30 January 1945 year, the submarine "C-13" at the command of Alexander Marinesko sank the German ship "William Gustlov." According to various sources, from 4 to 8 thousand people died then. This is still the most terrible sea disaster. Why didn’t Marinesco be given the title Hero of the Soviet Union, and was the feat of his crew really a feat, or were German civilians on board?
We turn first to the official Soviet sources:
The C-13 submarine under the command of captain 3 rank A.I. Marinesko 30 on January 1945 sank to the north-west of Danzig Bay, the German airliner Wilhelm Gustlov displaced in 25 484 tons, on board which was over XNNX tons, on board which was over XNNX tons, onboard which was more than XNNX toned on 6 9 13 14 660 13. The Admiral Hipper cruiser, destroyers and minesweepers could no longer provide any assistance to the transport. Fearing the attacks of Soviet boats, they hurriedly retreated to the west. The same C-XNUMX submarine sank the ship "February." Steuben "with a displacement of XNUMX XNUMX tons. For military success in this campaign, the submarine C-XNUMX was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. "
That's all that is said about the achievements of Marinesko in "Stories Of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union 1941-1945 ". You should pay attention to the words" 6 thousand people "and" ship ".
But he wrote in his opus "Sea Captain" (publishing house "Soviet Writer", 1984) politician A. Kron:
"On January 30, 1945, the S-13 submarine under the command of the 3rd rank captain A. I. Marinesko sank a giant fascist airliner in the Stolpmünde area fleet "William Gustlov" with a displacement of 25 tons, on board of which were more than seven thousand fascists evacuated from Danzig under the blows of the advancing Soviet troops: soldiers, officers and senior representatives of the Nazi elite, executioners and punishers. More than three thousand trained submariners — about seventy crews for new submarines of the Hitler fleet — were on Gustlova, which had served as a naval base for a diving school before going to sea. In the same campaign, Marinesco torpedoed a large military transport "General Steuben", 484 soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht were transported from Koenigsberg on it. "
And now the "Big Encyclopedic Dictionary", 1997:
MARINESKO Al-dr Iv. (1913-63), submariner, captain of the 3 rank (1942), Hero of the Soviet Union (1990, see). In the Great Patriotic War, commanding the submarine "S- 13 "(1943-45), drowned in the district of Danzig Bay 30 Jan. 1945 is mute. Superliner" Wilhelm Gustlov "(who had on board St. 5 thousands of soldiers and officers, including approx. 1300 submariners) and February 10 - auxiliary cruiser "General Steuben" (St. 3 thousand soldiers and officers). After the war, he worked in Leningrad Shipping Company, then on s-de. "
There is a trend - first in Gustlov, according to official historiography, there were 6 thousand PEOPLE, then Krona 7 thousand FASCISTS, among which over 3 thousand submariners, and finally again in the official source - 5 thousand soldiers and officers, among which only 1300 submariners. As for the "Steuben", which is called the steamer, it is a major military transport, then the auxiliary cruiser (and Kron in his opus called it just a cruiser), the Germans called auxiliary cruisers civilians armed with 5-7 guns.
It is not known who first launched the bike about declaring Marinesko Hitler's personal enemy and about mourning after the sinking of “Gustlov”. According to Soviet sources, mourning was, according to German - no. However, there is no doubt that indeed no other such small unit destroyed such a large number of German citizens at one time. Even during the famous bombardment of Dresden, when the 250 of thousands of inhabitants were killed, several thousand pilots participated in it. However, neither then nor after the sinking of “Gustlov” was mourning declared - the Germans did not advertise these losses in order not to give cause for panic among the German population.
So who and how many drowned Marinesko? Several thousand people or fascist executioners or the military? In various sources, the composition of the passengers "Gustlova" varies greatly. By the number of drowned - from 4 to 8 thousands. In terms of composition, they simply say “refugees”, then “refugees and military”, then “refugees, military, wounded and imprisoned”.
