Mazuta
                        Mazuta 18 August 2020 08: 31 New
                        +1
                        In your impetuosity, you demonstrate enviable stubbornness and demagoguery, this is what they pointed out to you, and now you begin to fidget ...
                      4. Professor
                        Professor 18 August 2020 20: 06 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Mazuta
                        In your impetuosity, you demonstrate enviable stubbornness and demagoguery, this is what they pointed out to you, and now you begin to fidget ...

                        I answered your questions without any fidgeting. Briefly and on the topic.
            2. Technical engineer
              Technical engineer 1 September 2020 18: 51 New
              0
              Quote: Professor
              The mechvod will die.

              Even in the Merkava? And if the BOPS hit the tower? Why should a mechanic water die?)))
              1. Professor
                Professor 1 September 2020 20: 43 New
                +1
                Quote: Technical Engineer
                Quote: Professor
                The mechvod will die.

                Even in the Merkava? And if the BOPS hit the tower? Why should a mechanic water die?)))

                This is his fate. Everyone will die. Especially if the BOPS is uranium.
              2. Sergey Gintner
                Sergey Gintner 25 September 2020 04: 10 New
                0
                especially in the "Merkava" ..
  • aglet
    aglet 16 August 2020 16: 32 New
    0
    "And also hitting the crew with radioactive particles ... through the respiratory system."
    where will they come from? do you think, since uranium, so necessarily radiation?
    1. Technical engineer
      Technical engineer 16 August 2020 17: 48 New
      -3
      How from where? From a uranium core collapsed and heated to more than high temperatures. The Americans themselves are shouting about this. They say that uranium BOPS is good because it has a high incendiary property. Do you believe the Australians? Or do you think the stsuki are lying?
      1. aglet
        aglet 16 August 2020 18: 28 New
        +1
        "How where? From a destroyed uranium core heated to more than high temperatures. The Americans themselves are shouting about this."
        Well, that is, if uranium-238 is heated to high temperatures (what?) will it start emitting neutron fluxes? and uranium235 becomes nafig not needed? an atomic bomb can be made by throwing a piece of uranium into the fire238? that's how it is, Mikhalych, but the men don't even know
        1. Arey2
          Arey2 17 August 2020 12: 16 New
          +1
          Uranium-238 is an isotope that produces weak alpha radiation.
          Alpha radiation is a stream of alpha particles - pieces of atomic nuclei - in fact, they are helium-4 nuclei. Strongly ionizes everything along the way. At energies below 10 MeV (more energies on Earth are found only in accelerators) in moderate doses it is relatively safe for humans when exposed to radiation from outside - it does not penetrate the dead skin layer. But when irradiated from the inside - when radionuclides with alpha decay penetrate into the body - it is quite dangerous as it causes decent damage. The path in the atmosphere at an energy of 10 MeV is about 11 cm. Those. a meter from a source of alpha particles with such energies can feel safe. Affects electronics.
          Just imagine the burnt particles of uranium BOPS became aerosol and got inside through the respiratory system.
          1. aglet
            aglet 17 August 2020 16: 14 New
            -2
            "The path in the atmosphere at an energy of 10 MeV is about 11 cm. That is, a meter from a source of alpha particles with such energies can feel safe."
            not in a meter - in 12 centimeters, this is in accelerators, in nature, where there is no external force to shift electrons in atoms, they will not run as much
            "Just imagine the burnt particles of uranium BOPS became an aerosol and got inside through the respiratory system."
            so what? there will be no one to inhale this aerosol. and it spontaneously ignites powder uranium and at a temperature of 150 degrees people do not live at such a temperature. the uranium combines with oxygen to form uranium dioxide, which is so heavy that it precipitates immediately without forming any aerosols. But "when irradiated from the inside - when radionuclides with alpha decay penetrate into the body, it is quite dangerous because it causes decent damage."
            How can they, these radionuclides, penetrate into the body if uranium238 practically does not emit them? and what dose and for how long should you get inside the body to get "decent" damage? and what damage do you think is decent?
        2. Technical engineer
          Technical engineer 1 September 2020 18: 53 New
          0
          Uranium dust falling into the body harms it, destroying cells .... You don't even need to warm up. Just breathe in uranium dust)
  • Sergey Gintner
    Sergey Gintner 25 September 2020 04: 10 New
    0
    For the crew of a tank whose armor was pierced by a shell, it does not matter what they breathe ... because they stop breathing ... at all ..
  • Maxwrx
    Maxwrx 16 August 2020 07: 53 New
    +5
    I also read that this depleted uranium is a waste product and is much cheaper than tungsten. Also, the Americans make armor from depleted uranium. The radiation background during the defeat is higher, but still not enough to be considered a "dirty" weapon.
