Military Review

Sevres, 1920. The time when Soviet and Turkish interests converged

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Sevres, 1920. The time when Soviet and Turkish interests converged

Not quite Versailles



Winston Churchill, in his work "The World Crisis" (which has already become a textbook), called everything that happened after the World War with the Ottoman Empire "a true miracle." But exactly one hundred years ago, on August 10, 1920, the Sevres Peace Treaty was signed in France between the Entente and the Ottoman Empire, which provided for the actual dismemberment of not only the empire, but also its own Turkish part.

But Sevres-1920 was almost the only one from the Versailles system, which was never implemented. And this happened only thanks to the colossal military-technical, financial and political support that Soviet Russia provided to the nascent Kemalist Turkey.


Signing of the contract in Sevres

An unexpected alliance of age-old strategic adversaries became possible only because of the upheavals that happened then to Europe and the world as a whole. This was embodied, among other things, in the return of Turkey at the turn of the 1910s - 1920s most of Western Armenia and Tao-Klarjetia (part of southwestern Georgia), which became part of Russia back in 1879; these territories are still part of Turkey.

According to the Treaty of Sevres, the former Ottoman Empire was obliged to cede significant territories to Greece (including Izmir, Adrianople and adjacent areas), Armenia, newly formed Iraq, Palestine (British protectorates) and the Levant (French protectorates of Syria and Lebanon), as well as Kurdish and the Saudi sheiks.

Most of southwestern Anatolia and almost the entire territory of Cilicia went under the mandate administration of Italy and France, respectively. The key region of the Bosphorus - the Sea of ​​Marmara - the Dardanelles, together with Constantinople, were transferred under the full control of the Entente.


Turkey had only the Anatolian Highlands with limited access to the Aegean and Black Seas. The country's armed forces were not only severely limited in armaments, but also completely deprived of the right to have heavy artillery, and the fleet - battleships, cruisers and destroyers. And the established reparations regime, recalculated at the current US dollar exchange rate, reached about a quarter of Turkey's GNP in 2019.

Turkey above all


It is not surprising that the Republican Grand National Assembly of Turkey (VNST), created in April 1920 by M. Kemal and I. Inonu (presidents of Turkey in 1920-1950), categorically refused to ratify the Treaty of Sevres.

At the same time, Soviet Russia sought to "protect" Turkey from complicity in the intervention of the Entente, which unfolded in early 1918 on more than a third of the territory of the former Russian Empire. In turn, the Kemalists were in maximum need of a military-political and economic ally, which at that time could only be Soviet Russia.

Taking into account the confrontation of the new (that is, republican) Turkey with Greece (the war of 1919-1922) and in general with the Entente, this contributed to the formation of a kind of anti-Entente from the Bolsheviks and Turks.

In connection with the above factors, on April 26, 1920, M. Kemal turned to V.I.Lenin with a proposal:

... to establish diplomatic relations and develop a common military strategy in the Caucasus. To protect the new Turkey and Soviet Russia from the imperialist threat in the Black Sea region and the Caucasus.

What did Kemal offer?


Turkey undertakes to fight together with Soviet Russia against the imperialist governments, expresses its readiness to participate in the struggle against the imperialists in the Caucasus and hopes for the assistance of Soviet Russia in the struggle against the imperialist enemies who attacked Turkey.

Then more specifically:

First. We commit ourselves to linking all our work and all our military operations with the Russian Bolsheviks.
Second. If the Soviet forces intend to open military operations against Georgia or through diplomatic means, through their influence, force Georgia to enter the union and undertake the expulsion of the British from the territory of the Caucasus, the Turkish government undertakes military operations against imperialist Armenia and undertakes to force the Republic of Azerbaijan to enter the circle of Soviet states.
... Third. In order, firstly, to drive out the imperialist forces that occupy our territory, and, secondly, to strengthen our internal strength, to continue our common struggle against imperialism, we ask Soviet Russia in the form of first aid to give us five million Turkish lira in gold , weapon and ammunition in quantities that must be clarified during negotiations and, in addition, some military-technical means and sanitary material, as well as food for our troops, which will have to operate in the East.

That is, to operate in Transcaucasia (which was in 1919-1921). By the way, a comment is also needed on the second point. As you know, Kemalist Turkey, with the assistance of the RSFSR, successfully implemented these plans in relation to Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1919-1921.

