Military Review

Anti-aircraft artillery of South Korea

19

Air Defense of the Republic of Korea... Like most of the armies of the US allies, the South Korean air defense units of the ground forces were equipped with American-made equipment and weapons until the early 1990s. After the conclusion of an armistice with the DPRK in 1953, the basis of the military air defense of the South Korean army for a long time was anti-aircraft weapons created during the Second World War: 90-mm M2 guns and 40-mm Bofors L60 assault rifles. To combat air targets at low altitude, 12,7-mm Browning M2 machine guns and 12,7-mm quadruple mounts with an electric guidance drive M45 / M55 Maxson Mount, which were used in the towed version and for installation on vehicles, were intended. The 90-mm M2 anti-aircraft guns were in operation until the end of the 1980s, and the 40-mm Bofors in South Korea were finally written off about 10 years ago.


After the adoption of the 20-mm six-barreled anti-aircraft guns "Vulcan" in 1978, the withdrawal of the quad ZPU M45 Maxson Mount and M55 to the reserve began. However, a number of 12,7-mm anti-aircraft guns as a means of strengthening the air defense of infantry battalions were operated until the mid-1990s.


12,7-mm quadruple anti-aircraft machine gun M45 Maxson Mount

The M45 Maxson Mount anti-aircraft machine gun was developed in 1943. ZPU weight in firing position - 1087 kg. The firing range at air targets is about 1000 m. The rate of fire is 2300 rounds per minute.

Anti-aircraft artillery of South Korea
Towed anti-aircraft machine gun mount M55

The lighter version on a two-axle trailer is known as the M55. At the firing position, to make the installation more stable, special supports were lowered to the ground from each corner of the trailer. The trailer also housed batteries for the anti-aircraft gun power supply and a charger for them. Guidance was carried out using electric drives. The targeting drive motors were powerful, capable of withstanding the heaviest loads. Thanks to electric drives, the installation had a guidance speed of up to 60 deg / s.


12,7 mm quadruple ZPU in the back of a truck

To increase mobility and reduce the time of transfer to a combat position, many quad 12,7-mm ZPUs available to the South Korean and American armies were installed on army off-road trucks.

In addition to its direct purpose, quad mounts of large-caliber machine guns were a very powerful means of fighting manpower and lightly armored vehicles, earning the unofficial nickname "meat grinder". There is information that some 12,7-mm installations located in the immediate vicinity of the demilitarized zone have survived at stationary fortified strongholds to this day. Large-caliber quad machine guns can no longer be considered a modern means of air defense, but they are still effective against manpower and lightly armored targets.

Until the early 1970s, anti-aircraft cover for military and transport convoys in the armed forces of the Republic of Korea was provided by the Multiple Gun Motor Carriage M16 ZSU. The self-propelled unit created on the basis of the M3 half-track armored personnel carrier was armed with a 12,7 mm Maxson Mount ZPU. The car weighing about 9,8 tons could move along the highway at speeds up to 70 km / h. The power reserve was 280 km. Crew - 5 people.


Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun M16

The M16 self-propelled anti-aircraft gun had very high characteristics for its time and was the most numerous type of American ZSU during the Second World War. It was used in both the European and Pacific theaters of operations.


The self-propelled unit actively participated in the Korean War and remained in service with the American army until 1958. In the post-war period, a large number of ZSU M16 were transferred to the US allies. South Korea received more than 200 of these machines, which were in operation until the first half of the 1980s.

The answer to the qualitative strengthening of the North Korean military aviation in the late 1970s, the South Korean army saw the appearance of 20-mm self-propelled anti-aircraft guns M163 Vulcan based on the M113 armored personnel carrier and towed 20 mm M167 Vulcan. The ZU M167 and ZSU M163 use the same 20-mm gun mount with an electric drive, created on the basis of the M61 Vulcan aircraft cannon, capable of firing at a rate of fire of 1000 and 3000 rds / min. Effective firing range at fast-moving air targets - up to 1500 m.


Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun M163

Self-propelled units are used to escort motorized rifle and tank subunits, and towed for air defense of stationary objects and places of concentration of troops.


Towed anti-aircraft installation M167

The batteries of the M167 ZU and M163 ZSU received external target designation from the AN / TPS-50 radars. The station, located on a truck chassis and coupled with "friend or foe" equipment, had an instrumental detection range of up to 90 km. However, the AN / TPS-50 radar in terms of mobility and deployment-folding time was much inferior to military air defense systems. For this reason, the station could not provide constant radar control of the airspace during the redeployment of troops. In this regard, the calculations of anti-aircraft artillery more often relied on visual detection of air targets.

The sighting equipment of 20-mm installations included a radar coupled with an analog computer, which made it possible to accurately determine the distance to the target and its speed. An optical sight with manual data entry was used as a backup. When the charger M167 was operating at the position, it was powered by a cable from an external power supply source.

Taking into account the tense situation on the Korean Peninsula, the crews of the towed M167 and self-propelled M163 20-mm anti-aircraft guns often train in shooting at ground targets.


In the late 1980s, licensed production of 20-mm six-barreled Vulcan anti-aircraft guns was established in the Republic of Korea. The basis for the Korean 20-mm SPAAG K263A1 was the K200 KIFV tracked armored personnel carrier. This vehicle, created by Daewoo Heavy Industries, had much in common with the American M113 armored personnel carrier and was mass-produced from 1985 to 2006. Currently, the US-made ZU M167 and ZSU M163 in the South Korean army have been completely replaced by 20-mm anti-aircraft guns built in the Republic of Korea.


Anti-aircraft self-propelled gun K263A1

The K263A1 self-propelled gun is armed with an artillery unit and is equipped with sights, which were originally created for the KM167A3 towed anti-aircraft gun. This modification is equipped with an improved radar sight and is quickly transferred from the traveling position to the combat position.


The towed unit, in addition to improving reliability and performance, has electronics with an increased MTBF and is better suited for long-term duty at a firing position.


Anti-aircraft gun KM167A3

In the 21st century, South Korean towed and self-propelled 20-mm six-barreled units underwent a major overhaul and modernization program. In addition to the radar rangefinder, the sighting equipment includes a television camera with a night channel and a laser rangefinder developed by LG Innotec.


Although the range of effective fire has not changed, the capabilities of independent search and firing at air and ground targets in the dark have expanded. Using a television camera coupled with a laser rangefinder allows you to fire without a radar channel.


Upgraded anti-aircraft gun KM167A3 at firing position

Self-propelled and towed 20-mm Volcanoes are quite numerous in the army of the Republic of Korea. According to the reference data, there are about 1000 towed KM167A3 and about 200 self-propelled K263A1 in the air defense of the SV RK.


If the K263A1 self-propelled guns attached to the tank regiments are in technical parks most of the time, a significant part of the towed KM167A3 anti-aircraft guns are permanently deployed in positions in the immediate vicinity of the demilitarized zone, in the vicinity of air bases and large garrisons.

The issuance of target designation to self-propelled and towed installations "Vulkan" is currently assigned to the mobile radar TPS-830K. The station on the chassis of a heavy truck, operating in the 8-12,5 GHz frequency range, is capable of detecting an air target with an RCS of 2 sq. m at a distance of up to 40 km.


Radar TPS-830K

The 20-mm Vulcan anti-aircraft guns have a high fire density, but are capable of striking air targets at a relatively short range. The 40-mm Bofors anti-aircraft assault rifles can theoretically provide a greater range and height of destruction, but with a combat rate of fire of 120 rounds / min, they did not give an acceptable probability of hitting rapidly moving air targets and did not have an effective fire control system. Due to the need for weapons more long-range than the 20-mm "Vulcan", and more rapid-fire than the 40-mm "Bofors", South Korea in 1975 purchased from Switzerland 36 paired 35-mm anti-aircraft guns Oerlikon GDF-003. The battery fire, in which there are four anti-aircraft guns, is controlled by the Skyguard FC radar.


