Military Review

Thunderstorm of the twelfth year. Shotguns

133

Fragment of the panorama "Battle of Borodino" F. Roubaud. Skirmish of Russian grenadiers with Friant's division


Thunderstorm twelve
Arrived - who helped us here?
Frenzy of the people
Barclay, winter or Russian god?
A. S. Pushkin. Eugene Onegin

Attention of all, I ask, gentlemen.
Trouble has come to the Motherland.
A war thunderstorm covered our sky.
On the twelfth day the Neman was crossed
Suddenly Bonaparte's troops ...
Hussar ballad. 1962 g.


Weapon 1812 year. What could be more formidable than a man-made weapon? Well, except that the phenomena of nature. But at the beginning of the 1812th century, man was not yet strong enough to release a force comparable to the forces of nature by pressing one or more multi-colored buttons. But even primitive rifles and bayonets, cannons and cannonballs, sabers and broadswords of that time brought death to people very effectively. For example, in the Paris Army Museum there is a metal cuirassier of a French cuirassier, on the left side of which there is a gaping hole with ragged edges, the size of a fist, made by a cannonball. And one can imagine what was the fate of this rider after that. Sometimes a rifle bullet (the size of a walnut) was quite enough to pierce it in the same way. And now, having read about this in one of the previous materials, some readers of "VO" asked me to tell in more detail about the weapons of 1812, both ours and our opponents. And now our story will go about him, accompanied by drawings by our famous illustrator A. Sheps. As for the illustrations with samples of the uniform of the Russian army in 1911, they belong to a series of drawings by N.V. Zaretsky, prepared by him in 1812 for the anniversary of the Patriotic War of XNUMX, on the basis of which a series of popular postcards was issued.

Thunderstorm of the twelfth year. Shotguns

Grenadier l-guards. Preobrazhensky and the musketeer of the Sevsky infantry regiments. Artist N.V. Zaretsky. 1876-1959. Russian army in 1812. SPb., 1912

The main force of the Russian imperial army, however, and not only the Russian one, in the Patriotic War of 1812 was the infantry, the number of which was almost two-thirds of its personnel. The infantry regiment numbered 2201 privates and officers, 1800 of whom had an infantry rifle as their main weapon. Why is it important to emphasize? Simply because at that time there was a rather strange practice: each branch of the army has its own, different from all other guns. But at the same time, it was the infantry rifle with a bayonet that was the main weapon in the army. It weighed more than five kilograms, but it was very durable. So, in 1808, the commander of the Libau musketeer regiment reported that his regiment used rifles as early as 1700, that is, peers of Peter the Great and the Battle of Poltava. This happened because weapons were made in that era with a very large margin of safety, they were fired from these guns quite rarely, and they were looked after with great care. So it turned out that they served for a century and more! Among the infantry rifles there were many captured samples. For example, French, purchased by Russia in England, as well as Austrian, Prussian, Dutch, and also Swedish. But it was good that they practically did not differ from each other by their device. They all had a French battery lock, but differed only in small details.

The other was bad: all these weapons had barrels with different bore diameters, so that in the Russian army in 1808-1809 there were simultaneously weapons of 28 different calibers, from 13,7 to 22 mm. Centrally supplying them with ammunition was extremely difficult. But a solution was found: the soldiers themselves cast the bullets (for this, special bullets were supplied to the regiments), and paper cartridges were glued - for this, cartridge holders were also needed, so the main thing the quartermasters had to take care of was gunpowder.

In 1805, a truly revolutionary decision was finally made: to establish in the army a single caliber for both rifles and pistols, equal to 7 lines, or 17,78 mm, and at once solve the supply problem. New guns from the same year began to be supplied to the army, although old samples were also used. However, by the standards of our days, this caliber was very large, surpassing the anti-tank guns of the period of the Great Patriotic War. The bullet looked like a ball cast from lead and weighed 27,7 g, and the charge of gunpowder for an infantry rifle was 8,6 g.


This is what this gun looked like ...

However, deciding is one thing, but organizing the production of new weapons is quite another, and it is even more difficult to saturate your army with these weapons. The equipment of the then Russian arms factories was extremely primitive, there were practically no machines at all, all the work was done either by hand, or, at best, by the force of ... falling water! In the dry season, such a drive, of course, did not work! And on the eve of the war with Napoleon in 1805, he again had to turn to England and buy 60 thousand guns there. Defeat at Austerlitz? Orders again, because a lot of weapons were lost. It would be a sin to speak, but the Tula Arms Factory tried. I tried very hard, before I produced no more than 40 thousand guns a year, but in the same 1808 I was able to increase their output by half! And before the war of 1812, the production of guns and pistols on it was brought to 100 thousand units per year. But as the army lacked small arms, it continued to be in short supply. And again, 24 thousand guns were imported from Austria and another 30 thousand, the very next year, from England. And in total, England supplied Russia in those years more than 100 thousand guns of English production, that is, almost the same as our Tula arms factory produced in the same year! These are the needs of the army for guns and how they were met in those years.


Special gun for dragoons

And now let's add a few more words about one very interesting feature that distinguished the armament of the army of that time from the army of today. Now everyone is striving for the unification of weapons of different types of troops, but at that time it was considered simply necessary for each type of troops to have their own completely special and different weapons. So, in addition to the infantry rifle, there was a dragoon rifle, less weight and length, which had the same caliber, but a smaller charge of gunpowder in the cartridge. A cuirassier rifle - like a dragoon's, but only without a bayonet, and on the left side it had a metal shoulder strap (rod) with a belt ring on its stock, since cuirassiers carried guns on the right at the belt. There was also a special hussar gun - even lighter, shorter and, accordingly, designed for a smaller powder charge.


English gun supplied to Russia


Austrian rifle

The guns were arranged simply. The barrel is iron, smooth inside, cone-shaped outside. The tail part of the trunk is faceted and had five edges. On the thread, a breech was screwed into it, which fastened the barrel to the stock with a screw. And he also greatly facilitated the care of the gun barrel, since by unscrewing it, it was easy to clean the channel on both sides. A hole was drilled on the right side face of the barrel, through which from the shelf of the castle the flame from the blazing gunpowder fell into the barrel and set fire to the powder charge. It is clear that the gun would not be a gun if it did not have a lock, in this case a flintlock. The standard lock consisted of 13 parts. It was arranged in such a way that, when released, the trigger with a flint clamped in it would strike a sheaf of sparks that set fire to gunpowder on the shelf. Both the trunk and the lock were fastened in a birch-tree stock, which was one piece with the butt. On the left side, the butt had a recess for the shooter's cheek - so that he did not touch the butt with it and could not receive a blow during recoil. Small parts, which served to fasten the barrel to the stock and protect it from damage ("box device"), were made of yellow copper.


