Military Review

The first commanders of the Red Army. Who, where and how taught them military science

103

The official time of birth of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army is the beginning of 1918. However, the armed forces are not only hundreds of thousands or even millions of people rushing into battle, but those who can competently and skillfully exercise leadership of this human mass. That is, the command staff. And with him, the young Soviet regime was, frankly, say, badly. Nevertheless, this problem was solved, and in a fairly short time.


It is worth noting that, as they were then called, "paints", appeared on the fronts of the Civil at the beginning of 1919. Before that, all the "soldiers of the revolution" were, as it were, equal. Various categories of Red Army soldiers were officially enshrined in a special order for the Red Army in 1920. But someone was all this time at the head of the revolutionary detachments, which had grown to the size of full-fledged regiments, divisions and even armies? Sure. These were talented nuggets who had emerged from the ranks of the soldiers and non-commissioned officers of the "old" army. Semyon Budyonny, Vasily Chapaev, Georgy Zhukov are the first surnames that come to mind when it comes to such tsarist "non-commissioned officers" who made the Red Army truly invincible and legendary, and there were many of them.

Nevertheless, such heroes for the entire revolutionary army (which the same Lenin saw as three million already in 1918) was not to be missed. The situation was not saved by the mobilization of the “old cadres,” who were evasively called “military experts,” that is, officers and even generals of the Russian Imperial Army. According to the data available today, in the course of several "waves" of this mobilization, about 1918 thousand people, who not so long ago wore gold shoulder straps, were drafted into the ranks of the Red Army from June 1920 to August 50. However, it would be fundamentally wrong to assert that the "military experts" played a major role in its leadership. Rather, their contribution was different.

Already in 1918, the construction of its own system of military educational institutions began in Soviet Russia. Their number grew rapidly: from 40 in November 1918 to 65 in December. By the beginning of the next year, military science within the walls of the new "forge of personnel" for the Red Army had already comprehended about 20 thousand people. What were these institutions and who taught them? At that time, short-term and accelerated courses were the main form of training and advanced training for the "painters". The next, more thorough step was considered the Higher Military Schools for command personnel: artillery, military camouflage, military chemical, staff service, military pedagogical and others.

Perhaps the most famous is the Higher Shooting and Tactical School of Command "Shot", formed by the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic of November 21, 1918 (that is, one of the first). It arose, of course, not from scratch, but became the legal successor of the Officer Rifle School in Oranienbaum. However, almost all institutions of this kind (schools and courses) were "reformatted" after the revolution educational institutions or units of the Russian Imperial Army.

Yes, and they were again led by yesterday's "gold-chasers", and, as a rule, in considerable ranks. The same "Shot" was created by the efforts of Lieutenant General Nikolai Filatov, one of the leading figures of the Russian arms and small arms business. Moreover, after graduating from Civil tactics, for example, the famous Yakov Slashchev, one of the brightest generals of the White movement, who fought the Reds right up to the Crimea, taught there.

The Higher Academic Courses for the command staff of the Red Army, created in 1921, stood somewhat apart in the series of higher schools. Through them passed the absolute majority of the highest ranks of the Red Army, and not only "self-nominated" from the soldier's and non-commissioned officers' environment, but even quite cadre tsarist campaigners up to colonels. The following fact eloquently testifies to the quality of the training there: during the Great Patriotic War, 15 cadets of the VAK became commanders of armies, another 8 headed corps.

The Red Army also had its own full-fledged General Staff Academy. The Nikolaev Imperial Academy of the General Staff was transformed into a "red" one in May 1918, and since then has trained a huge number of Soviet generals. Its first chief was Major General of the Russian Imperial Army Anton Klimovich, who was successively replaced in this post by Lieutenant General Andrei Snesarev (this outstanding person generally made an invaluable contribution to the formation and development of Soviet military education), Major General Pavel Lebedev and others. It is true that Lieutenant Tukhachevsky also entered the list, but this is not an indicator.

Today, when personal and political ambitions are often put much above such half-forgotten values ​​as patriotism and loyalty to the oath, it may seem strange and even wild to someone that former representatives of the Russian Imperial Army also contributed to the formation of a new army, and ideologically, as it were hostile. Nevertheless, these were people who really lived under the motto: "There is such a profession - to defend the Motherland!" And they did everything to give their country as many new reliable defenders as possible.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / Chapaev in the command staff of the Red Army
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. antivirus
    antivirus 11 August 2020 07: 58
    +5
    "There is such a profession - to defend the Motherland!"
    monuments to Ustinov and Grechko must be erected
  3. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 11 August 2020 08: 17
    -12 qualifying.
    It remains to tell where Anton Klimovich got to in 1937 and how the outstanding Snesarev died in the hospital after many years in the camps, including the SLON. Only Lebedev was lucky. He died of old age in the 33rd. Had he still lived, in 37 he would have been shot. He was Yakir's chief of staff. And with the shooting of the "worn out" not everything is so simple.
    1. Far B
      Far B 11 August 2020 08: 34
      16
      And what is wrong with the shooting of the "worn out"? In four days fully admitted his guilt, personally wrote a confession - a rather big footcloth, with names, dates, arguments and facts. Or do you mean to say that there was no army conspiracy? Then why the hell did Gamarnik put a bullet in his head before he was arrested?
      As for the executed tsarist generals - so many officers and generals of the tsarist army in the 37th Union survived safely and then died in their bed. Not everything was so simple in the 37th.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 August 2020 09: 42
        16
        Quote: Dalny V
        As for the executed tsarist generals - so many officers and generals of the tsarist army in the 37th Union survived safely and then died in their bed. Not everything was so simple in the 37th.

        It was not easy in 1937. Fewer officers and generals of the Imperial Army were shot than commanders of the Red Army. And there was a conspiracy, without any doubt. You can find on the net the xeroxed 138 pages of testimony written not by the investigator, but by his own hand, and by the excellent handwriting of the former Marshal Tukhachevsky, who already on the second day began to write an "opera" (if the cleaning lady held out for a week). And he wrote everything, and about everyone, but he wrote about what was, and did not write about what was not. But in his testimony he tried to disown one thing, "espionage for Germany." Recognition of this point would have been his death, but it was proven.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 11 August 2020 13: 09
          +5
          It was not easy since 1937, "of course, not easy if Stalin said:" Yezhov is a bastard, he killed many innocent people "(this was already on the site), perhaps at least a third are innocent.
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 11 August 2020 13: 58
          0
          "It was proved" to me my grandmother told me that there was a so-called "Dossier" Beneš "about a military conspiracy.
    2. rocket757
      rocket757 11 August 2020 08: 36
      +1
      What do you want to say?
      A simple question, if those people knew what awaited them, they would not have gone to the service for the sake of their homeland?
      If not all, at least some of them?
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 August 2020 10: 38
        -4
        Quote: rocket757
        A simple question, if those people knew what awaited them, they would not have gone to the service for the sake of their homeland?

