Military Review

The fate of the Zaporozhye Cossacks

68

In previous articles (Don Cossacks and Cossacks и Cossacks: on land and at sea) we talked a little about stories the emergence of the Cossacks, its two historical centers, some differences between the Cossacks of the Don and Zaporozhye regions. And also about the sea campaigns of the Cossacks and some land battles. We will now continue this story.


Perhaps the most powerful during the entire existence of the Sich was at the time of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. The Zaporozhians, albeit in alliance with the Crimean Tatars, at that time could fight on equal terms with the rather powerful Commonwealth and even seize the territory of the Kiev, Bratslav and Chernigov provinces. A new state appeared, which the Cossacks called the "Zaporozhian Army", but it is better known as the "Hetmanate".

The fate of the Zaporozhye Cossacks

Hetmanate in 1649-1654

In its best years, this state included the territories of the present Poltava and Chernigov regions, some areas of the Kiev, Cherkassk, Sumy regions of Ukraine and the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

"Hetmanate," Russian Flood "and Ruin


Bogdan Khmelnitsky, as you know, managed to persuade the Russian government of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov to accept the Cossacks into citizenship. This decision was not easy for Moscow, and Khmelnitsky's first appeal, received in 1648, remained unanswered. When new requests followed, Alexei Mikhailovich did not want to take responsibility and convened the Zemsky Sobor, which was destined to become the last in the history of Russia.

On October 1, 1653, the Council decreed:

"To accept under your state high hand the entire Zaporozhian Army with cities and lands and Orthodox Christians, since the Rzeczpospolita is trying to eradicate them without exception."

That is, the main reason and the main reason for the intervention turned out to be not the desire to increase the territory, and especially not the issues of some benefit, but humanitarian considerations - the desire to help fellow believers.

On January 18, 1654, the famous Pereyaslavskaya Rada took place, at which a decision was made to transfer to the jurisdiction of Moscow. And Russia had to fight for 13 years with the Poles, who often call this war the "Russian Flood". After the death of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, a civil war began in the Hetmanate between the pro-Russian and Polish parties, which went down in history as the Ruin. Hetmans Yuri Khmelnitsky, Ivan Vygovsky, Pavel Teterya, Yakim Skamko, Ivan Bryukhovetsky, Cossack colonels, the foreman grappled with each other, now concluding alliances, then tearing them apart, ravaging the lands and calling for help either from Poles or Tatars. Anzhej Pototsky, who founded the city of Stanislav (now - Ivano-Frankivsk), writes about the events of those years:

"Now they eat themselves there, the town is fighting against the town, the son of the father, the father of the son is robbing."

The Andrusiv truce of 1667 consolidated the split in the failed state of Bohdan Khmelnitsky: the border passed along the Dnieper. Until 1704, its fragments were controlled by two hetmans - the left and right banks of the Dnieper. But on the right bank the power of the hetmans was soon eliminated, and some territories of the left bank Ukraine, the center of which was Kiev, began to be called the hetmanate. Mazepa's successor Ivan Skoropadsky became the last elected hetman of the Zaporozhye Army in the Rada, but the title itself was abolished only in 1764. Kirill Razumovsky, who at that time held the post of hetman, received the rank of field marshal in return. And in 1782, the centenary-regimental administrative structure of the former Hetmanate was abolished.

The Zaporozhian Cossacks now served Russia, together with the Russian troops they went to the Chigirinsky (1677-1678), Crimean (1687 and 1689) and Azov (1695-1696) campaigns.

Koshevoy Ataman Ivan Serko


Especially famous at that time was the koshevoy ataman of the Chertomlyk Sich (he was elected to this position 20 times) Ivan Serko (Sirko) - he is usually called the author of the legendary letter to the Turkish sultan. We can see this ataman in the famous painting by I. Repin; the governor-general of Kiev M.I.Dragomirov considered it an honor to become a model.


This is how we see Ivan Serko in Repin's painting "The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish Sultan"

Ivan Serko fought a lot: with the Crimea, with the Turks, in Ukraine (against the hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine Petro Doroshenko and together with him, for which he was exiled to Tobolsk after his capture, but was forgiven). In 1664, his actions provoked an anti-Polish uprising in western Ukraine - justifying himself, he wrote to the king:
“Turning around from under the Turkish town of Tyagin, I went under the Cherkasy towns. Hearing about my parish, Ivan Sirk, the townspeople themselves began to whip and slash Jews and Poles. "

Unlike his predecessors, Serko went to the Crimea not on seagulls, but at the head of a foot army. The most famous was the campaign of 1675. His army entered the Crimea through Sivash and captured Gezlev, Karasubazar and Bakhchisarai, and then defeated the Khan's army at Perekop. It was then that Serko tried to take several thousand Christian captives out of the Crimea, and when some of them wanted to return back, the angry chieftain ordered to kill them.

Ivan Serko was the last of the great koshevy chieftains: the time of the Cossacks was already running out, great victories were in the past. They could still fight the Tatars and Turks, but had little chance of meeting the correct European army, turning into auxiliary light cavalry.

However, the habit of self-righteousness did not leave the Cossacks, and the main reason for the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774 is considered their attack on the Turkish city of Balta.

Decline and degradation of the Zaporizhzhya Sich


The fall of the Sich was accelerated by the betrayal of Hetman Mazepa in 1709 (Konstantin Gordeenko was then the kosh chieftain of the Cossacks). Colonel Pyotr Yakovlev took the Chertomlyk Sich and destroyed its fortifications.

The surviving Cossacks tried to gain a foothold in the Kamenskaya Sich (downstream of the Dnieper), but were expelled from there as well. The New Sich (Aleshkovskaya) ended up on the territory of the Crimean Khanate: the Zaporozhians who call themselves Orthodox swore allegiance to the Muslim Khan without the slightest remorse. The last (eighth in a row) Pidpilnyanskaya Sich appeared in 1734 after the decree on the amnesty of the Cossacks, signed by Anna Ioannovna. It was located on a peninsula formed by the bend of the Podpolnaya River. Now this territory is in the flooding zone of the Kakhovskoye reservoir.

7268 people came here and built 38 kurens. The settlement of Hasan-bash grew up near the Sich, in which craftsmen and merchants lived.

