Military Review

The first machine gun created in the USSR

48

In the period between the world wars in different countries of the world, various samples of small arms were created weapons, including light machine guns. Some variants of small arms went into mass production and served for decades, others remained in the experimental and operational version.


The Kalashnikov studio presents a series of materials dedicated to light machine guns, which were created in the 1920-30s.

This plot tells about the Maxim-Tokarev machine gun. This weapon is rightfully considered the first machine gun created in the Soviet Union.

It appeared in 1924 based on the design work of Fyodor Tokarev. This is the case when foreign-made weapons were taken as a basis, namely the famous Maxim machine gun ("Maxim") of the 1910 model.

Fedor Tokarev was solving a technological problem to facilitate the design of the Maxim machine gun. The new weapon became a serious help for the Red Army, since there were no domestic alternatives at that time.

All the details about the Maxim-Tokarev machine gun are presented on the Kalashnikov channel:

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  1. svp67
    svp67 6 August 2020 15: 56
    +7
    Here I was always interested, but could the easel "Maxim" be produced with an air-cooled barrel? And would he have lost much in vitality to his older brother? Indeed, in addition to the manual, there was also an aircraft modification of the "Maxim" under the PV-1 brand and the same with an air-cooled barrel
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 16: 24
      +5
      Hardly. Overheat. Have you not watched the cycle about the history of Russian weapons from "Wings of Russia"? Great studio, don't mistake it for advertising.
      And in the Air Force, the oncoming stream cools the trunks. There is no need for a water jacket.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 6 August 2020 16: 51
        +4
        And why then did the Finns make holes in the casings?
        There are photographs of quadruple ZPUs in which the Finns cut holes in the casings of machine guns.
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 18: 29
          +2
          I can't say for sure, but looking at the photo, I noticed that these machine guns do not have wide necks on the covers, which we had after the Finnish war, so that it would be more convenient to fill in water and load snow into the casing!
          So these holes can be made semi-handicraft for the same purposes)
        2. Mister X
          Mister X 7 August 2020 12: 49
          +2
          Quote: hohol95
          And why then did the Finns make holes in the casings?

          Perhaps it was very cool in Finland in the 40s, even in summer.
          Therefore, for cooling the Maxims, there were enough slots in the casings.

          Modern data:
          In summer, the average temperature in southern Finland is about 20 degrees Celsius, in the northern part of the country about 15 degrees.
          Warming climate and all that.
        3. Aibolit
          Aibolit 11 August 2020 17: 23
          -1
          Quote: hohol95
          There are photographs of quadruple ZPUs in which the Finns cut holes in the casings of machine guns.

          the barrel does not seem to be from a ZPU based on the Maxim machine gun arr. 1910/30?
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 11 August 2020 23: 01
            +1
            The muzzles on Soviet Maxims were standard. What's on simple machine tools, what's on the ZPU! The Finns have built something of their own. Larger dimensions.
            1. Aibolit
              Aibolit 12 August 2020 13: 39
              -1
              Quote: hohol95
              The Finns have built something of their own.

              but it seems to me that the Germans (they first used it) remade / rearranged the trunks from the MG, so they do not need water, cut holes so as not to burn / ventilation, like on some MG 34 (MG XNUMX). they shot, and then passed it on to the finals.
              7,62 * 54
              MG 34: 7,62 also available
              Therefore, these are not "maxims", but hybrids and
              Quote: hohol95
              And why then did the Finns make holes in the casings?

              maxims with water cooling and muzzle

              vs

              Trunks of trophy maxims don't last forever
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 12 August 2020 18: 44
                0
                German cartridge 7,92 × 57 Mauser.
                Finnish cartridge 7,62 × 53 mm R.
                Soviet 7,62 × 54 mm R.
                Barrels can be interchangeable only on Finnish and Soviet weapons.
                The use of German barrels is possible only when "reconfiguring" the operation of the machine gun under the German cartridge! Why use a different cartridge on single ZPUs? Where to get them in the right quantities?
                The Finns themselves produced 7,62 × 53 mm R.
                7,62 × 54 mm R were taken as trophies!
                And the German cartridge can only be purchased from the Germans themselves.
              2. Constanty
                Constanty 12 August 2020 23: 03
                0
                The bottom photo shows the post-war MG3.

                in turn, the discussed photo of the 7,62-mm ItKk / 09-31 machine gun used in Finland. Photo taken in Ontroil, June 1944. The Finns modified the weapon by making it air-cooled, making holes in the water jackets, and removing the water pipes. It also appears that each machine gun was equipped with a muzzle amplifier to further increase the maximum rate of fire. Photo taken by 2nd Lieutenant W. Hollming.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 6 August 2020 17: 22
        +5
        Nazariy, hello! hi
        The Browning machine .50 caliber was initially also produced with water cooling, but this did not prevent the Americans from changing it to air during modernization.

