Military Review

Autumn 70 in Calabria: this is not Italy!

37
Autumn 70 in Calabria: this is not Italy!

Nice country Calabria



On July 15, 1970, a popular uprising against the Italian state began in the city of Reggio, the godforsaken capital of the province of Calabria. The uprising was truly popular: it was supported by the best representatives of almost all social groups. At the same time, the slogans of the rebels were for every taste and color: anti-communist, anarchist and even pro-fascist.

The end of the 60s and the beginning of the 70s of the last century in Italy became a time of a sharp increase in the activity of the most radical political forces. Against the background of the omnipotence of the mafia, which was established almost throughout the country, with the exception of the industrial north, the first to raise their heads were the nationalist neo-fascists. They received a powerful impetus from the events in neighboring Greece, where in April 1967 the extreme right-wing nationalist dictatorship of the "black colonels" was established.


As you know, these newly-born dictators proclaimed the state ideology of "Enosis" - "national-territorial reunification" of the Greek ethnogeographic territories of the Balkans, Turkey and Cyprus with Greece. But in Calabria, the ultra-left marched side by side with the semi-fascists - according to the principle of "extremes converge." The latter were already inspired by the Chinese "cultural revolution", supported by official Albania, which could not but influence the situation in southern Italy.

Back on March 16, 1968, when the whole of Europe and the United States were shaking pretty much, in Italy there were massive clashes between neo-fascist students, anarchists and ultra-leftists with pro-Soviet communists. After the introduction of Soviet troops into Czechoslovakia in the same 1968, radicals from all over Europe rallied under the slogan: "Struggle against old and new imperialism." However, this did not prevent them from regularly fighting with each other until the death of Mao Zedong.

But it was in Calabria, on this toe of the Italian boot, that the conjunction of anarchism, anti-communism and "Mao-Stalinism" became maximum. Apparently, the reason for this was primarily the disastrous socio-economic imbalances in post-war Italy, which persist, albeit on a smaller scale, to this day.


Thus, in the 60s and 80s, the unemployment rate in Calabria was almost twice the Italian average; the deterioration of the housing stock in the province was many times higher than in most other provinces of the country. In terms of the number of health facilities per capita, Calabria was one of the last in the country.

These factors in themselves stimulated the unification of the local anti-state opposition, regardless of the ideological orientation of its participants. Since March 1970, anti-government demonstrations, sabotage and strikes have become more frequent in Reggio, to whose name di Calabria was not always added. By the way, it was then and from there that the well-known term "Italian strike" spread around the world.

There was a reason, the reasons are already there


There was no need to "invent" a formal reason for the uprising.

On June 13, 1970, the Regional Council of Calabria decided to transfer the administrative center of the region from Reggio di Calabria (the local administration was traditionally dominated by far-right and "pro-anarchist" figures) to the city of Catanzaro. This decision meant significant socio-economic losses for Reggio, not to mention the loss of historical and political prestige.

And exactly one month later the neo-fascist Ciccio Franco made an appeal for "disobedience to the exploitative illegitimate authorities and the dictatorship of the colonialists from Rome."

Chiccio Franco (1930-1991) was an influential Italian trade unionist and neo-fascist politician. Railwayman by profession, in 1963-1971. he was the head of the main provincial (Calabria) trade union of anarchist orientation - CISNAL. In 1972-91. was a senator from the pro-fascist "Italian Social Movement" (MSI).

According to the Italian newspaper La Repubblica, Ciccio Franco was an active member of MSI from an early age, but at the same time a supporter of corporate syndicalism. For many years he headed the structure of the CISNAL trade union, affiliated with the neo-fascist party, in Reggio di Calabria.

Ch. Franco was the organizer of workers' protests under extreme right-wing populist slogans. He gained wide popularity in the provinces, actively opposed communist influence in the trade union movement and municipal bodies.



Chiccio Franco cannot be denied a kind of Italian charisma

On July 13, 1970, the authorities of Reggio Calabria announced their refusal to resign their regional powers, at the same time CISNAL supported Ch. Franco's call for a 40-hour general strike. This day was the prologue to the uprising; on July 15, the construction of street barricades began throughout the city with the distribution of rifle weapons.

According to Ch. Franko, "this day is the first step in the national revolution: the scum is the one who surrenders." The anarchist "National Avant-garde" of Italy took an active, but not leading role in those events. But there was still a long way to go before direct armed confrontation.

