Military Review

On the mitres and uniforms of Emperor Peter III

63

Petrovskaya grenadier from the exposition of the Penza Museum of Local Lore


Likewise, you wives, obey your husbands, so that those of them who do not obey the word may be acquired by the life of their wives without a word ...
The First Cathedral Epistle of St. Ap. Peter 3: 1


History military clothing. This topic arose, one might say, quite by accident. There was just a discussion in the comments of one of the materials dedicated to the cuirassier cavalry and its opponents - the mounted grenadiers. And where there are grenadiers, there are their characteristic headdresses - mitres, and where there are mitres, Peter III with his Holstein uniforms is remembered. And then I remembered something else: that a couple of mitres of his time are on display at the Penza Museum of Local Lore, that is, at arm's length from me. There is no need to go either to Moscow or to St. Petersburg, but you can just go to the local museum, take a good look at them, take pictures and tell about them. And where there is a story about headdresses, a story about uniforms automatically suggests itself. Moreover, the uniforms of Emperor Peter III, like himself, caused an extremely negative reaction in Soviet historical science at one time. But time has passed, passions have subsided somewhat, and now you can tell about his uniform exactly as it deserves it, and not on the basis of the CPSU policy chosen for this historical period of time. However, the point here is not so much the bias of opinions of historians of the Soviet era, but, perhaps, in a negative attitude towards Peter III on the part of the close associates of his wife Catherine II, who needed to compromise her husband by any means in order to justify the seizure of power in the country. That is, the people who left us their testimonies of those events, morals and customs were in many ways both biased and, in addition, obsequious. And then no one would simply sympathize with the deposed monarch orally or in writing, so as not to part with a career, or even with a head. In general, it is worth looking at the uniforms introduced by Peter once again, let's say, a little more carefully, in order to draw conclusions not only about his very uniform, but also about the spiritual life of Russian society of that distant time, somewhat similar to ours.


A figurine of Peter I. A figurine made of metal in the characteristic spacious uniform of the Peter the Great era with huge cuffs on the sleeves in the fashion of Louis XIV, buttoned with three buttons

It so happened that after Peter I and before Peter III, the Russian throne, except perhaps for the young Peter II, was occupied by only women. And women, well, let's just say, even if they wear a crown, creatures are still more peaceful than men. They got a big country. There is a lot of land, and, therefore, why go into European politics? It's the same with the fleet ... There is one, and thank God. And so the court intrigues are quite enough, if you want to tickle your nerves, and therefore there is it, the army, and the fleet, moreover, in case the adversary attacks, then all right, have mercy, however, God, from such a disaster.

On the mitres and uniforms of Emperor Peter III

Army grenadier chief officer, 1762 (Viskovatov A.V. Part 3. Clothes and weapon Russian troops with the addition of information about banners and standards, during the reign of Emperor Peter III, and about the Holstein troops, 1762. SPb., Military printing house, 1842)

But this is only one side of the coin, so to speak, gender, associated with the reign of Anna Ioannovna and Elizabeth Petrovna. But there was another. Although 25-30 years have passed since the death of Peter, there were still people in the country who did not accept Peter's uniformitarian "innovations", did not want to accept. How is A. Tolstoy doing in Peter the Great? "That is why Russia was strong, that, covering the shame of the face with a brace, like a dove in holy ignorance offered up prayers!" Peter managed to break the resistance of all who tried to resist him. But the resistance to his reforms remained, it is just that now it has taken on the form of a struggle for its own identity and national interests, against the dominance of foreigners. Even outwardly, and not only among the common people, but also among the nobility, there were many who did not shave their beards and did not wear European dresses, did not attend the "assembly", but about tobacco they publicly said that this herd-grass came from a bad place in Babylon harlots, his filthiest juices! And if such were not extinct even at the top, then what can we say about the common people, where, as before, they believed in a conspiracy, a rupture of grass and ... that bugs start from the "spirit of man", and from "its quiet emission", and here from the "crackling" - does not live! That is why the "evil spirit" in Russia for a long time was emitted as loudly as possible, but the quiet was condemned, because there were already enough bedbugs! In the same way, as in China in the era of Empress Qi Xi, many thought that all the troubles in the country were from foreigners, and if they were kicked out and “German” clothes were removed, everything would immediately return to normal. On the other hand, even all those who, being at the top, did not approve of the reforms of Peter I, did not want to completely abandon them. But I wanted to limit myself to what he had already done, including the reform of the army.