French army. Line infantry, light infantry. 1805-1807 Illustration by Louis de Beaufort. From left to right: Fusilier * on the march, 1805 (line infantry); fusiler on the march, 1805 (line infantry); grenadier on the march, 1805 (line infantry); drummer shooter, 1805 (line infantry); cornetist-voltiger, 1805 (light infantry); carabinieri on the march, 1805 (light infantry); Chasseur ** on the big march, 1805 (light infantry); Vaulter *** on the march, 1806 (light infantry); Voltiger, 1806-1807 (line infantry); grenadier, 1806-1807 (line infantry); Voltiger, 1806 (line infantry).
* Fusilier (fr.) - shooter.
** Chasseur (fr.) - huntsman.
*** Voltigeur (French) - infantryman-shooter

The barrel and the stock covered three false rings, while the front sight was soldered to the uppermost ring (or the front one), and not to the barrel. The bayonet was necessary for hand-to-hand combat, was three-edged in shape, piercing and had a mass of 320 g. A leather strap passed through the swivels (arcuate devices in front of the trigger guard and on the middle stock ring) was required to carry the gun. To load flintlock weapons, a ramrod was required. At one end, on the ramrod of a Russian infantry rifle, there was a head for adjusting the bullet to the charge; on the other one could screw a pyzhovnik, something like a corkscrew, with which a bullet was removed from the barrel in case of a misfire.


French infantry rifle, on the basis of which all other examples of flintlocks of the XNUMXth century were created

It was noted that the guns of the Tula plant were somewhat inferior in quality to the English guns, but they were no worse than the Austrian and French guns, which was proved in comparative tests of domestic, French and English guns back in 1808. Then this was confirmed during the battles of the Patriotic War of 1812.


Fuzeler of the 3rd Marine Regiment. Winter form. Guards Crew Sailor. Winter form. Artist N.V. Zaretsky. 1876-1959. Russian army in 1812. SPb., 1912

Why it was so, however, is understandable. The latest French gun at the time, AN-IX (the last two digits are the date of adoption according to the revolutionary calendar adopted in France) of the 1801 model practically did not differ from the 1777 gun, and the Austrian gun of 1807 - from the 1798 model. The British used the "Brown Bess" flintlock musket, which had a caliber of 0,75 inches (19,05 mm) from 1720 to 1840, and this model also remained practically unchanged over the entire period.


Infantry rifle - the main weapon of the Napoleonic army


The common fashion to have different guns has not spared the French either. Dragoon rifle ...


And this is hussar!

With the unification of weapons in France, things were also not the best way. There, along with the "relatives" were used Austrian, Russian (!), English, Dutch and God knows what other guns. Napoleon's Great Army required a lot of firearms, but where could they get them? The production capacity of the French arsenals was much inferior to the production capacity of British enterprises, moreover, they were already equipped with new steam-driven machines.


French rifled carbines

The rifles of the infantry rangers, who operated in loose formation and at the same time could shoot quickly and also accurately, were different from the infantry. They were lighter and shorter, which made them easier to handle, and therefore the rate of fire of their guns was higher than that of the line infantry guns. Although they were also more expensive, primarily due to a better finish on the barrel. Rangers had to load them not only while standing, but also lying down (they were allowed to apply to the terrain!), Since the barrel length of their guns was shorter. By the way, this also helped rapid-fire: the powder charge in such a barrel could be quickly promoted to the treasury, and, therefore, a new shot could be fired.


Russian Jaeger Fitting

However, the main means of enhancing the firepower of the rangers were rifled fittings, which were used to arm non-commissioned officers and the most well-aimed shooters. In the Russian imperial army, these were fittings of the 1805 model, which had a caliber of 16,51 mm and eight rifling in the barrel. The regiment had only 120 of these guns. But the range of the shot was more than a thousand steps, and their accuracy was much higher than that of smooth-bore rifles. The fittings also had the first, special sighting devices in the form of two shields with slots. With their help, the front sight was sighted, combined with the target. A wooden mallet was also relied on the fittings - to hammer a bullet into the barrel. So they reluctantly "hit rarely, but aptly." However, the jaegers also had to go into bayonet attacks, therefore, bayonets in the form of ... a dagger weighing 710 g were attached to their fittings. So, together with the bayonet, the total mass of the jaeger fitting was quite large - 4,99 kg. The cavalry fitting of 1803 was very short and did not receive much distribution. The infantry did not have a bayonet to him, and the cavalrymen had no time to tinker with the tight drive of the bullet into the barrel.


Carabinieri of the Life Guards Jaeger Regiment. Winter form. Jaeger of the 14th Jaeger Regiment. Summer form. Artist N.V. Zaretsky. 1876-1959. Russian army in 1812. SPb., 1912

In the wars with Napoleon, including the war of 1812, the Russian cavalry, divided into regular and irregular, also played an important role. The regular cavalry consisted of guards, cuirassiers, dragoons, hussars and lancers regiments. Well, the irregular is, of course, the Cossacks, of whom there were even more in the army than all the other cavalrymen: over 100 horsemen!


Hussar gun

Cavalry firearms, in principle, did not differ from infantry ones, but they had some features that were associated with their use by riders, and besides, they were somewhat more diverse. For example, both heavy and light cavalry had rifles, carbines, blunderbuss (they were not used at all in the infantry!), Fittings and pistols.


A cavalry choke with a bracket and a ring and an unusual trombolone pistol with a flat mouth like the barrel of the "Shuvalov secret howitzer" - there were such cavalrymen in 1812! Penza Museum of Local Lore

Cuirassiers and dragoons had shotguns of the 1809 model and two pistols of the same year in saddle holsters. Sixteen people in each squadron had fittings that were very similar to the jaeger, but even shorter. A similar number of fittings were in the Uhlan regiments. The soldier with fittings was called carabinieri. At the same time, in the hussar regiments, instead of fittings, a hussar carbine of the 1809 model and the most ominous type of blunderbuss were adopted: a short gun with a bell at the end of the barrel, firing a large buckshot at a close distance. By the way, it was the hussar small arms that were then the shortest of all the other models. The barrel of the carbine was only 637,5 mm long, while the length of the infantry rifle was 1141 mm, and that of the dragoon rifle was 928 mm. The blunderbuss barrel was even shorter - only 447 mm. Lancers and hussars also had two holsters with pistols, left and right at the saddle. But we will talk about pistols of 1812, as well as about melee weapons next time.

To be continued ...
Author:
133 comments
Ad

The editorial board of Voenniy Obozreniye urgently needs a proofreader. Requirements: impeccable knowledge of the Russian language, diligence, discipline. Contact: [email protected]

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Snail N9
    Snail N9 12 August 2020 18: 35 New
    16
    All this is interesting, but ... descriptions of guns of that era are full in different sources. But what is not there is descriptions-comparisons of their penetrating ability and how effective they really were in battle, that is, with what accuracy they shot at different distances, with what speed they really charged (until the mouth was hammered with a "biting the cartridge", flint will not dull, the barrel will not get clogged with powder carbon deposits, etc.), workmanship and maintainability (for example, how long the lock spring has worked). Greener has some description of the penetrating action of weapons of that era (the book "Shotgun", etc.), but about everything else ... Amerikosy have several interesting series on the topic of weapons, in particular, "The Invincible Warrior", "Gun Ranch" and others, where they are tested, compare the effectiveness of both weapons and combat techniques of soldiers of different times ... Unfortunately, such series are very rare guests on our TV screens, the airtime of which, in programs devoted to military history, has recently been littered with all sorts of pseudo-patriotic "lubkovy" tinsel, absolutely uninteresting and having no cognitive value ...
    1. CTABEP
      CTABEP 12 August 2020 19: 06 New
      -1
      Well, the 21st century is in the yard, all series of "The Invincible Warrior" and "Armory Ranch" can be downloaded on the Internet, and with good Russian dubbing.
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 12 August 2020 21: 05 New
        +6
        Unfortunately, many people simply do not even suspect the existence of these and similar Western TV series and have to be content with "Weapon of Victory", "Polygon", "Civilian Weapons", etc. where information is heavily dosed, customized and censored.
    2. kalibr
      12 August 2020 20: 44 New
      15
      Quote: Snail N9
      The Americans have several interesting series on the topic of weapons, in particular, "Invincible Warrior", "Armory Ranch" and others, where the effectiveness of both weapons and combat techniques of warriors of different times is tested and compared ..