The most detailed figures about the passengers "Gustlova" are as follows:
918 military sailors, 373 from the female auxiliary of the fleet, 162 wounded soldiers, 173 crew member (civilian seamen) and 4424 refugee. Total 6050. In addition to these, listed, on board the "Gustlov" managed to get even 2 thousands of refugees. A total of 876 people were saved. Killed 16 officers of the training division of the submarine forces, 390 cadets, 250 female military personnel, 90 crew members, as well as wounded military personnel. Such is the military damage caused by the sinking of the Gustlov.
As for those who drowned at the Steuben, it really (as it was written in Soviet sources) had more than 3 thousand soldiers and officers — 2680 wounded and 100 healthy military personnel, 270 medical personnel, as well as 285 crew members and about 900 refugees. A total of 659 people were saved. Some sources include the Stoiben sinking in the first line of the list of the largest by the number of victims of sea disasters. By the way, the sinking of "Gustlov" is always present on such lists - either in the first or second place in the number of deaths in the entire history of navigation. If in the second place they call "Gustlov", then in the first place they call either the sinking of "Goya" (Soviet submarine L-3 on April 17, 1945) - from 5 to 7 thousand refugees, or the sinking of the ship Cap Arkona (British aviation May 3, 1945), as a result of which 5 thousand prisoners drowned.
Now imagine how this event looked at the historical background.
Germany is irresistibly heading for the abyss. This is understood even by those who until recently shouted "Heil Hitler!" The flames of war are raging in the land of the Third Reich. Soviet Tanks rumble on the roads leading to Berlin, flying fortresses terrify the German soldiers retreating orderly.
In early February, the Heads of the Governments of the Allied Powers met in 1945 in Crimea to discuss measures to ensure the final defeat of fascist Germany and outline ways for a postwar world order.
At the very first meeting in the Livadia Palace in Yalta, Churchill asked Stalin: when would Soviet troops seize Danzig, where are a certain number of German submarines under construction and ready? He asked to speed up the seizure of this port.
The anxiety of the English premiere was understandable. The military efforts of Great Britain and the supply of its population largely depended on shipping. However, wolf packs of fascist submarines continued to rage on the sea lanes. Although, of course, their effectiveness was no longer the same as in the first years of the war, when it turned out that British ships were simply powerless against the threat of German U-shek. Danzig was one of the main nests of the fascist underwater pirates. Here was the German High School of Diving, the floating barracks for which was the liner "Wilhelm Gustlov".
But the English Prime Minister was late with his question. In Danzig, volleys of Soviet guns and Katyushas were already heard. Started a hasty escape the enemy. “Thousands of soldiers, sailors and civilians plunged into the" Wilhelm Gustlov. " Half of the passengers of the liner were highly qualified specialists - the color of the Nazi submarine fleet. Strong security at sea was to ensure the safety of their transition from Danzig to Kiel. The convoy included the cruiser Admiral Hipper, the destroyers and minesweepers. ” So follows from the Soviet post-war sources. In fact, among the 9000 refugees, the overwhelming majority were civilians, otherwise they would have been detained as deserters, or, conversely, reduced to some kind of team. In general, it is strange to assume among the 9000 refugees an absolute absence of some kind of military, for example, one-legged veterans of the Franco-Prussian war. All underwater German elite died 42-44's. And the whole convoy consisted of one (!) Minesweeper.
At the end of January 1945, the Soviet submarine "C-13" under the command of Alexander Marinesko entered the bay of Danzig.
30 January in the sea broke out a violent storm. The cabin of the boat, antennas and periscopes are quickly covered with a thick layer of ice. The commander and commissar peer into the darkness with pain in their eyes. And then the silhouette of a huge vessel appeared.
"C-13" and at about twenty-three o'clock on January 30 attacks the enemy vessel: several torpedoes one after another rush to the target. There is a strong explosion - and "Wilhelm Gustlov" goes to the bottom.