This was already a completely different Sich: the Cossacks now did not hesitate to start arable land, on which, however, they did not work, but hired workers. They were also engaged in cattle breeding. Many now had wives and children. The family Cossacks, however, paid a special tax - "smoke", did not have the right to vote in the Rada and could not be elected to the chieftain. But it seems that they did not strive for this, preferring the measured life of large landowners: even in military campaigns, some of the Cossacks began to send mercenaries instead of themselves.

The inhabitants of the Pidpilnyanskaya Sich were divided into three groups. The richest and most influential Cossacks were called significant. In 1775, the Zaporozhye foreman and significant Cossacks owned 19 townships, 45 villages and 1600 farms in the surrounding lands.

The Cossacks, called "siroma" (the poor), had no property (except weapons and clothing), but received a salary for being in constant readiness for a campaign or defense of the Sich.

But most of all there were "golutvs" - these had neither the rights nor the weapons and worked for the significant Cossacks. Social contradictions in the last Sich were so high that in 1749 and 1768. the uprisings of the Syroma and Golutva had to be suppressed by the Russian troops.

Liquidation of the Pidpilnyanskaya Sich


In June 1775, this Sich, the last of the Zaporozhye, was liquidated by order of Catherine II.

The fact is that after the conclusion of the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhiyskiy peace with Turkey in 1774, the threat from the south practically disappeared. The Commonwealth was in a deep crisis and did not pose a threat to Russia. Thus, the Sich lost its military significance. But the Zaporozhye foreman, not realizing that the situation had changed, continued to irritate the tsarist government, accepting fugitive peasants, the Haidamaks of the Right-Bank Ukraine (which caused discontent in the Commonwealth), defeated Pugachevites and simply "dashing people":

"They accept indiscriminately into their bad society people of every rabble, every language and every faith."

(From the decree of Catherine II.)

In addition, the Cossacks hindered the settlement of the colonists on the territory they independently occupied, which they called the Great Meadow. In the so-called Slavic Serbia, the territory between the Bakhmut, Seversky Donets and Lugan rivers, it came to direct clashes.

Peter Tekeli was entrusted with executing the imperial decree, who managed to quietly bring the troops and take the Sich fortifications without firing a single shot. This is a rather eloquent evidence of the degradation of the fighting skills of the Sichs, who managed to oversleep their capital. “We practiced the performance of a dream,” Tekeli found it possible to joke in his report.


P. A. Tekeli

Only the koshevoy Peter Kalnyshevsky, the clerk Globa and the judge Pavlo Golovaty, who were involved in ties with the Turks, were repressed. The rest of the Cossack foreman and significant Cossacks did not suffer - they kept their lands and received titles of nobility. Ordinary Cossacks were asked to go to serve in the hussars and pikiners' regiments, but strict military discipline did not attract the Cossacks.

Cossacks beyond the Danube


The most implacable Cossacks left for the territory of the Ottoman Empire, there were about 5 thousand of them. Initially, they settled in the village of Kuchurgan in the lower reaches of the Dniester. When a new Russian-Turkish war began (1787-1792), some of these fugitives returned to Russia. Those who remained after the end of the war were resettled to the Danube Delta region, where they built the Katerlec Sach. Here they fought to death with the Nekrasov Cossacks who left the Don after the defeat of the uprising of Kondraty Bulavin. The Nekrasovites burned a new Sich twice, so the Cossacks had to go to Brailovsky Island. But in 1814 the Cossacks also burned the capital of the Nekrasovites - Verkhny Dunavets.

In 1796, a second group of Cossacks returned to Russia - about 500 people. In 1807, two more detachments of the Cossacks adopted Russian citizenship, of which the Ust-Buzh Cossack army was originally formed, but after 5 months they were resettled to the Kuban. In 1828, during the new Russian-Turkish war, the Trans-Danube Zaporozhian Cossacks split up again: some left for Edirne, the rest, led by the Koshev Ataman Gladky, went over to the side of Russia. At first, they formed the Azov Cossack army, located between Mariupol and Berdyansk. But in 1860 they were also moved to the Kuban.

Black Sea Cossacks


Other Cossacks in 1787 became part of the new Cossack army - the Black Sea (“The Army of the Faithful Black Sea Cossacks”), which was initially deployed between the Bug and Dniester. This happened thanks to the help of Grigory Potemkin (who for some time lived in Sich under the name of Gritsko Nechez). During the famous trip of Catherine II to the newly acquired southern provinces, the prince organized a meeting of the empress with the former Zaporozhye foremen, who turned to her with a request to restore the Zaporozhye army. After receiving a positive answer, Potemkin instructed Sidor Bely and Anton Golovaty (both at that time had the rank of Major Seconds) "to collect hunters, both horse and foot for boats, from those who settled in this governorship who served in the former Sich Zaporizhzhya Cossacks."

Potemkin entrusted the general command to Sidor Bely, who became koshev ataman, the cavalry units were headed by Zakhary Chepega, rowing ships (the famous seagulls) and the infantrymen stationed on them - Anton Golovaty.

It was among the Black Sea Cossacks that the units of the famous plastuns were organized. In fact, the first scouts appeared in the Zaporozhye Sich as scouts and saboteurs, but the Cossack freemen did not create permanent regular combat units out of them.

During the next Russian-Turkish war, the Black Sea men distinguished themselves in the Liman sea battle near Ochakov, participated in the capture of the Khadzhibey fortress (Odessa was founded in its place) and the Berezan island. In the future, the Black Sea flotilla the seagulls participated in the capture of the Danube fortresses of Isakcha and Tulcea, and the Cossacks themselves - in the storming of Izmail. During this war, Sidor Bely was killed. As a sign of trust and gratitude to the former Cossacks, the banners and other regalia captured in the Sich were returned, and Grigory Potemkin even accepted the title of hetman of the Cossack troops of Yekaterinoslav and the Black Sea and went down in history as the last hetman.

Before dying, Potemkin handed over Taman and the Kerch Peninsula to the Black Sea people, but he did not have time to legally formalize this act. After his death, a delegation headed by military judge A.A. Golovaty was sent to St. Petersburg to secure the lands given to him.


Golovaty Anton Andreevich

During the coronation of Catherine II, Holovaty was already introduced to the new empress - he played the bandura for her and sang a folk song. On another occasion he visited St. Petersburg and saw Catherine as part of the Cossack delegation in 1774. Since, in addition to the territories granted by Potemkin, the delegation also asked for land on the right bank of the Kuban, the negotiations were not easy, but ended in success. On June 30, 1792, the former Cossacks were transferred

"Into eternal possession ... in the Tauride region, the island of Phanagoria with all the land lying on the right side of the Kuban River from its mouth to the Ust-Labinskiy redoubt - so that on one side the Kuban River, on the other the Sea of ​​Azov to the Yeisk town served as the border of military land ".