        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 18: 32
          +1
          0.50 is our 12,7?
          Well, here, I think, it's all about weight. Only the English Vickers had a water jacket. The rest are all at once with air. Ribbed "shirt" and so on. And the Americans, most likely, tried it, played around and realized that they were going the wrong way)))
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 6 August 2020 19: 24
            10 th
            We watched the white sun of the desert, the handbrake was water-cooled, Lewis, if I'm not mistaken.
            1. The leader of the Redskins
              The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 19: 25
              10
              NEVER was Lewis water cooled. This hot air injection jacket pipe!
            2. alpamys
              alpamys 6 August 2020 20: 16
              +6
              Quote: Free Wind
              We watched the white sun of the desert, the handbrake was water-cooled, Lewis, if I'm not mistaken.

              How did you get to the underground with such knowledge?
            3. hohol95
              hohol95 7 August 2020 08: 08
              0
              In "White Sun ..." Lewis was used for scenery, and for shooting DP with an aluminum casing on the barrel, Lewis type.
            4. Undecim
              Undecim 8 August 2020 13: 27
              +2
              There are plenty of ignorant people on the net in terms of weapons, but such !!!
    2. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 6 August 2020 18: 59
      +2
      but the Germans did not bother and left the casing in their "manual" rework of the maxim MG08 / 15.
      18 kg, of course, too much for the parking brake) Conventionally manual, I would say.

      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 6 August 2020 20: 50
        +3
        Quote: Dr. Frankenshtuzer
        the Germans did not bother and left the casing in their "manual" rework of the maxim MG08 / 15

        But they corrected this laziness in the МG08 / 18 model!
        1. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 6 August 2020 21: 11
          0
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          But they corrected this laziness in the МG08 / 18 model!

          Exactly) And then there was MG13 Dreyze - and off it ...) Evolution!
      2. Constanty
        Constanty 12 August 2020 23: 09
        0
        Therefore, in Germany, "08/15" was a symbol of only seemingly positive changes where everything was bad in the old way - hence the name of Kirst's famous book.
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 7 August 2020 08: 05
      +2
      But single and triple anti-aircraft guns were made from PV-1 and they worked quite normally.

      Chinese craft from a PV-1 machine gun (possibly taken from a downed plane) and an unknown machine
      Photo from jinsui.org. article about the 120th Kuomintang division.
      1. svp67
        svp67 7 August 2020 08: 11
        +1
        Quote: hohol95
        But single and triple anti-aircraft guns were made from PV-1 and they worked quite normally.

        So we used them

        Not only that, there were such ...

  2. Free wind
    Free wind 6 August 2020 16: 42
    +2
    Probably overheating is to blame, in aviation you can't spit out the entire tape at a time, the queues are probably 10-30 rounds. On the ground, the advancing infantry belt of 250 rounds flew to the correct one in a minute. The film "Chapaev" was seen, Anya probably released two tapes without interruption .. The ammunition load of 500 rounds is probably standard. In anti-aircraft Maxims, tapes for 500 rounds.
    1. svp67
      svp67 6 August 2020 17: 26
      +2
      Quote: Free Wind
      Probably overheating is to blame

      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Hardly. Overheat.

      Well, this is a question that can be solved by replacing the barrel ... all air-cooled machine guns had a replaceable barrel in the kit
      Quote: Free Wind
      On the ground, the advancing infantry belt of 250 rounds flew to the correct one in a minute.

      Well, once in a minute I dropped the tape, well, yes, well, three ... and then where to get the cartridges? No machine gunners were always taught to fire intelligently in bursts.
      And so we would have gained a gain in weight and, accordingly, in maneuverability
      Quote: Free Wind
      The film "Chapaev" was seen, Anya probably released two tapes without interruption ..

      In a word, a film. In reality, her point would quickly be crushed by artillery. It is not for nothing that during the years of the civil war, cars appeared in our great abundance
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 6 August 2020 18: 04
        +4
        The Makhnovists did not come up with a carriage because of a good life, there were few machine guns, carts were needed for a quick transfer of machine guns to dangerous directions. When the cavalry, about 500 fighters went on the attack, you can forget about firing in short bursts, otherwise you will be reset in a minute. The cavalry attack began from a distance of no more than a kilometer, at a greater distance the horse will die. And try to shoot at this lava in short bursts.
        1. svp67
          svp67 6 August 2020 19: 08
          +2
          Quote: Free Wind
          The Makhnovists did not come up with a carriage because of a good life,

          You shouldn't think so about them, Makhno had his own "guard", all armed with Lewis light machine guns, "Lewisists", which rode on horseback ... And in general, the idea of ​​transporting a heavy and low-maneuverable machine gun, not only with the help of the muscular strength of the soldiers soared in the air and many could not help catching it.




        2. Catfish
          Catfish 6 August 2020 19: 15
          +1
          The tachanka was not invented by the Makhnovists, the tactics of use before Makhno were developed by General Brusilov, and long before Brusilov, at the end of the XNUMXth century, the Maxims on steam-horse carriages were used in Africa by the mercenaries of Cecil Rhodes against the Ndebeli, and quite successfully.
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 18: 39
        +4
        It is unlikely that the "Maxim" has a function of quick barrel change ... I held a machine gun in my hands at school, but did not think about it. Hardly...
        But about the number of cartridges in the tape ...
        When I read an article about Soviet URs (fortified areas) there were bunker schemes and in one of them a restored machine gun point. I can't find a photo, I don't know, but I will describe:
        For a soldier, a seat, like a bicycle, on the top left is a bucket for water, a hose from it to the casing, from the casing a hose to the bucket standing below (such a flow cooling system), because on the right is a container for 10 (!) Tapes connected together!