    1. Pavel57
      Pavel57 16 August 2020 13: 24 New
      0
      The Americans dispose of nuclear waste in this way.
      1. Mytholog
        Mytholog 16 August 2020 17: 38 New
        +4
        Waste from the nuclear power plant - no (irradiated nuclear fuel? Are you kidding me?), But the enrichment plant - yes.
  • Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 16 August 2020 07: 56 New
    0
    Those uranium shells are bullshit! Do you think the Central Committee is in vain talking about mining on the Moon and Mars? There are no fools sitting there! Osmium will be mined and "osmium" BOPS will be made! tongue (see density of osmium ...)
  • Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 16 August 2020 08: 14 New
    +6
    Depleted uranium is uranium 238, with a half-life of 4.5 billion years !!! Very weak radioactivity. You shouldn't be afraid of it. You can sleep with him in your arms. Debris from projectiles and oxides, dust formed as a result of the scattering of these cores when hitting the target - can be dangerous. Like almost all heavy metals in the human body.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 16 August 2020 09: 07 New
      -9
      You are either rare with ........ or rare fool VIKI - US Army Use of Depleted Uranium Munitions:
      Use of depleted uranium munitions by the US Army - the use of shells containing radioactive and highly toxic depleted uranium during military conflicts by the US army. According to several experts, environmentalists, human rights defenders and politicians, the use of depleted uranium munitions causes contamination of the area with a subsequent outbreak of cancer [1] and hereditary diseases [2]. Pentagon, NATO, US and UK authorities insist that this is impossible
      Who do you work for, Dunkel? (film. seems to be On thin ice)
      The United States used uranium munitions during the 1991 war against Iraq. The US Army spent about 14 tank shells containing depleted uranium. A total of 275 to 300 tons of depleted uranium were used
      After the war, several thousands of US and British soldiers were found to have various diseases associated with impaired liver and kidney function, and low blood pressure. Retired US Army Colonel Professor of Environmental Sciences at Jacksonville University Douglas Rocke discovered that uranium can cause lymphoma, mental disorders, and cause congenital malformations in future generations [7]. As the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Aleksey Yablokov noted, in the Iraqi contaminated uranium territories near the city of Basra, the frequency of preterm birth, birth defects of newborns, leukemia and other types of cancer diseases increased 3-4 times. According to Yablokov, congenital disorders (lack of eyes, ears, fusion of fingers and blood vessels, etc.) were found in more than 60% of children born to families of American soldiers who fought during the conflict [8]. The US government rejected all claims by sick military personnel, explaining that the effect of depleted uranium on the development of diseases has not been proven.
      Now it's clear to whom. Wish you to sleep with him in an embrace until the end ?.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. bk0010
        bk0010 16 August 2020 12: 48 New
        +1
        the use of depleted uranium ammunition causes contamination of the area
        Infection and radioactive contamination are different things.
      3. aglet
        aglet 16 August 2020 16: 43 New
        +3
        "The US Army spent about 14 tank shells containing depleted uranium. A total of 275 to 300 tons of depleted uranium were used."
        let's calculate - the core weighs 5 kg, 14 shells are used, or 000 kg of cores, that is, 70000 tons. where is 70 from here? or is 300 tons worse?
        1. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 17: 10 New
          0
          and you put a minus to arithmetic?
        2. Mytholog
          Mytholog 16 August 2020 17: 43 New
          0
          One more nuance: 30 thousand is by most of its 30mm for the A-10 attack aircraft. Tank - it's good if 10%.
      4. aglet
        aglet 16 August 2020 17: 14 New
        -2
        "use of depleted uranium ammunition causes contamination of the area"
        contamination of the area with what? Depleted uranium is not radioactive, chemically practically neutral. how can he infect the area? by the very fact of your presence?
      5. Technical engineer
        Technical engineer 16 August 2020 17: 51 New
        -5
        I agree, or on a salary overseas, or rare fools. I also wish them to sleep with "safe" uranium. Better yet, carry it in your pants pocket. The population of the Earth will only benefit from this.))
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 16 August 2020 08: 57 New
    -3
    Good advertising article "for uranium cores". Now, also with enthusiasm, about their influence on the crew, about the future impotence of the heroes of the shooters, the background for contamination of the area, etc. according to the list, especially since there is data on Yugoslavia.
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 16 August 2020 09: 19 New
      +6
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      the crew, about the future impotence of the heroes of the shooters, the background for contamination of the area, etc. according to the list, especially since there is data on Yugoslavia