Moscow, on demand


The leaders of Soviet Russia promptly agreed to these initiatives. Already in May 1920, a military mission of the VNST headed by General Khalil Pasha was in Moscow. As a result of negotiations with L. B. Kamenev, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR first of all confirmed the cessation of the war between Russia and Turkey and the withdrawal of Russian troops from all eastern Turkish regions, announced by the Brest-Litovsk Treaty (1918).

Also, the remnants of the troops not involved in the Civil War were withdrawn from the regions of Batum, Akhaltsikh, Kars, Artvin, Ardagan and Alexandropol (Gyumri). Still part of Russia. Almost all of these areas in 1919-1920 were occupied by the troops of Kemalist Turkey.

The introduction of troops into the Armenian lands was accompanied by a new wave of genocide. One of the organizers of the Turkish genocide of Armenians during the World War II, Khalil Kut (the same Khalil Pasha), solemnly stated in his diaries that he “killed many tens of thousands of Armenians” and “tried to destroy the Armenians to the last man” (see. Kiernan Ben, "Blood and Soil: Modern Genocide", Melbourne University Publishing (Australia), 2008, p. 413).

Ignoring this, the Council of People's Commissars decided to allocate one million gold rubles to Turkey (774,235 kg in terms of gold). The first 620 kg of bullion and royal coins arrived through Azerbaijani Nakhichevan by the end of June 1920, the rest (in gold rubles) Turkey received through Nakhichevan by August of the same year.

But Turkey considered this assistance insufficient. The RSFSR sought, for obvious reasons, to quickly strengthen the Bolshevik-Turkish anti-Entente. Therefore, already in July-August 1920, at the talks in Moscow and Ankara, the forms and amounts of further assistance to the Kemalists were agreed upon.

The RSFSR provided Turkey practically free of charge (that is, with an indefinite return period) 10 million gold rubles, as well as weapons, ammunition (mainly from the warehouses of the former Russian army and seized from the White Guard troops and interventionists). In July-October 1920, the Kemalists received 8 rifles, about 2 machine guns, over 5 million cartridges, 17,6 shells, and almost 200 kg of gold bullion.

In addition, they were transferred to Turkey in 1919-1920. almost all weapons with ammunition and all the commissary reserves of the Russian Caucasian Army, which operated in 1914-17. in Eastern Anatolia (i.e. in Western Armenia) and in the northeastern region of the Turkish Black Sea region.

According to the famous Turkish historian and economist Mehmet Perincek, in 1920-1921. Soviet Russia supplied Turkey with more than half of the cartridges used in military operations against the Entente, a quarter (in general) of rifles and guns, and a third of gun shells. Since Kemal did not have a navy, Turkey received in the same years from the RSFSR five submarines and two destroyers of the Russian Imperial fleet ("Alive" and "Creepy").


Thus, on the eve of the Treaty of Sevres, Ankara thoroughly paved the way both for its (treaty) obstruction on its part and for eliminating possible political consequences. Accordingly, such significant assistance from Moscow, as the Turkish leaders Kemal and Inenu later officially recognized, played a crucial role in the Turkish military victories of 1919-1922. over the troops of Armenia and Greece.

During the same period, Red Moscow did not object to the return to Turkey of the regions that had been part of the Russian Empire since 1879. The Bolsheviks considered it too expensive a pleasure to keep them behind. Naturally, the weapons transferred to Turkey were used by Turkey for further "cleansing" of the Armenians and Greeks in 1919-1925.

In view of Moscow's strategic interest in "friendship" with Ankara, the former actually gave a second carte blanche to the most unbridled terror of Mustafa Kemal's supporters and followers against the local communists. The USSR demonstratively did not react to it, with the exception of the period from 1944 to 1953.

As for, for example, the entire territory of Western Armenia, the decree of the Council of People's Commissars "On Turkish Armenia" (January 11, 1918), as is known, proclaimed support by Soviet Russia for the right of the Armenians of this region to self-determination and to create a unified Armenian state. But the military-political factors that followed soon radically changed the position of Moscow on this issue and in general regarding the Armenian, Kurdish issues in Turkey, as well as in relation to Turkey itself ...

The boundaries of the possible ... and the impossible


The rapprochement between Russia and Turkey, stipulated by the Treaty of Sevres, led, among other things, to the solution of the issues of the borders of Armenia and Georgia without the participation of these countries. At the same time, the independence of "non-Bolshevik" Georgia, which remained until March 1921, contributed to Moscow's approval of Turkish plans to "return" to most of Tao-Klarjetia in southwestern Georgia.