Land of the Black Sea Troops, in the future - Kuban

The path to the Kuban of the Black Sea Cossacks


The resettlement of the Cossacks was carried out in several stages and in different ways: sea and land.


Resettlement of the Black Sea Cossacks to the Kuban

The first group sailed to Taman from the Ochakovsky estuary on August 16, 1792. The Cossack squadron of 50 boats and 11 transport ships was led by the brigantine "Annunciation" of the naval brigadier PV Pustoshkin and guarded by several "corser ships". These Black Sea men were headed by the Cossack Colonel Savva Bely. On August 25, they safely landed on the banks of the Taman.


Monument to the Cossacks at the site of their landing in Taman

The second - a cavalry group, under the command of the military chieftain Zakhary Chepegi, left on September 2, 1792 and reached the borders of the new military land on October 23.


Military Ataman of the Black Sea Cossack Army Z.A. Chepega

Those who remained the following year, also by land, were led by Golovaty.

How many Cossacks came to the Kuban? The numbers vary considerably. A. Skalkovsky, for example, claimed that we are talking about 5803 Cossacks. M. Mandrika cited the figure of 8200 people, I. Popka spoke about 13 thousand combatant Cossacks and about 5 thousand women. P. Korolenko and F. Shcherbina counted 17 thousand men only.

In the report drawn up for the Tavrichesky governor S.S.Zhegulin on December 1, 1793, the Black Sea Cossack army still included 6 horsemen and 931 infantrymen.

A year later, 16 people were counted, including 222 fit for service. But the Cossacks among them were 10 people. Among the rest there were immigrants from Little Russia, "zholnery who left the Polish service", "the state department of the villagers", people of "muzhik rank" and "no one knows what rank" (apparently, fugitives and deserters). There were also a number of Bulgarians, Serbs, Albanians, Greeks, Lithuanians, Tatars and even Germans.

In 1793, the capital of the "Chernomoria" was founded - Karasun (at the confluence of the river of the same name into the Kuban), which was soon renamed Yekaterinodar (from 1920 - Krasnodar). In 1794, a lot was cast at the military council, according to which new lands were divided between 40 kurens.

From 1801 to 1848 the government also resettled to the Kuban more than one hundred thousand Cossacks of the Azov, Budzhak, Poltava, Yekaterinoslav, Dnieper and Slobod regiments - the Cossacks were no longer needed here. They also became the Black Sea, and then - the Kuban Cossacks. Those of the Cossacks that nevertheless remained on the territory of Ukraine, avoiding resettlement from a well-fed and peaceful province to the troubled lands of the Kuban, in fact, have not been such since then, and quickly merged with the general mass of inhabitants. Therefore, 1848 can be considered the last year of the existence of the Cossacks in Ukraine (recall that in 1860 the last Trans-Danube Cossacks were also resettled to the Kuban, who originally formed the Azov army on the territory of Novorossia, which is now part of Ukraine).

The population of the new Cossack army was also replenished with fugitive peasants, whom the Cossacks who needed workers willingly hid from the authorities.

One of the conditions for donating the Kuban land was the protection of a section of the line stretching from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea along the Kuban and Terek. The share of the new army was 260 versts, along which about 60 posts and cordons and more than a hundred pickets were set up.

Kuban Cossack army


In 1860, the Cossack troops from the mouth of the Terek to the mouth of the Kuban were divided into two troops: Kuban and Terskoe. The Kuban army, along with the former Black Sea troops, included two more regiments of the linear Cossack army (linemen). The Kuban regiment, located in the middle reaches of this river, consisted of the descendants of the Don and Volga Cossacks, who moved here in the 1780s. The Khopyor regiment, located in the upper Kuban, was represented by the Cossacks who previously lived between the Khoper and Medveditsa rivers. Later he was transferred to the North Caucasus, fought there with the Kabardians and founded the city of Stavropol. In 1828, these Cossacks returned to the Kuban.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. Don Cossacks and Cossacks
Ryzhov V.A.Zaporozhtsy: on land and at sea
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 04: 13 New
    +3
    Probably, one of the reasons was the desire of the authorities to correct the mentality of the Cossacks. Serving in Zaporozhye and living on their own land, they considered themselves quite free. Having received new lands, they became obliged and more loyal to the authorities. recourse
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 10 August 2020 05: 01 New
      +1
      This policy continues now smile judging by the laws on self-employed and summer residents.
      1. gsev
        gsev 10 August 2020 18: 09 New
        -1
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        judging by the laws on self-employed and summer residents.

        In principle, the self-employed can already be used as Plast Cossacks instead of expensive contract soldiers. Showed the annual income is not very high, be kind in Libya or Syria, for example, for a fee 2 or 3 times higher than the income you showed.
    2. smart ass
      smart ass 10 August 2020 05: 32 New
      -7
      Conclusion one Russia from the Ukrainians some problems, from ancient times
      1. sav
        sav 10 August 2020 06: 23 New
        12
        Quote: Clever man
        Conclusion one Russia from the Ukrainians some problems, from ancient times

        Then not from the Ukrainians, but from the managers
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 10 August 2020 10: 20 New
          +5
          Quote: sav
          Then not from the Ukrainians, but from the managers

          Excuse me! Ours? Present?
          1. rich
            rich 10 August 2020 18: 05 New
            0
            The Khopersky regiment, located in the upper Kuban, was represented by the Cossacks who previously lived between the rivers Khoper and Medveditsa. Later he was transferred to the North Caucasus, fought there with the Kabardians and founded the city of Stavropol, and then returned to his native Kuban.

            belay ?????
            Dear Author, what connection did you see between the Khopersky regiment, which was part of the Astrakhan KV and only on January 12, 1879 in the KKV was transferred to the Kuban KV and the Cossacks, about whom you are writing this article? Cossacks were not even close here yes
            Wikipedia:The Khopersk regiments originate from the Khopersk Cossacks, which, in turn, were formed on the Don from the natives of the Tambov province who served in the city service. On July 17, 1696, the Khopyorsk Cossacks, including the Don Cossacks, broke into the Azov fortress and thereby facilitated its surrender to the Russians. From this date, the seniority of the Khopersky regiment is being conducted.
            On June 2, 1724, from the Khopyorsk Cossacks who lived after the destruction of their towns on the Don by Bulavin, near the Novokhopyorsk fortress, the Khopyorsk Cossack team was formed, which was transformed in 1767 into a regiment. On April 24, 1777, the Khopersky regiment was included in the Astrakhan Cossack army.