Hence the confrontation with everything foreign, the fact that it was with the Germans that penetrated into Russia. Under these conditions, the military uniform of the Peter the Great's era became a kind of a form of opposition to state power. And it was not for nothing that Elizaveta Petrovna went to fight for her father's throne in the uniform of the Preobrazhensky regiment, and then the clever Ekaterina did the same. And in the portraits of the county nobility of the Elizabethan era that have come down to us, we often see people dressed in uniforms very similar to those of Peter the Great. Meanwhile, the military fashion in Europe changed, and only in Russia, as it happened many times and later, everything remained unchanged. “We have lived a day with God's help, and thank God!” True, Anna Ioannovna, who came in 1730, somewhat reduced the number of troops and at the same time improved their supply and tightened discipline. Rather, not she, but Field Marshal Munnich, who during her reign led the reforms of the army, but he was more concerned with the specialization of combat arms and the unification of weapon calibers than with the uniforms of soldiers and officers. After all, it was with him in the Russian army that cuirassier and hussar regiments, pioneer units, a gentry cadet corps appeared in the Russian army, of which he was the chief for many years, but he simply did not get to the rest, and Russia always has money for the army there were big problems. Elizaveta Petrovna did not carry out any special uniform reforms either. True, the army was instructed to sew uniforms "not in debt" and "not wide," but to restrain the sleeves and cuffs. It seemed that it was not difficult to force the monarch's will to be fulfilled: they began to simply release much less cloth to the army tailors! But ... the army, accustomed to the spacious uniforms of the Petrine era, was in no hurry to sew new uniforms of the “overseas manira”. And it was unusual, especially for the peasants, since the national costume in Russia, among other features, was also distinguished by its spaciousness.


Officers of the cuirassier Leuven regiment, 1762 (Viskovatov A. V. Part 3. Clothes and weapons of the Russian troops with the addition of information about banners and standards, in the reign of Emperor Peter III, and about the Holstein troops, 1762. St. Petersburg, Military printing house, 1842)

On the other hand, what Peter did over time also became "bronzed" and acquired the character of an indisputable authority, but how could it be otherwise: after all, it was we who beat Charles XII, and he did not beat us! So now any innovations in the field of a military suit began to be perceived as a kind of encroachment on the legacy of Peter the Great, although it differed more and more from Western European military fashion every year! Meanwhile, in Europe, military uniforms had already changed a lot, so that the attire of the Russian army in comparison with them looked more and more old-fashioned, which, by the way, also undermined Russia's image in the European political arena as a powerful state. "They say that we are Europe, not Asia, and they cannot sew a good dress for our soldiers!"


Privates of the cuirassier Leuven regiment of 1762 (Viskovatov A. V. Part 3. Clothes and weapons of the Russian troops with the addition of information about banners and standards, in the reign of Emperor Peter III, and about the Holstein troops, 1762. St. Petersburg., Military printing house , 1842)

It was in such a difficult situation in all respects that the Duke of Holstein and at the same time the heir to the Russian throne, Peter Fedorovich, arrived in Russia from Holstein. It is clear that his court troops wore Holstein uniforms, in all respects very similar to the Prussian. In Russia, immigrants from Germany were first recruited into his troops, but when he ascended the throne under the name of Peter III, they took the Balts, Poles, and Ukrainians there. The main thing is that the person does not belong to the Russian tax-paying class. There were, in general, few of them. So, in 1762, the total number of Holstein units stationed in Oranienbaum "army", according to the memoirs of Catherine, was 1590 people. At the same time, this number was distributed among seven infantry regiments and six cavalry, that is, in terms of their numbers, all these "regiments" were extremely small!


Brigadier of the Holstein troops, 1756-1762 (Viskovatov A. V. Part 3. Clothes and weapons of the Russian troops with the addition of information about banners and standards, during the reign of Emperor Peter III, and about the Holstein troops, 1762. St. Petersburg, Military Printing House, 1842)

A lot has already been written about the personality of Peter III, and about his short reign, conflicting testimonies and assessments of his deeds. On "VO", in particular, there was a whole series of articles about him by V.A. Ryzhova. Therefore, in this case, we will only talk about the uniform of his regiments, and no more, read about everything else from the named author. However, one important detail of the character of Peter III should be noted: like his formidable grandfather, he loved military affairs and had the appearance of a military man (this was written, in particular, by the secretary of the French embassy J.L. Favier in 1761). Moreover, he wore a uniform sewn according to the Prussian fashion, but sewn so narrow and short that, speaking in modern language, he even looked too much in it. It is interesting that foreigners were surprised not by its very form (they just considered adherence to the European uniform to be quite normal), but only those extremes that were allowed by him in his uniform.