The People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR G. Chicherin (pictured above) wrote on this issue to the Central Committee of the RCP (b):

December 6, 1920 We suggest that the Central Committee instruct the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs to work out a draft treaty with Turkey, which would guarantee the independence of Georgia and the independence of Armenia, and the independence of Georgia does not mean the inviolability of its present territory, about which there may be special agreements. The borders between Armenia and Turkey should be determined by a mixed commission with our participation, taking into account the ethnographic needs of both the Armenian and Muslim population.

The same letter also refers to Moscow's fears of an "excessive" alliance between Moscow and Ankara against Great Britain:

“Caution requires that mutual assistance against England is not formulated in a treaty. It should define in general terms long-term friendly relations between the two states. In addition, that exchange of secret notes should be made with a mutual promise to inform each other in case of any changes in relations with the Entente.

At the same time, Moscow actually gave the go-ahead for the "cutting" of the borders of Armenia initiated by Turkey, which, we repeat, was embodied in the transfer of the Nakhichevan region to Azerbaijan in 1921 and in the restoration of Turkish sovereignty in the ex-Russian part of Western Armenia (Kars, Ardagan, Artvin, Sarykamysh) in 1920-1921

This line is also seen in the letter of the head of the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) G.K. Ordzhonikidze to the People's Commissar G. Chicherin on December 8, 1920:

Turks have very little confidence in the Armenian communists (in Armenia, the Bolshevik power was established from the end of November 1920). The true intention of the Turks, in my opinion, is to divide Armenia with us. They will not discredit the Council of the Government.

In the development of this approach, it was noted that

the Turkish people will understand absolutely nothing if they now make concessions to the Armenian government. In Moscow, the final word will belong to the Soviet government.

Pan-Turkist expansionism was not at all rejected by the Kemalists either before or after Sevres. This was first announced by M. Kemal on October 29, 1933 at the celebration of the 10th anniversary of the official proclamation of the Turkish Republic:

One day Russia will lose control over the peoples that it holds tightly in its hands today. The world will reach a new level. At that very moment, Turkey must know what to do. Our brothers by blood, by faith, by language are under the rule of Russia: we must be ready to support them. We must prepare. We must remember our roots and unite our history, by the will of fate, separated us from our brothers. We must not wait for them to reach out to us, we must approach them ourselves. Russia will one day fall. On that very day, Turkey will become a country for our brothers with which they will follow an example.
Author:
Photos used:
pastvu.com, ayyamru.files.wordpress.com, www.ljplus.ru, wordpress.com, from the authors' archive
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  1. Captivity
    Captivity 17 August 2020 05: 51 New
    11
    But it would be nice if the borders of Armenia and Greece were Sevres.
    Armenia with Trabzon, Erzurum and Mush. The population is approximately 10 million people. Greece with Smyrna. The population is about 17 million people. Straits under world control. Free trade.
    Turkey's population hardly exceeded 30 million today. Not even a regional power
    1. podymych
      17 August 2020 08: 22 New
      +5
      Something like Iraq or Syria? Their passionarity is such that they would have started to explode long ago, and probably, they would have climbed into the Second World War after the Germans - to take revenge. For now, history really does not know the subjunctive mood, but if only we all would itch to explore this way ...
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 17 August 2020 12: 35 New
        +3
        Don't go to a fortune-teller here, as they say - "post-Sevrian Turkey" would of course fit into WWII on the Axis side. It's another matter whether this factor would have a significant impact on the outcome of the war?
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 17 August 2020 13: 56 New
      -4
      Turkey was not any kind of eternal enemy, and after the capture of Crimea from the Turks, it did not pose a threat to Russia.
    2. Seal
      Seal 18 August 2020 19: 16 New
      -3
      Thanks to this next betrayal of the interests of Russia by the Bolsheviks, the eternal enemy of Russia-Turkey
      Turkey was not our eternal enemy. From the word in general. Our state first got a conflict with Turkey only at the end of the 16th century. In 1553, the Russian kingdom began military operations against the Astrakhan Khanate, an allied Crimea and Turkey, in 1556 the Khanate was conquered. The Astrakhan khans ran to the threshold of the High Port and soaked the Sultan with their tears (who, beginning with Selim Yavuz, part-time as caliphs of all Muslims), all his vest, asking for justice to be restored. Finally, in 1563, Suleiman Qanuni decided to undertake a campaign against Astrakhan. ... The Crimean Khan undertook to dissuade the Sultan, not wanting to strengthen the High Port on the northern shores of the Black Sea. The Crimean Khan managed to postpone the Turkish campaign until 1569. Since Suleiman the Legislator died in 1566, it fell to Selim the Pianica to make this campaign a reality. He himself did not go on the campaign, but entrusted the whole matter to organize the Kafa Pasha Kasim. We know how the campaign ended.
      But the grounds for the campaign were alas, completely legal even by the standards of modern international law. Then there were 100 completely peaceful and friendly years, since the next war with Turkey began only in 1672.

