Military Review

From Halifax to Beirut. Four largest man-made disasters in ports

41

View of the destroyed Halifax two days after the explosion, 1917


The explosion in the port of Beirut, which occurred on the evening of August 4, 2020, was a real disaster not only for the city, but also for the country. According to the latest data, a man-made disaster in the port claimed the lives of 158 people, more than 6 thousand residents of the city were injured. But the economic consequences of this explosion turned out to be even more serious. According to preliminary estimates, the damage from the explosion of 2750 tons of ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) in the port of Beirut cost Lebanon 3-5 billion dollars.

Explosion in the port of Beirut


A destructive explosion in the port of Beirut occurred on the evening of 4 August. There were two explosions in total, the second, more powerful, led to tremendous destruction in the port and nearby quarters of the city. The explosion took place at warehouse # 12, which contained 2750 tons of ammonium nitrate. The dangerous cargo was confiscated back in 2014 from the ship "Rhosus", which belonged to a businessman with Russian citizenship Igor Grechushkin. In the future, the question of the danger of storing an explosive component in the port was raised many times, but no decision was made about the disposal or removal of the cargo. According to preliminary information, the cause of the explosion was a violation of safety regulations during welding in the said warehouse.


Beirut, view of the explosion site in the port. The largest building is a dilapidated elevator

Information about the consequences of the explosion, including the economic ones, varies. But already now we can say that in stories Lebanon is the largest man-made disaster, which, even according to the most conservative estimates, caused damage to the country in the amount of 5-10% of GDP. For not the richest country in the Middle East, this is a real national disaster. At the same time, thousands of people lost their homes, as a lot of apartments and houses were damaged. Ultimately, the explosion led to riots in the Lebanese capital, which began in the city on August 8.

The total number of victims is estimated so far at 158 ​​people, more than six thousand residents of the Lebanese capital received various injuries, houses and apartments of 300 thousand people were variously damaged. In many houses, the facades were destroyed, all glass and doors were knocked out, interior ceilings and the roof were damaged. Houses in the immediate vicinity of the port were particularly affected. One or another damage to buildings was recorded at a distance of 10 kilometers from the epicenter of the explosion. At the same time, Beirut was still somewhat lucky, since part of the most powerful shock wave was taken over by the grain elevator in the port, which is the largest in the country. Buildings behind the elevator suffered less damage.


Beirut, view from the port towards the adjacent area of ​​the city

In addition to the obvious casualties and destruction, the explosion at the port of Beirut has enormous consequences for the Lebanese economy. More than 15 thousand tons of grain were stored in the same elevator. There is no talk of a shortage of grain in the country yet, but, according to official information from stocks, grain in Lebanon now remains only for a month. It is also important to understand that the port of Beirut provided 60 percent of all Lebanese imports, including 80 percent of food imports. A negative factor for Lebanon was the fact that the explosion occurred against the backdrop of an economic and political crisis in the country that arose after the introduction of an emergency situation in connection with the pandemic of the new coronavirus, which seriously hit the economies of all countries of the world without exception.

Even despite the scale of destruction, which shocked all eyewitnesses of the tragedy, similar disasters have already occurred on our planet, and the worst of them happened in ports or directly at the port entrance. In terms of the number of casualties and destruction, the explosion in Beirut is not the most powerful. Leading this sad list of the largest non-nuclear explosions is the tragedy in Halifax, Canada, which occurred on December 6, 1917, and led to thousands of victims and the destruction of a large part of the city.

Explosion in Halifax


On December 6, 1917, a catastrophe occurred in Halifax, Canada, which shook the entire country. In the harbor of this Canadian port, two ships collided. The French military transport ship Mont Blanc collided with the Norwegian ship Imo. The collision took place in a narrow part of the port's outer roadstead with Bedford-Bainsea Bay. The collision of the two ships occurred at 8:45 am local time. The Imo crashed into the starboard side of the Mont Blanc auxiliary transport near hold No. 1.

The collision itself did not have serious consequences for the ships, but benzene leaked from the damaged barrels in the hold of the Mont Blanc. When two ships were decoupled from metal-to-metal friction, sparks appeared, which led to the ignition of benzene and the start of a fire on the Mont Blanc. Further catastrophe was a foregone conclusion, but its consequences could be much less devastating for Halifax. Unfortunately for the locals, the Mont Blanc was almost completely loaded with explosives. The ship was carrying from New York a cargo of explosive and flammable substances: 2300 tons of picric acid, 200 tons of TNT, 10 tons of pyroxylin and about 35 tons of benzene.

From Halifax to Beirut. Four largest man-made disasters in ports

A cloud of smoke that formed after the explosion in Halifax on December 6, 1917

The Mont Blanc commander, together with the crew, abandoned the ship, which literally became a burning powder keg. Drifting, the unguided vessel reached Pier 6, which was at the beginning of Richmond Street. Many townspeople and residents of the area watched the fire on the ship from their windows or directly from the streets. Many of them paid with their lives, dozens of people lost their sight forever. Their eyes were damaged by shards of glass, and someone received eye burns from the force of the flash itself, which was formed during the explosion. Later, experts will establish that the temperature at the epicenter of the explosion was 5000 degrees Celsius.