        And they would have gone and gone unconditionally. Their families were held hostage.
        1. rocket757
          rocket757 11 August 2020 11: 19
          +4
          Quote: tihonmarine
          And they would have gone and gone unconditionally. Their families were held hostage.

          No, not such deb / B \ beats built a new life, a new country, hoping for such an unreliable way to achieve not just the loyalty of the right person, but something more.
          I do not like it when in films about the war, Germans are shown stupid, and when they try to hang such nonsense on their ancestors ... nope, he is also nonsense in Africa.
    3. Deniska999
      Deniska999 11 August 2020 08: 57
      +2
      Someone is lucky, someone is not very ...
      1. cost
        cost 11 August 2020 21: 50
        0
        The Imperial Academy of the General Staff was transformed into a "red" one in May 1918 and since then has trained a huge number of Soviet commanders. Its first chief was Major General of the Russian Imperial Army Anton Klimovich

        1936 photo of the year... division commander A. K. Klimovich

        Anton Karlovich Klimovich (born September 1, 1869) - Russian and Soviet military leader,
        the first chief of the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army, division commander (1936).
        He graduated from the Vilna gymnasium (1890) and the military school course of the Moscow infantry cadet school (1893), from which he was released as a second lieutenant in the 6th East Siberian linear battalion.
        Ranks: lieutenant (1896), staff captain (1900), captain (1904), lieutenant colonel (1909), colonel (1912), major general (1917).
        Later he served in the 23rd East Siberian Rifle Regiment. In 1904 he graduated from the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff. Member of the Russian-Japanese War. From June 1905 - Chief Officer for assignments at the headquarters of the Amur Military District. In March 1909, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and soon appointed senior adjutant of the headquarters of the Amur Military District. Since August 1911, chief of staff of the fortress of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.
        On August 21, 1915, he was appointed commander of the 32nd Kremenchug Infantry Regiment, with which he participated in the First World War. In September 1916 he was appointed chief of staff of the 8th Infantry Division, and from July 1917 he held the post of chief of staff of the 15th Army Corps. In October 1917, with the rank of major general, he was appointed commander of the 6th Infantry Division.
        In 1918 he voluntarily joined the Red Army, held the post of military leader of the Kozlovsky commissariat. After the creation of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army on October 7, 1918, he was appointed its chief. Heading the Academy for 10 months, he did a lot to organize and establish the Academy as the first higher military educational institution in Soviet Russia.
        In connection with the aggravation of the situation on the Eastern Front, on July 10, 1919, he left for the front, where, as an assistant to the army commander, he fought with the troops of Kolchak, then was listed in the lists of the General Staff of the Red Army. After the end of the Civil War, he was the head of the Turkestan department of the Main Directorate of military educational institutions. In 1937, the military instructor of the Moscow Pedagogical Institute. K. Liebknecht. After 1937, nothing is known about him
    4. RUnnm
      RUnnm 11 August 2020 09: 22
      21
      Excuse me, but will you tell me where the military expert went - Shaposhnikov, for example, or Karbyshev?
      There is no need to pretend that the military experts were destroyed as a class. Yes, the blow to them was terrible and later backfired on us, but, excuse me, you are presenting the story in a one-sided way. Why don't you tell me how the "former" brought international intervention into the country, what they themselves did with the Bolsheviks, how Kornilov arrested the family of Nicholas II, to whom he swore an oath, how they served the Nazis ...
      I just want to say that now we are forgetting that it was the class struggle that was going on, and not just a cosmetic change of power. And now there is no point in dividing the ancestors into good and bad, we must accept this country, this history as it was and which is.
      1. Cyril G ...
        Cyril G ... 11 August 2020 10: 47
        +6
        There are admirals of the RKKF who were officers and admirals of the RIF, they were not arrested and served quite well to old age and retired - Nemits, Bologov, Nesvtsikiy, Pavlovich, Rall, Stahl and others ...
        http://tsushima.su/forums/viewtopic.php?id=10366&p=1
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 11 August 2020 13: 07
          +3
          If you look at the landings, you can recall such a colorful figure as General Samoilo.

          Until February - Assistant Quartermaster General of the Army Staff of the Western Front, Major General. Between February and October - Quartermaster General of the Army Headquarters of the Western Front.
          After the revolution - commander of the land and sea forces of the Arkhangelsk region, chief of staff and commander of the 6th Army (battles with the interventionists + chemical warfare in the North), commander of the Eastern Front, 3rd assistant to the chief of staff of the Red Army, inspector of the Main Directorate of military educational institutions of the Red Army, deputy. Head of the Operations Department of the Main Directorate of the Air Force, Lecturer at the Department of General Tactics and Head of the Department of Military Administration at the V.I. N.E. Zhukovsky, professor.

          And all this - in the presence of a brother who was with whites and. e. Chief of the Air Force of the Eastern Front and emigrated to the United States. smile
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 11 August 2020 14: 21
            -2
            Quote: Alexey RA
            General Samoilo.

            He experienced a lot in his life - two terrible family tragedies. The eldest daughter, Nina Aleksandrovna (1904-1940), was hit by a train in 1926 and lost her legs.
            Her daughter Olga, granddaughter of A.A. Samoilo, a student at the Physics Department of Moscow State University, died, trampled by a crowd during Stalin's funeral ...
          2. Astra wild
            Astra wild 11 August 2020 14: 36
            +3
            I can remember Major General Bonch-Bruyevich, Brusilov. I read at school that he went over to the side of the revolution, period.
            Relatively recently, somewhere flashed infa that with Brusilov not everything is simple, but I do not know the leaders and too lazy to look. I'd rather read Roman
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 11 August 2020 16: 00
              +1
              Astra-Vera! The son of Brusilov very badly ended his life.
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 13 August 2020 15: 48
                0
                Allegedly, the whites shot him. In the unit they read: "The Leader's Privy Counselor" and admired, they said that the Reds had it. I have not read the whole book (at a young woman at night ...) and I do not know
            2. cost
              cost 11 August 2020 16: 18
              +4
              General Mikhail Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich is generally an extremely interesting figure - the brother of Lenin's closest ally, the Russian revolutionary Bolshevik, Soviet party and statesman, 1st Chief Executive Officer of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR Vladimir Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich.
              a photo General M.D.Bonch-Bruevich before the revolution