      remained a strong country, which had to be feared in WWII and which has to be reckoned with today.
      Today we have to count. And what can you do, because Turkey is 16-17 world economy. And during the Second World War, Turkey honestly fulfilled its obligations to the USSR and did not allow any German or Italian warship, including submarines, into the Black Sea. And the fact that J.V. Stalin and L.P. Beria were not at all afraid of Turkey is more than evident from the fact that in August-September 1942 the entire Transcaucasian front was turned its back on Turkey and sent to the passes to fight the Germans. In Transcaucasia, only 409 SD and the 9th Guards Rifle Division of incomplete composition remained. But the last (9th Guards Rifle Division) defended the coast from the Turkish border to Poti from a possible German landing from the sea.
      The status of the 409th SD (Armenian) is not very clear. Either a training division, or what? This division was withdrawn from the Active Army in the period from 01.06.1942/01.01.1943/XNUMX to XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX.

      Thanks to the gold and weapons they handed over to the Turks, they were able to arrange a cruel massacre and the expulsion of Greeks, Assyrians, Armenians from their centuries-old habitats (much earlier than the Ottomans' newcomers), and their territories were Turkified.

      An interesting confession. That is, the Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians are also newcomers, only who came much earlier than the late Ottomans? And, that, there is some very fundamental difference between earlier and later aliens, which consolidates the advantage of earlier aliens
      And further. Generally, Armenians, Assyrians say that their main troubles occurred in 1915. When neither Soviet Russia nor Kemalist Turkey existed. hi
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 19 August 2020 07: 01 New
        +3
        Quote: Seal
        Turkey was no eternal enemy to us. From the word in general. Our state first got a conflict with Turkey only at the end of the 16th century.

        FIVE centuries of hostility and heaps of wars ... not enough? belay
        Quote: Seal
        Today we have to reckon.

        There would be no betrayal of the Bolsheviks, there would not be such a strong Turkey.
        Quote: Seal
        in August-September 1942, the entire Transcaucasian front was turned with its back to Turkey and sent to the passes to fight the Germans

        Not from trust, but from LOSS
        Quote: Seal
        That is, the Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians are also newcomers, only who came much earlier than the late Ottomans?

        I have no such confession - read it again.
        Quote: Seal
        And, what, there is some very fundamental difference between earlier and later aliens, which consolidates the advantage of earlier aliens

        Can you object?
        Quote: Seal
        ... Generally, Armenians, Assyrians say that their main troubles occurred in 1915. When neither Soviet Russia nor Kemalist Turkey existed

        Does this somehow cancel out the massacre in 1920? belay
  3. iouris
    iouris 17 August 2020 09: 49 New
    +2
    Do we have anything about the near future?
  4. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 17 August 2020 12: 00 New
    +7
    The Turks repaid the Moscow Bolsheviks very quickly.
    To begin with, in 1921, they took out to sea by boat and killed the entire leadership of the newly created Turkish Communist Party. Then Ataturk banned it altogether.

    Turkish territory became the base for numerous anti-Soviet gangs. In the USSR, the Turkish border has always been considered dangerous and heavily guarded.

    During the Great Patriotic War, an entire army had to be kept in Transcaucasia all the time, because it was unclear how "neutral" Turkey would behave, especially in 1941-42. In fairness, we note that England warned the Turks in every possible way against an alliance with the Germans and even threatened them.

    In 1946, Stalin planned to punish Ankara for allowing German ships to enter the Black Sea during the Great Patriotic War and other equally dubious actions. The Georgian and Armenian SSR put forward territorial claims to Turkey, which provided for the return of the lost lands with interest. To confirm the seriousness of their intentions, units of the Soviet army began to advance to positions in the Transcaucasus and Northern Iran. In parallel, there was a similar movement in Bulgaria, from whose side it was supposed to march to Istanbul, in which, following the results of the invasion, it was supposed to set up Soviet military bases.