General of the Holstein troops, 1756-1762 (Viskovatov A. V. Part 3. Clothes and weapons of the Russian troops with the addition of information about banners and standards, during the reign of Emperor Peter III, and about the Holstein troops, 1762. St. Petersburg, Military Printing House, 1842)

After becoming emperor, Pyotr Fedorovich decided to give the entire Russian army an equally fashionable look. Did he manage to change into new uniforms at least the guard? The question has not been clarified. Of course, many courtiers, trying to get into the confidence of him, immediately began to sew their uniforms on the model of his guard. But although the new guards uniforms of Peter III himself, and headdresses, and portraits of figures from his entourage have come down to us, the main thing has not been published, namely the regulations for the new army uniforms. That is, he conceived a uniform reform, his samples were tested by his guardsmen, but the whole army, as well. most likely, even the guard, they simply did not have time to change into them.


Emperor Peter III. Metal figurine. The uniform as a whole is similar to Peter's, even in color, but the cuffs on the sleeves have completely disappeared, or rather, they stand out now only in color

How should the new uniforms differ from the old ones? First of all, with his cut, since he did not change the traditional colors of the uniforms of the Russian army, but he greatly reduced the consumption of fabrics and changed many elements of decoration.

So, the old uniforms of the Elizabethan period, according to the Peter's tradition, were sewn quite spacious, long and had a large size, and therefore clearly visible cuffs. The uniform was single-breasted, had no lapels and could easily be fastened with all the buttons. Both the uniforms and the frock coats had deep folds on the hem, which increased, and significantly, the consumption of expensive cloth.


The uniform of an officer of the Life Dragoon Holstein Regiment with epaulets, which belonged to Peter III (State Historical Museum, Moscow)

The floors of Peter III's uniforms reached only half of the thigh, but the camisole practically turned into a vest, since it had lost its sleeves and collar. The sleeves of the uniform, like the uniform itself, were now cut very narrow, and the cuffs made one whole with them, differing only in color. The pants have become just as narrow, and the uniform itself is now so narrow that it has now become almost impossible to button it up with all the buttons. But ... here they got twenty centimeters, here twenty, there ten. But in the end, on tens of thousands of uniforms, the army now saved kilometers of cloth, from which the treasury received considerable profit.

To be continued ...
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 15 August 2020 05: 04 New
    +6
    "Vile in the name of Peter" - correct, please.

    The idea of ​​economy probably accompanies the entire history of mankind.
    And acquaintance with the gap-grass, weeping-grass, overcome-grass makes the surrounding world more familiar.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 15 August 2020 05: 31 New
      +7
      "We have been preparing an escape for three years,
      We saved three tons of grubs,
      And he even gave us a ladle with him
      One awfully nice criminal "

      Still caught, saving did not help. request
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 06: 36 New
        +7
        Hello Sea people "corsairs and cats" !!! good Thanks for the positive!!! drinks
        Three articles of the Author on Saturday, Vyacheslav Olegovich - sold out in earnest !!!
        1. kalibr
          15 August 2020 07: 13 New
          +8
          Vladislav! The number of published articles is determined by the administration. Thank her. I write 1-2 articles every day ...
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 15 August 2020 14: 39 New
          +2
          Hello Vladislav!
          Three articles by the Author on Saturday,

          For which I thank him very much! good drinks
        3. VIP
          VIP 15 August 2020 14: 41 New
          +5
          So it's good, otherwise it gets boring to read all kinds of crap. I was here just recently, but I noticed: Samsonov and Shpakovsky are heaven and earth
        4. kalibr
          15 August 2020 18: 04 New
          +2
          There will be another one tomorrow. About guns ...
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 06: 45 New
    10
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I propose not to dwell on the form on Peter III, but to run to the transformations of Catherine II. More precisely Potemkin, in which the Russian army learned a lesson in a new comfortable uniform !!!
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. kalibr
      15 August 2020 07: 11 New
      +5
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      in which the Russian army taught a lesson a new comfortable form !!!