              By the way, Mikhail Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruyevich was arrested three times - the first time in March 1923 “for sabotage”. The former general was charged under Art. Art. 110, 116 and 150 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and the case was transferred to the prosecutor's office. But it did not come to court - F.E.Dzerzhinsky did not allow.
              The second time was in May 1931 in the Vesna case. These are repressions against the officers of the Red Army who previously served in the Russian Imperial Army (military experts) as well as civilians, including former white officers, organized in 1930-1931 by the OGPU. In Leningrad alone, over a thousand people were shot in this case. Again, it did not come to trial - the next day Bonch-Bruyevich was released. And for the third time he was arrested by the OGPU on the night of February 21-22, 1931 in the case of a counter-revolutionary conspiracy of former officers. During interrogations, Bonch-Bruyevich was not subjected to any physical or moral measures. Maybe because of his brother, or maybe because his son Konstantin was himself an authorized representative of the OGPU. Naturally, Mikhail Dmitrievich did not recognize participation in any organizations. But he managed to testify against the former general and commander of the Southern Front of the Red Army Pavel Pavlovich Sytin, whom he accused of leading a counter-revolutionary officer's conspiracy in the USSR [. However, then it did not significantly damage Sytin, he was shot 7 years later [10].
              In the end, on May 17, 1931, MD Bonch-Bruyevich was released from prison, and his case “for lack of corpus delicti” was again dropped.
              In 1937 he was awarded the rank of divisional commander in 1944 he was promoted to lieutenant general.
              Amazingly, the Soviet Lieutenant General M.D.Bonch-Bruevich for some reason did not have a single Soviet award !!!

              He died in 1956 in Moscow. Buried at the Vagankovskoye cemetery.
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 11 August 2020 16: 22
                +3
                Plus to you, Dima! As always, facts !!!
              2. Astra wild
                Astra wild 13 August 2020 16: 16
                +1
                Allegedly, there were no Soviet awards for Alexei Ignatiev. Perhaps you know he had a family? In the 90s, when it was fashionable to scold everything Soviet, I heard: his relatives turned away from him, he had no family and close friends either
                1. cost
                  cost 13 August 2020 16: 49
                  0
                  Do you know he had a family?

                  Yes. Alexey Alekseevich was married twice. First marriage to Elena Vladimirovna Okhotnikova (1888-1975), daughter of the equestrian Vladimir Nikolaevich Okhotnikov and Princess Alexandra Petrovna Trubetskoy. After a divorce in 1918, he married the famous ballerina Natalya Vladimirovna Trukhanova, with whom he returned to Russia in 1937 and lived in love and harmony until his death.
                  a photo Natalya Vladimirovna Ignatieva-Trukhanova








                  By the way, she left an interesting memoir

                  Easy to read, interestingly written. Recommend
                  1. cost
                    cost 13 August 2020 16: 58
                    0
                    Photo from the book... Alexey Alekseevich and Natalia Vladimirovna








                  2. Astra wild
                    Astra wild 13 August 2020 17: 58
                    0
                    We (women) look biasedly at each other, but her face is pleasant for sure.
                    I will search the net for this book.
                    Regarding the medal: "20 years of the Red Army", I often saw it in photographs, many officers of the Second World War had this medal. Now I can name: Zhukov, Vasilevsky, Rokossovsky, Meretskov. Seems to have seen at Blucher
                2. cost
                  cost 13 August 2020 17: 07
                  0
                  Allegedly, Alexei Ignatiev did not have Soviet awards.

                  Lieutenant General Alexei Alekseevich Ignatiev had USSR state awards. Among them is a very rare "XX years of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army". Awarded in 1938 as one of the first
          3. Florian geyer
            Florian geyer 18 August 2020 03: 04
            0
            The fate of General A. N. Kuropatkin (who was already the Minister of War in tsarist times) is remarkable.

            "... Having retired, Kuropatkin settled in the family estate of Sheshurino, Kholmsk district, Pskov province, and worked on his memories.

            In 1918. took an active part in organizing a folk museum in Kholm and became its scientific consultant. A year later, at a district congress of teachers and heads of volost departments of public education, he made a report on the work of the museum, which was later published as a separate brochure.

            In 1919. when a secondary school was opened in the village of Lebedev, he was elected a member of the school council.

            In 1921. the agricultural school was restored, opened by Kuropatkin with his own money immediately after the end of the Russian-Japanese war. At this school, he taught, lecturing on economic geography, and was a member of the school's teaching council. His active work in the field of education won him the respect of local residents. The Soviet government kept his house and a rich library for life.

            During the last years of his life he was busy putting in order his numerous entries and diaries. He is the author of books and brochures on military-strategic issues. Buried in his homeland.

            In 1964. on his grave, a marble tombstone with the inscription: “Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin. Founder of the agricultural school of Nagovskoy.
      2. rocket757
        rocket757 11 August 2020 11: 23
        +1
        Quote: RUnnm
        it was the class struggle

        Exactly. There is a lot of things and on whom you can hang ... only idiots, murderers and bloodsuckers, everyone should not be called en masse.
        It is foolish to give up our past, whatever it was .... it WAS!
        1. RUnnm
          RUnnm 11 August 2020 11: 26
          +1
          Quite right! This is exactly what I wanted to say.
      3. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 August 2020 12: 21
        +5
        Quote: RUnnm
        Excuse me, but will you tell me where the military expert went - Shaposhnikov, for example, or Karbyshev?
        There is no need to pretend that the military experts were destroyed as a class.
        Major General Count A.A. Ignatiev, after the October Revolution, went over to the side of Soviet power and helped to save money for the USSR (227 million rubles in gold) belonging to Russia and invested in his name in French banks. Until 1937 he worked at the Soviet Trade Mission in Paris. Returning to the USSR (1937), he served in the Soviet Army in responsible positions, in higher military educational institutions and in the Military Publishing House, and was highly respected by J.V. Stalin.
        1. Joker62
          Joker62 11 August 2020 17: 28
          +2
          I read his memoirs - "50 years in the ranks", finished his way to the rank of lieutenant general.
          Although he was a count, a nobleman, but in his soul he was a real patriot of his homeland.
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 11 August 2020 17: 58
            0
            Quote: Joker62
            Although he was a count, a nobleman, but in his soul he was a real patriot of his homeland.