The explosion on the "Mont Blanc" occurred at 9 hours 4 minutes, when the fire reached the load of explosives. The catastrophe that occurred is recognized as the most powerful explosion of the pre-nuclear era in the history of mankind, the power of the explosion was estimated at 2,9 kilotons in TNT equivalent. The consequences for the city of Halifax were disastrous. The Richmond area was completely destroyed. The area of ​​continuous destruction was 160 hectares, within a radius of 2,6 kilometers from the place of the explosion, buildings were either completely destroyed or seriously damaged. It is worth considering here that in those years the buildings of the city were largely wooden, there were not so many capital stone and brick buildings. In addition to the monstrous force of the blast wave, numerous fires inflicted damage to the city, which broke out in different parts of Halifax and quickly spread through the wooden buildings.


First rescue operations in Halifax

According to official data, 1963 people died in the crash, 1950 people were identified. More than 9 thousand people received various injuries. 1630 houses were completely destroyed, another 12 thousand houses received various damage. The industrial sector of the city was almost completely destroyed, the shipyards and the port itself were especially damaged. The total damage from the explosion was then estimated at 35 million Canadian dollars (approximately $ 591 million at today's exchange rate).

Explosion in Port Chicago


The explosion in the small California town of Port Chicago, which occurred on July 17, 1944, is comparable in power to the explosion in Halifax, Canada on December 6, 1917. At the same time, there was less destruction and casualties, but only exclusively due to the port's remoteness from the main city blocks and the small number of inhabitants. The ammunition depots were located more than a mile from the city buildings.

The city itself arose and developed as a small port village at the rear supply base of the Pacific fleet USA. In 1942, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, a new transshipment base was built in Port Chicago to supply ammunition to all American forces operating in the Pacific theater of operations. At the same time, work to improve the port infrastructure continued. In 1944, the construction of a loading pier with three railway tracks was completed here. The port has an opportunity to simultaneously load two transports at once.


View of Port Chicago, the city buildings themselves are located in the upper right corner of the image

On July 17, 1944, two Liberty-class vessels were loading at the port. By that time, 4606 tons of various ammunition had already been loaded aboard the EA Bryan ship (by the evening of July 17, the ship was about 40% full), another 429 tons of ammunition were stored in railway cars at the pier. The second ship, the Quinault Victory, was just preparing to load. What exactly happened on the pier on that fateful day is not known for certain, since all direct eyewitnesses and participants in the loading of ammunition died on the spot. According to eyewitnesses, at 22:18 they heard a sound similar to wood crackling and metal grinding. Perhaps it was the sound of a falling crane boom. Immediately after this, the first explosion followed and a fire broke out, and just 5-7 seconds later, another explosion occurred, which destroyed the pier, wagons and both ships on which the loading was in progress.

The power of the explosion, according to some estimates, could reach 2-2,2 kilotons in TNT equivalent. The fireball that formed at the site of the explosion could be seen from miles away. At the same time, an American Air Force pilot who witnessed the explosion estimated the diameter of the resulting fireball at 3 miles (4,6 km). Pieces of ships, wagons and ammunition were thrown into the air to a height of three kilometers. At the same time, EA Bryan's transport was completely destroyed, and Quinault Victory was torn to pieces, which were scattered in different directions. For example, the stern of the ship flew 150 meters from the explosion site.


The aftermath of an explosion on a pier in Port Chicago

The explosion destroyed the barracks and buildings in the port, and most of the city was damaged, but no one died outside the pier. The explosion claimed the lives of 320 people, everyone on the pier and on board the ships, another 390 people from among the military and civilians received various injuries. At the same time, literally nothing remained of the victims. Fragments of bodies found at the crash site were used to identify only 51 people. Most of the casualties in the blast were African-American, with 202 killed and 233 injured. A few weeks after the liquidation of the consequences of the disaster and the order to resume work with ammunition, a riot occurred in the port. Many African Americans have refused to go to work. For this they were sent to court, 50 people received real prison sentences of 8-15 years. They managed to get their pardon only in January 1946.

Texas City Port Explosion


On April 16, 1947, another powerful explosion occurred in the port of the American Texas City. As in Beirut, a cargo of ammonium nitrate exploded here. It all started with a fire aboard the French transport ship Grandcamp. It was another Liberty type transport. The fire on board the ship began at about 8 am. More than an hour passed from the start of the fire to the explosion. During this time, the entire crew got off the ship, except for the captain, and 27 of the 50 city firefighters that were available in Texas City managed to get on board.


Destroyed 5-story rubber plant in Texas City

The explosion on board the ship occurred at 9:12 local time. 2300 tons of ammonium nitrate exploded. The victims of this explosion turned out to be more than it could have been, since the fire on board the ship attracted the attention of a large number of onlookers, who were watching what was happening along the coastline. People believed they were at a safe distance. The attention of onlookers was additionally attracted by the unusually bright yellow-orange smoke rising from the holds of the ship. Experts later noted that this color was characteristic of the resulting nitrogen dioxide vapor.

The catastrophe that happened is considered the largest for American industry in its entire history. As a result of the explosion, the port was destroyed. The blast wave, fires and the resulting 4,5-meter wave destroyed or seriously damaged a thousand different buildings. The explosion killed and went missing 581 people, more than five thousand residents of the city received various injuries. The fire destroyed 1100 vehicles and 362 freight cars. Blast damage affected 2/3 of the city and 3/4 of the entire chemical and oil refining industry, which was located in Texas City. The force of the explosion was such that the two-ton anchor of the Grandcamp transport was found later 2,6 km from the explosion site.