35-mm anti-aircraft guns and radar fire control Skyguard

The towed 35-mm artillery anti-aircraft gun Oerlikon GDF-003 weighs 6700 kg in combat position. Sighting range at air targets - up to 4000 m, reach in height - up to 3000 m. Rate of fire - 1100 rds / min. The capacity of the charging boxes is 124 shots.

Each 35-mm twin anti-aircraft gun is interfaced by cable lines with the Skyguard FC radar. The anti-aircraft fire control station, controlled by a crew of two, is located in a towed van, on the roof of which a rotating pulse Doppler radar antenna, a radar rangefinder and a television camera are installed. It is possible to automatically enter data into the sighting devices of each anti-aircraft gun and to automatically aim them at the target without the participation of the calculation. In addition to direct fire control of the anti-aircraft battery at any time of the day, it provides an overview of the airspace at a distance of up to 40 km.


Taking into account the fact that all the paired artillery mounts of the anti-aircraft battery are aimed at one point during firing, 73 high-explosive 35-mm armor-piercing projectiles with a total weight of 40 kg can be fired at the target in one second.

According to information published in South Korean sources, Oerlikon GDF-003 anti-aircraft batteries are permanently stationed around Seoul. All positions are located on high ground and equipped in engineering terms. The anti-aircraft guns themselves, fire control radars and autonomous electric generators are installed in concreted caponiers, and there are well-protected bunkers for personnel and ammunition.

In the late 1980s, the DPRK Air Force received Su-25 jet attack aircraft. The 20-mm Vulcan anti-aircraft guns available in South Korea are ineffective against these well-protected combat aircraft. In addition, the South Korean military was not satisfied with the relatively small firing range of 20-mm anti-aircraft guns, which in this respect are not much superior to 12,7-mm machine guns.

The creation of a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun, armed with two 30-mm cannons, was completed in South Korea in 2000. After practical test firing at the range, the need to refine the aiming and search equipment was revealed. The official adoption of the K30 Biho ZSU took place in 2007.


Anti-aircraft self-propelled gun K30 Biho

The self-propelled anti-aircraft gun K30 Biho on the chassis of the tracked BMP K200 has a curb weight of 26,5 tons. Diesel engine with a capacity of 520 hp. provides speeds up to 65 km / h. In store down the highway - up to 500 km. The crew consists of three people: commander, gunner and driver. The armor protection of the K30 Biho provides protection against small arms fire and artillery fragments.


The ZSU K30 Biho is equipped with two 30-mm KKCB cannons manufactured by S&T Dynamic (licensed version of the 30-mm KCB cannon manufactured by Rheinmetall Air Defense), the total rate of fire of which is 1200 rounds per minute. Each cannon's charging crates contain 300 ready-to-use rounds. High-explosive incendiary projectiles with an effective range of up to 3000 m are used to combat air targets. Armor-piercing incendiary projectiles are used to fire at ground targets. Turret traverse speed - 90 degrees / sec, electric drive (auxiliary - manual). The elevation angles of the guns are from -10 ° to + 85 °.

Surveillance radar, optoelectronic tracking system, laser rangefinder, thermal imaging sight, high-precision digital fire control system are used to detect air targets, measure range, flight speed and aiming guns. Radar detection range - up to 20 km. The passive optoelectronic station is capable of seeing a jet aircraft at a distance of more than 15 km.

Currently, the South Korean army has 176 K30 Biho SPAAGs. In 2013, a combat performance enhancement program was launched, under which the vehicles began to be equipped with KP-SAM Shin-Gung short-range anti-aircraft missiles. Each ZSU additionally received two containers, which are equipped with two missiles.


The LIG Nex1 KP-SAM Shin-Gung anti-aircraft missile is equipped with a two-color (IR / UV) seeker and is fully autonomous after launch. The maximum firing range is 7 km. Ceiling - 3,5 km.


The upgraded self-propelled anti-aircraft gun with combined cannon and missile armament received the designation K30 Hybrid Biho. After the introduction of anti-aircraft missiles into the armament of the ZSU, the firing range has more than doubled and the probability of hitting air targets has significantly increased.