            He and his brother were also Russian intelligence residents in Paris.
    5. SOVIET UNION 2
      SOVIET UNION 2 11 August 2020 10: 15
      12
      It remains to tell who initiated the executions. Enough to tell tales that waking up in the morning in a bad mood, Stalin decided to write a decree on the executions. Why don't they write, who, when, decided to raise the question of the shootings, who voted for the shootings? Stalin himself was almost removed at the parade on November 7, 1927. And Comrade Stalin himself could have been shot. Why don't they write about friction in the party? Was there a monolith of opinions? Or maybe there was an analogue of the current situation? When EdRo (an analogue of the Trotskyists) makes a proposal for the introduction of a VMN for enemies of the people. Well, how is the fight against corruption today. It seems like a good thing! But who is being cleaned? Those who do not agree with the EdRa line! Clean water clearing the glade! Well, the same truth-telling Khrushchev! Why did he modestly keep silent about personal purges? Another question. Why don't they talk about the number of acquittals? Why are they not talking about replacing the VMN for a period? Why don't they talk about ignoring Stalin's orders on the eve of June 22? Why were the NKVD troops ready for the attack and held the defense, while others were not very?
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 11 August 2020 14: 13
        +2
        "why don't they talk about ignoring Stalin's orders" I read Martirosyan, a little of the Kremlin and came to the conclusion: the so-called "processes of 1937" were so-called apical, with the exception of 1-2 leaders, the rest were pawns or even "extras" but the real betrayers remained in the "shadow"
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 August 2020 18: 05
        +4
        Quote: SOVIET UNION 2
        Another question. Why don't they talk about the number of acquittals? Why are they not talking about replacing the VMN for a period?

        The liberals need Stalin as a tyrant, and all power in the USSR is tyranny. And now you see we are good, we are not tyrants, and we need to be supported, and you need our power, otherwise Uncle Joe will come and send you to the Gulag. These are the songs they sing, praising the Vlasovs, the Reds, the servants. And a third of the population believes them, if not more.
    6. Olgovich
      Olgovich 11 August 2020 12: 21
      -7
      Quote: A. Privalov
      It remains to tell where Anton Klimovich went in 1937 and how the outstanding Snesarev bent over in the hospital after many years in the camps, including the SLON. Only Lebedev was lucky. He died of old age in the 33rd. Had he still lived, in 37 he would have been shot. He was Yakir's chief of staff.

      And HOW can you "forget" and not say a word about the creator and leader (and this is not at all a weekday with Voroshilov) of the RKKA-L. Trotsky? request

      He was its top leader , being the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the RSFSR, the highest body of military power of the republic.

      And yes, according to the meetings of the VK of the USSR Armed Forces of the 1930s, at the same time he was ... a German spy who later became the leader "SS and Gestapo teams", the head of the General Staff of the Red Army, Tukhachevsky, and other (more than half) high members of this famous RVS of the republic - uborevichi, yakirs, unshlikhty, etc., obeyed him.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 August 2020 18: 13
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        And HOW can you "forget" and not say a word about the creator and leader (and this is not at all a routine with Voroshilov) of the RKKA-L. Trotsky?

        My relatives in Transbaikalia, they remembered him back in the 70s.
    7. Sneaky Urus
      Sneaky Urus 13 August 2020 11: 10
      0
      quite right. You can also tell that military experts made a decisive contribution to the defeat of the whites - a fact bashfully bypassed in the article. A special role was played by the general staff officers of the former tsarist army, which included Lebedev, Klimovich, and Snesarev. Suffice it to say that at the beginning. Mob Directorate of the Vseroglavshtab former. Mr. Lebedev recreated the system of military registration and enlistment offices, which, among other things, were involved in recruiting officers of the tsarist army. For some reason, Comrade Stalin regretted Snesarev - instead of being shot in the case, Vesna gave him only 10 years. Kind just. And after all, he did not avenge the conflict during the defense of Tsaritsyn, when the mustachioed almost merged the city to Mamantov. smile
  4. tank64rus
    tank64rus 11 August 2020 08: 31
    +9
    The Bolsheviks opened military schools and academies. Now figures like a la Mr. Serdyukov are closing. Why, they don't need them. Since the days of the Gobi and EBN they have no enemies, only partners in plundering Russia.
  5. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 11 August 2020 08: 32
    -3
    The Wehrmacht taught the Red Army to fight, the truth took dearly.
    1. RUnnm
      RUnnm 11 August 2020 09: 08
      +5
      But he himself paid in full, to zero. Yes, we learned to fight in new conditions for that time ... unlike the strongest European armies.
  6. rocket757
    rocket757 11 August 2020 08: 33
    +3
    to some it may seem strange and even wild that the former representatives of the Russian Imperial Army also contributed to the formation of a new army, moreover, ideologically, as it were, hostile

    Rulers, power is changing, but the Motherland remains one forever!
    And the Motherland has the right to demand that it be protected, demand a sacrifice!
    1. RUnnm
      RUnnm 11 August 2020 09: 05
      -1
      It's hard to say ... here's how to serve in Navalny's army, seeing how he deliberately ruins it ... as a hopak dancer in front of some NATO regiment? On the other hand, in the 90s it was about the same and served! Although then, perhaps, there was no such clear understanding that your army was being destroyed
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 11 August 2020 09: 33
        +4
        It is the duty of a soldier to defend the country from an external enemy ... there are no other options.
        Politics is a very murky business, but here everyone has to make a choice by himself ... the choice is not easy, not everyone fits into one whole Motherland + State / power !!! After the well-known events, I did not fit together. Like this.
      2. SOVIET UNION 2
        SOVIET UNION 2 11 August 2020 10: 20
        -1
        And what did Serdyukov do? Ruined the army or created?
        1. rocket757
          rocket757 11 August 2020 11: 36
          +1
          Quote: SOVIET UNION 2
          And what did Serdyukov do? Ruined the army or created?