      What are you speaking about? I have a collector I know who was hardly raked by a flintlock pistol, and you are "tested, compared ..." Even if I arrange such a transfer, they will take it straight from the shooting! There was already a precedent in 1995. I hosted the "Weapon of Victory" program cycle on our Penza TV. Straight from the museum ... Well, there were bottles with "combustible mixture". Well, I showed in detail how it all worked ... test tubes, graters. And the book "Weapon of Victory", where it was written. So one woman immediately called the FSB ... "Terrorism propaganda." Then they laughed at this. And I don't know how it will be now ... Especially if it comes to shots!
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 12 August 2020 22: 23 New
        10
        Quote: kalibr
        I hosted the "Weapon of Victory" program cycle on our Penza TV. Straight from the museum ... Well, there were bottles with "combustible mixture". Well, I showed in detail how it all worked ... test tubes, graters. And the book "Weapon of Victory", where it was written. So one woman immediately called the FSB ...

        Vigilant means a woman - and sleeps, so, with a nominal Nagan strapped to an openwork shoulder strap. laughing It's good that this ... comrade didn't make it to our-my basement. For the disclosure of such a raspberry, an order would shine to her loved one. The point is what? It was back in the days of the KGB, although a year later Dzerzhinsky was defeated. This is my generation, who then drank dashing on the outskirts of the Empire.
        What's the point? A repeat offender and just an inveterate alcoholic named "Kirpich" organized in the basement from one of the local / adjacent to his native school /, ts Club ... sections on interests. The pass was either an authority or a bottle of "Agdam".
        Classes were conducted in two directions.
        In the first underground fortification, thirsty neophytes put a sharpening machine in a corner / honestly, stolen from a local school / and sharpened Finnish from files there under the supervision of a vigilant OTK worker. He was also a fencing teacher for youngsters.
        But, that's okay. So maybe their rasps were scuffling, but in the second hall of the basement there was a constant battle and, on the way, the tenants of the 1st adjoining floors and knocked on our Grandmaster for noises and in general.
        The fact is that there Brick taught the fry to small-scale combat ... Cross-fire, ignition, capsule .... please joke, but his products pierced 3 sheets from desks.
        Such was the informal popularizer of the shooting business. He sat down later and did not return. And the boys who were spinning in his "order of riflemen" in the nineties were sent their way. Who was eaten by the war and became a military man, someone is now in the prosecutor's office, in the OMON, a merchant or just a scientist. An official or a loader, the point is not that from Brick we received the People's Commissar's norm of adrenaline. I will not say anything bad about the school shooting club, where they were allowed to plant more cartridges from TOZochka, if it turns out, but in NVP lessons a bayonet - the dagger was launched in the classroom, so that 15 seconds. was getting acquainted .. And with maestro Kirpich everything was simpler --- I sharpened a knife, let me tell you the story of how the fornication steppe pricked. Romance and childhood.))) I apologize that my story does not apply to the gun of the past centuries, but now it flooded, call, brothers .... !!!
    3. Kunyli
      Kunyli 12 August 2020 22: 23 New
      +4
      Seriously? Someone is watching decisions like an invincible warrior of other nonsense? Apparently people do not have enough brains to google adequate sources written by contemporaries.
      We open Gogel's manuscript. At a distance of 400 steps (280 meters), guns pierced wooden shields 1 inch thick, often bullets pierced two such shields at once, placed one behind the other. At a distance of about 100 meters, rifle bullets pierced 4 iron cuirasses placed one after the other or 2 steel cuirasses one after another. Ordinary soldiers could fire their rifles 2-3 times per minute, with careful aiming. At a distance of 100 steps, the probability of hitting a shield imitating an infantry company (6 by 100 feet) was 70%, at a distance of 200 steps 50%, at a distance of 300 steps 30%, at a distance of 400 steps 20%. Most army regulations recommend shooting at 300 paces as the most effective distance.
      Often, at close range, they used shooting with two bullets or buckshot to increase firepower.
      A source:
      http://en.bookfi.net/book/771030
    4. svp67
      svp67 13 August 2020 05: 39 New
      +2
      Quote: Snail N9
      ... But what is not there is descriptions-comparisons of their penetrating ability
      Bullets of large caliber, BOLT-FREE, they have more stopping action than penetrating. And what were they supposed to break through on the battlefield? A piece of cloth and sternum bone? Well, I think that the blow of such a bullet is easy to compare with the blow of a sledgehammer ... it will not seem a little. Even a cuirass will save little.
      Quote: Snail N9
      ... But what is not there is description-comparison ... with what accuracy they shot at different distances,
      Then only the huntsmen fired single-handedly, but they had fittings on them, and the infantry fired in subunits, no less than a plutong (platoon), and volleys.
      Quote: Snail N9
      ... But what is not there is descriptions ... the barrel will not get clogged with powder soot, etc.), workmanship, maintainability (for example, how long the lock spring worked).
      Yes, at least the quality of the powder would be compared. It affects the accuracy, range, and duration of fire.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. TooL
        TooL 22 August 2020 23: 16 New
        0
        Silly little girl, have you ever heard of armor and field fortification ...?
  2. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 12 August 2020 18: 35 New
    +6
    there is a book Russian army and navy in the 19th century where everything is very well painted, with production tables published in Soviet times
    1. kalibr
      12 August 2020 20: 38 New
      +4
      Bloodless Lyubomir Grigorievich "The Russian Army and Navy in the XNUMXth Century". But there are just no details about the life of the springs and other subtleties. Everything is given in general!
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 12 August 2020 18: 35 New
    11
    were made of yellow copper.
    I will correct. Yellow copper is brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, in a ratio of approximately 1/1.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 12 August 2020 18: 57 New
      10
      Hello Anton! drinks
      ... the proportion is approximately 1/1.

      - Abgam, what are you doing?
      - I make hazel grouse pate.
      - Whore, this is already very expensive!
      - I'm mixing ...
      - Whom with what?
      - Grouse with horse meat.
      - What proportion?
      - Proportion, approximately 1/1. smile
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 20 New
        +5
        Uncle Kostya! You "limp" in the accent!
        In addition, you have met ordinary Soviet Jews on your life path?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 28 New
          +4
          I assure you, none of them speaks Odessa "surzhik", the beginning of the zero years of the twentieth century. An example of this is our common friend Krasnodar.
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 12 August 2020 19: 39 New
          +4
          I was in Odessa for a very short time, and our Moscow guys were playing in Russian without an accent and no worse than you and me.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 44 New
            +3
            Here I am about the same ....
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 12 August 2020 19: 22 New
        +4
        It's a pity he didn't take the quail ... good
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 31 New
          +8
          Such horse meat sausage is all one better!
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 12 August 2020 19: 42 New
          +3
          Yes, he did drink a little under the pate ... laughing drinks
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 13: 24 New
            +3
            Yes, he did drink a little under the pate ...