      Was it comfortable?
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 07: 50 New
        13
        According to contemporaries - the best in the world! Military experts also noted its functionality and convenience.
        It was not in vain that Suvorov resisted its replacement, and in a number of remote provinces it was worn out until the end of the first decade of the 19th century.
    2. VIP
      VIP 15 August 2020 15: 07 New
      +4
      "Vlad, and this turns out to be a good cycle: Uniforms of the Russian Army. Author: Ph.D. Shpakovsky.
      Who agrees? Against? Most of the votes in favor. And we played democracy
      1. kalibr
        15 August 2020 18: 02 New
        +1
        Here, dear, there is one subtlety. Uniformism is a complex science and the degree of its popularization is very different. The magazine, for example, TSEIKHGAUZ and Alla Begunova's books "From chain mail to uniform" are different things. To make it interesting, you need to touch it all, in museums to look not at the armor of knights, but at the uniforms. But I can't. Only a few ... the most accessible. And this is the whole problem.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 18: 56 New
          +2
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, don’t worry!
          1. kalibr
            15 August 2020 19: 06 New
            0
            I am not being pity, Vladislav. I am simply explaining why this task is beyond me. An article is one thing, and any article. And a book is quite different. Especially now ...
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 15 August 2020 06: 53 New
    10
    "Powder is not gunpowder, beech is not a cannon, a scythe is not a cleaver, and I am not a German, but a natural hare." (from)
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 07: 53 New
      +4
      Good morning, Olegovich! The words of A.V. Suvorov about the innovations of the son of Peter III - Paul I.
      1. kalibr
        15 August 2020 08: 09 New
        +6
        But there is evidence from people of that time that if Paul had gotten to the soldiers, he would have been saved. They ... loved him! Suvorov did not love! And the soldiers loved! And there were reasons ... But they did not leave poetic denunciations!
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 09: 24 New
          +8
          Vyacheslav, you are a distant person from the army (barracks) realities. The personnel of any army is always "conventionally loved" by the commanders of the fathers, while they are ready to give their soul and stomach for them. In a priori, the researchers are right, although the conspirators, I think, did not allow this. The Life Guards regiments were on guard in turn. So they had the opportunity to guess successfully, given the list of "conspiracy participants"!
          1. kalibr
            15 August 2020 09: 31 New
            +4
            I am not writing out of my head, but also about what I have read. Therefore, "distant" - "narrow-minded" has no meaning. In this case, I am like a tape recorder. And I can neither subtract what I have said, nor add.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 August 2020 10: 35 New
        13
        Vlad! hi
        Meanwhile, it was Pavel that the Russian army owes the introduction of such a banal, but necessary in our climatic conditions, detail of a uniform like an overcoat. Before that, they froze for almost a hundred years in European "lapserdaks"
        1. kalibr
          15 August 2020 10: 37 New
          10
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          It was Pavel that the Russian army owes the introduction of such a banal, but necessary in our climatic conditions, a detail of a uniform like an overcoat.

          And also a warm jacket with bunny fur!
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 11: 45 New
            +7
            Quote: kalibr
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            It was Pavel that the Russian army owes the introduction of such a banal, but necessary in our climatic conditions, a detail of a uniform like an overcoat.

            And also a warm jacket with bunny fur!

            Hello Anton! Personal thanks to Pavel for that. If approached utilitarian, then any overcoat is inferior to a sheepskin coat. Verified by personal experience. When it hits -30, the overcoat does not help. In fact, an overcoat is a creative reworking of a rifleman's caftan. It existed in different versions throughout the 17-18 centuries. But even with her, in leather leggings, a fitted frock coat and a cocked hat? All the same, "brrr" ... the best - a sheepskin coat, a hat with earflaps, felt boots with woolen socks and fur boots! In - now hello Santa Claus !!!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 15 August 2020 13: 00 New
              +7
              When it hits -30,
              I remembered my northern childhood. You come to school in the morning, find out that the day has been "activated", run home, change clothes and go for a walk !!! wassat
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 13: 41 New
                +4
                Fine! We were determined by the factory dial tone! Three "whistles" - the school is closed! Let's go up the hill, sledding !!! laughing
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 17 August 2020 10: 36 New
              +3
              When it hits -30, the overcoat doesn't help. In fact, an overcoat is a creative reworking of a rifleman's caftan. It existed in different versions throughout the 17-18 centuries. But even with her, in leather leggings, a fitted frock coat and a cocked hat? All the same, "brrr" ... the best - a sheepskin coat, a hat with earflaps, felt boots with woolen socks and fur boots! In - now hello Santa Claus !!!