To lead the uprising, a "Committee of Action" was formed: its leaders, along with Ciccio Franco, were a veteran of the anti-fascist resistance, a member of the Stalinist-Maoist "Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Italy" Alfredo Pern; publicist and left-wing anarchist Giuseppe Avarna; and lawyer Fortunato Aloi, a representative of the center-right Italia del Centro party.

July 30, 1970 Ch. Franco, F. Aloi and D. Mauro spoke at the 40 thousandth rally, confirming their determination to "defend historical rights and traditional status of Reggio Calabria. "And on August 3, 1970, the Comitato unitario per Reggio (" Joint Committee for the capital of Reggio ") was established, headed by Franco, Aloi and Mauro.

At the same time, the Action Committee was not disbanded: it was instructed to develop a legal basis for the autonomy of the city and the entire region from Rome. These structures actually replaced the city hall. But, although the mayor of Reggio Piedro Battaglia declared his support for the uprising, the army and security forces remained under the control of Rome.

The September 14 strike escalated into street fighting with the police. The bus driver was killed. The rebels' radio channel, Reggio Libera, proclaimed on September 17, 1970: "The Reggians! Calabrians! Italians! Fighting the rule of the barons will lead to the victory of true democracy. Glory to Reggio! Glory to Calabria! Long live the new Italy!"


Archbishop Giovanni Ferro of Calabria expressed his solidarity with the rebels, without consulting the Vatican. The rebels were financed by opposition-minded businessmen Demetrio Mauro, who successfully traded coffee, and Amedeo Matasena, who was involved in shipping.

Tyrant against tyranny and tyrants


But today it is quite possible to assume that Beijing and Tirana took part in the financing of the actually separatist movement in Reggio di Calabria, ignoring its largely anti-communist character.

How else to explain that the "Action Committee" included representatives of the Communist Party with its open orientation towards colleagues from China and Albania? And the fact that Albania immediately came out in support of the same movement?

In the fall of 1970, posters with portraits of Stalin and a quote in Italian from his speech at the 14th Congress of the CPSU (October 1952, XNUMX) appeared on the streets of Reggio:

"Previously, the bourgeoisie allowed itself to be liberal, defended bourgeois-democratic freedoms and thereby created popularity among the people. Now there is no trace of liberalism. Individual rights are now recognized only for those who have capital, and all others are considered raw human material for exploitation. The principle of equality of people and nations has been trampled underfoot, it has been replaced by the principle of the full rights of the exploiting minority and the lack of rights of the exploited majority of citizens. "

Despite the ideological confusion in the ranks of the rebels, the first country to side with the rebels was Stalinist-Maoist Albania. Tirana put forward the idea of ​​an "independent people's state of Reggio Calabria." Appealing as an example to the existence of "the victorious Italian imperialism of the independent republic of San Marino within the territory of Italy."

This was quite officially reported on the Radio Albania program for Calabria on 20 August 1970 (see "AnnI DI PIOMBO. Tra utopia e speranze / 1970 20 agosto"). But it must be remembered that Tirana's close military-political alliance with Beijing hardly allowed Albania an independent position in relation to the revolt in this region of Italy.

Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that through the support of Tirana of the Calabrians, Beijing demonstrated its ability to influence the political situation in Europe. It is well known that the ultra-left propaganda and practice of Beijing were most active precisely in the second half of the 60s - early 70s, that is, during the period of the notorious "cultural revolution" in the PRC.

But Italian historians have no doubt that only the Italian Communist Party could be involved in the posters with Stalin, which at that time held distinctly pro-Chinese and pro-Albanian positions. At the same time, in fact, Beijing (through Tirana and the Italian communists) infiltrated the rebel movement in Calabria.

Official Beijing, however, was silent about the events in Reggio Calabria, but the Albanian media called them "a proletarian uprising, which should be led by the communists." In Albania, they confidently predicted "the collapse of Italy due to the aggravation of interregional socio-economic imbalances in the country." But the Soviet mass media in those days regularly reported about the "atrocities of fascist hooligans" in Reggio di Calabria.


It was very uncomfortable for the "then" Albania to coexist with a united Italy with the US and NATO bases located there. Many of them are still located in southern Italy, including Calabria and Apulia. And the latter is separated from Albania by a strait only 70 km wide, although the ferry from Bari does not go to Albanian Tirana, but to the ancient Montenegrin Bar - the port of Sutomorje.