            Once Uncle Kostya got tired of quails, and he went to hunt ducks on his personal pond ... wink

            Uncle Kostya! You "limp" in the accent!

            Albert will come and correct the spelling for a small fraction of shekels! drinks
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 13 August 2020 13: 38 New
              +4
              No, we are here in general on other matters, but our cat got a job with fishermen. laughing
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 14: 02 New
                +2
                No, we're here for other things at all

                I don't even ask which ones, because I already know. wink The main thing is that your wife does not burn you, a happy Cat, in a sheet, and with three cheerful young odalisques. good drinks
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 13 August 2020 14: 25 New
                  +3
                  Kolya, odalisques are already your pathology. Drink some vodka, ring Anton and pour out your soul. laughing
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 15: 01 New
                    +3
                    Drink some vodka, ring Anton and pour out your soul.

                    about my white envy of you?wink
                    I envy deeply, Painfully envy! (Salieri).
                    Joke. Uncle Kostya, I'm glad you exist. drinks Live well, and we will not offend you with friendly jokes!
                    By the way, to such a "psychologist" as you put it, I would cry ... on a strong chest ... drinks
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 13 August 2020 15: 34 New
                      +3
                      We have a friend psychologist with a stunning bust, unfortunately I can't give a photo, but ... impressive. )))
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 15: 38 New
                        +2
                        We have a friend psychologist with a stunning bust, unfortunately I can't give a photo, but ... impressive. )))

                        If you advertise for her on social media, she owes you. laughing
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 13 August 2020 15: 40 New
                        +2
                        Yes, she already lives well.
                      3. hohol95
                        hohol95 13 August 2020 18: 33 New
                        +2
                        What are the fees for help?
                        And then I need a passion psychological support ... wassat
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 13 August 2020 21: 33 New
                        +1
                        Lyosha, fu, She's a decent woman and married. Not looking for adventures.
                      5. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 14 August 2020 09: 50 New
                        +2
                        Lyosha, fu, She's a decent woman and married. Not looking for adventures.

                        Alexey can offer her the services of a competent engineer! good Nothing phew! stop
              2. ydjin
                ydjin 21 August 2020 15: 31 New
                +2

                Catfish
                13 August 2020 15: 34

                +3
                We have a friend psychologist with a stunning bust, unfortunately I can't give a photo, but ... impressive. )))

                Apparently inspiring? I apologize for intruding on your dialogue. But if a Woman inspires, then this is a worthy woman and one must love and respect her even if she is after her husband. Respect her and her husband and their family and even do feats in her honor. Once again, I apologize for my inappropriate comments. But this is still a public site.
              3. Catfish
                Catfish 22 August 2020 02: 05 New
                +1
                No need to apologize, Eugene. hi You spoke extremely correctly and I fully agree with you. drinks
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 13 August 2020 05: 47 New
    +2
    Quote: hohol95
    It's a pity he didn't take the quail ... good

    How did you not take it? I took it - I didn't even have time to grunt! And even sold in a 1 to 1 ratio with beef!
  • hohol95
    hohol95 12 August 2020 20: 03 New
    +7
    The battery chef Makedon Ivanovich, whom the soldiers called Zakidon Ivanich for addiction to culinary experiences incomprehensible to the Russian stomach, this time prepared kulesh, a simple dish of millet cereal with meat. True, it was not without a small kooky: the meat was put in a cauldron from a horse that had been picked up on the battlefield.
    - Hey, Zakidon Ivanovitch! - shouted the battery sergeant Polokhaylo, learning about horsemeat. - Are we Tatars or something ?!
    “They didn’t deliver the beef, Mr. sergeant-major!” - the cook reported.
    - So we stand in the village! I’d go and requisition half a cow in favor of the defenders of the Orthodox faith!
    Makedon Ivanovitch answered, rubbing his mustache after a test of horsemeat broth:
    - Requisition of the population of his nobility is strictly forbidden.
    - Sin to him in the belly! - cursed the sergeant major Polokhaylo. - Everyone requisition, and we starve here by his grace. However, we have, at worst, American canned goods available from beef. I would put them!
    “We haven't seen a bad end yet, Mr. Feldwebel,” objected Makedon Ivanovich. - And on canned food, Mr. Second Lieutenant has imposed a strict ban on the inviolability of the stock. Yes, you try some horse meat, do not disdain. I boiled it with gunpowder so that it tasted like a foreign animal lobster.
    Feldfebel Polokhaylo did not disdain, tasted.
    “Nothing, Zakidon Ivanovitch,” he praised the brew. - Great looks like a spiny lobster. Without notice, you can’t tell!