    Turkey, which did not have a single chance against the USSR, did the only thing that was left for it - raised a diplomatic noise, hoping for help from Britain and the United States. The calculation was fully justified. Frightened by the unprecedented increase in the power of the USSR, the Western allies threatened to use a nuclear bomb on the Soviet Union, and Moscow had to abandon its intentions to return the lost part of Transcaucasia. In 1953, the USSR dropped its claims to Kars. Turkey had already been a member of NATO for a year by that time.

    Modern Armenia does not recognize the Kars treaty, and Georgia denounced it after the Ajarian crisis of 2004, when Turkey threatened to send troops to Batumi, relying on this document.
    After the Turks joined NATO, things got really bad.
    It was the deployment in Turkey, near Izmir, of 15 American medium-range nuclear missiles PGM-19 "Jupiter" with a range of 2400 km, which directly threatened the European part of the Soviet Union (reached Moscow) that caused the Soviet response in Cuba and unleashed the famous Cuban missile crisis ...
    1. Seal
      Seal 18 August 2020 22: 48 New
      -2
      The answer went around for two hours, but it never got posted. Apparently there is a problem with the internet. But I managed to copy it and in order not to type it again I will post it in the form of print screens. I hope it will be clear and clear.



  5. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 17 August 2020 12: 33 New
    +4
    Here we must also take into account the fact that Great Britain, France and the United States actually "threw" Greece and Armenia, without providing them with any assistance in the war with the Turks. And the resources of Armenia and Greece itself were completely insufficient for a successful war with the Kemalists, especially those who received assistance from the RSFSR.
  6. deddem
    deddem 17 August 2020 13: 30 New
    -1
    Quote: Olgovich

    Yes, and do not forget that the Russophobic Patriarchate of Constantinople, which today is waging a war against Russian Orthodoxy by creating the OCU, etc., was preserved exclusively for the protection of the Bolsheviks, the Turks wanted to throw it out with the Greeks together) ...


    How did he become Russophobic - can you tell?
    And at the same time, as in blessed Russia-on-Dardanelles, it was planned to get rid of the problem of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
    Probably, the wrong Russophobic priests had to magically disappear, along with the Turks and other inconvenient infidels?
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 17 August 2020 15: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: deddem
      How did he become Russophobic - can you tell?

      "By herself, by herself!" (C)
      Quote: deddem
      And at the same time, as in blessed Russia-on-Dardanelles, it was planned to get rid of the problem of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
      Probably, the wrong Russophobic priests had to magically disappear, along with the Turks and other inconvenient gentiles?

      who is interested in your fortune-telling?
    2. Operator
      Operator 17 August 2020 18: 16 New
      -3
      The Constantinople (aka "ecumenical") patriarch has the majority of the flock in the United States (the correct prefix is ​​"Washington") - should you continue further, or will you yourself figure out about his Americanophilia / Russophobia?

      How to get rid of - under the back foot and to Greece to their relatives with a white dove, which will be implemented in the near future.
  7. Fon elia
    Fon elia 17 August 2020 16: 50 New
    -2
    Soviet Russia entered into an agreement with Turkey for several reasons.
    1. This is the oil of Azerbaijan.
    2. This is what Lenin saw in Ataturk as his associate, ally.
    Gold was a kind of purchase and sale of Azerbaijan. Do not forget that the whole Turkish army was stationed in Baku. And Russia did not want to completely open another front. Lenin had sympathy for Ataturk. Turkey even created a Communist Party in those years. But after that, Turkey's vector changed.
    And there is no accuracy in the article. There was no western or eastern Armenia. These are already fairy tales of the Armenian radio.
  8. Kwas
    Kwas 17 August 2020 18: 17 New
    0
    A good illustration of how large states always and everywhere trade limitrophes. This is a natural price to pay for their "independence".
  9. imobile2008
    imobile2008 17 August 2020 18: 37 New
    +1
    Nothing changes. Everywhere we support the anti-Russian forces with Russian gold.
  10. Marine engineer
    Marine engineer 17 August 2020 20: 42 New
    0
    “One day Russia will lose control over the peoples that it holds tightly in its hands today. The world will reach a new level. At that very moment, Turkey must know what to do. ......... We must prepare ..... "