Burned-out cars in a parking lot located 400 meters from the port in Texas City

The explosion and the ensuing fires completely burned down several chemical plants and oil storage facilities. At the same time, the force of the fires was such that the fight against them continued even a week after the explosion. The total property damage was estimated at $ 100 million ($ 1,1 billion in 2019 prices). Events in Texas City sparked the first class action lawsuit against the US government. The lawsuit was filed on behalf of 8485 citizens who suffered in various forms from the explosion and its consequences.
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. carstorm 11
    carstorm 11 10 August 2020 06: 47 New
    +8
    exactly 5 years ago. explosion in China. also in the port. also chemicals.
    1. military_cat
      military_cat 10 August 2020 07: 48 New
      +6
      The Chinese investigation showed that the second explosion also detonated the stored saltpeter in the amount of 800 tons, the capacity was 336 tons of TNT.

      1. military_cat
        military_cat 10 August 2020 08: 08 New
        +4
        The funnel size was 85m.

        1. carstorm 11
          carstorm 11 10 August 2020 08: 17 New
          0
          okay so fucked up ...
    2. Civil
      Civil 10 August 2020 09: 25 New
      12
      Bounces periodically everywhere, but keeping so much saltpeter in the middle of the city, you have to be a rare idiot.
  3. Bashkirkhan
    Bashkirkhan 10 August 2020 06: 47 New
    +9
    You can also mention the explosion at the chemical plant in Oppau. The chemical plant of the BASF concern in Oppau, Germany in 1921 was the center for the production of explosives, poisonous gases and fertilizers - a mixture of sulfate and ammonium nitrate (the latter is also called ammonium nitrate - this is the very substance that exploded in Beirut).
    Fertilizers were stored in a clay quarry, where they inevitably solidified. It was too dangerous to send workers to the quarry - they could be buried alive. Therefore, saltpeter was taken out of the quarry with the help of small explosions, despite the knowledge of its explosiveness. On September 21, 1921, such an operation led to the detonation of the fertilizer stock in the storage - 4,5 thousand tons of ammonium sulfate and nitrate.

    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 10 August 2020 08: 14 New
      0
      The explosion in Oppau was arranged by engineer Garin. Described in the novel by Tolstoy. It's a joke, although it's probably a sin to joke about this topic.
      In addition, the article describes explosions in ports, Oppau is not one of those. But the author should describe the explosion on the Dalstroi ship, I have heard about it for a long time, but unfortunately I don’t know the details.
    2. Snail N9
      Snail N9 10 August 2020 08: 16 New
      19
      And in tsarist Russia, steamships with explosives in Arkhangelsk during WWII took off in the USSR. Few people know the truth about such events in the USSR:
      On July 24, 1946, during the loading of ammonal on the steamer Dalstroy, an explosion occurred in the Nakhodka Bay due to gross violations of safety regulations. Submerged with gross violations of safety rules in a bulk in the hold, 7000 tons of ammonal caught fire while the ship was being loaded. 400 tons of TNT, which were in another hold, exploded under the influence of high temperature, completely destroying the port facilities at Cape Astafiev and causing significant human casualties.

      From a letter from the Minister of Internal Affairs of the USSR Kruglov to Stalin, Beria, August 14, 1946:

      "As a result of a fire and an explosion in the Nakhodka Bay, the Dalstroy steamer and all the cargoes on it were destroyed:

      explosives - 917 tons, sugar - 113 tons, various manufactured goods - 125 tons, grain - 600 tons, metal - 392 tons, and a total of 9 million rubles;

      at the burned down warehouses of Dalstroi, various industrial and food cargoes worth 15 million rubles were destroyed. and explosives worth 25 million rubles.

      During the explosion of the steamer "Dalstroy" 105 people were killed and died of wounds, including: servicemen - 22, civilians - 34, prisoners - 49; 196 people were wounded and are in medical institutions, including: military personnel - 55, civilians - 78 and prisoners - 63 ".

      The words and figures of the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR Kruglov should be treated very skeptically. 7400 tons of explosives loaded into the holds of the steamer "Dalstroy" in the letter of the minister to Stalin are magically transformed into ... 917 tons. The minister did not want to tell the truth to Joseph Vissarionovich ...
      10 a.m. December 19, 1947. Catastrophe
      On December 19, 1947, the steamer "General Vatutin" at 10:10 comes to the edge of solid ice opposite the berths of the Nagaevsky port and, being at a distance of no more than 300 meters from them, makes a stern turn towards the port.

      During the turn, the vessel hits the ice edge with its bow, after which, according to eyewitnesses, thick black smoke begins to flow from its bow. A few minutes later, a minor explosion is heard on the steamer. The port side in the area of ​​the third hold falls off and the frames become visible. "General Vatutin", engulfed in flames, begins to carry to the piers, in the direction of the tanker "Soviet oil". The captain is trying to turn the ship around and take it out of the port.

      Eyewitnesses show that all the time while "Vatutin" was burning, the ship's crew took measures to extinguish the fire.