    Alexey Kirnosov Not a day without a victory! The story of Marshal Govorov
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 12 August 2020 20: 40 New
      +9
      With regard to beef.
      Once in our regiment during the TST on the Fire Town, a crazed cow jumped out to the headmistress. According to the rules, all three crews were required to cease fire, report back and discharge their weapons. Wherever there, at that time I was on the tower and saw how all three tanks gave in to the gas, and the extreme left went faster than the others, because the cow was on the right. Machine guns crackled at the same time, but we had old T-54s without stabilizers and there was no noticeable sense of this firing. Then one of the cars abruptly stood up and hit a shot from the cannon, then added a second - this was enough for the poor cow's eyes. They fired from 23mm insert barrels. - both hit. What was left of the cow was taken to the kitchen, and the financial unit was shared with the owner. The battalion commander summed it up like this: "Well, at least they didn't miss ..." There were no penalties, they ate the cow. smile soldier
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 12 August 2020 21: 36 New
        +3
        With regard to beef.
        VikNik also has a similar story. I have even more fun, but not "kosher", with piglets. laughing
      2. kyznets
        kyznets 13 August 2020 04: 37 New
        +5
        During the shooting in the 80s at the polygon of the Almaty border school, PK machine guns were fired. Heat. August. Middle of a day. Everyone hid in the shadows. And then a hare jumped out. The people rushed to the machine guns. One of the trenches from the machine, the second on the tank, on the tower, at the border cadets. So the two of them managed to catch up with the hare from both sides. Who got it did not understand. Only there was nothing to collect from the hare. There, the steppe hares already have almost no meat, only tendons, ears and long legs. But the gophers are pretty much nothing. Unless, of course, from a machine gun.
      3. Essex62
        Essex62 13 August 2020 07: 43 New
        +4
        With the owner "shielded" already 100mm, without an insert? Although you mean the financial unit, where did they get their ammunition. The Soviet Army was called upon to defend citizens, and you fell the cows ... We have comrade officers at night with rabbits from the batar, turning on the searchlight, from the Kalash. Got scythe under the light impact and froze. The queue and only the ears are left ..
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 13 August 2020 13: 08 New
          +2
          I know about rabbits: I hit the headlights, it won't jump out, and it will scratch in front until it hits the bullet in the ass. But one night they hunted roe deer and drove to the hills in a battalion commander's BTR-50, headed by deputy chief engineer Genrikh Rytov. They fired on the move from the SGM and hit only one, I had to finish off from a distance from the AKMS, the goat did not let me in, but they returned with meat. smile
          1. Essex62
            Essex62 13 August 2020 18: 18 New
            +1
            Well, on the subject of what to devour a Russian warrior is always active and savvy. But when the hats begin to portray hunters, it turns out to be bawdy. Due to such grief of shooters, they came in large numbers with an inspection from the capitals, I had to take off on a pine tree from a wounded cleaver. I don't remember how I jumped out of my boots with skis. But the SKS neatly hung it on the lower twig. Out of fright, I did not even think to shmalnu. KSIBVO winter 1983.
      4. hohol95
        hohol95 13 August 2020 18: 24 New
        +1
        The main thing is paid for the cow ...
        The Koreans fed my father with dog meat sandwiches in the army.
        Says one of the officers tried to make a fuss over the killing of a couple of puppies.
        But the puppies were nobody's, well-fed by Koreans.
        They just asked - Was it tasty? And we got the answer - Very!
    2. ydjin
      ydjin 21 August 2020 15: 36 New
      +1
      That's right, eat what they give, and she's canned food as a last resort.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 23 August 2020 23: 11 New
        0
        I read that those who survived the crossing of the Dnieper in August 1943, and then those who defended the captured bridgeheads, ate practically only fish. The German fired at the bridgeheads along and across, along with the crossings. Naturally "jammed the fish". This fish was collected and boiled. Without salt. She was not there.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 12 August 2020 20: 09 New
    +6
    I will correct. Yellow copper is brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, in a ratio of approximately 1/1.
    And I will correct. If 1 to 1, then this is a two-phase brass, which is very poorly processed in cold conditions, it is low plastic. For device parts, logically, single-phase brass with a zinc content of no more than 35% is better.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 12 August 2020 20: 49 New
      +4
      Well, so I'm not a metallurgist, but a builder !!! laughing
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 13: 27 New
        +4
        Well, so I'm not a metallurgist, but a builder !!!

        uh-huh, an intellectual who pretends to be a minstrel-miserable laughing drinks but on marble you then coolly enlightened me! Honestly - I didn't know, I didn't know! drinks
  • polpot
    polpot 12 August 2020 18: 36 New
    +2
    Thank you very much, as always.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 12 August 2020 19: 01 New
    +7
    The latest French gun AN-IX at that time (the last two digits are the date of adoption according to the revolutionary calendar adopted in France) of the 1801 model practically did not differ from the 1777 gun
    And this was the fusil Charleville Modèle 1777. And the sample, which underwent minor modernization in 1801, was called Modèle 1777 corrigé en l'an IX.
    As for the designation AN-IX, it was not applied to the gun, so it was designated Pistolet modèle An IX (cavalry pistol of the 9th year model).
  • CTABEP
    CTABEP 12 August 2020 19: 07 New
    +6
    An interesting, but rare topic on VO, and with illustrations - the mood right before going to bed after such reading :)!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 14 New
    +5
    Penza Museum of Local Lore
    Here, honestly, Vyacheslav Olegovich! For your sake, we could have done our best, remove the display glass!
    1. kalibr
      12 August 2020 20: 33 New
      +5
      Oh, Anton! If only ... I'll go there tomorrow to ask for something similar for another article. And I don’t know what will turn out. Otherwise, as it happens: there is no fund manager, or a wrench ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 12 August 2020 20: 43 New
        +3
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, the right word, a couple of sincere phrases ..., and even "storerooms" are opening !!!
        I do not believe that you have no such experience!
        1. kalibr
          12 August 2020 21: 39 New
          +3
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          I do not believe that you have no such experience!

          There is experience, it does not always work! And then ... storage rooms are one thing. Showcase is different!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 August 2020 22: 24 New
            +2
            To each his own. They open windows for me more often ...
            1. kalibr
              13 August 2020 06: 49 New
              +2
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              To each his own. They open windows for me more often ...

              You are lucky!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 40 New
    +8
    The first sane article on the resource for the last two days !!! Chesslovo, I will go to "varhed" !!!
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 12 August 2020 19: 44 New
      +6
      Like this? And what about the "water" cooling motors?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 49 New
        +2
        Victor Nikolaevich, you know that I am a "romantic", not a "techie" .... crying
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 13: 28 New
          +1
          Victor Nikolaevich, you know that I am a "romantic", not a "techie" ....

          Then let's go straight to YaPalak hi Uncle Kostya will support all four paws! drinks
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 17: 24 New
          0
          You know that I am a "romantic"

          Reminded. Romantics are different! wink
          Faust:
          What is whitening there? say it.
          Mephistopheles:
          Three-masted Spanish ship,
          Pier to Holland ready:
          On it bastards hundreds three
          Two monkeys, barrels of gold,
          Yes, the load is rich in chocolate,
          Yes, a fashionable disease: she
          Recently presented to you.

          Faust
          Drown everything.
          (Both stand with their ears closed and rejoice at the sight). bully A.S. Pushkin! request drinks
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 12 August 2020 19: 44 New
      +3
      Like this? And what about the "water" cooling motors?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 12 August 2020 19: 53 New
        +2
        There are places in which I "turn on the techie", but these are absolutely amateurish paragraphs.
        And "paragraphs" as well.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 12 August 2020 19: 58 New
          +3
          By the way, what is this glitch - comments appear in duplicate?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 August 2020 20: 23 New
            +4
            Duc !!! Another "thunderstorm of the twelfth year" !!! The resource again hired some "labukhs" to digest the site! Remember the summer of 2018?
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 12 August 2020 20: 25 New
              +4
              Are the beds moved?
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 12 August 2020 20: 27 New
                +4
                As I understand it, something like that.
            2. Gato
              Gato 12 August 2020 22: 30 New
              +2
              The resource again hired some "labukhs"

              Yes, but I was wondering where the arrows went under the ribbon. request
  • Undecim
    Undecim 12 August 2020 19: 56 New
    +6
    The guns were arranged simply.