But in Tirana they decided to support the uprising in Reggio di Calabria, probably with the hope that it would spread to Apulia. And there, you see, not long before the "non-Western" republic in southern Italy!

However, the rebels in Reggio ended up with a bizarre symbiosis of anarchism, pro-fascism, separatism and Mao-Stalinism. The latter, for obvious reasons, could not become the guiding core of the uprising. However, Italy, even at that time, did not aggravate relations with Albania. Rome, like the West as a whole, was geopolitically very beneficial to the anti-Soviet position of Tirana, which, moreover, entered into political confrontation with Tito's Yugoslavia.

The end of the "tale of Italy"


In the meantime, the Italian authorities tried to begin the elimination of Calabrian separatism. After the events of September 14, the security forces became more active, and on September 17, 1970, Ciccio Franco was arrested on charges of instigating a mutiny. The arrest immediately provoked major riots: the destruction of gun shops, the seizure of police stations, and beatings of officials.


The anti-government revolt quickly spread throughout Calabria. As a result, the authorities were forced to release Ch. Franko on December 23. The threat of the unrest spreading throughout the country passed, but in the end, Rome decided to firmly suppress the uprising.

On February 23, 1971, the rebellious Reggio was actually occupied by large forces of police and carabinieri with the support of the army. On that day, more than 60 people died or went missing, including the military and police. Ciccio Franco and others like him went into an illegal position.

The underground workers did not give up for a long time: their last action was in October 1972, eight explosions in the city and on the adjoining railways. However, throughout Calabria, central government control was restored by mid-1971. But the administrative center of the province remained in Reggio Calabria.


Monument to Ciccio Franco

The collapse of Italy did not take place. But the memory of C. Franco in Reggio di Calabria is still surrounded by honor and respect: the dates of his life and death are celebrated, a street and a city theater are named in his honor.
Author:
Photos used:
picabu.ru, ic.pics.it, sensunovus.ru, strettoveb.com, author
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 5 August 2020 06: 35 New
    +3
    There was no real threat of the collapse of Italy, I think, after all, and the unrest in the poorest province of Italy is just natural, precisely because of poverty.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 5 August 2020 08: 49 New
      -5
      the Italian province of Calabria wandered along the Italian boot from heel to toe.
      In the 17th century in this Italy there were both Great Greece and Troy of Hercules and the cities of the Sybarites i.e. sibarisov, and Russia, and Calabria with heels.



      https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b59731819/f1.item.zoom
  2. Undecim
    Undecim 5 August 2020 07: 37 New
    +4
    On June 13, 1970, the Regional Council of Calabria decided to transfer the administrative center of the region from Reggio di Calabria (the local administration was traditionally dominated by far-right and "pro-anarchist" figures) to the city of Catanzaro. This decision meant significant socio-economic losses for Reggio, not to mention the loss of historical and political prestige.
    Nobody tolerated the advice. Calabria, as an administrative unit, was organized in 1970. But already in 1969, debates flared up where the administrative center should be - in Reggio or Catanzaro. These settlements at different times were already regional administrative centers and competed with each other.
    The first protests in Reggio took place in March 1969. Further - on the rise.
    But the administrative center of the province remained in Reggio Calabria.
    A bit wrong. A compromise was proposed, which the protesters accepted. Part of the administrative bodies were located in Reggio, part in Catanzaro.
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 5 August 2020 08: 10 New
    +7
    By the way, it was then and from there that the well-known term "Italian strike" spread around the world.