In 2019, the Defense Procurement Program Administration (DAPA) announced the creation of the AAGW ZSU based on the Hyundai Rotem K808 wheeled armored personnel carrier with an 8 × 8 wheel arrangement, which entered service with the army in 2017.


Anti-aircraft self-propelled gun AAGW

The armor protection of the K808 armored personnel carrier in the frontal projection provides resistance to 14,5-mm bullets at a distance of more than 300 m. The side armor must hold armor-piercing rifle caliber bullets. Diesel engine with 420 hp. accelerates a car weighing 18 tons to 100 km / h. The power reserve is up to 700 km. Crew - 3 people.


ZSU AAGW at ADEX-2019

The new anti-aircraft gun is armed with 30 mm KKCB cannons. The use of radar detection is not provided and it is supposed to do with passive optoelectronic search and sighting systems. This, along with the use of a wheeled chassis, should reduce the purchasing and operating cost of the new anti-aircraft self-propelled gun, which in the future will replace the 20-mm K263A1 Vulcan SPAAG in the army.

The ending should ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Air defense of the Republic of Korea. Airspace control radar systems and missile systems of object air defense and missile defense
Fighter aircraft of South Korea
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 13 August 2020 18: 07 New
    +6
    Thanks for the interesting continuation of the cycle.
  2. rusboris
    rusboris 13 August 2020 18: 44 New
    -8
    All this technique roughly corresponds to the "Shilka" class. You can knock something down, but rarely. The minimum current ZAK caliber is 57 mm. Better caliber 100 mm, and promising 152 mm. The era requires intense movement back into the future.
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 13 August 2020 19: 03 New
      +4
      Quote: rusboris
      All this technique roughly corresponds to the "Shilka" class. You can knock something down, but rarely. The minimum current ZAK caliber is 57 mm. Better caliber 100 mm, and promising 152 mm. The era requires intense movement back into the future.


      In the inner circle - 30mm. The very thing.
      1. rusboris
        rusboris 13 August 2020 20: 39 New
        -7
        Who is spinning in the inner circle now? Even a helicopter hits a squirrel in the eye 5 km away. MLRS, 30 mm projectile will not catch, the operator will not see the drone gunner. Only shoot the crows or chop the barmaley behind the duval. In vain does Damir sneer over large calibers. A 100 mm battery ZA, creates in 5 s a movable fire shaft of continuous destruction 250x1000 m in size. At an altitude of 300 m to 10 m.
        1. sergo1914
          sergo1914 13 August 2020 21: 03 New
          +3
          Quote: rusboris
          Who is spinning in the inner circle now? Even a helicopter hits a squirrel in the eye 5 km away. MLRS, 30 mm projectile will not catch, the operator will not see the drone gunner. Only shoot the crows or chop the barmaley behind the duval. In vain does Damir sneer over large calibers. A 100 mm battery ZA, creates in 5 s a movable fire shaft of continuous destruction 250x1000 m in size. At an altitude of 300 m to 10 m.


          Two packs of six barrels. Subcaliber arrows. Like a cloud all to dust. It doesn't matter what. Drone or tank.
        2. Zaurbek
          Zaurbek 14 August 2020 15: 58 New
          +2
          UAVs, KR .... some large ammunition, anti-ship missiles.
  3. Earthshaker
    Earthshaker 13 August 2020 19: 09 New
    +5
    Thanks for the article, illustrated in great detail and informative. No kidding.
    The sighting equipment of 20-mm installations included a radar coupled with a TAX computer

    The dream of any government :) Automatically threatens the taxpayer. And letting me know what was meant by analog computing.
  4. steelmaker
    steelmaker 13 August 2020 20: 57 New
    -4
    Air defense is rather weak. Against this background, "Shilka" looks like a "UFO". Maybe there will be something serious in the sequel? In general, I read it with interest.
    1. Bongo
      14 August 2020 00: 28 New
      +9
      Quote: steel maker
      Against this background, "Shilka" looks like a "UFO".
      I would not be so categorical no In the competition for a military air defense system, the South Korean K30 Hybrid Biho defeated our "Pantsir". It is clear that this is largely a political decision. However, South Korea is asking for 30% less for its air defense missile system.
      Quote: steel maker
      Maybe there will be something serious in the sequel?