      Enough already ... we need to listen to specialists. And not "experts" and environmentalists ... These write that they order ... There is no confirmed scientific data even on the increase in mortality as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Radiophobia. Much more unborn children died, as a result of the abortion panic in Europe, tens of thousands were made. The danger of depleted uranium ammunition is STRONGLY and CONSCIOUSLY exaggerated. The goals are different, but always mercantile. Increased insurance coverage for the military, compensation for those living in the area ... No one has received anything of this yet, but the lawyers have been given "food" ... There is something to feed on.
    2. aglet
      aglet 16 August 2020 17: 19 New
      -1
      "Moreover, there is data on Yugoslavia."
      data about what, and who collected them? if there is an oo in the aerial bombs, then it is an armor-piercing bomb, or deep penetration, were such bombs used in Yugoslavia?
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 16 August 2020 09: 20 New
    -6
    https://zen.yandex.ru/media/vartehnologe/v-chem-problema-tankovyh-snariadov-s-obednennym-uranom-5ec40c3afc887676265f35b1
    Depleted uranium shells are dangerous not only for the enemy because of the best damaging characteristics, but also for soldiers using OBPS with depleted heavy metal. The reason is not in uranium dust, but in the background radiation. It is several times weaker than that of enriched isotopes, but essential for human health. Another proof of this is the active use of shells and armor with depleted uranium in the United States, while the EU and Russia do not use shells with higher armor penetration in the troops. By the way, depleted uranium is used not only in 120 mm ammunition, but also in 25 mm projectiles for M2 and M3 Bradley, as well as assault aircraft with similar automatic gun calibers.



    .
    1. aglet
      aglet 16 August 2020 16: 47 New
      -2
      horror !!! we FSE will die !!!
  • Operator
    Operator 16 August 2020 11: 08 New
    +3
    In a nuclear conflict, radiation is induced in uranium 238, which affects tankers. In this connection, tungsten penetrators are promising - subject to their acceleration over 2 km / h (tungsten self-sharpening speed).

    PS 125-mm "stubs" of separate loading will never reach the armor penetration performance of full-size 120-mm unitars.
    1. aglet
      aglet 16 August 2020 16: 45 New
      0
      "In a nuclear conflict, radiation is induced in uranium 238, which affects tankers."
      any metal retains radiation, not only uranium
      1. Operator
        Operator 16 August 2020 16: 57 New
        0
        Radiation is induced (by the appearance of radioactive isotopes) by a neutron flux from a nuclear explosion - there are several orders of magnitude more radioactive isotopes in uranium than in iron or tungsten.
        1. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 17: 08 New
          +1
          but who cares, it's a minor factor. if the radiation penetrated under the armor, so that in another way - the tank is infected, with uranium, without uranium - it is not ready for battle. and a small quote - "Due to its high density and low decay activity, it is used to protect against hard gamma radiation and high-energy neutrons. Its high hardness allows it to be used in armor of tanks, body armor, as well as in ammunition for small arms and artillery."
          don't read the opinions of environmentalists, human rights activists, politicians and British scientists. but read this -https: //www.kommersant.ru/doc/171173
          1. Operator
            Operator 16 August 2020 17: 20 New
            0
            Uranium 238 until then has a low decay activity, until it has passed into uranium 235, 236, 237 and 239, after which they begin to fumigate not childishly.