    The concept of "Italian strike" was known long before 1970, in particular, it is found in the works of I.V. Stalin.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 5 August 2020 09: 37 New
      +2
      Greetings, hi Sergei! I sometimes met some incomprehensible references to Italian strikes, Italian communists in modern programs. However, these mentions were somehow very incomprehensible.
      This article is about events completely unknown to me in the left movement of European countries and I am very grateful to the authors for this. good
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 5 August 2020 20: 21 New
        +2
        Hi Dmitry! In general, the events in the communist movement of the 60s and 70s, even then, were presented in our country very vaguely - what "Eurocommunism" was to an ordinary student in the USSR was incomprehensible, it seems, this is the theory of Antonio Gramsci, and the Shpakovskys of that time from the departments of social sciences said that it was very bad theory, but not as much as Maoism. The worst theory is Stalinism, here Mao worships Stalin, and he himself destroys the sparrows, then makes the Chinese smelt cast iron in every fanza. The "great helmsman" himself, criticizing the Soviet "snickering revisionists" (in which he was right) foolishly staged a series of provocations on Damanskoye and on Lake Zhalanashkol in 1969, in which he greatly spoiled his perception in the USSR. It seems that these provocations were for domestic Chinese consumption, as was its "cultural revolution", which greatly reduced the comfort level of the Chinese "creative intelligentsia." "Dear Leonid Ilyich", who removed Khrushch Kukuruzny, did not rehabilitate Stalin, which later backfired on us with stagnation and restructuring on the capitalist path. Well, Enver Hoxha, the head of the Albanian, was not perceived in any way at that time, only regrets were that he kicked our fleet out of the base rented from him. With all this, in Moscow, "Conferences of Communist and Workers' Parties" regularly took place, what they discussed there, I do not know then or now.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 5 August 2020 20: 48 New
          +1
          Good evening, Sergey! Thanks for the great great comment! That
          ..... indistinctly served. ..
          , I have long assumed. For example, Albania. We have very old books at home - big beautiful Albanian fairy tales on good paper and Albanian epic - brochure. Mid 50s. Later I found out --- the paths diverged because of the "mistakes" of Albania, this was already said by my grandmother in the 90s. She also said that these books on ELECTION DAY, grandfather bought at the polling station, and then they were removed so that they would not be in plain sight. Who knows, if not for the corn one, maybe the whole map of Europe and the planet would be different. The socialist camp would be much larger.
          And the Italians in Calabria would have found very different like-minded people. ....
          I also try to learn more about the socialists in Portugal who came to power as a result of legal elections ...
          Many of our people could support, but did not support.
          The socialist system stopped expanding and the bourgeois realized that ours was no longer relevant. Betrayal, disaster
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 5 August 2020 21: 41 New
            +3
            I had a neighbor in my old apartment, an old woman who worked as a nurse in the Kratovo KGB sanatorium from 1954 to 2004, told different cases "from the life of vacationers." There was no one in this famous sanatorium - the wife of Maurice and Leontine Coen, and the famous Sudoplatov, and other well-known and unknown illegal immigrants, as well as other patients who never went anywhere. It is clear that all the people I mentioned were in the sanatorium after the end of their careers. She noted the very strong-willed character of Sudoplatov (still, 15 years to simulate madness so as not to be shot by the sentence of Khrushch Kukuruzny), Leontina's artistry (even in extreme old age), and other characteristics. There were also representatives of "brothers in arms" - people from the Warsaw Pact countries, often young. They were there until the break in relations with Albania in the early 60s. Granny said that there were no patients dirtier than the Albanians. By the way, it was in this sanatorium that an anecdotal incident with the artist Vyacheslav Tikhonov took place (he had a dacha nearby). Once, after a heart attack, he was brought to this sanatorium and the doctor on duty, filling out the patient's card, without raising his eyes, asked out of habit - "Your military rank" - to which Tikhonov replied: "Standantenfuehrer".
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 5 August 2020 21: 54 New
              +1
              ..... from 1954 to 2004 ......
              50years in the ranks of a nurse. good However. She needed to write her memoirs.
              What about Stirlitz? I read that the books of Yulian Semyonov did more to increase the authority of our bodies than what real events. And at the same time, during Andropov's time or at the end of Brezhnev, when Andropov was supposed to replace him, the surrender of socialist interests took place.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 5 August 2020 22: 07 New
                +2
                Grandma died, soon it will be 10 years. I have remembered something that will need to be accurately stated.
                Andropov, no matter what they wrote about him now, still tried to continue the socialist path of development - it was with him that people began to catch people wandering around the shops during working hours. Naturally, the question arose - why the people outside of working hours can not buy anything - and so "Soviet trade" worked, so it was convenient for her. In particular, when I came to study in Zhukovsky in 1972 (the faculty of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology is located here), there was a store in the city that was open until 22 pm, after a few years not a single grocery store that was open after 20 pm was gone, which was very inconvenient. And the assortment was getting worse. It was Andropov who expressed the thought: "We do not know the society in which we live." Absolutely correct. But he was deeply ill, so he died soon after.