    Here is the scope for the Sheps talent application. Agree that this illustration in color would be more informative.
    1. kalibr
      12 August 2020 20: 30 New
      +2
      Let's take it into account for the future! There will be an order for a book, then yes!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 12 August 2020 20: 34 New
        +5
        I would not say that there is a lack of information on the topic under consideration. And nothing new has been heard for a long time, they dug everything up.
        1. kalibr
          12 August 2020 21: 38 New
          +1
          New people, new songs, even words - and those are new!
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 12 August 2020 21: 49 New
            +2
            I don't know about new songs. But there are really few good, professional, not clumsy Google translations of "old songs".
            1. kalibr
              13 August 2020 06: 47 New
              +4
              Nikolay and I published a book in England. And it ... was translated here in Russia, having bought the right to publish !!! They write to me from the publisher: "Check the translation!" I told them - "And the money?" "The money is not provided. Only for the translator ... But you yourself are interested in ..." "Why couldn't you ask me for the original right away?" "And the translation is cooler !!!!!!!" Well, I checked, found a bunch of blunders. But then the book came out with the translator's comments - stupid and ignorant. And how to fix it? This is how it happens with us and very often.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 13 August 2020 07: 10 New
                +2
                Why was your book sold without your consent? Or was it agreed with the publisher?
                1. kalibr
                  13 August 2020 17: 20 New
                  +1
                  Because Osprey bought it with giblets.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 13 August 2020 17: 31 New
                    +2
                    But then the book came out with the translator's comments - stupid and ignorant.
                    Yes, I imagine such a masterpiece.
                    1. kalibr
                      13 August 2020 17: 34 New
                      +1
                      I can't even look at her ... And as I read one comment ... oh.
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 12 August 2020 20: 15 New
    +5
    but only without a bayonet, without a bayonet,

    repeat
    irregular cavalry

    In addition to the actual Cossacks, these are also Kalmyks, Bashkirs and other foreigners.
  • Poetry
    Poetry 12 August 2020 20: 50 New
    -10
    The invincible French have come here.
    Here we shit in white leggings ...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 12 August 2020 21: 50 New
      +4
      To be honest, a very "corner" poetry. On fences, sometimes there are more successful rhymes and meter.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 12 August 2020 22: 12 New
      +4
      Resource asked: "More coal!"
      "Untalenku" I immediately gave out !!! "
      1. Poetry
        Poetry 12 August 2020 22: 35 New
        -2
        Your portrait would hang between Nekrasov and Blok,
        I would look at schoolchildren sternly, half-sided ...
    3. Gato
      Gato 12 August 2020 22: 40 New
      0
      Came here

      Do not imitate them.
      1. Poetry
        Poetry 12 August 2020 22: 52 New
        -2
        I'm afraid that your rebuke is not to the court,
        I was born HERE, here I will die.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 13: 32 New
          +2
          I was born HERE, here I will die.

          You explain yourself exactly like Paul the First.
          He said the same! The palace was built urgently
          In the very place where he was born
          And soon he was killed there ...

          (Sergei, don't thank! wink )
  • Bogatyrev
    Bogatyrev 12 August 2020 21: 47 New
    +1
    It turns out that the guns were unified.
    Does this mean that Bennigsen was still withdrawing Peter's fusées and lances from the regiments — a fiction or an anecdote?
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 13 August 2020 13: 37 New
      +2
      Does this mean that Bennigsen was still withdrawing Peter's fusées and lances from the regiments — a fiction or an anecdote?

      Andrew, rather, canceled, but quietly. Somewhere after Austerlitz or Friedland. And not quite peaks - they removed the officer espontons and non-commissioned officer halberds of the Pavlovian time. At the same time, the braids of the soldiers were canceled - our army approached Austerlitz with them ...
      1. Bogatyrev
        Bogatyrev 13 August 2020 19: 03 New
        +1
        Some of the authors had a bike that fusies from Belgium and those pikes that Peter the Great armed part of the infantry with, following the example of the Swedes in front of Poltava, reached Borodin)))
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 14 August 2020 09: 49 New
          +2
          that the fusies from Belgium and those pikes that Peter the Great armed part of the infantry with, following the example of the Swedes in front of Poltava, reached Borodino

          it seems that if they did, it was only with the militia. soldier The militia took a limited part in the battle on the left flank. And everything else is the intrigues of "rascals from history with their deep vision." drinks
          About the Smolensk militia:
          The caustic Yermolov describes it as: "the gathered crowd of peasants, without their attention at all for the summer, poorly supplied with clothes, not at all armed ... The unusable rifles taken from the cavalry are turned to the militia." But even unusable rifles were in short supply. The main weapons were axes and pikes.
          Moscow militia:
          In the Moscow militia, out of its eleven regiments, only four (1st, 2nd, 3rd Jaeger and 1st Infantry) were with guns, the rest were all with pikes.
          Also:
          As for the militia corps on the Old Smolensk road, its purpose was more psychological than combat: to create the impression of a "significant reserve" and to divert part of the enemy forces onto itself, thereby weakening the blow to Bagration's army. This is what Yevgeny Württemberg writes about this (“The 15000th militia, placed behind General Baggovut, at a height between Utitsa and Psarev, with its sparkling spears could seem to the enemy a significant reserve”), and Bennigsen (“I suggested that General Markov put 10 thousand a man of the militia, who were under his command, so that the enemy could see them and, fearing their attack, would not dare to direct all his forces against Prince Bagration. Count Markov did it with eagerness and zeal ")
          An article about the militia at Borodino:
          http://mosjour.ru/2017063303/
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 12 August 2020 21: 52 New
    +5
    Great article! thank good
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 13 August 2020 00: 13 New
      -1
      If you want to add colors and emotions to your life, then your acquaintances reveal this century. I sang with them until it became not a song.ttps: //youtu.be/BSw0D8v-jEI) //// in the name of the goddesses and the rower's father // // we cry out, do not ruin this song, in the name of the rower --- we ask you to row, let's change the oars - if life, then one. In the name of Love, drink this feast, Russia - once and pour others into the homeland. Eh, ah, eh many more times. Her time --- he left the line of sight. Eh, time
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 13 August 2020 00: 19 New
        -1
        and there our heart is
        on a bitter yar
        If I don't die, cool my delight
        Joy bride
        Oh, how you want to live
        To spite the sun
        Rumbled in the rains
        Bare stones
        As well as rainbows, children and dolphins
        They want to live beautifully
        How are we, how are we, how are we
    2. John22
      John22 19 August 2020 15: 39 New
      +1
      V.G. Fedorov described all this in the books "The History of the Rifle" and "The Evolution of Small Arms" Part 1. Some illustrations of French guns were added to the pack.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 19 August 2020 15: 44 New
        0
        Thank you.
        I am not that deeply interested in the history of small arms.
        This article is just right for me.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 12 August 2020 22: 00 New
    +3
    So what's the best gun?
    Is it Brown Bess?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 12 August 2020 22: 15 New
      +4
      One gets such an impression. And I really want to shoot. From different samples.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 12 August 2020 22: 26 New
        +2
        My impression is that they are like everyone else, like brothers.
        There is a lot of shooting on YouTube with weapons from the Napoleonic wars, I'm not impressed at all. Not 16th century muskets after all)))
        1. Kunyli
          Kunyli 12 August 2020 22: 33 New
          +2
          And it seems to me very impressive it turns out:
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkc0z1G5dS8
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 12 August 2020 22: 47 New
            +2
            I have not seen this yet. Interesting.
      2. Gato
        Gato 12 August 2020 22: 47 New
        +4
        And I really want to shoot.

        I was "lucky" to bang once from a threaded nozzle, smoky hunting powder. Brutal recoil, particles of gunpowder from the shelf (either flint or pyrite, I did not understand) fly to the right cheek, after the shot nothing is visible due to a cloud of smoke.
    2. Kunyli
      Kunyli 12 August 2020 22: 34 New
      +4
      Based on 19th century tests, French and Prussian guns were the most accurate. At the same time, Prussian guns had a tapered seed hole, which increased the rate of fire and reliability.
    3. Gato
      Gato 12 August 2020 22: 36 New
      +3
      Is it Brown Bess?