          Optimized! It turned out, what it turned out ... on the other hand, that's what they put it for.
      3. aglet
        aglet 11 August 2020 10: 29
        +2
        and what, did the bulk hopak dance in front of the NATO regiment? well, entertainer
      4. 2 Level Advisor
        2 Level Advisor 11 August 2020 13: 24
        +7
        Army Navalny or Putin does not exist, there is an army of Russia! They tell you about it. Even under the tsar they spoke of the Russian army.
      5. Astra wild
        Astra wild 11 August 2020 14: 27
        +2
        Navalny is a "class alien element" to me, but in fairness: Navalny, with all his desire, could not destroy the army.
        Hopak dance is not science fiction either
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 11 August 2020 08: 48
    +2
    I wonder who is in the photo, except for V.I. Chapaev I don't know anyone. And what have the gold-chasers here, for most of the officers, shoulder straps were sewn with silver, not all of them, of course. Former tsarist officers, military experts, began to call them that, if I am not mistaken, were also the commanders of the units of the Red Army .. Commissars introduced such a position. It is good if the commissar and the commander found a common language, were like-minded .. Let's say like Chapaev and Furmanov. But there were other cases when the commissars began to interfere in the conduct of hostilities. During the Civil War, 4 red commanders were awarded the Order of the Red Banner 4 times. Blucher, Fabricius, Fedko, Vostretsov. Let's not talk about any reprisals. But these people took part in the creation of the Red Army.
    1. RUnnm
      RUnnm 11 August 2020 09: 01
      -1
      So Chapaev and Furmanov were like a cat and a dog, if my memory serves me right. I remember that Vasily Ivanovich did not bypass the commissar's wife with his attention ...
      But you are right by repression - it was the destruction of most military experts, according to some historians, that caused more harm than the later repressions of the command staff.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 11 August 2020 11: 35
        +1
        Furmanov served in the division of V.I. Chapaeva is 3 months old. Wife, Anna Furmanova, probably a month,
        one and a half. It's strange, they only had a daughter, but oh well. Probably a couple of months Chapaev and Furmanov were still friendly. If they were like a cat and a dog, it is unlikely that Furmanov began to write a book about Chapaev, even on request. The next book, I don't even remember the name, mutiny? I could not read it, I studied in grade 6-7, the book was very boring, I liked the story "Chapaev" very much.
        1. RUnnm
          RUnnm 11 August 2020 11: 38
          -2
          Well, about the relationship between them, I think it is better to read on other sites. There are links to documents and so on. And the fact that only a month ... well, that's not an argument. Sometimes a day is enough.
          And why did he write ... but because the party said "must", the Komsomol answered "yes." And do not forget, then interpersonal relations were different - freedom in everything, including in personal relationships. Now the exact reason cannot be named.
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 11 August 2020 11: 51
            0
            On request, you can write, Masha was washing the frame. You cannot write an interesting work by order.
            1. RUnnm
              RUnnm 11 August 2020 12: 02
              -1
              Exactly as well as the fact that the brave divisional commander (who, in fact, even had planes, which, you must agree, for the division, was not even very weak) defeated the whites with his bare hands. Therefore, I specifically wrote that on specialized sites there are not just words, but documents.
              Understand correctly, I do not beg for the merits of VI, which, like many without education, did not break, but achieved so much. I just want an objective view of history, whatever it may be. I don't want artificial heroes (this is not about VI in any way), but I want us to know the truth about real heroes, of which there were many in any of the periods.
              I would like to know the truth about Maresyev - whether he abandoned the cover of the bombers or not, about why our contemporary Koshkin never received a Hero, about what Serdyukov became a hero for, and so on. I just want the truth.
    2. cost
      cost 11 August 2020 16: 45
      0
      I wonder who is in the photo, except for V.I. Chapaev I don't know anyone.


      In my opinion, the Author very successfully brought this photo as an illustration to his article "The first commanders of the Red Army. Who, where and how taught them military affairs"
  8. RUnnm
    RUnnm 11 August 2020 08: 59
    0
    Мне кажется, что именно усилия военспецов из "бывших" стоило бы немного глубже раскрыть. Ведь по факту, именно они и создали непобедимую и легендарную: Шапошников, тот же Карбышев. Только генералов - более 200 человек. https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BA_%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2_%D0%A0%D1%83%D1%81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B8%D0%B8_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D1%81%D0%BB%D1%83%D0%B6%D0%B1%D0%B5_%D0%B2_%D0%A0%D0%9A%D0%9A%D0%90
  9. Doctor
    Doctor 11 August 2020 09: 00
    -1
    The article is a classic perversion of real history.
    Already commented here:
    https://topwar.ru/170959-grazhdanskaja-vojna-v-rossii-20-krasnye-vs-belye.html#comment-id-10400779

    The general meaning is the Red Army, it is like a radish, red outside, white inside.
    Tsarist officers fought against tsarist officers, and soldiers against soldiers.
    Inside the Red Army there was a layer of Bolsheviks who "looked after" the command staff - commissars, future political officers.
    1. SOVIET UNION 2
      SOVIET UNION 2 11 August 2020 10: 23
      +1
      What about the modern army? One beet? Is everything red? Who is serving in the army today? Children of oligarchs, officials, businessmen, deputies? And the church is watching the personnel today? Such political instructors in robes?
      1. Doctor
        Doctor 11 August 2020 10: 41
        0
        What about the modern army? One beet? Is everything red? Who is serving in the army today? Children of oligarchs, officials, businessmen, deputies? And the church is watching the personnel today? Such political instructors in robes?

        After most of the commanders of the Red Army were liquidated in the process of the "Spring" case, and the remnants were cleared out in 1937, the army became a people's army.
        It remains so now, with the allocation of three, one might say elite, groups:
        1. Hereditary officers.
        2. Suvorov / Nakhimovites.
        3. DB participants.

        Children of oligarchs become oligarchs.
        As Gorbachev said: "We are for labor dynasties!" laughing
  10. Captain45
    Captain45 11 August 2020 09: 00
    +1
    In the presented photo, I recognized only Vasily Ivanovich. And who are the rest of the paints?
    1. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 09: 30
      +8
      In the presented photo, I recognized only Vasily Ivanovich. And who are the rest of the paints?

      The rest of the "paints" do not fit into Kharaluzhny's version.
      Let's restore justice again, perhaps.
      From top to bottom by position:
      First Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the RSFSR (from September 1, 1918 to July 9, 1919)
      Vatsetis Ioakim Ioakimovich, Colonel of the Russian Imperial Army.



      Second Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic (from July 10, 1919 to April 1924)
      Kamenev, Sergey Sergeevich, Colonel of the Russian Imperial Army.



      The chiefs of the Red General Staff in sequence:
      Rattel Nikolai Iosifovich - RIA Major General.



      Kostyaev Fedor Vasilievich - RIA Major General. (Second row, rightmost).



      Bonch-Bruevich Mikhail Dmitrievich - RIA Major General.

      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 11 August 2020 12: 28
        +1
        [quote = Arzt] [quote] In the presented photo I recognized only Vasily Ivanovich. And who are the rest of the paints? [/ Quote]
        The rest of the "paints" do not fit into Kharaluzhny's version.
        Let's restore justice again, perhaps.
        From top to bottom by position:
        First Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the RSFSR (from September 1, 1918 to July 9, 1919)
        Vatsetis Ioakim Ioakimovich, Colonel of the Russian Imperial Army.
        Arrested on charges of espionage and participation in a counter-revolutionary terrorist organization. On July 28, 1938 he was shot.

        Second Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic (from July 10, 1919 to April 1924)
        Kamenev, Sergey Sergeevich, Colonel of the Russian Imperial Army.
        Official version: Died on August 25, 1936 from a heart attack.

        The chiefs of the Red General Staff in sequence:
        Rattel Nikolai Iosifovich - RIA Major General.
        On March 13, 1930, he was arrested by the OGPU on charges of connection with an anti-Soviet foreign organization. During interrogations, he categorically denied any hostile activity against the Soviet regime, and on May 25 the case against him was dropped.
        Arrested again on July 28, 1938; On March 2, 1939, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR was sentenced to death on charges of participating in a counter-revolutionary terrorist organization. Shot on March 3, 1939, buried at Kommunarka.


        Kostyaev Fedor Vasilievich - RIA Major General. (Second row, rightmost).
        In the summer of 1919 he was arrested together with the commander in chief I. I. Vatsetis.