    Only snakes are born from snake eggs (C)
  11. raki-uzo
    raki-uzo 18 August 2020 08: 44 New
    -1
    "One day Russia will lose control over the peoples that it holds tightly in its hands today. The world will reach a new level. At that very moment, Turkey must know what to do. Our brothers by blood, by faith, by language are under Russian rule: we must we must be ready to support them. We must prepare. We must remember our roots and unite our history, by the will of fate divided us from our brothers. We must not wait for them to reach out to us, we must approach them ourselves. Russia one day On that very day Turkey will become a country for our brothers to follow by example. "

    And let's look at the full text - Here are his words (From the archive of our Ali Majlis): "

    "Bugün, Sovyetler Birliği dostumuzdur, komşumuzdur, müttefikimizdir Bu dostluğa ihtiyacımız vardır;. Fakat, yarın ne olacağını kimse bugünden kestiremez; tıpkı Osmanlı gibi, tıpkı Avusturya-Macaristan gibi parçalanabilir, ufalanabilir; bugün elinde sımsıkı tuttuğu milletler avuçlarından kaçabilirler Dünya yeni bir dengeye. .. ulaşabilir İşte o zaman, Türkiye ne yapacağını bilmelidir Bizim, bu dostumuzun idaresinde, dili bir, özü bir kardeşlerimiz vardır Onlara sahip çıkmaya hazır olmalıyız Hazır olmak, yalnız o günü susup beklemek değildir;.. hazırlanmak lazımdır Milletler buna nasıl hazırlanır;. manevî köprülerini sağlam tutarak. Dil bir köprüdür, inanç bir köprüdür. Köklerimize inmeli ve olayların böldüğü tarihimizin içinde bütünleşmeliyiz. Onların, yani dışimla Türklaler


    "Today the Soviet Union is our friend, our neighbor, our ally. We need this friendship. But no one can predict what will happen tomorrow; it can crumble, crumble, like the Ottomans, like Austria-Hungary. Today, the peoples whom it (the USSR ) holds firmly in his hands, can slip out of his palms. The world can reach a new balance. Then Turkey must know what to do. Under the leadership of our friend (USSR) there are our brothers who speak the same language, believe in the same and the same faith, have the same roots. We must be willing to take care of them. Being ready is not just waiting for inaction. You must be prepared. How do nations prepare for this? Keeping spiritual bridges intact. Language is a bridge; history is this is a bridge, faith is a bridge. We must return to our roots and integrate into our history, which was divided by events. On that day, we cannot wait for them, that is, the Turks who live abroad, to come to us, we need come up to them. " Ataturk, October 29, 1933.
  12. Looking for
    Looking for 18 August 2020 14: 59 New
    +1
    Quote: Captivity
    Straits under world control.

    what would happen to the Black Sea then?
  13. Seal
    Seal 18 August 2020 18: 40 New
    -2
    It is interestingly written:
    The RSFSR provided Turkey practically free of charge (that is, with an indefinite return period) 10 million gold rubles, as well as weapons, ammunition (mainly from the warehouses of the former Russian army and seized from the White Guard troops and interventionists). In July-October 1920, the Kemalists received 8 rifles, about 2 machine guns, over 5 million cartridges, 17,6 shells, and almost 200 kg of gold bullion.

    In addition, they were transferred to Turkey in 1919-1920. almost all weapons with ammunition and all the commissary reserves of the Russian Caucasian Army, which operated in 1914-17. in Eastern Anatolia (i.e. in Western Armenia) and in the northeastern region of the Turkish Black Sea region.
    One gets the impression that what is listed in the second paragraph was also transferred (as an addition) by Soviet Russia to the Kemalists. In fact, according to the conditions of the Brest Peace of March 3, 1918, Soviet Russia ceded to Turkey (Sultan Turkey) the districts of Ardahan, Kars and Batum, withdrew the troops (which, however, did not particularly obey the Soviet Government, but the legal opportunity to go home, regardless of deserters, used in full) from all parts of Eastern Anatolia.
    That is, all the weapons with ammunition and all the quartermaster stocks of the Russian Caucasian Army (well, maybe not everything, after all, something was taken with them to Russia by soldiers and Cossacks of the Caucasian Army and sailors of the Black Sea Fleet) located in Eastern Anatolia and in the northeastern region Turkey (Sultan Turkey) received the Turkish Black Sea coast in March 1918. And if the insurgent Kemalists (the troops of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey) got some of this in 1919-1920, then Soviet Russia has nothing to do with it. It was just that the rebels (the troops of the Turkish Grand National Assembly) took this stuff from the Sultan's officials. Or maybe somewhere the Sultan's officials from among the patriots themselves joined the ranks of the rebels. Pointing to warehouses with weapons, ammunition and other goods.
  14. Seal
    Seal 18 August 2020 20: 52 New
    -2
    Quote: Captivity
    Straits under world control. Free trade.