            Why are you giving a link to the fact that the radioactive background of uranium 238 itself is very low? laughing
            1. aglet
              aglet 16 August 2020 17: 58 New
              0
              "Uranium 238 has a low decay activity until it turns into uranium 235"
              nuka, nuka, in more detail, how uranium238 independently turns into uranium 235 - here it smells like a Nobel, but not one!
              1. Operator
                Operator 16 August 2020 18: 11 New
                0
                Also, like all non-radioactive isotopes of any chemical element, by entering the nucleus of an atom of a penetrating neutron from an external source (in this case, from a nuclear explosion), followed by an increase (by capture) or a decrease (by knockout) of the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
            2. aglet
              aglet 16 August 2020 18: 03 New
              +1
              "Why are you giving a reference to the fact that the radioactive background of uranium 238 itself is very low?"
              Yes, because that's what we're talking about
              1. aglet
                aglet 16 August 2020 18: 36 New
                +1
                "Just like all non-radioactive isotopes of any chemical element - by entering the nucleus of an atom of a penetrating neutron from an external source (in this case, from a nuclear explosion)"
                in the event of an atomic explosion, any metal into which an extra neutron penetrates will become radioactive. But we are not talking about a nuclear explosion, we are considering the process of penetrating a tank armor with a projectile with a depleted uranium core, where will the extra neutron come from?
        2. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 17: 29 New
          0
          "Guided - by a neutron flux from a nuclear explosion"
          no one is directed anywhere, these are the fables of ecuologists and iksperds, and the fact that the alpha radiation of uranium238 cannot penetrate even human skin is a medical fact. "The calculation showed that, even after spending a year in a tank with uranium armor loaded with uranium ammunition, the crew will receive only a quarter of the allowable dose. "- this is about Abrams with uranium armor
          1. Operator
            Operator 16 August 2020 17: 31 New
            -1
            Uranium isotopes 235, 236, 237 and 239 emit a full spectrum of radioactive radiation - alpha, beta, gamma and neutrons.
            1. aglet
              aglet 16 August 2020 17: 52 New
              +1
              "Isotopes of uranium 235, 236, 237 and 239 phonet"
              and God bless them, let them fonate. we, in general, are talking about uranium 238, and its radiation has such a meager power that it may not be taken into account. and uray238 does not emit, but absorbs radiation, therefore it is widely used where it is needed, in medicine, for example, in radiotherapy
      2. Technical engineer
        Technical engineer 16 August 2020 17: 53 New
        -2
        Do you think Chernobyl is a conspiracy? There, too, uranium 238 was used, not weapons-grade 235. Are they lying about the harm? What do you think, for what purpose do they frighten them?
        1. aglet
          aglet 16 August 2020 18: 44 New
          +1
          "There, after all, uranium 238 was also used, not weapons-grade 235. They lie about the harm? What do you think you think, for what purpose they scare them?"
          uranium238, due to the fact that it does not have the ability to emit a flux of neutrinos, that is, to maintain a chain reaction, is nowhere used as a nuclear fuel. the fuel at the Chernobyl NPP, as well as at other nuclear power plants, was uranium235
  • Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 16 August 2020 11: 22 New
    0
    We ignored the length of the BOPS .... and how they work with this in the Russian Federation with separate case loading.
  • Normal ok
    Normal ok 16 August 2020 15: 26 New
    -1
    I did not shoot from tank guns, but I remember well that the shells after firing the bops from the MT-12 very often burst into the chamber. I had to extract with the help of a "sledgehammer and some mother" (the last joke).
    1. Technical engineer
      Technical engineer 16 August 2020 17: 54 New
      +1
      And there are shells? In tank, they burn.
      1. Normal ok
        Normal ok 16 August 2020 17: 59 New
        0
        Unitary ammunition, brass sleeve.
        PS. I have an ashtray at home from trimming the bottom of the sleeve.
  • aglet
    aglet 16 August 2020 16: 35 New
    -4
    Quote: Mavrikiy
    Now it's clear to whom. Wish you to sleep with him in an embrace until the end ?.

    do not read newspapers at night, especially the opinions of politicians, human rights defenders and British academics
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 16 August 2020 17: 54 New
    -2
    Quote: Mytholog
    Waste from the nuclear power plant - no (irradiated nuclear fuel? Are you kidding me?), But the enrichment plant - yes.