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 5 August 2020 22: 24 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Aviator_
                  Grandma died, soon it will be 10 years. I have remembered something that will need to be accurately stated.
                  Andropov, no matter what they wrote about him now, still tried to continue the socialist path of development - it was with him that people began to catch people wandering around the shops during working hours. ....... It was Andropov who expressed the thought: "We do not know the society in which we live." Absolutely correct. But he was deeply ill, so he died soon after.
                  I don’t know, Sergei, are the authorities catching buyers at the shops? Something is wrong. In my opinion. Why did they not catch speculators-resellers or others?
                  At work, I also talked with one granny for several years. Under socialism, she was the head of the light dress store at the Trust. She told me a lot of things, about a mess, about dresses costing less than a ruble Or about 5p on top, or I will store them ---- dresses, they are furniture to me .. The main refrain isI could do everything then! But the fact is, there were some pension rules at that time, that in such and similar positions, after retirement age, they no longer worked. I sometimes heard about those times
                  That's bad ------ we don't know! Well, I would have begun to restore Stalin's good name! And the fact that ---- do not know and we will not learn what is in this society?
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 6 August 2020 19: 27 New
                    +1
                    You see, Dmitry, if you have any device, you need to have its circuit, instructions for use, and so on. Society is the same device. You need to know how it works, whether it corresponds to the ideals for which it was created in 1917, maybe the ideals were too naive, maybe something went wrong somewhere, either society or ideals need to be corrected. And for this you need to decide what is going on around here. They also caught speculators-resellers, but it's like carrying water with a sieve. It was Andropov who identified the problem. And Gorby Marked later changed his ideals.
                    1. Reptiloid
                      Reptiloid 6 August 2020 20: 00 New
                      +1
                      Good evening, dear Sergey! How many people I got here trying to understand about the deficit in the USSR 3-4 years ago! It came with difficulty! And the further we go from that time, the less we will understand it. But I personally talked with real eyewitnesses and read something and watched ...... For example, ZMEELOVA was on TV for a long time, I remember the film and I think I understood correctly.
                      But the MURDER ON ZHDANOVSKAYA somehow did not "go". Or he began to read too early in his age. ...
                      There was no shortage in the wilderness where he lived before school. Lack of much was the norm, from navigation to navigation it was calculated. Everything was brought from the "mainland", from vacations .....
                      And they returned to Leningrad in the 91st ....
                      I heard something about the grabbing of people in stores before you said, but not really, it was already in the past.
                      What do I dislike about these stories or films? It turns out belittling our past, in my opinion.
                      Some kind of passion for a pair of boots or sheepskin coats ..... A country that defeated fascism, created an alternative to capitalism, created a new society. ....
                      You could say - it's true, but it's somehow wrong.
                      It is also true how the peasants ate quinoa under the tsar, how the children did not live up to a year. Or up to 5 years old. And adults at the age of 30 were already old under the king. Not everyone survived this age. However, there are no films about it. And about the crunch of a French roll and a white matter --- they filmed it in addition. About their blagarodstvo negative repeat and so on am am
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 6 August 2020 20: 41 New
                        +1
                        The film "Snakes" is weaker than the book. The scarcity, indeed, greatly annoyed even an unassuming consumer like me. I believe it was created artificially, for the possibility of subsequent barter of services - "you to me - I to you." Well, the worst was the book deficit, it arose by the beginning of the 70s. Modern films fulfill the social order of the solvent population, the actresses there only hit the loot, remaining at the level of monkeys. And the money goes to them from the budget, the population does not go to these films at all, because they are tired of the same thing. Moreover, with the loss of the famous Russian and Soviet theater school.
                      2. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid 7 August 2020 03: 36 New
                        0
                        There were stories on the net that, yes, the scarcity was artless.
                        As for its function --- except you to me, I wanted you, in my opinion ---- yes! Raise the value of those who are deficient in order to exclude their criminal punishment, but also to occupy the population with something. wassat
                      3. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid 7 August 2020 03: 37 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Reptiloid
                        There were stories on the net that, yes, the scarcity was artless.
                        As for its function --- except you to me, I wanted you, in my opinion ---- yes! Raise the value of those who are deficient in order to exclude their criminal punishment, but also to occupy the population with something. wassat