              Vladislav, you are missing an important point. drinks In winter then ... we did not fight! All wars, if possible, were fought during the warm season. Hence the phrase in Lermontov's "Borodino" about winter apartments.
              In case of a winter guard, Pal Petrovich provided the following, from Wikipedia:
              Also, the emperor introduced guard sheepskin coats and felt boots for sentries in the winter season. In the guardroom, there should be as many pairs of boots as necessary so that each shift of sentries puts on dry shoes.
              And one more important aspect. Pal Petrovich started barracks all over the place. Prior to this, the troops were mainly stationed at the "grateful and joyful peyzan-inhabitants". He "honed" the barracks during the period of the Gatchina seclusion. Plus, he improved the medical service - EMNIP, increased the number of Good Doctors, and sorted them into units. hi I can't remember offhand, I can look at home.
              By the way, hats resembling those of grenadiers were worn not only by them, but also by fusiliers. So it was in Prussia, so it was with us.

              Diagram of color differences of uniforms of battalions of the Baltic rowing fleet. March 1797 - January 1798

              The scheme of color differences of the uniforms of the Black Sea naval battalions. June 1797-1802

              Fuzeler caps of the 4th battalion of the Baltic rowing fleet. March 1797 - January 1798 (Swedish Maritime Museum, Karlskrona). According to the Swedish version, this cap was captured from the Russians in the Battle of Vyborg on June 22, 1790. But this is an obvious mistake, especially considering the devastating results of the Vyborg battle for the Royal Navy, when the Swedish sailors fleeing from pursuit had no time for trophies.
              About the short Pavlovsk uniforms. As we have already found out, there was no greatcoat under Potemkin. It seems that after its introduction, the length of Catherine's uniform became excessive. At the same time, they saved on cloth. But Friedrich's Prussian uniforms were even shorter in folds - Anton and I had the honor to familiarize ourselves with it. hi
  4. kalibr
    15 August 2020 08: 11 New
    +6
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    According to contemporaries - the best in the world!

    According to his contemporaries, both Paul is a stupid person and Peter the 3rd degenerate. Therefore, you can ... that. But there are other estimates ... By the way, there will be a continuation about the uniforms of Peter III ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 09: 38 New
      +9
      Quote: kalibr
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      According to contemporaries - the best in the world!

      According to his contemporaries, both Paul is a stupid person and Peter the 3rd degenerate. Therefore, you can ... that. But there are other estimates ... By the way, there will be a continuation about the uniforms of Peter III ...

      Vyacheslav Olegovich, when you were young, when you were with your spouse, you “hung up rats” !!!? With Peter 3, something like this!
      With Paul, it is more difficult, invaluable, ambiguous, a knight - these are not all the epithets of this monarch. At the same time, I deeply do not care about his personal war with French hats and collars! Peter 1 did not sin this!
      But copying the Prussian military fashion is a cant!
      And so, try to put on forged leggings, a narrow doublet or a tunic, a five-kilogram jib with a sultan, a wig or put on a bouclie !!!
      Tin in one word. Fifteen years ago I had a chance to take part in the reconstruction, first in Pavlovsky, then in Potemkinskaya. The latter is many times more convenient !!!
      1. kalibr
        15 August 2020 10: 38 New
        +6
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Fifteen years ago I had a chance to take part in the reconstruction, first in Pavlovsky, then in Potemkinskaya.

        You're in luck.
      2. kalibr
        15 August 2020 10: 39 New
        +5
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        when you were young, you were “hanging rats” with your spouse !!!?