      At 10 hours 25 minutes on the steamer "General Vatutin" there is an explosion of enormous force. Almost simultaneously with the explosion of General Vatutin, the detonation caused an explosion of the capsules located in the bow of the Vyborg steamer. As a result, both ships sank soon and almost simultaneously.

      From among the crew of the steamer "General Vatutin" no one was found alive and the bodies of those killed were not found.

      The explosion of "General Vatutin" generated a wave of water with ice up to 10 meters high, which reached the port and caused some damage to three steamers at the berth, and the blast wave damaged deck superstructures on the other four steamers.

      The explosion was of monstrous force. Four days after the disaster, military divers examined the bottom of the bay in the place where General Vatutin died. As a result of the explosion, a pit up to 100 meters long, 40 meters wide and 7 meters deep was formed at the bottom. Separate parts of the ship were found in the pit, scattered over an area of ​​up to 150 meters.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 10 August 2020 08: 34 New
        +2
        Quote: Snail N9
        Few people know the truth about such events in the USSR:

        Thanks for the comment. I didn't know about that case.
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 10 August 2020 09: 28 New
        +4
        Wow! Credit addition. Probably, really, few people knew about these cases. Thanks for the info.
    3. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 08: 16 New
      -3
      Quiet, quiet. Otherwise in America they will remember that:
      Most of the casualties in the blast were African-American, with 202 killed and 233 injured. A few weeks after the liquidation of the consequences of the disaster and the order to resume work with ammunition, a riot occurred in the port. Many African Americans have refused to go to work. For this they were sent to court, 50 people received real prison sentences of 8-15 years.
      And white people will be put on their knees again in the second round.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 10 August 2020 08: 34 New
        +1
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        And white people will be put on their knees again in the second round.

        Be quiet, maybe they don't know about it.
      2. Snail N9
        Snail N9 10 August 2020 09: 24 New
        +4
        Here's about the explosions (most likely sabotage) in Arkhangelsk in WWI:
        On October 23, 1916, the steamer "Baron Drizen" moored to berth No. 20 Bakaritsa with 5,3 thousand tons of military cargo from Baltimore and New York. The ship under the Russian flag had a multinational crew - only three people were Russian, the officers were Estonians and Latvians. The composition of the ship's cargo: 2002 tons of metals - copper, lead, zinc, steel, 1074 tons of metal products - machine tools, rails, locomotives, road rollers, wire, 46 tons of chemical warfare agent - chlorine and 2184 tons of shells, gunpowder and TNT (4).
        On October 26, during lunchtime, the bow hold of the steamer with shells exploded, and the aft hold with explosives also exploded as a result of the fire. As a result, the superstructures and the pipe of the steamer Earl of Farfar unloading nearby were demolished, and the Record tugboat, a 100-ton floating crane and a mail barge sank. The building of the power plant and the fire station collapsed on the shore. The fire and explosions of the shells stacked on the shore instantly reached the wooden barracks with the resting workers burned to death. The greatest danger was posed by the 46 tons of toxic agents previously unloaded from the Drizen and located nearby. Gas could kill not only the rescuers, but the whole of Arkhangelsk. By chance, the worst thing happened. The fire and explosions continued until 18 pm.
        Fire-fighting tugs, a fire train from Isakogorka, volunteer rescuers from high school students were sent to extinguish it and eliminate the consequences. Another firefighter with medics was urgently dispatched from Vologda. In Murmansk, carpenters and workers were loaded onto the English cruiser Vindictive and sent to Arkhangelsk at maximum speed.
        Having extinguished the main combustion sources by 22 o'clock, they began to sum up the preliminary results of the disaster. It was found that 1186 wounded were delivered to hospitals, including 25 women and 10 children, 607 corpses were found, 851 people were missing (5). Some of the missing appeared after the end of the rescue work, but the overwhelming majority should be counted among the dead, whose remains were not subject to identification. The catastrophe claimed the lives of about 1500 people; corpses and body parts were buried in the village of Zaton. The total damage was estimated at 2 million rubles.
        The investigation was taken up by a commission headed by Admiral Manikovsky. A sabotage was considered as the main version - since before the explosion of the Drizen in Arkhangelsk a number of suspicious incidents followed: 3200 tons of cargo for the allies burned down on the Bull - for 15 million rubles, in July 1916 a fire at Isakogorka station destroyed 22 cars, also with weights for allies.