            And finally, as they say, a control shot. - With all due respect to the Khoper people, they did not found the city of Stavropol. This is wishful thinking. Unfortunately, this is quite common in your articles. yes
            Stavropol has a real historical "father". Stavropol was founded in 1777 by the commandant of the Fortress of the Holy Cross, Colonel Nikolai Fedorovich Ladyzhensky, by order of Governor-General Ivan Varfolomeevich Jacobi, by decree of Empress Catherine II.
            Photo Nikolay Fedorovich Ladyzhensky
    3. Maverick78
      Maverick78 10 August 2020 08: 39 New
      +1
      Not quite the wrong side of the mentality) It's just that the Cossacks were poorly controlled in principle and did a bunch of different garbage (and what else can you expect from them?)) And while they were useful, they put up with the shortcomings. As soon as there was no benefit, the issue was resolved.
    4. Bar1
      Bar1 10 August 2020 09: 43 New
      -7
      after the Dnieper and Danube Cossacks after Katka suddenly became Kuban Cossacks, they even changed their dress code. The famous Cossack trousers went somewhere, instead of a high hat with a cap came



      , some kind of inexpressive Kubanka, which did not protect from even the cold.



      Why was it so popular in the past to wear high hats? After all, sometimes, as in the example of the boyars, it reached the point of absurdity. The hypertrophied headdress was very high and of course very expensive - about forty sables, but the nobility loved to wear such clothes, the boyars had the same long sleeves, of course all this was not practical, but very symbolic.



      for example, a cylinder, the same thing, it was a high headdress, most of which rose above the head and was not actually needed by a person.



      then the question arises, why did people use tall hats that were not practical to wear?
      Only one answer comes to mind: it was some kind of ancient tradition of imitation of noble and powerful persons who wore such hats as needed, and the need to cover their heads with a high hat was, if the head itself was long, for example, the legendary dinlins. then the race had an elongated head. And such a race lived with modern people apparently quite recently.
      And such skulls are found all over the world.

      https://nlo-mir.ru/civilizacia/35078-tajna-vytjanutogo-cherepa.html
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 10 August 2020 10: 03 New
        -5
        By the way, the same can be said for boyar clothes, in which the sleeves hung almost to the floor and the impression was created that these clothes were not from the shoulder of this person, but from a higher one.

        1. VIP
          VIP 10 August 2020 21: 00 New
          0
          "The same can be said about boyar clothes" yeah, it means there was some kind of race of giants, and the insidious Germans (English, Tatars, whatever you want) arranged, and the clothes remained from the giants.
          But in my opinion, everything is simpler: some relative of the tsar (Miloslavsky, Naryshkin or Sobakin) sewed himself a fur coat without fitting, the Lobanovs, Buinosovs, let's play monkey.
      2. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 10: 20 New
        +4
        Quote: Bar1
        after the Dnieper and Danube Cossacks after Katka suddenly became Kuban Cossacks, even their uniform changed. Where the famous Cossack trousers left, instead of a high hat with a cap came some kind of inexpressive Kubanka, which did not even protect from the cold.
        fool The Dnieper and Danube Cossacks did not "suddenly become Kuban Cossacks," but moved to another territory, to another region, and received a different cultural environment. And all the crap flew off them like a sunflower peel. hats with a clown's cap - hesitated to add? Kubanka is more practical and convenient for horse racing. In cold weather + head. If you noticed the climate in Kuban is different. fool Circassians, local flavor, appeared instead of zhupans.
        Why was it so popular in the past to wear high hats? After all, sometimes, as in the example of the boyars, it reached the point of absurdity. The hypertrophied headdress was very high and of course very expensive - about forty sables, but the nobility loved to wear
        Read fiction and there will be no "smart" questions. The boyars strictly observed their status. It is impossible to appear in society bareheaded. A sable hat both in palace chambers and on the street in summer and winter. With a small fur hat, sweat and heatstroke are guaranteed. In a large hat, a large volume of air, the heating is not so intense. request .
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 10 August 2020 10: 50 New
          -12
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          Dnieper and Danube Cossacks did not "suddenly become Kuban Cossacks", but moved to another territory, to another region


          to another territory, where it is better, people move, which begins and ends here.
          And the Russians and the Cossacks have always FIRED FOR THEIR LAND and the land of their ancestors. Therefore, the stupid stories from the OI that the Cossacks in the Sich "disbanded" and "voluntarily moved" are a lie from the official history.

          Quote: Mavrikiy
          With a small fur hat, sweat and heatstroke guaranteed

          is that why the tsar had a monomakh's hat? Couldn't think of anything dumber?
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 11: 23 New
            +3
            Quote: Bar1
            to another territory, where it is better, people move, which begins and ends here.
            So i say Cossacks.
            Quote: Bar1
            And the Russians and the Cossacks have always FIRED FOR THEIR LAND and the land of their ancestors. Therefore, the stupid stories from the OI that the Cossacks in the Sich "disbanded" and "voluntarily moved" are a lie from the official history.

            Well, at least they drove to the Kuban for bad behavior, but they could have gone to Siberia, beat nuts, and scare the Chinese.
            Quote: Bar1
            Quote: Mavrikiy
            With a small fur hat, sweat and heatstroke guaranteed

            is that why the tsar had a monomakh's hat? Couldn't think of anything dumber?

            fool fool Monomakh fur hat? fool 1. It is assembled from gold plates and has a sable edge. fool 2. Its origin is not known (Byzantine, Mongolian, our construct is made of old hats) 3. Boyar hats made of expensive fur. Monomakh, a symbol of power, did not walk down the street in her, and did not sweat in his clothes.fool
            Thus: The cap of the monomakh is not = boyar in position, but is ceremonial. In winter you can chill your brains on the street. Think Better.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 10 August 2020 11: 48 New
              -9
              Quote: Mavrikiy
              Monomakh fur hat? 1. It is assembled from gold plates and has a sable edge.