                        also the creation of false targets, as a substitute for real ones.
                2. gsev
                  gsev 8 August 2020 14: 04 New
                  0
                  Quote: Aviator_
                  It was Andropov who identified the problem. And Gorby Marked later changed his ideals.

                  Or maybe the ideals were replaced by I.V. Stalin abolished the party maximum and introduced special rations and special envelopes for the nomenclature, who shot everyone who thought and discussed what kind of society was being built after 1917, teachers and students of the Industrial Academy and who then moved to the promotion of all then satisfied and all approving Khrushchov from this academy. I like the similar opinion of I. Starinov expressed in his memoirs.
            2. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 5 August 2020 22: 55 New
              0
              Once again I read the comments, dear Sergey. No, I don’t think that Andropov really fought for socialism. This is some kind of duplicity and deception. In my opinion.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 6 August 2020 19: 14 New
                +1
                Dmitry, I am writing to you as an eyewitness to Andropov's short reign. Before Khrushch Kukuruzny, the economy of socialism was dealt with very competently, maintaining a balance between supply and demand. The money supply was not inflated, price reduction mechanisms were in full swing, small things were done by artels outside the ministerial planning system (such "cooperatives", only through them it was impossible to cash out non-cash money, as was done in 1988). Khrushch ruined the subsidiary farm in the countryside, set up a failed virgin soil, introduced economic councils (he still did not touch some ministries). He announced that "the current generation of Soviet people will live under communism." Politically, he cheated on Stalin, and together with his economic achievements. As a result, the economy crackled, the last Khrushchev five-year plan had to be redone into a seven-year plan (yes, we also had a seven-year plan - Stalin's first five-year plan was completed at 4 years old, and Khrushchev's at 7 years old). Under Brezhnev, disproportions with wages and money supply among the population began. Experiments like Kosygin-Lieberman began, when reporting began to be expressed in financial terms. It, of course, was curtailed by 1970, but they did not return to Stalin's planning. And then the world energy crisis of 1973, when oil rose in price, and petrodollars flowed to us like a river. And stagnation set in, you could do nothing at all. And they didn't. Trade more and more rude, she deeply did not care about buyers. This period is well described in the book of Lazar Karelin "Serpents". Then they also made a movie based on it, in the early 80s. There was a merger of hucksters, clandestine shop workers and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Then, in the early 80s, completely insolent cops robbed and killed a KGB officer at the terminal station of the Moscow metro (then Zhdanovskaya, now Vykhino). It seems that in democratic times a film was also made - "Murder on Zhdanovskaya", I have not seen it. When Andropov began to press the traders, they staged a direct sabotage. Measures of the times of the Cheka were already needed, the people would have perceived it correctly, despite the various cries of the "creative intelligentsia". But Yuri Vladimirovich died, and then, already in democratic times, shit began to be thrown at him.
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 6 August 2020 20: 08 New
                  +1
                  I still need to read and think about that time in our country. .....
                  But --- the divergences with the left parties in the time of Andropov, as well as before him, as well as later, continued. There was no development of the entire socialist system and undoubtedly this is due to the change in the course of the USSR.
                  hi with respect
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 6 August 2020 20: 22 New
                    +1
                    Naturally, there was no longer any leftist idea in the USSR after Khrushchev's rule. Marx, Engels, Lenin and another general secretary were quoted. Apart from these spells, there was nothing at all. Nobody even turned on their heads - and why did Lenin quarrel with Plekhanov at one time and said: "Marxism is not a dogma, but a guide to action." And Andropov did not manage to do anything here - he did not even have time to pose the problem of theoretical elaboration of the problems of socialism. He didn’t even have time to figure out where we were. So I wondered then - why are the "Conferences of Communist and Workers' Parties" held?
                  2. Reptiloid
                    Reptiloid 7 August 2020 03: 24 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Aviator_
                    Naturally, there was no longer any leftist idea in the USSR after Khrushchev's rule. ........ And Andropov did not manage to do anything here - he did not even have time to pose the problem of theoretical elaboration of the problems of socialism. He didn't even figure out where we got there. So I wondered then - why are "Conferences of Communist and Workers' Parties" held?
                    There was no leftist idea, but I guess the CPSU wanted to keep the main place among the Communist Parties? And this, of course, is understandable.
                  3. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 7 August 2020 07: 57 New
                    +1
                    She wanted to want something, just theoretically could she offer? Eurocommunism emerged as an alternative to the path suggested by Moscow. If she offered anything at all. This is a topic for serious study - the crisis of the communist idea after the XNUMXth Congress of the CPSU.
            3. gsev
              gsev 8 August 2020 14: 18 New
              -1
              Quote: Aviator_
              When Andropov began to press the traders, they staged a direct sabotage.