        The disaster, like at Bakaritsa in October 1916, was repeated in Arkhangelsk 3 months later. In January 1917, the Semyon Chelyuskin icebreaker came to the port of Arkhangelsk from Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk) with 3000 tons of military cargo, including explosives. The White Sea was covered with ice, and in order to transfer weapons from the non-freezing Murmansk to the Northern Railway, they were reloaded in the Murmansk port onto icebreakers.
        .12 January "Chelyuskin" got up for unloading at the extreme berth of the section of the port of Economy. It turned out that coal and explosives were loaded into one of the holds - which is very dangerous. In the course of the work, the cargo caught fire several times, it was extinguished and unloading continued. Rumors of fires quickly spread in the port and village, hundreds of people fled in panic towards Arkhangelsk and to nearby villages.
        At half past nine in the morning on January 13, an explosion was heard. The assistant to the captain of the steamship Kursk, who was standing nearby: “The superstructures of the steamers caught fire, at the same time artillery shells and cartridges piled up on the berths began to rush in. The floating dock together with the Kursk nearly capsized, the ice around it was broken, and the superstructure was damaged. Two minutes after the explosion, I jumped out onto the deck and saw that the frozen Northern Dvina was covered with people running to the opposite side ... There was thick smoke over the entire region of Economy, many houses were engulfed in fire ... In 15-20 minutes, the entire population left Economy "(1 ).
        Next to "Chelyuskin" was the English steamer "Beirigia" also with a load of explosives: "Being showered with an incessant hail of fragments from shells exploding on the shore, the crew could not escape. A few minutes later, a violent explosion shook the air. Before our eyes, a huge fireball flew out from the hold of the steamer and rose high into the sky. Then there was a terrible crash "
        In the place of "Chelyuskin" and "Beyrigia" craters of tens of meters formed. Chief of Staff Possokhov: “Approaching from the south to the Economy, I saw a small smoke on the left, it was the stables and sheds of the Kursk steamer burning. On the right - a big fire, from there frequent explosions of terrible force were heard and flashes of flame were seen. Going further, I saw barracks, dilapidated and abandoned by their residents; saw the corpse of a worker killed by a brick that flew out of the furnace. The workers and warriors fled, 10-15 officers came to me, many wounded. Almost incessant explosions and the whistle of shells were heard from the eastern part of the area, where the explosives were concentrated. "
        Immediately after the first explosion, rescuers from among the officers and crews of steamers began to work. It soon became clear that the fire was approaching the explosives depots, it was decided to suspend the work and wait for the big explosion. People were taken out of the territory, and the most powerful explosion occurred at 16.30. After him, rescue work continued, despite the strong wind and frost, when the water froze in the fire hoses. The wounded were carried to the Kursk, where they set up a kind of field hospital.
        The result of the explosion - the steamers "Chelyuskin" and "Beyringia", the tug "Moguchy", several floating headframes were killed, tug No. 6 and two more steamers were badly damaged. Fortunately, the workers and residents of the village left the port territory on time, and there were significantly fewer casualties than in Bakaritsa. 70 people were killed, 344 injured. The blaze destroyed several thousand tons of military supplies.
        https://regnum.ru/news/society/2550218.html
        https://regnum.ru/news/society/2549221.html
    4. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
      Kuzmich Sibiryakov 10 August 2020 16: 31 New
      -1
      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      You can also mention the explosion at the chemical plant in Oppau. The chemical plant of the BASF concern in Oppau, Germany in 1921 was the center for the production of explosives, poisonous gases and fertilizers - a mixture of sulfate and ammonium nitrate (the latter is also called ammonium nitrate - this is the very substance that exploded in Beirut).
      Fertilizers were stored in a clay quarry, where they inevitably solidified. It was too dangerous to send workers to the quarry - they could be buried alive. Therefore, saltpeter was taken out of the quarry with the help of small explosions, despite the knowledge of its explosiveness. On September 21, 1921, such an operation led to the detonation of the fertilizer stock in the storage - 4,5 thousand tons of ammonium sulfate and nitrate.

      There were 12 thousand tons of saltpeter. Many times they loosened the caked saltpeter with powder charges. Then, due to the absence, they switched to high explosive charges, which led to a massive explosion. Since then, it was forbidden to loosen ANY chemical substance by this method, even if it is not explosive by definition.
  4. Bashkirkhan
    Bashkirkhan 10 August 2020 07: 52 New
    +2
    There was a lot of boom in Halifax. 2k corpses. At the same time, the well-coordinated work of the Mont Blanc crew can be noted, which in a matter of minutes amicably evacuated from the ship and disappeared into the bushes.
  5. Ros 56
    Ros 56 10 August 2020 07: 56 New
    +3
    Nothing is as cheap or as expensive as human stupidity. What is the point of discussing this, you cannot return anything back.
    1. military_cat
      military_cat 10 August 2020 08: 25 New
      +4
      Quote: Ros 56
      What's the point of discussing this, you can't return anything back.
      To avoid new cases.
      1. Ros 56
        Ros 56 10 August 2020 08: 26 New
        0
        Does the very fact of their repetition mean anything to you?
        1. military_cat
          military_cat 10 August 2020 08: 29 New
          +4
          The world is not black and white, everything has semitones. If disasters cannot be completely avoided, this does not mean that one should not try to prevent them.
          1. Ros 56
            Ros 56 10 August 2020 08: 36 New
            -1
            Quite right, the world is not black and white, so there are enough human stupidity in it. What I wrote about. hi
    2. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
      Kuzmich Sibiryakov 10 August 2020 16: 37 New
      0
      Quote: Ros 56
      Nothing is as cheap or as expensive as human stupidity. What is the point of discussing this, you cannot return anything back.