        Bonch-Bruevich Mikhail Dmitrievich - RIA Major General.
        On the night of February 21-22, 1931, the OGPU was arrested in connection with a counter-revolutionary conspiracy of former officers. During interrogations, Bonch-Bruyevich was not subjected to any physical or moral measures. Maybe because of his brother, or maybe because his son Konstantin was himself a representative of the OGPU. Naturally, Mikhail Dmitrievich did not recognize participation in any organizations. But he managed to testify against the former general and commander of the Southern Front of the Red Army Pavel Pavlovich Sytin, whom he accused of leading a counter-revolutionary officer's conspiracy in the USSR. However, Sytin was not significantly damaged then, he was shot 7 years later.
    2. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 09: 36
      +7
      And then the chiefs of the General Staff:

      Lebedev, Pavel Pavlovich - RIA Major General.



      Stogov - Nikolai Nikolaevich - Lieutenant General of the RIA.



      Svechin Alexander Andreevich - RIA Major General.



      Below is the same thing, everyone remembers Budyonny, but his immediate superior, the Commander of the Western Front, Yegorov, is not very much.



      Here he has only four orders, but there were also:

      Order of St. Stanislav III degree (VP of March 10, 1907).
      Cross “The 50th Anniversary of the End of the Caucasian Wars” (EaP from August 31, 1909).
      Medal "In memory of the 100th anniversary of the Patriotic War of 1812" (August 15, 1912)
      Medal “In memory of the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanov dynasty” (February 21, 1913)
      Order of St. Anne of the III degree (VP of April 6, 1914).
      Order of St. Anne of the IV degree (VP of March 30, 1915).
      swords and bow to the Order of St. Anne of the III degree (VP from March 30, 1915).
      Order of St. Stanislav II degree with swords (VP ​​of May 30, 1915).
      Order of St. Anne of the II degree with swords (VP ​​of October 23, 1915)
      St. George's weapon - for the battle of Busk on August 13, 1914 (VP from January 24, 1917.)
      Order of St. Vladimir of the IV degree with swords and bow (VP from February 12, 1917).
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 11 August 2020 12: 38
        0
        Quote: Arzt
        And then the chiefs of the General Staff:

        Lebedev, Pavel Pavlovich - RIA Major General.
        Lucky. He died of old age in the 33rd. Had he still lived, in 37 he would have been shot. He was Yakir's chief of staff.

        Stogov - Nikolai Nikolaevich - Lieutenant General of the RIA.
        In April 1919, the Cheka was arrested. Contained in the Butyrka prison and the Andronikov monastery. In the fall of 1919 he escaped from prison. After that, his wife was shot by the Reds in Moscow. She was captured together with the general's son after being ambushed by the Cheka, the fate of her son is unknown, most likely, he was also shot along with his mother. Together with another officer-fellow traveler, he crossed the front line and got to the Headquarters of the Armed Forces of South Russia in Taganrog. In the White movement, Chief of Staff of the Kuban Army under General Shkuro, January-February 1920. Since May 1920 - the last commandant of Sevastopol in the Russian army of General Wrangel; at the same time - the commander of the rear area troops. He competently and professionally organized the evacuation of white troops from the Crimea.

        Svechin Alexander Andreevich - RIA Major General.
        He was arrested in 1930 in the "National Center" case, but was released. Arrested again in February 1931 in the "Vesna" case and sentenced in July to 5 years in labor camps. However, in February 1932 he was released and returned to serve in the Red Army: first in the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff, then in the newly formed Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army in 1936. The last military rank in the Red Army is division commander.

        The last arrest followed on December 30, 1937. Sentenced by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR on July 29, 1938 on charges of participating in a counter-revolutionary organization, training terrorists.
        He was shot and buried at Kommunarka on July 29, 1938.



        Below is the same thing, everyone remembers Budyonny, but his immediate superior, the Commander of the Western Front, Yegorov, is not very much.

        On February 22, 1939, by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, consisting of Ulrich, Dmitriev and Klimin, he was sentenced to death on charges of espionage and belonging to a military conspiracy. Shot on February 23, 1939. Cremated at the New Donskoy cemetery.
        Here he has only four orders, but there were also:

        Order of St. Stanislav III degree (VP of March 10, 1907).
        Cross “The 50th Anniversary of the End of the Caucasian Wars” (EaP from August 31, 1909).
        Medal "In memory of the 100th anniversary of the Patriotic War of 1812" (August 15, 1912)
        Medal “In memory of the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanov dynasty” (February 21, 1913)
        Order of St. Anne of the III degree (VP of April 6, 1914).
        Order of St. Anne of the IV degree (VP of March 30, 1915).
        swords and bow to the Order of St. Anne of the III degree (VP from March 30, 1915).
        Order of St. Stanislav II degree with swords (VP ​​of May 30, 1915).
        Order of St. Anne of the II degree with swords (VP ​​of October 23, 1915)
        St. George's weapon - for the battle of Busk on August 13, 1914 (VP from January 24, 1917.)
        Order of St. Vladimir of the IV degree with swords and bow (VP from February 12, 1917).
      2. Captain45
        Captain45 12 August 2020 15: 37
        0
        Quote: Arzt
        Everyone remembers Budyonny, but his immediate superior, Commander of the Western Front, Yegorov, is not very much.

        Why don't they remember. In my city, where he comes from, there is still a street named after Marshal A.I. Yegorov, as well as the headquarters of the 25th Chapayev division in the city center and next to a small house where Furmanov lived, there is a memorial plaque.
    3. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 12: 30
      +3
      We sorted out the General Staff of the Red Army, let's go down below. Fronts.
      We already know the commander of the Southern Front, Yegorov.

      In addition to him, the Southern Front was commanded at various times:

      Pavel Pavlovich Sytin - Major General of RIA.



      Peter Antonovich Slaven - Colonel of the RIA.



      Vladimir Mikhailovich Gittis - Colonel of RIA.



      Vladimir Nikolaevich Egoriev - Major General of RIA.

    4. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 12: 49
      +4
      It's clear with the South, let's look to the North.
      Northern Front of the Red Army - Commanders.

      Parsky Dmitry Pavlovich - Lieutenant General of the RIA.

      Education is common for all "Red Commanders" - the Oryol Cadet Corps, the 2nd Konstantinovsky School, the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff.


      Reliable, Dmitry Nikolaevich is also a lieutenant general of the RIA.

      Education - Nizhny Novgorod Cadet, 1st Pavlovsk.
      I did not study at the Academy with Chapaev, confined myself to Nikolaevskaya.
    5. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 13: 18
      +3
      Eastern Front of the Red Army.

      In addition to the painters Vatsetis, Kamenev and Lebedev already known to us, this front was commanded by:

      Samoilo, Alexander Alexandrovich - Lieutenant General of the RIA.