              Frosya you are a burlakova, you don't even know that. Monomakh's hat is exactly a hat that was in contact with the head not with metal, but with the material of the hat, so it was convenient to wear such a hat. The top of the hat is a golden one-piece helmet.
              And the fact that all these sable edges and pearls can exist, how many are there? Years 900 is another Oishnoye lie.
              1. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 12: 35 New
                0
                Quote: Bar1
                Frosya you're a burlakova, you don't even know that. Monomakh's hat is exactly a hat,

                No, you are not Frosya Burlakova, you are monstrously ignorant, young friend. Ham and ignoramus, picked up on the Internet and you cannot connect two words.
                Monomakh's hat is not a hat. fool This is a royal crown, they were crowned with it for the kingdom, they wore it once in a lifetime, and did not wander around the palace, the fish soup is freezing. fool
                1. Bar1
                  Bar1 10 August 2020 14: 21 New
                  -6
                  Quote: Mavrikiy
                  No, you are not Frosya Burlakova, you are monstrously ignorant, young friend. Ham and ignoramus, picked up on the Internet and you cannot connect two words.

                  to be stunned by so many different and all about the same. Or it is generally one or clones from one viper.
                  Quote: Mavrikiy
                  Monomakh's hat is not exactly a hat. This is a royal crown, they were crowned with it for the kingdom, they wore it once in a lifetime, and did not wander around the palace, the fish soup is freezing.


                  the crown is here


                  or here

                  Ivan4



                  or Ivan 4 receives ambassadors from Herberstein. On his head is the Sun's crown, and not some stupid hat of Monomakh.




                  this is called the CROWN. Hence, for flowers, the inflorescence is also a crown / corolla.
                  Those. The solar crown symbol, because that religion is old belief and was SUNNY. The crown was called - a crown, not a hat, hence.
                  -Wends / Wends-sun worshipers
                  -Venice is a sunny city
                  -Hungary is a sunny country
                  -Vienna is a sunny city
                  -Vandom -duchy
                  and so on.

                  But it is inconvenient to wear a metal structure on the head all the time, so the sun crown was put on a hat.
                  Van Klenk's journey to Muscovy,
                  Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich sits on the seashore, possibly in Tsar-Grad in a solar crown.

                  1. VIP
                    VIP 10 August 2020 21: 35 New
                    +1
                    Tsar-grad-Constantinople-Istanbul. What the hell brought Alexei Mikhailovich to Istanbul. Perhaps he wanted to drink tea with the Sultan.? Under Alexei Mikhailovich, Russia had access to the White and Caspian Seas, and Constantinople there was no sideways. Perhaps Alexey Mikhailovich did not even go to these seas
            2. Bar1
              Bar1 10 August 2020 14: 49 New
              -6
              Quote: Mavrikiy
              Monomakh fur hat? 1. It is assembled from gold plates and has a sable edge.

              and you countergenesis can you prove it? Those. the fur is attached to the gold plates below and that's it? One can feel a humanist with a shattered imagination. This audience is far from reality.
            3. rich
              rich 10 August 2020 18: 34 New
              -1
              Mavrikiy: Well, at least they drove to the Kuban for bad behavior, but they could have gone to Siberia, beat nuts, and scare the Chinese.

              Kuban, at that time was far from the most peaceful place to live. There since 1763. For more than a hundred years, a fierce Russian-Kabardian war was going on. Millions of victims. It is not for nothing that the famous meadow near Sochi is still called Krasnaya
              1. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 11 August 2020 05: 17 New
                0
                Quote: Rich
                It is not for nothing that the famous glade near Sochi is still called Krasnaya

                Controversial. Red barracks - they were lined with red bricks. The Sun is Red, the Maiden is Red, and so on. Although it may not be so categorical. hi
                1. rich
                  rich 11 August 2020 14: 12 New
                  0
                  There weren't any red barracks lined with red bricks. This is exclusively your speculation.But the war was yes
                  Let's look at the Internet:
                  On the site of modern Krasnaya Polyana 140 years ago there was aul Kbaade [2] - the largest in the Mzymta valley [8], in which the Adyghe tribe of Abazins lived [16]. It was destined to become a place of historical importance. Kbaade became the last stronghold of the mountaineers who defended their independence, who did not want to submit to the king, as well as to move to Turkey.
                  On May 21, 1864, Kbaade was surrounded by four detachments of Russian troops that participated in the Caucasian War. The defenders and residents were killed, but not the submissive aul was completely destroyed [7].
                  A moleben was served here, and a manifesto was written about the end of the Caucasian War [15]. After the departure of the Russian troops for 14 years, this place was uninhabited. Only in 1878 people appeared here. These were the messengers of the Greeks living in the Stavropol province, who were looking for free land for settlement. Through the Pseashkho Pass [6] they reached a spacious meadow overgrown with ferns. It was in the fall. The walkers were struck by the color of the vegetation - red-brown fern, bright red and golden maples, sweet cherries, shrubs. Therefore, they called the meadow "Krasnaya". [5]
                  1. Mavrikiy
                    Mavrikiy 11 August 2020 15: 27 New
                    0
                    Quote: Rich
                    There weren't any red barracks lined with red bricks.
                    Don't be so categorical. The question was about the historical content of the adjective "red". I gave an example, in Chelyabinsk there were Red barracks, there was a wooden building around.
                    Quote: Rich
                    This is exclusively your speculation
                    No one spoke about the red barracks in Krasnaya Polyana. So it turned out by myself fool
              2. Rakovor
                Rakovor 11 August 2020 07: 04 New
                +1
                What is really there, write - billions.))
                1. rich
                  rich 11 August 2020 15: 18 New
                  0
                  rich: Kuban, at that time was far from the most peaceful place to live. There since 1763. For more than a hundred years, a fierce Russian-Kabardian war was going on. Millions dead

                  Rakovor (Michael): Yes, really there, write - billions.)

                  You blaspheme in vain. Irony is not appropriate here
                  This is what was reported to the emperor in 1964 by the Governor of the Caucasus, the commander of the Caucasian army, Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich, brother of Tsar Alexander II, the commander of the Caucasian Corps, Adjutant General Prince. Alexander Ivanovich Baryatinsky and Major General Rostislav Andreevich Fadeev:
                  "... The losses of the irregular troops, Cossacks and militia are not taken into account in our calculations at all. As well as the losses from the mountain raids of the local Velikaros and Little Russian population of these places. Such data were not kept. According to our calculation, this is a strong bloodletting for Russia , which, according to this calculation, since the time of Tsarina Catherine II, buried about a million soldiers in the mountains of the Caucasus, killed, died of diseases and prisoners
                  Irrecoverable enemy losses from 1763 to this year, according to our calculations, are not less than one and a half million ... "

                  A.I. Chernyshev, who during the entire reign of Nicholas I held the post of Minister of War, that is, was a very knowledgeable person, noted:
                  "On paper, the number of government troops was never exactly taken into account, although it is believed that more than half a million Russian soldiers died in the Caucasus campaigns of 1834-1859 alone."