      Is the discussion conducted with the hope of returning? For the purpose of not repeating, I think. Little was discussed BEFORE this event, so it happened.
  6. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 08: 12 New
    0
    At the same time, EA Bryan's transport was completely destroyed, and Quinault Victory was torn to pieces, which were scattered in different directions. For example, the stern of the ship flew 150 meters from the explosion site.
    By that time, 4606 tons of various ammunition had already been loaded on board the EA Bryan ship (by the evening of July 17, the ship was about 40% full), another 429 tons of ammunition were stored in railway cars on the pier. The second ship, the Quinault Victory, was just preparing to load.
    Not consistent. recourse EA Bryan - Loaded and crashed. Quinault Victory started to load and "ripped apart" request
  7. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 10 August 2020 08: 20 New
    +9
    ! On April 4, 1944, a part of Bombay and the port were also destroyed by the explosion of the "Fort Staykin" steamer. In addition to explosives, there were also 155 bars of gold, worth $ 5 million, which simply disappeared somewhere. The fire was extinguished for two weeks.
    1. Galleon
      Galleon 10 August 2020 09: 53 New
      +2
      It's good that we remembered, I wanted to write about it myself. I will add a load of cotton - 1233 tons were scattered during the explosion and set fire to everything within a radius of 9 km.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 10 August 2020 10: 12 New
        +2
        Quote: Galleon
        I will add a load of cotton - 1233 tons were scattered during the explosion and set fire to everything within a radius of 9 km.

        Therefore, the wooden buildings burned for two weeks.
    2. dzvero
      dzvero 10 August 2020 12: 28 New
      +5
      For the sake of truth 154 - one ingot was returned by a conscientious Indian smile
  8. Coward
    Coward 10 August 2020 09: 15 New
    -1
    The author seems to have stolen an article from some US media. He did not mention either India or China.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. iouris
    iouris 10 August 2020 11: 07 New
    -5
    Let's discuss where in the Russian Federation can "explode". It seems that the other day (after the explosion) a law was passed allowing the creation of such warehouses. And the goal is urgent: increasing economic efficiency by reducing logistics costs.
    1. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
      Kuzmich Sibiryakov 10 August 2020 16: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: iouris
      Let's discuss where in the Russian Federation can "explode". It seems that the other day (after the explosion) a law was passed allowing the creation of such warehouses. And the goal is urgent: increasing economic efficiency by reducing logistics costs.

      Before carrying the bullshit. it would be good to read the Safety Rules for storage and transportation of explosives. You will find the following - store in quantity, in one warehouse no more, warehouses are located at a distance of at least, warehouses must be buried along the roof, in trenches or pits. The internal guards are armed with brass knives that spark when rubbed and struck. It is not allowed to store explosives for different purposes in one warehouse. It is not allowed to store initiating supplies and others in the same room. Removal of storage places from residential buildings - at least .....
      Like that. I don't mention the numbers, I studied them myself a long time ago, I'm afraid to lie.
      1. astepanov
        astepanov 10 August 2020 20: 24 New
        +2
        Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
        Before carrying the bullshit. it would be good to read the Safety Rules for storage and transportation of explosives.
        Honorable, you would choose expressions. You are nonsense. A local fertilizer warehouse, where ammonia was stored, was in former times in every collective farm or state farm. And NEVER a single collective farm exploded, although no one guessed that ammonia was an explosive. To detonate it, exceptional conditions are needed: a powerful intermediate detonator, or the melting of a very large amount of nitrate in a closed volume, or the ingestion of flammable liquid into it - which, again, facilitates detonation, but still requires a very powerful detonator. Of course, a fire in a warehouse can lead to anything, but this does not mean that the warehouse guard should be replaced by a sentry, walk with a copper knife, and let him into the warehouse with a special pass. I am sure that you will not be able to blow up a bag of ammonium nitrate - if you do not store at least a five-hundred-gram piece of solid rock at home.
        1. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
          Kuzmich Sibiryakov 11 August 2020 19: 23 New
          -1
          Quote: astepanov
          Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
          Before carrying the bullshit. it would be good to read the Safety Rules for storage and transportation of explosives.
          Honorable, you would choose expressions. You are nonsense. A local fertilizer warehouse, where ammonia was stored, was in former times in every collective farm or state farm. And NEVER a single collective farm exploded, although no one guessed that ammonia was an explosive. To detonate it, exceptional conditions are needed: a powerful intermediate detonator, or the melting of a very large amount of nitrate in a closed volume, or the ingestion of flammable liquid into it - which, again, facilitates detonation, but still requires a very powerful detonator. Of course, a fire in a warehouse can lead to anything, but this does not mean that the warehouse guard should be replaced by a sentry, walk with a copper knife, and let him into the warehouse with a special pass. I am sure that you will not be able to blow up a bag of ammonium nitrate - if you do not store at least a five-hundred-gram piece of solid rock at home.