      Olderogge, Vladimir Alexandrovich - Major General of the RIA.



      Do not be confused by the diamonds on the buttonholes, he is the right commander, he is ours.
      He graduated from the First Cadet Corps, the 2nd Military Konstantinovsky School, the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff.
      in RIA he graduated from the commander of the 1st Turkestan Infantry Division, Major General.

      Besides the Red Banner, he had something else.
      Order of St. Stanislaus 3rd class (1903);
      Order of St. Anne 3 degree (1906);
      Order of St. Stanislav 2rd degree (1907).
      Order of St. Anne, 2nd degree (VP 06.06.1914)
      St. George's weapon (13.10.1914)
      Order of St. Vladimir 4th degree with swords and bow (VP 26.02.1915)
      Order of St. Vladimir 3rd class with swords (VP ​​17.07.1915)
      Order of St. Stanislaus 1st class with swords (VP ​​16.01.1916)
      Order of St. Anne 1st class with swords (VP ​​07.01.1917)
      swords to the Order of St. Anne 2nd degree (7.02.1917/XNUMX/XNUMX)
      Order of the Red Banner (19.12.1919)


      Muravyov Mikhail Artemievich.



      This one already looks like the Red Commander.
      I started out as normal with the Kazan Infantry Cadet School, and even rose to the rank of captain.
      And then it started.
      Black Hundreds, cadet, terrorist Savinkova. Then the Socialist Revolutionary, an employee of the Petrograd Cheka, Then in the Ukraine he fought against former classmates. Not very successful. He threw the troops and went to Moscow to see Lenin for a reception. He offered him to steer the Kavaz Front, but the Armenians, led by Shaumyan, rebelled.
      He steered the Eastern Front, again abandoned the troops, almost muddied the Socialist-Revolutionary Volga Republic.

      In the end, comrades Lenin and Trotsky, in a joint government address, declared that “The former commander-in-chief on the Czecho-Slovak front, the Left SR Muravyov, is being declared a traitor and an enemy of the people. Every honest citizen is obliged to shoot him on the spot "

      Which was done.

      There was also Comrade Frunze. Less than a month. From July 19 to August 15, 1919 But about him later.
      1. Captain45
        Captain45 12 August 2020 15: 40
        +1
        Quote: Arzt
        There was also Comrade Frunze. Less than a month. From July 19 to August 15, 1919 But about him later.

        Thank you, namesake for such a detailed comment. Maybe you should have written an article? I have in the archive several articles about the participation of RIA generals and officers in the formation of the Red Army, but not all have photos. Thank.
      2. Sneaky Urus
        Sneaky Urus 13 August 2020 12: 29
        0
        above noted - all the successes of the Red Army only in the leadership of the officers-general staff of the former tsarist army. Among the Reds, actually "theirs" were more often engaged in "partisanship", like Chapaev or Shchors, or marauding, like Kotovsky or Budyonny. An exception, perhaps, is Frunze - a sensible nugget.
    6. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 13: 37
      +2
      Before descending to the army level, let us also mention the chiefs of staff.
      This is important, because in those rare cases when junior officers of the RIA, such as Second Lieutenant Tukhachevsky, were in the post of commanders, you need to carefully look at their chiefs of staff.

      The same Southern Front, led by Colonel RIA Yegorov. And everything is in order here.
      Egorovskie NSh.

      Zashchuk Iosif Iosifovich - Lieutenant General of the RIA.



      Pnevsky Nikolay Vyacheslavovich - Major General of RIA.



      Petin Nikolai Nikolaevich - Colonel of the RIA.

    7. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 15: 13
      +2
      Army level.
      The same famous Southern Front.
      Stalin's favorites, here he and Voroshilov were "overseers" - members of the Revolutionary Military Council. It also included the famous First Horse, headed by Budyonny.

      But the First Cavalry is not the whole front yet. The Southern Front is also:

      8th Army of the Red Army.
      Commanders: Vsevolod Vladimirovich Chernavin, Vladimir Mikhailovich Gittis, Vladimir Ivanovich Selivachev, Andrey Iosifovich Rataysky, Lyubimov, Vladimir Vissarionovich.
      These are the main ones. It is clear who they are.
      There were already others:
      Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolaevich, Khvesin Tikhon Serafimovich and even Yasha Brilliant.
      In such a case, there were chiefs of staff:
      V.V. Vdoviev-Kabardintsev, A.A. Veselago, S.A. Mezheninov, P.A.Mey, etc.
      There were no others here, here you have to think, at least read the map.

      9th Army, 10th Army, 11th Army, 12th Army, 13th Army, 14th Army everywhere and everywhere within the Southern Front, other commanders and NSH are fighting side by side with Budyonny:

      Lewandovsky Mikhail Karlovich
      Klyuev Leonid Lavrovich
      Kruse Vladimir Mikhailovich
      Zhdanov Nikolay Alexandrovich
      Pauka Ivan Khristianovich
      Buimistrov Vladimir Ivanovich
      Zayonchkovsky Andrey Medardovich.

      they forgot to tell the Soviet schoolboy about all these heroes of the Civil War.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 11 August 2020 21: 03
        +1
        "They forgot to tell the Soviet schoolchild about all these heroes of the Civil War" is not quite so. I read in 15 years: Radchenko "At the Dawn" and there Lewandovsky is positively described
    8. Doctor
      Doctor 11 August 2020 15: 18
      +3
      At the division level, everything is the same.

      Vasily Chapaev commanded the 25th division.
      One of the 20 divisions of the 5th Army of the Eastern Front of the Red Army.
      And all only 8 months from the entire period of the Civil War.
      All residents of the former USSR and not only know about him.
      And no one knows about the neighboring divisional commanders of the 24th and 26th divisions, Lieutenant Pavlovsky and Captain Eikhe, who commanded at the same time. Although Genrikh Khristoforovich will have more awards. But they are not all correct.