              No person will work efficiently if they do not receive worthy for their work. When I came to the scientific research institute under the communists and considered that only 5% of the stackers laid down in the layout of the stacker workshop was more than enough at the plant, I was told that I was a pest if I proposed to reduce the number of stacker cranes by 10 times, because the employee who accepts the layout The ministry loves that the layout presented to it looks beautiful, and the stackers located on it make this cocument attractive and will delight the eye of the chief. And accurate knowledge of the need for stackers required access to classified information and could raise suspicion of espionage. There was no sabotage, there was no correspondence between the stated goals, and instructions on how to go towards these goals. In 1930, it was said that the collective farm is the road to prosperity, and the collective farmers realized in six months that if they live only according to the rules established in the collective farm, then 100% would have to starve to death.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 8 August 2020 15: 48 New
                0
                and the collective farmers realized in six months that if they live only according to the procedures established in the collective farm, then 100% would have to die of hunger.

                And since 1931, they began to live not according to the collective farm rules, only for this reason they did not die out by 1941? This is the first thing.
                Secondly. If your research institute reports only on the number of stackers and their beautiful location, then the enemies are the heads of such a research institute, which was later confirmed. They don't live in poverty now, do they?
                Thirdly. In stagnant times, I had to test a prototype of a product on someone else's experimental setup, with someone else's team, and even on the second shift on Friday. In order to exclude indifference, I briefly told what the essence of the tests is, why it is necessary, and that the Americans will get fucked up, but they will not think of this. The brigade worked fine after that, the Americans have not yet repeated this scheme, but first Gorby came to us, and then EBN with a well-known result. And you say that no one will work without money. Will be, if there is an Idea.
              2. gsev
                gsev 8 August 2020 17: 27 New
                0
                Quote: Aviator_
                And since 1931, they began to live not according to collective farm rules,

                My grandmother said that the godfather did not steal from the collective farm and feed his children with the thieves. Their entire family starved to death. Grandfather stole, grandmother fed and watered the kolkhoz bosses, who eventually wrote a paper that grandfather's brother had been dispossessed by mistake. The brother's family was able to return from exile to the village of Sibirovka. I think that Stalin could not imagine what his directives for collectivization turned into after 2 years of their implementation.
                Quote: Aviator_
                then the enemies are the leaders of such a research institute,

                The management of the research institute organized and supported the production of CNC, AC and DC electric drives, position sensors for photoelectric and linear magnetic machines, CNC machines on Soviet components. There is a well-known article by aircraft designer Antonov about the planned economy. I just gave you an example of how the need for stacker cranes was established to the detriment of the salaries of collective farmers. The initial data for calculating the need for stacker cranes required knowledge of the range of all parts produced at the Podolsk Electromechanical Plant. I got to a meeting, where I was told by which employee of this plant these secret data were copied into his notebook and what should I do to get the opportunity to read or rewrite these data for calculation. After that, not wanting to very rudely violate the secrecy regime, I did everything not to read this notebook and quickly transferred from the design department to the design department.
                Quote: Aviator_
                Will be, if there is an Idea.

                Not all and not all my life. Or at least not with high efficiency. That is, not like Musk, but like Rogozin, for example.
              3. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 8 August 2020 17: 56 New
                0
                I just gave you an example of how the need for stacker cranes was established to the detriment of the salaries of collective farmers.

                You express your thought more clearly. Where are the stackers, and where are the collective farmers.
                Further. Rogozin is the chairman of the Pound. This official with a journalist diploma has nothing to do with development.
                Yet. If your CNC production is not interested in optimizing its equipment (you proposed an optimization plan, did I understand correctly?), Then it, at best, is resting on its laurels, satisfied with past successes. This is stagnation.
                And the last thing. About the Idea. Without an Idea, a person turns into a philistine. And that's all.
              4. gsev
                gsev 8 August 2020 18: 04 New
                0
                Quote: Aviator_
                Yet. If your CNC production is not interested

                It's just that at that time there were people who were comfortable living in a quiet swamp with layouts and stackers, while others made machines and drives for the idea. Socialism was confident that even if you do stupid things at work, you will never live worse than others. And now we see that Lukashenko, Putin and Zelensky have chosen their own special path and in the near future we will see who will be the first to leave the race. For example, it seems to me that it will be Lukashenka. This is the beauty of capitalism, that the mistakes of the head of the company without his timely change cannot be corrected by his subordinates.
  • BAI
    BAI 5 August 2020 12: 34 New
    +3
    "Italian strike"

    In 1904, Italian railroad workers invented a new way to strike. First, we have moderated our Italian temperament. Everything began to be done much more slowly.