                  And here is what E.A. Golovin, General of Infantry, Adjutant General of the Russian Imperial Army, who served as commander of the Separate Caucasian Corps from November 30, 1837 to October 25, 1842:
                  "In 1838 - 1843 in the Caucasus, up to 30 thousand of our soldiers perished annually and a sixth of the income of the Russian state went to waging war in that region" ("Outline of the state of military affairs in the Caucasus, from the beginning of 1838 to the end of 1842". 1847.
            4. VIP
              VIP 10 August 2020 21: 07 New
              -1
              It seems that the historian Rybakov came to the conclusion that initially the hat was of Mongolian origin, perhaps it was presented to some of the appanage princes in Sarai, and later it was trimmed with fur and the cross was spiked on top
              1. Mavrikiy
                Mavrikiy 11 August 2020 05: 29 New
                0
                Quote: VIP
                the historian Rybakov, came to the conclusion that initially the cap was of Mongolian origin, possibly to one of the appanage princes in Sarai

                In the internet video. They studied the gold wire of the cap and came to the conclusion about its Byzantine origin. Technology, the thickness is 0,4 mm, while the Mongols have 0,25. Further, weaving and rolling, which was not used in the east. It is assumed that the Hat of Monomakh, it was our order for the crown, but its lower part was destroyed and during the "repair" a sable edge appeared.
      3. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 11: 20 New
        +9
        Quote: Bar1
        Why was it so popular in the past to wear high hats?

        Bar, I give you a bold plus to this comment. I liked it, the mood was right up in the morning. laughing
        But tell me: these long-headed, anthropomorphic overgrown creatures with long limbs - who are they? Are these the same "white gods" on the vimanas? Are these our ancestors or those whom our ancestors served and imitated?
        Another question: do the Tartarians have anything to do with these creatures?
        And the last question:

        It's them?
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 10 August 2020 12: 27 New
          -9
          The trilobite again understood everything in its own way. Who hurts what ...
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 14: 32 New
            +5
            No, well, if Churchill's top hat can be used as proof of your theory, then, probably, the tails of his tailcoat can also be used ... And they certainly prove that those whom our ancestors, who wore high hats, wanted to be like, were tailed!
            So, elongated skulls and limbs, tails, sizes larger than human ... On the periphery of consciousness such names as "Nibiru", "Reptilians" and other Anunnaki are already flashing ...
            Bar, you are reaching a new level of enlightenment. Come back to your reality - say hello to Prokopenko, he must also be somewhere there ... laughing
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 11 August 2020 20: 50 New
              +1
              By the way, Dolnik has interesting arguments in the field of ethology. And, for example, a judge in a wig and a robe compares with a respected gray-haired male baboon.
        2. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 12: 28 New
          +5
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          But tell me: these long-headed, anthropomorphic overgrown creatures with long limbs - who are they? Are these the same "white gods" on the vimanas? These are our ancestors
          No, these are the ancestors of Bar, before the Black Sea was dug up.request
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 14: 44 New
            +4
            Quote: Mavrikiy
            these are the ancestors of Bar

            I do not want to say anything bad about the ancestors of this subject. It is quite possible that these were decent and intelligent people, it also happens that the apple from the apple tree falls nearby, and rolls away ...
            By the way, isn't it worth it, since we're talking about long hats and sleeves, to assume that knightly sabatons with long noses imitated flippers? Or rather frog legs? And what does it mean that the ancestors of Western Europeans still lived in the swamps and croaked, while the Tart-Aryans were mastering other planets ...
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 10 August 2020 16: 50 New
              +2
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Or rather frog legs? And what does it mean that the ancestors of Western Europeans still lived in the swamps and croaked, while the Tart-Aryans were mastering other planets ...

              This is for V. Shpakovsky. But he will bite, definitely. repeat
          2. Bar1
            Bar1 10 August 2020 14: 51 New
            -6
            Quote: Mavrikiy
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            But tell me: these long-headed, anthropomorphic overgrown creatures with long limbs - who are they? Are these the same "white gods" on the vimanas? These are our ancestors
            No, these are the ancestors of Bar, before the Black Sea was dug up.request

            and the ancestors of Mauritius dug a toilet-type toilet, but now we can talk about the construction of structures.
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 10 August 2020 21: 07 New
          +2
          It's them?
          Exactly! Just one moment, Mikhail! We can imagine life based on organosilicon, but opponents cannot!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 22: 08 New
            +4
            Anton, dear, I can imagine anything, even Bar reading Rybakov, so this is not an indicator. smile
            But you must admit, as they say in our narrow circles, "the verbal portrait coincides." smile
      4. zenion
        zenion 11 August 2020 19: 32 New
        -1
        Previously, such trousers were worn by the Turks, long before the appearance of the Cossacks. The fact is that it was possible to fill them with a lot of "found" passed by the hut and suddenly caught the eye, barely fought back and threw it into the trousers.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 11 August 2020 21: 23 New
          0
          Quote: zenion
          Previously, such trousers were worn by the Turks, long before the appearance of the Cossacks. The fact is that it was possible to fill them with a lot of "found" passed by the hut and suddenly caught the eye, barely fought back and threw it into the trousers.

          in general, earlier Turkey was called Atomania i.e. the country of atamans, so the atamans-janissaries created Turkey.
  2. Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 10 August 2020 05: 26 New
    +5
    Good article. I read it with great interest.
    Auto RU hi
  3. Vladimir61
    Vladimir61 10 August 2020 07: 01 New
    +4
    What is on the first map, in fact, is Ukraine, and the rest, the illegal legacy of the Russian State and the USSR.
    1. Lipchanin
      Lipchanin 10 August 2020 07: 59 New
      +7
      Quote: Vladimir61
      in fact, there is Ukraine, and the rest, the illegal legacy of the Russian State and the USSR.