      Correct:

      - Order of the Red Banner No. 96
      - Certificate of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee on awarding a personalized gold watch (as the commander of the 3rd brigade of the 26th rifle division for successful actions against Kolchak in the winter of 1918 - the Ural operation)
      - a special nominal award issued by the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic as the divisional commander of the 26th Infantry Division for the successful crossing of the river. White, defeat and capture of Kolchak's army (Birsk operation, 1919)
      - Diploma from the All-Russian Central Executive Committee as Commander of the Troops of the Minsk Region (1922)
      - Order of Lenin in honor of the 50th anniversary of Soviet power (1967)

      Incorrect:

      - Order of St. Stanislav 3rd degree with swords and bow
      - Order of St. Stanislaus 2nd degree with swords
      - Order of St. Anna, 4th degree
      - Order of St. Anna, 3rd class with swords and bow
      - Order of St. Anna 2nd class with swords

      But jokes about them are not poisoned either. wink
      1. cost
        cost 11 August 2020 17: 04
        +2
        Allow me a little clarification. In 1921 G.H. Eikhe, on the instructions of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee, was sent by the commander of the troops to Belarus to lead the struggle to eliminate sabotage bands and White partisan detachments. The task was completed by the spring of 1922. For the successful implementation of the assigned tasks, he was awarded a Diploma of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
        1. cost
          cost 11 August 2020 17: 07
          +2

          And also about G.Kh. Eihe
          In May 1938, he was arrested and convicted by the OSO NKVD on false charges of participation in a Latvian counter-revolutionary organization and as a cousin of a former member of the Central Committee R. I. Eikhe (posthumously rehabilitated in the 1950s). After the verdict, he was first imprisoned in the NKVD prison in Lefortovo in Moscow, where he was beaten and tortured during interrogations; during one of the interrogations, the investigator punctured his temple, which led to partial hearing loss. Then he served time in the camps, where from exhaustion he fell ill with scurvy and "camp disease" - pellagra. I was able to survive only thanks to the packages from my daughter. After his release from the camps, he was in exile in the Far North. In particular, in 1948-1949 he worked as an accountant at the Kamenka state farm, not far from Pechora. Maria Alexandrovna Eikhe was also arrested as "the wife of an enemy of the people" and imprisoned in Butyrka prison. After being released from prison, she voluntarily followed her husband in exile. And the daughter of Nelly Genrikhovna Eikhe was expelled from the Komsomol and expelled from the institute, as she did not agree to "defame and publicly renounce her parents."
          Rehabilitated after 16 years. In April 1954, the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court overturned the CCO ruling and dropped the case for lack of corpus delicti.
          After returning to Moscow after his release, he actively worked as a writer and military historian, devoted a lot of time and effort to reviewing military history literature, being a member of the Council of the Military Scientific Society at the Central Museum of the Soviet Army.
          “Who does not know the categorical imperative of Kant:“ Every person must act so that his actions can be declared a law for the actions of all others. ”This was one of my mottos throughout my life.“ Never seem more than you are, but be always more than you seem ", - this dictum (if I'm not mistaken, Bismarck) I also did not forget." They got a bad share ... "- said in Lermontov. I would clarify: difficult, difficult, cruel and at the same time enviable and rich. "- G. H. Eikhe, "Diary"
  11. Astra wild
    Astra wild 11 August 2020 20: 28
    +3
    Quote: tihonmarine
    Quote: Joker62
    Although he was a count, a nobleman, but in his soul he was a real patriot of his homeland.

    He and his brother were also Russian intelligence residents in Paris.

    They are NEVER intelligence residents. Alexei Ignatiev was a military attaché in France and told the leadership that he would not be engaged in intelligence in France. His younger brother was with Wrangel and could not be an intelligence resident. This was on the site.
    1. cost
      cost 11 August 2020 21: 31
      +1
      I wanted to refute tihonmarinebut you dear Astra wild they got ahead of me. For your comprehensive commentary, you are definitely a plus.
      Best regards
      Dmitriy
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 12 August 2020 11: 55
        +3
        + did not see. I'm begging. Seriously though, I'm glad I answered correctly. I'm not a historian, but on the top: I heard somewhere, read or thought of it myself
        1. cost
          cost 12 August 2020 12: 06
          +1
          + did not see. I'm begging.

          Vera hi ... If you move the mouse over the rating of your comment, you will see all the ratings assigned to you. Plus mine.
          Good luck
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 12 August 2020 16: 01
            +1
            Thank you
            1. cost
              cost 12 August 2020 16: 11
              0
              Oh my God! For what?
              You wrote a wonderful comment, and I just expressed his approval
  12. swan49
    swan49 12 August 2020 13: 03
    +1
    Something tells me that Soviet military education began in the spring, and not in the fall of 1918. My great-uncle, formerly. Staff Captain, Commander of the 1st Sapper Company of the 3rd Engineering Regiment, Vladimir Ivanovich Lebedev, already in April 1918 was one of the first three company instructors of the 1st Petrograd Soviet Engineering Courses (formerly Nikolayevskoe Engineering School). From October 1918 he became a student of the Engineering Academy, from which he graduated in November 1921. His brother Peter, also a former. captain, in the fall of 1918 he graduated from the Academy of Engineering, to study in which he was recalled from the front in the fall of 1917 as a student there before the start of the First World War. After graduation, he served in a number of district directorates, from April 1922 - Chief of Engineers in the Petrograd Military District. From 1924 to his death in 1953 - at the Military Engineering Academy of the Red Army, in 1938 - a brigade engineer, from 1943 - Major General of the Engineering Troops.
  13. azkolt
    azkolt 23 August 2020 18: 41
    0
    About these nuggets, Slashchev, who taught tactics in the courses "Shot", said that you fought the same way as you shoot "after one of these nuggets missed by shooting at him. Something objective about civil society and it will be interesting how these "nuggets" (and among them, of course, there were talented people, it's just that not all of them are heard by our "patriots", for example Sorokin) Denikin drove almost with pissy slippers across the North Caucasus having a ratio of 12 thousand for him and 100 thousand for the Reds!))))) And always such a ratio.So 1 Kutepov's corps smashes the Reds to smithereens in the Donbass having a ratio of 1: 6, of course not in his favor. whites held out for 3 years fighting these talents, if there were more than 10 times less of them, I mean the ratio for the fall of 19. In general, these traditions of throwing hats backfired on us in 41!
    1. Azamat Ramazanov
      Azamat Ramazanov 30 October 2020 05: 54
      0
      Your boobies whites held out for three years thanks to the interventionists
  14. azkolt
    azkolt 11 October 2020 15: 12
    0
    The author is evidently a great connoisseur of civil history, once he named these three, about which at that time either was not heard at all, as about Zhukov, or they were one of many. But why he did not give the names of Avtonomov, Sorokin, Dumenko, Mironov, which at that time, as they say, thundered, one can only guess!)))
  15. Azamat Ramazanov
    Azamat Ramazanov 30 October 2020 05: 53
    0
    Frunze, who had no military education at all, hit the tails in the mane of the tsarist generals, Kolchak Wrangel Denikin and the Basmachs got
    1. azkolt
      azkolt 30 October 2020 15: 25
      -1
      The vaunted Frunze during all operations had several times superiority in manpower and then repeatedly got in the teeth from those Kolchak and Wrangel (they did not particularly encounter Denikin) and from the same unarmed Basmachi. Although we must pay tribute to him, he was the most talented among the red commanders. For this, Stalin put him on the operating table (he was not the only one, of course, there was a triumvirate there), why does the country need future Bonapartes.