        How's that?
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 August 2020 10: 51 New
        +7
        "They were hanging rats!"
        Noble "button accordion" promoted by Pikul! I can just name another one of the same: the gloomy image of Philip II, created by de Coster.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 11: 48 New
          +4
          The question was not asked, where did V. Pikul get it from?
          True, as always, somewhere in the middle!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 15 August 2020 12: 54 New
            +5
            They say that from the memoirs of Catherine. Partiality, as you know, is guaranteed.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 17 August 2020 10: 41 New
              +4
              They say that from the memoirs of Catherine. Partiality, as you know, is guaranteed.

              on the other hand, there are memories of Stelin, who raised him from an early age. I think, also partiality ...
      4. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 17 August 2020 10: 39 New
        +2
        Tin in one word. Fifteen years ago I had a chance to take part in the reconstruction, first in Pavlovsky, then in Potemkinskaya. The latter is many times more convenient !!!

        either on the warspot, or on the varhed I read the opposite opinion from the reenactor! request drinks
  5. kalibr
    15 August 2020 08: 12 New
    +6
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    and in a number of remote provinces it was worn out until the end of the first decade of the 19th century.

    This is not from convenience, but from redneck!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 09: 27 New
      +7
      On the "Turkish" front, both Kamenev and Kutuzov requested the highest permission to wear the "Potemkin" uniform, as the most suitable for a theater of military action. In all three cases they received it !!!
      1. kalibr
        15 August 2020 09: 32 New
        +3
        There will be more about that ...
      2. kalibr
        15 August 2020 17: 58 New
        +3
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        In all three cases they received it !!!

        Do you know why, Vladislav? The summer uniform was of thin white linen. It was not so hot in it on the Turkish front. But we scold the Austrians for the white uniform, right?
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 17 August 2020 10: 42 New
      +2
      This is not from convenience, but from redneck!

      similar "redneck" took place until the 2000s. The rag chest was considered a dowry. And in some families - and now it is. If a thing is good, it should be protected and worn by the whole family! hi
  6. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 15 August 2020 11: 11 New
    +8
    And women, well, let's just say, even if they wear a crown, creatures are still more peaceful than men.

    A funny maxim from a professional historian :)))
    I will not talk about later times, when the iron Margaret with a fearless hand sent the British fleet to the Falklands, and Golda Meir was called the only man in the Israeli government. Let's talk about the immediate predecessors of Pyotr Fedorovich.
    Ekaterina Alekseevna, nee Marta Skavronskaya, in her first marriage to Krause, did not really have time to make a big fight. So after all, the rules did not last long, but at the same time she was preparing an expedition to Holstein, and in the Caucasus, Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov by no means collected herbariums.
    Then Anna Ioannovna. which at first fought to its fullest for the "Polish heritage", and then there was a war with Turkey, glorious with a resounding victory at Khotin, the capture of Crimea (multiple times), but all this is very peaceful and gentle.
    Her niece, Anna Leopoldovna, during the year of her regency did not have time to get into anything, but "Elizaveta Petrovna, meek at heart" was so peaceful that she fought only twice. With the Swedes and in the Seven Years' War, he almost conquered the most militant Prussian king in history.
    And how peacefully the wife of Peter III ruled ...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 August 2020 11: 24 New
      +5
      Bravo, Ivan!
      "The Sturmbannführer also wanted to, but the Junta did it earlier" (C)
      I would, really, expand the list, starting with, say, Alienor of Aquitaine.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 15 August 2020 11: 51 New
        +5
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Bravo, Ivan!
        "The Sturmbannführer also wanted to, but the Junta did it earlier" (C)
        I would, really, expand the list, starting with, say, Alienor of Aquitaine.

        Go to foreign aunts when you have your Princess Olga !!! laughing
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 15 August 2020 12: 20 New
          +3
          Let's not be so patriotic, let's go in our research to Athena and Nika.
    2. kalibr
      15 August 2020 13: 09 New
      +2
      Quote: Senior Sailor
      still more peaceful than men.

      And nevertheless, there are still more peaceful rulers ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 August 2020 13: 47 New
        +2
        Not sure. Due to the fact that human society is oriented towards patriarchy, women "in power" have to be tougher than men.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 17 August 2020 11: 36 New
          +1
          Not sure. Due to the fact that human society is oriented towards patriarchy, women "in power" have to be tougher than men.