    By world it means by American. Do we need it?
    By the way, why are you not satisfied with the current international status of the straits, established by the Montreux Convention of 1936?
  15. Seal
    Seal 18 August 2020 22: 28 New
    -2
    Quote: Karenius
    Oh, that the United States entered into WWI from the very beginning, and even against the Entente, I showed earlier, using the example of the actions of their battleships in the Gulf of Aden ...

    Oh, the songs about these notorious mythical American battleships began again. hi
    They are now in the Gulf of Aden. And last time July 18 2018 you had them "near the port of Adana".
    First, First !!!
    Immediately after the start of WWI, that 5-6 US Jewish battleships sailed the sea near the Turkish city of Adana, letting our allies know that they would not allow landing there ... And coal was transported from Haifa to Istanbul ... maybe not only coal.

    By the way, the city of Adana is not even located on the seashore. But let's assume that in 2018 you did not mean the city of Adana, but the district of Adana.
    And you then insisted that the battleships were near Adan, and not near Aden.
    These are your words.
    Sergei Petrovich, you know very well about the city of Adana ... there was the first Genocide of the Armenians under the Young Turks ...

    But now your mythical battleships are miraculously transported to the Gulf of Aden again. lol
  16. Seal
    Seal 21 August 2020 16: 27 New
    -2
    Quote: Karenius
    Too lazy to go to the Academy and ask the author, and in the editorial offices you can clarify ...

    I heard that already two years ago. Therefore, there were promises to drop in and clarify. Then you kind of forgot. Then they again promised to come in and clarify. Still going ??? Show correspondence with you on this topic?
    And it is not good to lie ... Soviet Russia transferred weapons to the Kemalists through the territory of Dashnak Armenia, and, by agreement with the local Zionists in power, a third of the supplies was left to Armenia itself ...

    Exactly. It's not good to lie.
    It's not good to lie about the fact that these are the stocks, then a quote from the test article
    In addition, in 1919-1920 were transferred to the disposal of Turkey. almost all weapons with ammunition and all the commissary reserves of the Russian Caucasian Army, which operated in 1914-17. in Eastern Anatolia (i.e. in Western Armenia) and in the northeastern region of the Turkish Black Sea coast.

    Soviet Russia allegedly transferred weapons to the Kemalists through the territory of Dashnak Armenia, and, by agreement with the local Zionists in power, a third of the supplies was left to Armenia itself ...

    Why would the Bolsheviks transfer weapons with ammunition and all the quartermaster stocks located in Eastern Anatolia and in the northeastern region of the Turkish Black Sea coast to the Kemalists through the territory of Dashnak Armenia, yes, by agreement with the local Zionists, in power, and even in 1919, if these stocks from the very originated in Eastern Anatolia and in the northeastern region of the Turkish Black Sea coast, that is, on the territory of Turkey? You yourself are not funny about your claims? Aren't you ashamed?

    Pashinyan appointed our former Minister of Defense Vagharshak Harutyunyan as his main adviser ... He is the most Russian-oriented Armenian on the planet ...

    Clear. The Armenian lobby in the US Congress is clearly forcing Pashinyan to play the traditional Armenian game "And Armenia is a friend of Russia."
  17. Vasily Andreev
    Vasily Andreev 22 August 2020 11: 59 New
    +1
    If in 1917 the interests of the Bolsheviks and Germany converged, then there is nothing surprising in the fact that the Reds also converged in interests with Turkey in 1920.
  18. Seal
    Seal 25 August 2020 15: 53 New
    0
    Quote: Karenius
    I think it is clear that after that rotten recording, you should wait for me to go and the Academy should not be ...

    You are this rotten record of yours 5-6 American battleships Jewish orientation do you mean?