    Secondly, they began to comply with ALL technical instructions and regulations prescribed by the employer. Thus, the management had nothing to show. The railway "stopped". Trains have been canceled. Although formally, everyone worked.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 5 August 2020 20: 05 New
      +1
      So I mean that this method has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, and here - as an invention of 1970.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 5 August 2020 22: 37 New
        0
        Quote: Aviator_
        So I mean that this method has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, and here - as an invention of 1970.

        The way was known, dear Sergey! fellow But just to whom? You know because you were educated then. Lenin was read from a young age.
        And now very few people have such knowledge. And if you want to know something like that, it turns out that it is not easy laughing Best regards
  • Free wind
    Free wind 5 August 2020 08: 32 New
    +3
    Something in this article is not right. The beginning seemed to be correct, the center was relocated, riots began, well, well, that's enough? Yeah hell, those who smelled profit intervened in the matter, the Kolabria mafia "NDRANGETA" and in all these pogroms and robberies it warmed its hands quite well, most likely its people participated in the actions, and they dragged everything valuable for themselves, carried out several explosions to raise fun. Those who started to buzz fled long ago. This Chicho-lino, well, spoke how many times, well, like a leader. Only by that time was a seasoned fascist led by the fascists. Not so long ago released, a certain prince, Junio ​​Borghese, a very famous Italian creator of "combat swimmers" Well, somewhere like that. Actually, the fact that the submariner was the leader says that he had to flee to Spain, otherwise they would have been shot. Knowing his qualities during the arrest, it is unlikely that anyone would stand on ceremony with him. Mafia stayed aside. The communists were not noticed there, they cannot be together with the fascists by definition, even according to the postulates of fascism they cannot be together.
    1. podymych
      5 August 2020 10: 09 New
      +1
      Thank you colleague! The authors did not so much write about the nature of the crisis in Calabria, as they tried to trace the strange communist trail in the neo-fascist uprising. And we still have to write and write about the black prince Borghese, especially since his military biography is to the envy of Otto Skorzeny
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 5 August 2020 13: 30 New
        +2
        I re-read the article again. A very rare topic. The fact that these Italian communists were Stalinists back in the 1970s, we can say that this is another evil in the "piggy bank" of the evil deeds of the corn-grower against Stalin, the World Communist Movement and the USSR.
        Quote: podymych
        ....... Authors ....... tried to trace a strange communist trail in the neo-fascist uprising .......

        Strange communist footprint ??? I have a lot of assumptions: perhaps an oriental temperament --- among their ancestors and the Syrian diaspora in the Ancient Roman state, and the Byzantines + traditional polyethnicity (as in many eastern countries) ... Of course, extreme poverty and despair. Experience with weapons, the habit of solving problems with weapons.
        1. gsev
          gsev 8 August 2020 14: 31 New
          +1
          Quote: Reptiloid
          these Italian communists were Stalinists back in the 1970s

          In fact, there were no bloody Stalinist communists in the Italian Communist Party. Even the Italian communist Filtrinelli published Pasternak's novel Doctor Zhivago for the first time. The CIA could not even get permission to release this novel in Russian from Filtrinelli. Apparently the publisher was struggling with the desire to open the work of the Russian author to the reader and the unwillingness to harm socialism in the USSR. Indeed, the mass communist parties of Europe adhered to Eurocommunism, that is, they recognized the democratic struggle for power and liberalism and democracy in society.
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 8 August 2020 14: 46 New
            0
            Thank you for the clarification! ~ 50 years ago .......
            It turns out that many post-war events are now difficult to understand. hi
            1. gsev
              gsev 8 August 2020 17: 36 New
              0
              Quote: Reptiloid
              many post-war events are now difficult to understand.

              For this there is the science of history. Possession of her techniques makes it possible to understand when the author reveals something new to the readers for them, and when encourages them to repeat a half-forgotten stupidity. I can hardly imagine how the new Stalin will be able to organize in Russia a new Lysenkoism or a struggle against cosmopolitanism. Although in Ukraine they were able to pull Petliura and Bandera out of oblivion. Someone even in Russia imagines the greatness of nationality, autocracy with Stalin at its head.