          Do you remember that "male rule" in Russia began precisely with Paul, who established Santa Barbara with the succession to the throne, and at the same time gave birth to a bunch of children. His act of succession to the throne is, in general, a thing of a precedent nature. what He describes only the heirs of Paul himself, and not a further algorithm. But, apparently, in the further inheritance they acted by analogy. hi
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 15 August 2020 14: 03 New
        +4
        Practice is the criterion of truth :)))
        Peaceful ruler was Alexander III, and peaceful rulers ... I would like examples repeat
    3. VIP
      VIP 15 August 2020 15: 23 New
      +2
      Do not say, under Sophia, Frederick Angelt Zerbskaya, Russians generally did not sit in the barracks
      Yes, guys, such a question: Barracks, when did it appear in Russia? I think after Peter 1. Now it kicked in, maybe, but forgot
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 15 August 2020 15: 28 New
        +3
        Under Pavel Petrovich. Under him, in general, many things useful for military life appeared. The same greatcoats.
    4. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 August 2020 17: 27 New
      +1
      the times when the iron Margaret with a fearless hand sent the British fleet to the Falklands,
      Great Britain, at that time, needed a "small victorious war" to solve its internal problems, which Mrs Thatcher successfully did, guided by "manuals" (a fashionable term nowadays, in the open spaces of the Runet) a hundred years ago. It turned out - it works !!!
    5. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 16 August 2020 05: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: Senior Sailor
      Her niece - Anna Leopoldovna during the year of her regency did not have time to get into anything

      I managed to get into another war with Sweden, which were a kind of tradition for Russia. smile
      But she did not have time to finish it - the guard, having received the order to go to war, decided on a coup. So, after the next beat of the Swedes, the peace with them was already signed jolly queen elisabeth.
  7. VIP
    VIP 15 August 2020 15: 37 New
    +1
    "Look at the uniforms introduced by Peter, let's say, a little more carefully" and think: are they so successful, "Holstein uniforms". What good is a tight uniform? What is it like for a soldier or a junior commander, marching all day in a narrow uniform. There is no "joy" in this and it is good that his uniforms did not have time to spread
    1. kalibr
      15 August 2020 15: 48 New
      +1
      Quote: V I P
      did not have time to spread

      They just made it! Two years after his death. By decree of Catherine, the old uniforms were ordered to be altered according to narrow patterns. The color was preserved, but not a trace of the width remained!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 August 2020 16: 25 New
        +2
        What an economical empress !!! laughing But on the favorites I spent, without a little, 100 million rubles! True, in the "balzac age" she began to squirm.
        1. kalibr
          15 August 2020 17: 55 New
          +2
          Dear Anton! This will be the subject of the second article. True, there are no favorites, but about savings - yes! That is, Peter invented, and she brought it to life, on her own behalf! Rather, "nothing personal, just saving government funds!" But on the other hand, we have "Peter is bad" and "Katya is good."
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 15 August 2020 18: 11 New
            +3
            there are no favorites,
            Why not"? Katya spent a lot of money on her lovers. True, initially, the lovers turned out to be "through and through" "statesmen".
            In this sense, Catherine was lucky.
            1. kalibr
              15 August 2020 19: 08 New
              -1
              I don't have about them ...
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 15 August 2020 19: 15 New
                +1
                This is your right as a researcher.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 15 August 2020 19: 35 New
            +1
            That's it! With a general ban on the construction of "stone" houses in Ingushetia, G. Orlov built himself a "hunting lodge" in Gatchina ...
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 17 August 2020 10: 55 New
              +2
              That's it! With a general ban on the construction of "stone" houses in Ingushetia, G. Orlov built himself a "hunting lodge" in Gatchina ...

              The Orlov family received a total of astronomical sums from Catherine. And any favorite received only more clothes than Tsarevich Pavel for living with his family.
    2. kalibr
      15 August 2020 17: 56 New
      +1
      Quote: V I P
      are they so successful

      Successful, not successful ... What does it matter! They were LIKE ALL! Then SO WAS ACCEPTED! Then if LIKE EVERYONE, YOU ARE RESPECTED. Such a time was and it was necessary to go with its flow.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 15 August 2020 18: 22 New
        +2
        Such a time was and it was necessary to go with its flow.
        It has always been that way. Periodically, all sorts of "innovators" break the established pattern "into the trash".
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 16 August 2020 06: 00 New
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        They were LIKE ALL! Then SO WAS ACCEPTED! Then if LIKE EVERYONE, YOU ARE RESPECTED. Such a time was and it was necessary to go with its flow.