      This is the opinion of many experts, especially in the average quality of barrel manufacture. There are simply few statistics on Russian-made weapons due to the small number of surviving samples.
    4. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 August 2020 12: 07 New
      +3
      Quote: Engineer
      So what's the best gun?
      Is it Brown Bess?

      With Brown Bess, grandfathers crushed half the world, with Lee-Enfield, grandchildren .... © smile
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 13 August 2020 12: 12 New
        +2
        AK and I have lost everything.
  • Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 12 August 2020 22: 40 New
    -3
    Quote: Chuck Lee

    I do not recommend it right away
    Since the book (any) has passed the censorship and cannot be trusted.

    Eh ... recommend any source from yours. So, wait, what sources do you rely on?
    I warn you, there is no answer to the question; Natsik forward as a sniffer Natsik into the ditch
  • Fat
    Fat 12 August 2020 23: 10 New
    +2
    Thanks for your review. Cool. Comprehensively with knowledge and goodness.
  • KSVK
    KSVK 12 August 2020 23: 34 New
    +3
    The article is good! Thank you author. The plus sign is definitely!
    However, a couple of clarifications.
    This happened because weapons were made in that era with a very large margin of safety, they were fired from these guns quite rarely, and they were looked after with great care.

    This was due to a) the use of black powder, which cannot develop pressure in the chamber like modern nitro powder.
    b) due to the smooth barrel, for which maintenance is much easier than for a rifled one.
    Now everyone is striving for the unification of weapons of different types of troops, but at that time it was considered simply necessary for each type of troops to have their own completely special and different weapons.

    And yet now they are striving more towards unification of the AMMUNITION, rather than weapons. And don't forget about some technological difference. wink And the chemical industry and metalworking have stepped since then oh how far. And even now, the Russian army has FOUR rounds in service. And this is without the "krupnyak" and 9x21 together with 9x39. And how many samples of shooters? The Russian army of 1812 never dreamed of. I'm not talking about any special forces. So everything remained the same. Weapon for the task. And the tasks of different types of troops oh, how different.
    1. Kunyli
      Kunyli 13 August 2020 12: 25 New
      0
      No, the guns were really made with a large margin of safety. The 400-year-old trunks are quite capable of withstanding a modern smoker, and in such doses that none of the modern hunters probably uses. Accordingly, the power of shots is equal to modern 12-gauge magnum cartridges with nitro powder.

  • Corrie sanders
    Corrie sanders 13 August 2020 03: 14 New
    +2
    very good and necessary article, like, but a number of blunders:

    caliber for both rifles and pistols, equal to 7 lines, or 17,78 mm
    - in those days, in any terrible dream, they did not measure calibers in inches (lines) and even more so in millimeters. The barrel diameter became relevant only with the advent of unitary cartridges - at least in the 1860s. Until then, the caliber was determined only by the number of round bullets that can be poured from one British pound of lead. Actually, the size of such a bullet was determined by a special template, the diameter of which was to be measured only for interest. The main running patterns were the well-known 12 and 16 calibers - that is, 12 and 16 bullets per pound, in geometry it is approximately 18,6 and 16,8 mm in the modern standard

    "Brown Bess", which had a caliber of 0,75 inches (19,05 mm)
    - in any nightmare at Miss Bess they did not measure, and they could not intend such a diameter that, in terms of meaning, that technically. Miss Bess has had a 12-gauge (18,6 mm) barrel throughout its history, at least it was when it left the factory. Further, it is quite possible that it staggered up to 19mm or more, so it is possible that this insane figure (19.05 mm) was taken by measuring the worn barrel of a gun that has come down to us from the museum. And regarding the technical impossibility of obtaining a figure of 0,75 inches - publicly available measuring instruments of the 18th and early 19th centuries had an error on average of 0,5 lines (1,25 mm), hundredths of an inch could only be observed by jewelers, but not in mass manufacturing.

    Cossacks, of whom there were even more in the army than all other cavalrymen: over 100 horsemen!
    - this is either the total number of regiments of the Don regiments in 20 years, or the instantaneous number of the entire population of the Internal Affairs Department with women, babies and old people. Only the Great Khan in Karakorum could have put up 100000 mounted warriors, and even then not at all times.
    1. kalibr
      13 August 2020 06: 40 New
      +1
      If you indicate sources with links to pages, then the article will be impossible to read. This will be scientific material, but this is not needed here. Almost no one even uses bibliography!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. kalibr
      13 August 2020 17: 38 New
      -1
      Quote: Corrie Sanders
      - in any nightmare at Miss Bess they did not measure, and they could not intend such a diameter that, in terms of meaning, that technically. Miss Bess has had a 12 gauge (18,6 mm) barrel throughout its history, at least it was when it left the factory.

      Never write a commentary on the British weapons without looking at the Encyclopedia Britannica, or at least Wikipedia, but also English. Caliber "Brown Bess" - .75 (19,050 mm). 18,034 mm had a BULLET diameter !!!
  • bandabas
    bandabas 13 August 2020 08: 06 New
    0
    In short, it's time to switch to sling. Although, judging by the history, the professional slinger did not use simple buldygans. If only in the absence of normal ammunition available.
    1. Kunyli
      Kunyli 13 August 2020 11: 30 New
      -2
      The Chukchi used slingers, but the Russians easily defeated them with squeaks.
  • moreman78
    moreman78 13 August 2020 11: 59 New
    +3
    And on the eve of the war with Napoleon in 1805, he again had to turn to England and buy 60 thousand guns there. Defeat at Austerlitz? Orders again, because a lot of weapons were lost. It would be a sin to speak, but the Tula Arms Factory tried. I tried very hard, before I produced no more than 40 thousand guns a year, but in the same 1808 I was able to increase their output by half! And before the war of 1812, the production of guns and pistols on it was brought to 100 thousand units per year. But as the army lacked small arms, it continued to be in short supply. And again, 24 thousand guns were imported from Austria and another 30 thousand, the very next year, from England. And in total, England supplied Russia in those years more than 100 thousand guns of English production, that is, almost the same as our Tula arms factory produced in the same year! These are the needs of the army for guns and how they were met in those years.

    And after 100 years, nothing in the Russian Empire has changed. As the First World War broke out, they again rushed to buy rifles, machine guns, cars, airplanes abroad ... because their own industry again failed!
    1. Kunyli
      Kunyli 13 August 2020 12: 13 New
      -2
      As in World War II, they also bought everything from the west. They could not even pay off until the collapse of the USSR.
  • bk0010
    bk0010 13 August 2020 13: 42 New
    0
    all the work was done either by hand or, at best, by the force of ... falling water! In the dry season, such a drive, of course, did not work.
    Drought - okay: maybe it will, maybe not, but winter is stable every year.
  • KSVK
    KSVK 13 August 2020 14: 11 New
    0
    Quote: KunyLi
    Well no

    You are confusing warm with soft.
    Where is in your pressure table?
    And the power, it is so power. It depends not only on the speed, but also on the mass of the bullet. And the pressure is not only from the mass of the charge, but also from the diameter of the barrel.
  • Fibrizio
    Fibrizio 13 August 2020 14: 58 New
    0
    In general, it is surprising that Tsarist Russia during the Napoleonic Wars had large-scale rifled weapons. This is the first article I read this.
    All other sources have always emphasized that only the British had rifled rifles and separate infantry units with these weapons in the army. And here the author writes that if not without exception, but very massively used.
    The French definitely did not have rifled weapons.
    By the way, regarding the English guns and their caliber. It was slightly larger than the French one (it turns out that he did not know ours either), and due to this, the British could use French ammunition (albeit with less efficiency than their own), but the Frenchman did not get an English bullet into the barrel.