    This is not my idea. But with aviation shells with uranium, they dirtied Yugoslavia and Iraq.
  • Professor
    Professor 16 August 2020 20: 45 New
    -2
    In recent years, a new generation of tank BOPS has been developed. So, there is a new projectile 3BM-59 "Lead-1". According to various sources, from a distance of 2 km, it is capable of penetrating at least 650-700 mm of armor.

    Dreamers. So you can write a meter.
  • Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 16 August 2020 22: 54 New
    0
    Question to the experts: these leading devices, or whatever they are called, seals, do they somehow fly off in flight, or do they reach the target together with the projectile? I would have thought that they would slide back, but judging by these pictures, they, in this case, will rest against the tail unit and jam, or damage it. If all this crap somehow falls apart in the air stream, then the debris can, again, hit the plumage and change the trajectory.
    1. kvs45
      kvs45 16 August 2020 23: 17 New
      +1
      Question to the experts: these leading devices, or whatever they are called, seals, do they somehow fly off in flight, or do they reach the target together with the projectile?

      fly off to the sides thrown by the incoming air flow +
  • Mazuta
    Mazuta 17 August 2020 07: 54 New
    0
    Once again, the "lead" index is 3BM48, shot-3VBM20 ...
    1. Sergei N.
      Sergei N. 17 August 2020 08: 32 New
      0
      Lead-1 - 3BM59 projectile (uranium), 3VBM22 round
      Lead-2 - 3BM60 and 3VBM23, respectively.
      And nothing else.
      Lead as such is no longer there, and Lead-2 is already being offered for export.
      1. Mazuta
        Mazuta 17 August 2020 09: 06 New
        0
        Reread the article, where once again on the VO the index of "lead" is misinterpreted from someone's light hand ... (BM46). I wrote somewhere about "Lead-1" or "Lead-2"? !!!
        And where is "nothing else" here? !!!
        1. Mazuta
          Mazuta 17 August 2020 09: 10 New
          0
          "as such" is how? !!!
          And even if the fourth or fifth is sold under license, what ?!
  • otstoy
    otstoy 19 August 2020 01: 10 New
    0
    Rave. Nobody needs armor-piercing shells. With the enormous density of ATGMs and RPGs, tanks cannot now approach the line of contact closer than 2500 meters. Those. the distance of the tank battle increased to at least 5 km., on which any BS and BPS are rubbish. Talk about modern tank battles and tank breakthroughs is just a fairy tale for idiots.
  • Bodipancher
    Bodipancher 19 August 2020 07: 16 New
    0
    Somewhere there was information that during the Iraqi campaign, most of the Iraqi tanks were destroyed by the Bradley BMP using armor-piercing shells with a uranium core. Given that Bradley has a small-bore cannon, it can be assumed that uranium-core projectiles are very effective. And the problems of the Indians (oncology and everything else), as a rule, do not bother the white master.
    1. Technical engineer
      Technical engineer 1 September 2020 18: 57 New
      0
      True, Bradley's armor penetration with these 55mm shells .... point-blank. Of course, you can knock out the PT-76 ... But the old man T-100 has 55mm ...
  • Ricochet
    Ricochet 12 September 2020 15: 16 New
    0
    A question for specialists and experts: why strive to make a projectile specifically for penetrating armor, maybe it makes sense to disable as many equipment and crew as possible due to the energy from the impact (like HE shells, only with greater striking power)?
    1. Oleg Bykov
      Oleg Bykov 9 October 2020 22: 35 New
      0
      I read somewhere that they tried against tanks crumpled shells equipped with plastic explosives with a high detonation velocity. Minced meat was obtained inside.
  • acetophenon
    acetophenon 2 October 2020 21: 37 New
    0
    The uranium core of an armor-piercing projectile has a number of important advantages over steel or tungsten counterparts. Losing a little in density ...

    What, and steel - too?
  • acetophenon
    acetophenon 2 October 2020 21: 40 New
    0
    Quote: acetophenon
    The uranium core of an armor-piercing projectile has a number of important advantages over steel or tungsten counterparts. Losing a little in density ...

    What, and steel - too?

    PS I'm still surprised: tanks don't shoot at each other! Why are these half-meter penetrations? Are we all preparing for the last war?
  • Sergey Polt
    Sergey Polt 4 October 2020 17: 55 New
    0
    Sorry, illustrations without translation ..