      They need to erect monuments to Tsars and Lenin, not demolish them
      Not up to um ki
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 10 August 2020 07: 46 New
    +7
    Perhaps the most powerful during the entire existence of the Sich was at the time of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. The Zaporozhians, albeit in alliance with the Crimean Tatars, at that time could fight on equal terms with the rather powerful Commonwealth and even seize the territory of the Kiev, Bratslav and Chernigov provinces. A new state appeared, which the Cossacks called the "Zaporozhian Army", but it is better known as the "Hetmanate".
    Alas, the author did not understand the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.
    1. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 10 August 2020 10: 05 New
      +9
      Undecim
      Alas, the author did not understand the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.
      Totally agree!
      And then, by and large, the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks is a story of sheer betrayal and treason. They betrayed and sold to everyone and against everyone, to the Lyakhams, Krymchaks, Turks, Russians, Germans, and so on in a circle.
      By the way, this is the only completely disbanded Cossacks. Probably it was for what?
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 11: 08 New
        +7
        Quote: Varyag_0711
        this is the only completely disbanded Cossacks

        Thank God no. All others have also been disbanded. Only the mummers remained.
        And, of course, there was a reason to disband them. And all of them.
        1. Varyag_0711
          Varyag_0711 10 August 2020 11: 33 New
          +9
          Trilobite Master (Michael)
          Thank God no. All others have also been disbanded.
          Meant under tsarism!
          Only the mummers remained.
          I almost agree. Why almost, in the Transnistrian conflict, the Cossacks did play an important role, and they were noted in the Crimea too.
          And, of course, there was a reason to disband them.
          And then I agree, even though he is a descendant of the Don Cossacks on both lines.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 14: 23 New
            +5
            Quote: Varyag_0711
            Meant under tsarism!

            In this regard, the Bolsheviks did what they should have done half a century before them. Only they had to do it in a fire brigade - hence the sea of ​​blood and tears. The tsars could have carried out this event with less damage, but they needed "oprichniks" ...
            Quote: Varyag_0711
            in the Transnistrian conflict, the Cossacks still played an important role, and in Crimea they were also noted

            And there and there would have done without them. As in the Russo-Japanese War. I'm not talking about the physical destruction of the Cossacks. Only the abolition of economic privileges, class, self-government. It was even possible to leave some external signs of difference, such as pants with stripes. And they could continue to prepare traditional light cavalry from them.
            I have two brothers, cousins, half Cossacks and just from the Kuban. Their father is a thoroughbred Cossack, they know their pedigree since the 90th century. When in the 2000s there they began this "revival of the Cossacks", their father, my uncle turns out, went to a couple of gatherings, listened, came home and said to the kids something like "I find out that you get along with these swindlers - I'll whip." Then all of their Cossack "squad" in the early XNUMXs was jailed as an organized criminal group, so he was one hundred percent right.
    2. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 10 August 2020 15: 49 New
      +5
      Quote: Undecim
      Alas, the author did not understand the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.

      Alas, yes. The Sichs wrested three voivodships from the Commonwealth and created the Zaporozhian Army - this is something new. As well as the fact that they "captured" something there - yeah, the indigenous population of the voivodships, having started a popular movement, became the invaders of their home.
      1. rich
        rich 10 August 2020 18: 49 New
        +2
        Greetings, Artem hi
        Alas, the author did not understand the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.

        This is not just his fault. The Cossacks themselves and their heirs did not understand this.
        1. arturpraetor
          arturpraetor 10 August 2020 19: 03 New
          0
          Quote: Rich
          The Cossacks themselves and their heirs did not understand this.

          Considering that the classical Cossacks have not survived to our time ... laughing And as for the heirs, if you are talking about Ukrainians, then, suddenly, if you are interested not in local propaganda and not in jingoistic handicrafts, you will find that people understand the issue better than the author. And there are enough Russian historians who understand the topic, as on the topic of the GVK ("Ukrainian" in the eyes of the Shirnarmass), the leading historian turned out to be from St. Petersburg. But if you start to study the issue so seriously, then templates and historical cliches may begin to crack, who cares? It is better to write for the hundredth time about the Cossacks, who are like the Donets, only worse. There was not even artillery, orphans and poor wassat
          1. rich
            rich 10 August 2020 19: 48 New
            +1
            God with you. wink Yes, I do not whitewash the author at all. Rather the opposite. There are simply too many "relatives-heirs" among the Cossacks. wink Since 1917 yes And each of them has its own alternative interpretation. It is not a sin for the author to get confused; it is better to rely on the real historical documents of that era in a neutral way when writing this article. How, for example, do you hi Then the article would be much more interesting and informative.
            And, as for the local propaganda and jingoistic patriotic handicrafts - this is not my reading. I prefer historical facts. Moreover, the Cossacks have left us a rich written heritage. Before the revolution, Dmitry Ivanovich Yavornitsky devoted his life to the study and systematization of which, and in our time it was continued by R. Roman Timofeevich Peresvetov. There is a lot of everything - both glorious and not attractive .. But this is a real story!
            Here you, Artem, with your talent and not biased style of presentation would go over their work. Readers would be very grateful
            Best regards
            Dmitriy
            1. arturpraetor
              arturpraetor 10 August 2020 20: 11 New
              +3
              Quote: Rich
              There were simply too many "relatives-heirs" among the Zaporozhians. Since 1917

              The trouble is that the Ukrainian "we are brothers of the Cossack family" should not be taken as literally as many do. The word "Cossack" from the 1st half of the 1917th century in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was used, among other things, in the meaning of a personally free person, or partially dependent, which was directly opposed to serfdom on the Polish nobles. It goes without saying that the peasant liked being a "Cossack" more, but that did not mean at all that he was becoming a Sich, growing a mustache with a forelock, and obeying the koshev chieftain. In this regard, the continuity of those who were after 1930 with those Cossacks is quite possible - that those are personally free population of certain territories, that these. Even the Ukrainian SSR in this regard can lay claim to succession from these Cossacks, for there was nothing, but there was no serf slavery in the Polish version in this country, and in a kin-succession plan in some XNUMXs, descendants of the same people who in the Khmelnytsky region ruined the manors of the land and called themselves Cossacks, although they did not belong to either the register or the Sich. But this is too difficult even for Ukrainian jingoistic patriots, to say nothing of Russian ones - because the legacy began to be taken too literally request And how to replace the word "Cossack" with "Zaporozhets" is generally easy. Although, in fact, even under Khmel, few called themselves Cossacks - Cossacks and Cossacks, and so, by default, all are "Russian people". Even the de jure existence of the Zaporizhzhya Army did not lead to the widespread use of "Zaporozhets" as a self-name, this was often found, perhaps, only among the Sichs who naturally lived beyond the rapids.
              Quote: Rich
              Here you, Artem, with your talent and not biased style of presentation would go over their work. Readers would be very grateful