          You don't even understand the basics. Everyone can carry delirium. What does "powerful initiator" mean? Explosives are subdivided into propellants (the purpose is clear) and high explosives. There are a huge number of blasting ones. Explosives have parameters of efficiency, brisance, sensitivity. I don't remember the numbers, but listen to the principles:
          Brisance:
          It is tested by weighing in ... (?) Grams, on a lead cylinder with a diameter (?) And a height (?), And, upon detonation, the change in its height is measured. The lower, the higher the brisance number.
          Sensitivity:
          A ball of steel diameter (?) With a mass (?) Is thrown from a height, and at which an explosion occurs, is the sensitivity number onto a sample poured onto a cast-iron plate, with a mass (?).
          The most sensitive is lead azide. sensitivity - 2 cm.
          To blow up ammonites (the same saltpeter mixed with wood powder), you can use any detonator cap. You can use a detonating cord. Capsule - 6 mm diameter copper thin-walled tube. There are slow motion, there are short slow motion. So, keep quiet about the power. It is not the force that is important, but the detonation speed. Impact speed. The cord transmits an impulse at a speed of 7 kilometers per second. As a mining foreman in a quarry, I had to carry out work related to massive explosions. And PB taught in a real way. Well recharging is not transferred per shift, no matter how long it may be. Who charged and fired. Not at night. With posts, signals and so on. My maximum is 15 tons.
          1. astepanov
            astepanov 12 August 2020 00: 16 New
            0
            Venerable, how long can you carry a blizzard?
            Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
            Explosives are subdivided into propellants (the purpose is clear) and high explosives.
            And the initiators? And high-explosive? You don't seem to have heard of such:
            Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
            You don't even understand the basics. Everyone can carry delirium. What does "powerful initiator" mean?
            This is what it means: the detonator is stuffed with initiating explosives: azides, stiphnates, fulminates. You say you were engaged in blasting operations? Aren't you lying?
            Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
            You can blow up ammonites (the same saltpeter mixed with wood powder) using any detonator cap.

            You somehow forget that in addition to saltpeter and wood powder, TNT, or even hexogen, is introduced into the ammonites. And ammonium nitrate is much less sensitive than ammonites or even ammonal. And one more thing: lead azide, of course, is a good thing, but the point is not only in the detonation speed, but also in the mass of explosives required to initiate detonation. And therefore, you cannot detonate ammonium nitrate with an ordinary detonator.
            And finally, comparing ammonium nitrate with explosives based on it is like comparing oxygen with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture. You don’t know the basics of chemistry and don’t understand. In general, you are ignorant with aplomb. Before being rude, at least they looked into the calendar, if you yourself do not know the subject.
            1. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
              Kuzmich Sibiryakov 12 August 2020 19: 31 New
              -1
              Quote: astepanov
              Venerable, how long can you carry a blizzard?
              Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
              Explosives are subdivided into propellants (the purpose is clear) and high explosives.
              And the initiators? And high-explosive? You don't seem to have heard of such:
              Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
              You don't even understand the basics. Everyone can carry delirium. What does "powerful initiator" mean?
              This is what it means: the detonator is stuffed with initiating explosives: azides, stiphnates, fulminates. You say you were engaged in blasting operations? Aren't you lying?
              Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
              You can blow up ammonites (the same saltpeter mixed with wood powder) using any detonator cap.

              You somehow forget that in addition to saltpeter and wood powder, TNT, or even hexogen, is introduced into the ammonites. And ammonium nitrate is much less sensitive than ammonites or even ammonal. And one more thing: lead azide, of course, is a good thing, but the point is not only in the detonation speed, but also in the mass of explosives required to initiate detonation. And therefore, you cannot detonate ammonium nitrate with an ordinary detonator.
              And finally, comparing ammonium nitrate with explosives based on it is like comparing oxygen with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture. You don’t know the basics of chemistry and don’t understand. In general, you are ignorant with aplomb. Before being rude, at least they looked into the calendar, if you yourself do not know the subject.

              Specifically, more digital mother. I remember this Astepanov in a blue beret with smooth brains on Newsland. That's not you? Blockhead. I'm not talking about the purpose of an artillery shell (talk about armor-piercing here). Once, already, he chattered about high-explosive. There were no words about a sufficient mass either. There was talk about the ammonium nitrate itself and the possibility of undermining it. Collected terminology. How could I forget about tetranitropentoerythritol? About Teneres? If there is a source of oxygen, then anything can explode - even wheat flour, even aluminum powder. About sugar already .... Your knowledge, idiotically expressed here neither in p .... nor in the red army. Read the topic first. There is only about saltpeter. Get out, flat-footed.
              1. astepanov
                astepanov 12 August 2020 22: 16 New
                0
                Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
                There was talk about the ammonium nitrate itself and the possibility of undermining it.

                That's it. But you started talking about ammonites, and not about ammonium nitrate. So what are the complaints against me? You, respectable, of course, a specialist, and even somewhere out of your ears heard something, but we are in different weight categories: I am a chemist with a university education, an academic degree and work experience of more than forty years in the defense industry. And for a start, you would learn to place commas.
                And one more thing: this style of communication is not accepted here. Bot on a hairdryer, be rude, resort to insults instead of arguments, you will be in the pub, and here, first, read the site rules. Do you want to whistle off the site? I can arrange.
                1. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
                  Kuzmich Sibiryakov 13 August 2020 23: 04 New
                  -1
                  Quote: astepanov
                  Quote: Kuzmich Sibiryakov
                  There was talk about the ammonium nitrate itself and the possibility of undermining it.

                  That's it. But you started talking about ammonites, and not about ammonium nitrate. So what are the complaints against me? You, respectable, of course, a specialist, and even somewhere out of your ears heard something, but we are in different weight categories: I am a chemist with a university education, an academic degree and work experience of more than forty years in the defense industry. And for a start, you would learn to place commas.
                  And one more thing: this style of communication is not accepted here. Bot on a hairdryer, be rude, resort to insults instead of arguments, you will be in the pub, and here, first, read the site rules. Do you want to whistle off the site? I can arrange.