      In the sequel will be about South Korean MANPADS and short-range mobile air defense systems. But I don't know when it will come out. request But for three weeks I have been going with my family to Crimea.
  5. Nikolay R-PM
    Nikolay R-PM 13 August 2020 21: 58 New
    +4
    the topic of air defense, with a probability of 90%, the author is Sergey Linnik !!! So to speak - your strong point.
    In the article, I noted two points for myself:
    the obsolete ZA before decommissioning is considered as a means of supporting ground forces not only in our country, but also in the NATO countries (although even in Wetnam the m42 was used similarly);
    battery ZA with centralized guidance from radar under certain conditions can be considered as a relatively effective means of object air defense (it's not for nothing that the capital is covered with skyguard)
    1. Fibrizio
      Fibrizio 14 August 2020 11: 37 New
      +4
      Here we must also not forget who their potential enemy is and for whom all this cannon armament is designed. Obviously not the Chinese or the Japanese.
      To shoot down the Papelans of North Korea, their park has simply space characteristics (after all, they also have anti-aircraft missiles? I'm sure they do, so together everything that Kim sends to them will quickly collapse).
      1. Bongo
        14 August 2020 13: 13 New
        +7
        Quote: Fibrizio
        Here we must also not forget who their potential enemy is and for whom all this cannon armament is designed. Obviously not the Chinese or the Japanese.

        Well, not the Japanese, that's for sure. The Republic of Korea, of course, considers the DPRK as a potential adversary, but China and Russia too.
        Quote: Fibrizio
        To shoot down the Papelans of North Korea, their park has simply space characteristics (after all, they also have anti-aircraft missiles?

        South Korean medium and long-range anti-aircraft missiles were discussed in the first part of the review devoted to the air defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan. An active link to this part is at the end of this publication.
        Quote: Fibrizio
        I'm sure there is, so everything that Kim sends to them will quickly collapse).

        I would certainly agree with you if the DPRK had only conventional weapons at its disposal. But the North Korean MiG-17, ancient as shit of a mammoth, with suspended bombs filled with nerve-paralytic rubbish can do a lot of things and cause absolutely unacceptable damage. Do not also forget about several hundred North Korean OTRs, a significant part of which is equipped with chemical warheads, and possibly nuclear ones.
  6. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 13 August 2020 23: 32 New
    +5
    Thank you for this article, I would even say work .. Your delights are drawn to the competition, the articles are very solid and at least give the site some tone.
    P.S. KP-SAM Shin-Gung look efficient and majestic. I would be all for it if I had to defend my division. And so for the completion and self-defense of the S-300B division, regular ZUshki 2A13 are put, my dears ... by the way, about them only good, But in view of the general missile-to-weight ratio, I see such an air defense division of a tank division --- 2 long-range / medium-range batteries. Since the division is advancing in two echelons to the regiment, hence such a discourse. I consider it unprofitable to provide brigade combat groups on a battalion scale. Providing brigade MMGs / or as they are now called /. It is necessary to maximize tactical battalions with air defense / missile defense support. Thor, handsome. But for the battlefield, a completely different complex is needed with a system of not only air defense, but also missile defense ... Introductory --- 5 tanks fan out, attacking the advanced reconnaissance positions of the enemy ... Suddenly, ... suddenly ... ... but always suddenly, this is what they are taught !! ... a separate position opens, or the anti-tank battery itself begins. The use of anti-tank weapons in NATO troops is very sophisticated and boldly practiced on the front end. In the absence of a worthy goal, these forces are constantly trying " match / "to hit the mass of the infantry or even a single infantryman. But if such a similar battery "hits", then you yourself understand. Fighting with such a danger can be leaving the battle line. We sat in a hollow, threw off the bark of artillery, gunpowder, smoke, Borodino, but still there WILL BE rocket fear. Therefore / referring only to the concept of the "Armta" battle tank / an anti-missile "pickup" is needed. The modern battlefield will simply be seeded with ground and aircraft in the form of robotic products
    1. Bongo
      14 August 2020 00: 21 New
      +7
      Quote: Thunderbolt
      And so, for the completion and self-defense of the S-300V division, regular ZUshki 2A13 are laid, my dears ... by the way, only good things about them,