    Quote: Karenius
    And about the supply of weapons by Soviet Russia to the Kemalists through the Dashnak Armenia and the Dashnaks it is written, with figures, and about a third from there ...
    Let me remind you that we are talking about 1919 !!! Who in 1919 could transfer weapons to the insurgent Turks? Bolsheviks? How, if on October 13, 1919, A.I. Denikin took the Eagle ??? fool
    Or the Dashnak Government of Armenia itself armed the rebels of Mustafa Kemal? This is already something new laughing
    Quote: Karenius
    Cooperation with Russia is resolved without a lobby ... This is from the times when they reached an agreement with Yeltsin directly with the military ...
    Why did Pashinyan come to power? Was Sargsyan less pro-American? No, I was not. So far, it is Sargsyan who remains the first and so far the only president of a foreign (for the United States) country, who was honored to be awarded the Ellis Island medal. The medal is of course public, but recognized by the US Congress. And it is awarded to those figures who have made a particularly significant contribution to the development of cooperation of a country with the United States. I believe that Sargsyan was not awarded for his beautiful eyes.
    One gets the impression that at the time when Pashinyan opposed Sargsyan, both the Armenian lobby and the US Congress simply did not have time to understand what was happening in Armenia.
    And even more likely the fact that in the US State Department, for example, the State Department's buffet supported Sargsyan, and the State Department's toilet took him and drained.
    A similar situation, but with a completely different ending, was in Romania at the beginning of 1941. At that time a pro-Hitler-minded Antonescu ruled in Romania. But at the same time with Antonescu in Romania there was an even more pro-Hitler-minded figure Horia Sima, for whom Antonescu was ... well, not quite pro-Hitler-minded. And so Horia Sima decided to overthrow Antonescu. This Horia Sima, with the support of Himmler, ordered his Iron Guard legion on January 19-20, 1941 to revolt against Antonescu, believing that Germany would support him. However, Hitler made a bet on Antonescu, and on January 22, the mutiny was suppressed (236 legionnaires were killed and 254 wounded), the Iron Guard was disbanded, and its leaders were arrested. Then he was transported to Germany. On April 19, 1941, at the request of Antonescu, he was placed in the Berkenbrück concentration camp near Berlin, along with thirteen other leaders of the Iron Guard.

    In Armenia, the opposite happened. The pro-American Sargsyan was overthrown by the even more pro-American Pashinyan.
  19. Alex russia
    Alex russia 11 September 2020 11: 27 New
    +1
    Considering all the historical data of the extremely "friendly" relations between Russia and Turkey, one wonders how the modern leaders of Russia systematically saw the branch of the tree on which they were sitting !? Ertogasha, almost in plain text, declares his claims to create the Ottoman Empire 2.0, he is cramped within today's borders, you know, trumpets about Pan-Turkism at every corner - openly incites separatism, fights against us in Libya, in Syria (of course, we have central The Russian media insist on the opposite, but we know that this is a complete lie!), They close the Bosphorus strait to us when they feel like it, I just keep quiet about his anti-Russian attacks on Crimea, is leading Turkey towards complete Islamization, religious intolerance (one only transformation of the main symbol Orthodoxy of the Church of Hagia Sophia in the mosque is worth what! Where, by the way, was our main defender of Orthodoxy who constantly breaks his foreheads in front of the iconostases, shut up and swallowed ...) ... etc. etc. Well, what about Russia, free gas pipelines, and nuclear power plants, arming, strengthening economically .... this is a very, very far-sighted policy - to strengthen in every way its main geopolitical enemy on the southern borders! Russia will still face a bloody retribution for its mistakes and for its short-sighted policy, those who do not teach history are doomed to step on the same rake!
  20. Andrey Novoseltsev
    Andrey Novoseltsev 11 September 2020 19: 58 New
    0
    Yes, I did not know about such a shameful part of the history of Soviet Russia. So that's why Armenia has become such a small country and all the people are scattered all over the world. Yes, Russia turns out to be in debt to Greece and Armenia, and it was necessary, damn it, to help those who are only a year old. ago they killed our guys brothers who died in thousands on these lands and did not receive anything. I think that Russia should fix the situation and enough to support the traders from the bazaars of the younger brothers of the Turks. We must support the Armenians and they will be grateful to Russia for a century
  21. Tavush
    Tavush 19 September 2020 10: 38 New
    0
    The strategic mistake of the Bolsheviks, which still haunts Russia and not only