A Hitlerite officer Heinz Schön, who was aboard the liner, in his book "The Death of Wilhelm Gustlav", published in West Germany, confirms that 30 January 1945 was not torpedoed by a Soviet submarine near Danzig which killed more than five thousand people. “If this incident can be considered a catastrophe,” the author writes, “then it was undoubtedly the biggest catastrophe in the history of navigation, compared to which even the death of the“ Titanic ”facing the iceberg in 1913 year om - nothing.
On the Titanic, 1517 people died. This tragedy shook all humanity then. No one regretted about "Wilhelm Gustlov".
Heinz Shep describes in detail the story of the death of the liner:
"Wilhelm Gustloff was under double command - like a ship, the liner was headed by the captain of the merchant fleet Friedrich Petersen, and as a floating unit of the 2 training division of the submarine, the liner was led by a naval officer Wilhelm Zahn.
By the evening of January 22, 1945, the liner was prepared for the voyage and loading of passengers - thousands of exhausted, frostbitten, and injured refugees. The thermometer showed 14 degrees below zero, chaos and collapse reigned around.
In the harbor of Gotenhafn, there were about 60 thousands of refugees, and as soon as the gangways were installed, thousands of people rushed to the assault. During the landing, many children, in the resulting crush, were separated from their parents.
About 400 girls - employees of the women's auxiliary organization of the Navy, aged from 17 to 25 years, climbed on board the ship. They were placed in the swimming pool on the deck of E. Of course, the girls were more than happy, in view of the imminent Soviet occupation of East Prussia, to leave Gotenhafn. On the morning of January 29, another hospital train arrived in Gotenhafn, the wounded were placed on the sun deck.
Now on board was about 7-8 thousands of people, but how many of them were exactly, could not be established to this day. The liner was literally packed, and the cabins, and the corridors and aisles, were crowded.
As an air defense, a pair of anti-aircraft guns was installed on the upper deck. Rescue facilities were provided about 60% of passengers.
On Tuesday, 30 January, 12.30 local time, the 4 tugboat approached the liner and took it from the pier. The weather conditions were bad - wind with a force up to 7 points, temperature 10 degrees below zero, sludge (small loose ice - approx. M. Volchenkova).
I was appointed as an anti-aircraft crew chief. On the way out, icing started on the decks, and we had to constantly clear the tools from the ice. A minesweeper was ahead of the liner to search for and destroy mines. It got dark and it got even colder. Downstairs, the feelings of joy and relief were replaced by depression, because many refugees began to suffer from motion sickness. But the majority considered themselves completely safe, firmly believing that in a couple of days they would reach Stettin or Denmark.
My watch started at 21.00. Everything was quiet and peaceful. And suddenly, somewhere in 21.10, explosions rang out. At first, I thought that we had hit mines. But later he learned that we were struck by torpedoes, released by the Soviet submarine C-13, commanded by Alexander Marinesko. Thousands of people fell into a panic. Many began to jump overboard into the icy waters of the Baltic. First, the ship tilted to the starboard, but then straightened, and at this time another torpedo hit the liner, in the tank area. We were located on the coast of Stolpmünde, Pomerania. Immediately gave the signal SOS and began to release signal flares.
The impact of the second torpedo fell on the area of the vessel on which the swimming pool was located. Almost all the girls died, they literally tore into pieces. I wanted to go back to my cabin and take a few personal items, but it was already impossible. Thousands of people burst from the lower decks to the top, driven from below by streams of water.
Climbing upstairs, people shouted and shoved incessantly and terribly, those who fell were doomed, they were trampled to death. No one could help the helpless - pregnant women and wounded soldiers. Crowds of people took the lifeboats by storm, and there was no question about the execution of the famous commandment “Women and children are the first!”. Nobody obeyed anyone; those who were physically stronger took the upper hand. Many boats covered with ice could not be lowered altogether, and I watched one of the phallines drop near a row of lowered boats, and the boat dumped all people in it down into icy hell. The liner continued to sink into the water with its nose, the tank rails were already under water, and the launch of the boats became even more difficult.