                  Hence the lice, since the doctor of sciences begins to write off the names of substances from Wikipedia. Ascribing subcaliber and high-explosive projectiles to the blasting agent. Judging by the content of the speeches, the doctor bought a diploma in a Moscow gateway. When you can calculate the object's charging certificate, then chirp. To confuse the watchman with the paramilitary guard of a secure facility, of course, can only be a demoted, stealing ensign.
                  And what about give a damn. I speak with those and in their understandable languages.
    2. Local from the Volga
      Local from the Volga 10 August 2020 23: 13 New
      +1
      balabol! why this nonsense! ??? what law is a deer ?! this is another regulation !!!!
  11. Operator
    Operator 10 August 2020 11: 10 New
    -4
    Halifax with urban low-rise wooden buildings is not an indicator. In Beirut, reinforced concrete buildings did not suffer, so the number of victims is an order of magnitude less (taking into account the explosion force in TNT reduced to 1 ktn).

    In any case, it can be understood that the explosion of volumetric detonating American and Russian aerial bombs with a capacity of no more than 0,1 ktn in modern urban development will be generally negligible in terms of the consequences.

    Therefore, for the complete destruction of such, for example, ports as Haifa, it is necessary to use a 250-ktn 9N38M warhead with an AA-38 charge weighing 130 kg (optimal for equipping MLRS, OTRK, KR, aeroballistic missiles, RSD and torpedoes).
  12. Shilka
    Shilka 10 August 2020 17: 49 New
    +3
    In Beirut, people disagree with the theme of "cheerful welders" who evaporated in the explosion ..
    Photos and flags are interesting there ... I'm not hinting at anything and who, but it's all strange!
    PS These disasters from the centuries in the interest are directly posted on all sites ..
    And immediately thinking why and why? I do not believe !!!!
  13. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 10 August 2020 23: 30 New
    0
    in 1971 on June 13, an explosion of ammonium nitrate destroyed a village in the Tyumen region. My classmates and I talked about it ... Some 150 tons, and in the neighboring villages the windows went out. And the hole is 13 meters deep and 50 m in diameter (and the explosion is superficial)
  14. Edvid
    Edvid 11 August 2020 04: 23 New
    +1
    Our family lived in the mining town of Artem, Primorsky Territory. My father worked as a mining foreman at the 3-ts mine. He told the details of the explosion in the city in 1951. A warehouse with explosives for mines was located in the hills. An ordinary dirt road led to it. On the outskirts, it crossed a frail stream, into which several reinforced concrete pipes were laid across, sprinkled with soil on top. This improvised walkway was crushed by the wheels of trucks so that in places holes formed in the pipes, periodically covered by "anything", which was also broken by wheels ... My father repeatedly drove over it when he was sent to receive ammonal and detonator capsules for the mine. He said that while you crossed it, we jumped well several times. He always took boxes of detonators with him into the cockpit and kept them on his knees, although other escorts did not always do this ... Once again, another person was sent to receive ammonal with capsules. Later, during the investigation, warehouse workers said that the attendant handed boxes of detonators to two workers in the back and warned them to be kept on their knees. They loaded two tons of ammonal, although more often they received a ton each, and drove back. On the ill-fated bridge, their "Studebaker" flew into the air ... One of the rear axles of the car was found a kilometer from the explosion site on a hill, and the front wheel was two kilometers below ... At the explosion site, a funnel filled with water with a diameter of ten meters and several meters deep.
    1. Kuzmich Sibiryakov
      Kuzmich Sibiryakov 11 August 2020 20: 00 New
      0
      Quote: Edvid
      Our family lived in the mining town of Artem, Primorsky Territory. My father worked as a mining foreman at the 3-ts mine. He told the details of the explosion in the city in 1951. A warehouse with explosives for mines was located in the hills. An ordinary dirt road led to it. On the outskirts, it crossed a frail stream, into which several reinforced concrete pipes were laid across, sprinkled with soil on top. This improvised walkway was crushed by the wheels of trucks so that in places holes formed in the pipes, periodically covered by "anything", which was also broken by wheels ... My father repeatedly drove over it when he was sent to receive ammonal and detonator capsules for the mine. He said that while you crossed it, we jumped well several times. He always took boxes of detonators with him into the cockpit and kept them on his knees, although other escorts did not always do this ... Once again, another person was sent to receive ammonal with capsules. Later, during the investigation, warehouse workers said that the attendant handed boxes of detonators to two workers in the back and warned them to be kept on their knees. They loaded two tons of ammonal, although more often they received a ton each, and drove back. On the ill-fated bridge, their "Studebaker" flew into the air ... One of the rear axles of the car was found a kilometer from the explosion site on a hill, and the front wheel was two kilometers below ... At the explosion site, a funnel filled with water with a diameter of ten meters and several meters deep.

      According to safety rules, it is forbidden to transport initiating ammunition (primers) and the explosive in the same car (carriage, cart, bag, etc.). Not just in the cab-body. At all. Razdolba-releasing explosives were simply obliged not to issue primers. Documents, upon registration, clearly indicate the number, type, transport, and the names of all accompanying persons. You cannot cheat with a setup. They are on trial. There are no carriers, of course. For absence in this world.