      Good day! ZU-23 is still normal. For protection against low-altitude targets and saboteurs in the S-300PS air defense missile system since Soviet times, the DShKM is designed belay
    2. KKND
      KKND 14 August 2020 17: 01 New
      -1
      I read your comment, I did not understand anything. I read it again, again I did not understand anything. Excuse me, did you write under the fly?
  7. KKND
    KKND 14 August 2020 17: 10 New
    +2
    The article, unfortunately, in my opinion, turned out to be weak, especially in comparison with other articles of the author. Just a brief listing of their "units" with a minimum of characteristics and almost complete absence of any analysis or original view. Everything is pretty commonplace and is known from many sources. Still the article is a plus. Maybe after the rest the author will get "inspiration" and he will continue to delight us with his excellent articles. I wish you a great stay in Crimea. If Sergei throws a bank card account in a personal message, then I'll throw him money for a bottle of "Mansandra".
    1. Bongo
      15 August 2020 03: 17 New
      +4
      Quote: KKND
      The article, unfortunately, in my opinion, turned out to be weak, especially in comparison with other articles of the author. Just a short listing of their "units" with a minimum of characteristics and almost complete absence of any analysis or original view.

      I partially agree. It was originally planned that one article would describe artillery anti-aircraft guns, MANPADS and short-range mobile air defense systems. But taking into account the fact that I am going on vacation and the article would have turned out to be too voluminous, it was decided to break it up. As for the "analysis and original view", unlike such objects as airbases or the positions of medium and long-range air defense systems, there is no information about the deployment areas of MZA in open sources, and satellite images of the positions of small-caliber anti-aircraft installations will be uninformative.
      Quote: KKND
      Maybe after the rest the author will get "inspiration" and he will continue to delight us with his excellent articles.

      I sincerely hope so too!
      Quote: KKND
      If Sergei throws a bank card account in a personal message, then I'll throw him money for a bottle of "Mansandra".

      Taking into account the fact that travel for me and my family members is free, I myself get a very good salary, and my wife is "businesswoman", and her income is several times higher than mine - it would be disgusting for me to collect money from readers. But I'm grateful anyway! drinks
  8. Maxwrx
    Maxwrx 14 August 2020 20: 48 New
    +3
    I read the probability of hitting missiles, helicopters, airplanes, UAVs, etc. with guns. So the values ​​there are so scanty that it is not surprising that everyone relies on missiles and lasers. In modern combat, they are more important against infantry than for air defense. Remember Syria, Libya, Dombas. Basically, MANPADS and ATGMs were shot down. High elevation angles (Korea is a mountainous country), rate of fire, against the infantry, that's it! Here is their latest development even without a radar and with armor says everything.
  9. rusboris
    rusboris 15 August 2020 12: 40 New
    0
    "At least two Turkish F-16 aircraft, three MiM-23 Hawk air defense systems and two ACV-30 Korkut installations, as well as one electronic warfare system were destroyed on the ground." Here's your grandmother and St. George's Day. In a low-intensity war, and such losses! Roughly speaking, if translated into our analogs. Destroyed two "Shilki" and "Tunguska". You can't write off the stupidity of the calculations. There are Turkish soldiers there. So the technique is bad. It's time to seriously analyze today's threats and draw conclusions. In my opinion for the sofa, calibers for less than 57 mm are not relevant for a long time. Rockets are good for "Shell", but without artillery cover they are too vulnerable. Itself FOR "Shell" is a complete bluff. As well as the naval variants of the small-caliber ZA. A sense of international failure in medium and short range air defense.