    What prompted me to write was the surprise. Our army was never advanced (especially during the described period) (guns are a century old, when the opponents have fresh, it's at least easier), so even in the Crimean war our infantry was armed almost without exception with guns, and the opponents had rifles for a minier bullet.
    So if anyone understands and is fond of, confirm or refute the rifled weapon in Russia in 1812.
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 13 August 2020 16: 36 New
      +3
      Our army was never advanced (especially during the described period)

      This is not true. Just in 1812 - the Russian army was technically absolutely at the level of European opponents.
      And here the author writes that if not without exception, but very massively used. The French definitely did not have rifled weapons.

      The French planned it in theory, but in practice they released a meager amount (in the imperial period, no more than 2 thousand units, before that 10 thousand).
      In the Russian imperial army, the situation was like this:
      Jaegers (in theory) were armed with:
      - screw guns of the 1805 model (16,5 mm with 6 grooves) with bayonets + were still of the 1798 model. These went to non-commissioned officers of the army infantry.
      - non-commissioned officers and the best 12 riflemen of the company were armed with fittings mod. 1805g (16,5mm with 8 grooves)
      On January 8, 1806, a personal decree announced the production of weapons according to the states of wartime, and newly approved samples were sent to the factories: one soldier's gun, one screw gun, a jaeger fitting and a pistol. At the same time, the fittings should go into service with non-commissioned officers and 64 rank-and-file rangers in the jaeger battalions... In addition, there were cavalry fittings, 16 per squadron (but again in theory).
      By the way, for the first time, fittings appeared among Russian gamekeepers during the reign of Matushka Catherine in 1778.
      Here is a good photo of the 1805 Jaeger Fitting:

      In fact, they did not have time to re-equip everyone.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 14 August 2020 23: 20 New
      0
      This gun was put into service by a personal decree of Emperor Alexander I on September 13, 1805.
      Caliber - 6.5 lines (16.5 mm) with 6 grooves.
      At 500 steps, it showed the same accuracy of combat as earlier smoothbore guns showed at 100 steps, and the maximum firing range reached 1000 steps.
      The total length of the weapon was 133 centimeters with a barrel length of 94 centimeters, and it weighed 4.8 kilograms.

      "Screw rifles" of the 1805 model, intended for arming non-commissioned officers, at first relied on only 16 regiment, and only in 1809 their number was increased to 32.
      It's not about what was or wasn't. The point is the number of such weapons in the army.
      At the same time, the first threaded fitting (screw carbine) in Russia was put into service in 1775.
      Caliber - 15,8 mm, barrel length 788 mm, weight - 2,5 kg.
    3. John22
      John22 19 August 2020 16: 06 New
      0
      Fedorov V.G. in the book evolution of small arms "wrote that in the Russian army all were armed with smooth-bore weapons and an extremely small number of rifled (screw) weapons from non-commissioned officers and selected shooters -" skirmishers ".
  • kvs45
    kvs45 14 August 2020 11: 45 New
    0
    Interestingly, how did the craftsmen form the bore, did they really drill? How, what and on what?
  • Simargl
    Simargl 14 August 2020 21: 38 New
    +1
    This happened because weapons were made in that era with a very large margin of safety, they were fired from these guns quite rarely, and they were looked after with great care.
    The safety factor was large, because it was required to neutralize the accuracy of manufacturing, the accuracy of equipment and the stupidity of the owner. They did, indeed, rarely shoot. Gunpowder and bullets aren't cheap. They looked after carefully, as well as for all entrusted property. Only the cartoon "Lefty" should not be forgotten. And there were not so many parts with small tolerances.
    However, by the standards of our days, this caliber was very large, surpassing the anti-tank guns of the period of the Great Patriotic War.
    Well, during this period, PT hand guns started at 7,92, sort of. Only they were all rifled, i.e. rifles. Well, for a smooth barrel, this is normal even now (12 gauge - 18,5 +/- 0,3 mm).
    The bullet looked like a ball cast from lead and weighed 27,7 g, and the charge of gunpowder for an infantry gun was 8,6 g.
    So, offhand. This is the mass of Polev's bullet, the powder sample is almost standard for black (black) powder. Those. I will assume that the bullet had an initial velocity of 450-500 m / s, an energy of 2800-3500J. It fits into modern long-barreled smooth-bore weapons.
    If they had come up with a wad-stabilizer in time, they would have thought of rifling much later ...
  • staer-62
    staer-62 22 August 2020 13: 45 New
    +1
    But I wonder what would happen if a hundred archers from the time of the Horde were placed behind each redoubt? The enemy is walking in groups, in formation, without protection. Archery speed is much higher. The Buryats had to be asked.)))
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 23 August 2020 23: 18 New
      0
      The armies operating against Napoleon's troops included 31 national regiments (20 Bashkir, 4 Crimean Tatar, 3 Kalmyk, 2 Mescheriak, 2 Teptyar)
      Kalmyk cavalry in the war of 1812
      Source: https://armflot.ru/epokha-napoleona/700-kalmytskaya-konnitsa-v-vojne-1812-goda
      But they didn’t think of anything like that proposed by you!
      I saw this only in the movie "The Last Samurai". Bows against rifles and katanas against mitrailleuses.
      We will not consider contractions in Africa.
      1. Essex62
        Essex62 24 August 2020 14: 02 New
        0
        But it could have really been an effect. From closed positions with mounted volleys at the attacking column. Why exactly the bow against the unstrel, precisely as an additional means in the fight against the infantry of Buanapartia. The shako will not stop the arrow, the reload speed is great.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 24 August 2020 21: 42 New
          0
          We can only think and fantasize! hi
          1. Essex62
            Essex62 25 August 2020 02: 24 New
            0
            Perhaps in the lower heads such ideas were born, among those who tore other people's uniforms against Russian bayonets. An additional chance to survive and complete the task. But the generals and colonels were not going to violate the regulations. Everything according to Friedrich-Ain kollone marshirt, zwai kollone marshirt ... put an extra few "thousand" "serfs? What is the problem, women give birth. They lost their mind when they had to surrender Moscow. As a matter of fact, only the Guard remained with the Corsican.
            .
  • Andrey787
    Andrey787 23 September 2020 14: 00 New
    0
    Much is described in detail ... calibers, millimeters and grams ...

    And how many were these Russian, English, French guns ??? How many were they produced per year ???
    How many rubles / pounds / francs did the complete set cost ???? A gun, a bayonet, bullets, gunpowder, various devices for cleaning, care and loading ???
    What was the life cycle of a weapon at that time ??? How long did it take to produce a gun, how many years it served in the army on average, how many shots could be fired (barrel resource) ???