        The photo is not right, but you will understand the meaning.
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 6 August 2020 19: 13
          +2
          Maxim, in your hands? 70 kg !!!!! Terminator!!!! respect !!!! wassat drinks
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 19: 17
            +1
            Well, I'm figuratively))) laughing The shutter jerked, opened the lid, tried to roll)))
          2. Dr. Frankenstucker
            Dr. Frankenstucker 6 August 2020 19: 27
            +4
            Quote: Free Wind
            Maxim, in your hands? 70 kg !!!!! Terminator!!!! respect !!!!


            ... I need your tachanka, leather jacket and boots .....))
        2. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 6 August 2020 19: 15
          0
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          It is unlikely that "Maxim" has a quick barrel change function

          both Tokarev and Kolesnikov have. Moreover - without dismantling the casing.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 6 August 2020 19: 17
      +1
      Two tapes without a break ... no matter how you add water, the barrel is still kirdyk, you need to shoot such "machine gunners". But ... what to do - a movie, and Anka is a fictional character.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 6 August 2020 19: 33
        0
        If you don't shoot the enemy, the enemy will shoot you .. The horse lava was going tight. Yes, and the infantry in the attack, the same, and then crawled rarely, so that they poured a continuous stream. Until the water boils away, the barrel will keep a temperature of 100 degrees, nothing will happen to the barrel.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 6 August 2020 19: 37
          +1
          Until the water boils away, the barrel will keep a temperature of 100 degrees, nothing will happen to the barrel.

          Theoretically - yes, but in practice the whole issue is barrel wear, the "Maxim", as far as I remember, had no spare "by nature". How it was in the good movie Thirteen:
          "... The machine gunners have stopped talking, want to drink too?" smile
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 6 August 2020 20: 15
        +1
        I attached a photo there on top of how 10 tapes can be shot without overheating)
  3. Avior
    Avior 6 August 2020 16: 50
    +3
    About Maxim with air cooling
    The English version of the Maxim-Vickers was air-cooled in an aircraft version.
    But the same version, as they say, was put on tanks in the First World War.
    True, I don’t remember such images.
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 6 August 2020 16: 51
    +4
    ... namely, the famous Maxim machine gun ("Maxim") of the 1910 model.

    Actually, the Maxim machine gun of the 1883 model.

    A machine gun "Maxim" model 1910 was a modernized version of the machine gun model 1905.
    And the machine gun "Maxim" arr. 1905 is a licensed copy of the machine gun arr. 1883
  5. Dr. Frankenstucker
    Dr. Frankenstucker 6 August 2020 18: 33
    +2
    Scooters
    .... and I also like the door in the stroller)
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 6 August 2020 19: 11
      +1
      Hello to the doctor. hi
      Judging by the helmets, these are the French, and what kind of machine gun with the barrel up on the wheelchair?
      1. Dr. Frankenstucker
        Dr. Frankenstucker 6 August 2020 19: 24
        +2
        Good evening, Konstantin.
        This is Hadrian's helmet. And in the hands of the Red Army soldier Maxim-Tokarev.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 6 August 2020 19: 31
          +1
          Oh how! Now it is clear where the door in the stroller comes from. laughing
  6. Kuroneko
    Kuroneko 6 August 2020 20: 17
    +1
    Quote: djevor
    A machine gun of normal caliber is a collective automatic weapon with a combat rate of fire MORE than 100 rounds per minute.
    MT, DP-27, SG-43 (not to be confused with the post-war SGM) and other handicrafts of funny Soviet homemade of those years were NOT machine guns. And MT, it's just crazy delirium.
    The first Soviet machine gun was a strange product called the RPD-44. It (this product) really could shoot with a machine gun rate of fire. And its caliber was normal (7,62 mm).

    Those. As I understand you, DK / DShK you also refuse to accept for a machine gun?
    Okay, clear, understandable. = _ =
  7. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 6 August 2020 21: 04
    +1
    MT-24-the first Soviet machine gun? Brave claim ! The USSR was formed, if I'm not mistaken, in 1922! During this period (since 1920 ...), a number of machine guns were developed by Fedorov and Degtyarev ... Tank 6,5-mm machine guns, for example, were armed at that time with tanks and armored vehicles of the Red Army ...
  8. Baron pardus
    Baron pardus 7 August 2020 07: 21
    0
    Wait, somewhere I have already seen something very similar. Maxim air-cooled barrel. The Germans. In WWI. There was such a machine, MG08 / 18. It looked different but the meaning is the same. And the Amers had an M1919A6, the same thing. It would be interesting to compare the performance characteristics of Tokarev Maxim with these machine guns. The German was lighter, 14.5kg versus 14.7kg about the M1919A6. None of them had a quick-change barrel