              I had such thoughts once. There is even material from a year and a half ago, according to one of the hypotheses of the appearance of the Ukrainian (Ukrainian in a purely geographical sense, because I already said that the "Cossacks" could be too different, and therefore the use of this term greatly confuses the essence of things) of the Cossacks, some colleagues even saw him ... But I am not going to publish it yet - alas, the material is too unusual in its content, it is not at all "Cossacks are the Donets, only worse", therefore it can cause serious seething. What is the last thing I want, especially when there is not so much time.
    3. VIP
      VIP 10 August 2020 21: 57 New
      0
      Viktor Nikolaevich, I noticed that they have sensible comments, explain as necessary. This is 1
      And tell us about "Monomakh's hat", otherwise we have a disarray: the sun crown and the golden helmet of the Macedonian that Ali boba and the Scythe with the Assistant Professor "squeezed". It is 2
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 10 August 2020 23: 50 New
        0
        Understood nothing. Sorry, but could you be more specific about the questions you are looking for answers.
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 August 2020 08: 07 New
    +1
    It state in the best years it included the territories of the present Poltava and Chernigov regions, some areas of the Kiev, Cherkassk, Sumy regions of Ukraine and the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

    There was no such "state" hetman

    Hetmanate in 1649-1654

    Strange map 17 centurywhere .... future, still non-existent cities are indicated 18 century (Nikolaev, Odessa, etc.) recourse
    1. VLR
      10 August 2020 08: 20 New
      +9
      Nothing strange: this is a projection, overlaying one map on top of another - to make it easier to imagine the size and location.
      There was no Hetman state (more precisely, the Zaporizhzhya Army), Khmelnytsky never managed to create it on the territory under his control, therefore it is called in the text invalid.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 August 2020 09: 20 New
        -3
        Quote: VlR
        Nothing strange: this is a projection, overlaying one map on top of another - to make it easier to represent the dimensions and location.

        - strange and even wild: the map is marked 17th century, cities are on it ... 18 century.

        -Black Sea, Dnieper, Bug, Desna, Azov Sea, of course, "not enough" to determine the "location and size".
        Quote: VlR
        State Hetmanate (more precisely the Zaporozhye Army) did not haveKhmelnitsky never managed to create it on the territory under his control

        Article, not .... You wrote, since you do not know its content? For it is CLEARLY written there:
        A new state appeared.. "Hetmanate".
        request
        1. Operator
          Operator 10 August 2020 11: 51 New
          -2
          More correctly - the protectorate of Poland and Russia.

          PS Do not find fault with the historical map of the Hetmanate, which is a standard technique for indicating not only geographical, but also demographic boundaries.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 10 August 2020 12: 12 New
            0
            Quote: Operator
            Do not find fault with the historical map of the Hetmanate, which is a standard technique for indicating not only geographic but also demographic boundaries.

            belay There are no such "standards" and "techniques".

            Or give a map of America of the 15th century, for example, with the indication of New York and Washington. or Russia of the 16th century, indicating St. Petersburg. is savagery.
  6. tovarich-andrey.62goncharov
    tovarich-andrey.62goncharov 10 August 2020 09: 49 New
    -1
    "The Zaporozhians calling themselves Orthodox swore allegiance to the Muslim Khan" - nothing new under the moon, friend ... (optional name: VVP, Shoigu, D.B. Donbass).
  7. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 11: 04 New
    +5
    Oh, Valery ... sad
    To be honest, I don’t quite understand exactly what goals you set for yourself by publishing these materials, but in any case, they have some kind of effect with a Ukrainian-phobic smell. Why do you need it? It is difficult for me to evaluate the facts stated in the article from the point of view of the reliability and correctness of interpretation, I am not very familiar with the history of the Cossacks - only in the most general terms, but I continue to catch the anti-Ukrainian pathos in the article, and some "readers" generally consider reading your material a signal to the beginning of the next ukrosracha.
    With all due respect, Valery, if such flies begin to flock to your labors, it may be worth thinking about what attracts them. Or don't you care about the average quality of comments under your articles? Just the amount?
    1. sevryuk
      sevryuk 10 August 2020 11: 25 New
      -1
      but in any case, they have some kind of effect with a Ukrainian-phobic smell.

      Then already - Ukrainian STF-phobic. Ukrainians = Russophobia. Ukrainophobia = Russophobophobia. Is there anything wrong with that?
  8. Operator
    Operator 10 August 2020 11: 54 New
    -8
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    anti-Ukrainian pathos

    In Russian it is written "anti-Ukrainian" - but as a natural Russophobe you can use "u" bully
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 10 August 2020 16: 30 New
      +5
      Well, I would have forbidden you to write at all, it's a pity that it is impossible - liberalism has proliferated in the country, you know. Eh, Stalin is not on you, he would show you what proletarian internationalism is in action, he would prescribe a ten-year course of treatment for Nazism in the Siberian expanses ... laughing
      In general, why did you decide to get to me today? Is it a fast day? laughing
      Better go, over there, discuss his Anunnaki with Bar in the context of the great past of the Ruso-Aryans. Visit each other on Russophobes in my face - I assure you, you will find in him the most understanding interlocutor. laughing
  9. Andrey the Magnificent
    Andrey the Magnificent 10 August 2020 12: 44 New
    -1
    Thanks for continuing! hi
  10. Operator
    Operator 10 August 2020 16: 53 New
    -4
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Stalin is not on you

    Yes - see Stalin's plan for the deportation of the Soviet "French" to the Jewish Autonomous Region in connection with the attempted subversive work of the international Zionist organization "Joint" in the USSR.
  11. VIP
    VIP 10 August 2020 21: 47 New
    0
    Valery, I understand: "a military unit ... numbering from 1100 to 2400 people.
    Azovskiy, Poltava, Slobodskiy and others know.
    1. VLR
      10 August 2020 22: 44 New
      0
      Yes, it was necessary to clarify that these regiments are, in fact, administrative territorial units. The centenary-regimental administrative structure was canceled only in 1782. Cossack families moved to the Kuban, Little Russian remained.