For a while I stood on the sun deck, watching this nightmare. Some families and individuals who have had personal weapon, they preferred to shoot themselves, rather than die a much more painful death in icy water and darkness. And thousands of others continued to cling to the liner, while he continued to dive.
I thought I could not get out. I jumped into the water and began to quickly sail off to the side so that I would not be dragged into the funnel. At first, the cold was not felt at all, and soon I was able to catch hold of the cram of the crowded lifeboat (special rescue lines were stretched along the sides of the lifeboats for this very purpose - auth.). The picture I discovered was truly awful. The children, who were wearing life jackets, turned upside down, and only their helplessly jerking legs stood out above the water. The dead were already swimming around. The air was filled with cries of the dying and calls for help. Two children clung to me, they shouted and called for their parents. I managed to lift them aboard the boat, but they were saved or not, I never found out.
Then I felt my weakness - hypothermia occurred. I was able to hook onto a metal rescue raft - at a distance of about 50 yards from the sinking liner. The nose almost completely plunged, the stern rose into the air, and hundreds of people were still there, screaming wildly. Immersion speed increased. Then, suddenly, there was a dead silence. Wilhelm Gustloff disappeared under the water, taking with them the lives of thousands of people. The largest disaster in the history of navigation lasted approximately 50 minutes.
For about 20 minutes, the scariest minutes of my life, I just swam somewhere. From time to time I was covered with ice slush. The screams around me grew quieter and more and more rare. Then something happened that I consider a miracle. I saw a shadow approaching me and shouted, gathering my last strength. I was noticed and raised on board.
Save me torpedo boat T-36. The crew of the boat helped us, saved, by all available means - hot tea, massage. But many of the rescued were dying on board, from hypothermia and shock. Among those rescued were pregnant women, and it just so happened that the crew members had to try themselves as midwives that night. Born three children. The T-36 was part of a squadron commanded by Lieutenant Herring, whose task was to escort the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper. The cruiser also came from East Prussia, having refugees on board. Suddenly the boat abruptly changed course, howling cars. As I later found out, we noticed the trail of two torpedoes, one passed on the starboard side, from the other the boat was able to evade a sharp maneuver. The turn was so steep that part of the rescued on the upper deck fell overboard and sank. But the 550 man was saved. Due to the great danger of the submarine’s repeated attack, the boat departed from the crash site and in 02.00 on January 31 arrived in Sashstitz. The rescued were overloaded on board the Prinz Olaf Danish floating hospital, which was anchored there. Many were sent, on stretchers, to the shore. We, the sailors, were placed in the barracks. Lieutenant Herring was on the bridge all the time and saluted when the last rescued left the side of the boat. As I later learned, only 996 people of about 8000 aboard were saved.
We, escaped sailors, once again escaped death. As sailors of the German Navy, we were all comrades, we loved our homeland and believed that we were doing the right thing by protecting it. We did not consider ourselves heroes, and our death is heroic, we just did our duty. "
Ten days later, the boat of Marinesko sank another ship, the liner General von Steuben, 3500 people died ...
Why Marinesko did not give Hero, but almost at the first opportunity fired from the fleet? More than he, none of the Soviet submariners did not. Is it because of drunkenness? Or was it just an excuse, and the motives were different?
Perhaps there was an ordinary policy here. Let's count - a couple of volleys, in one campaign, Marinesko sent to the next world, according to the most conservative estimates, over 10 thousand people! The death of “Gustlova” was the largest sea catastrophe in the history of mankind, “Titanic”, compared with the victorious volleys of Marinesko, looks like a boat turned over on a pond with drunken vacationers. Steeper Marinesko were, perhaps, only the crews of those B-29 that tamed Japan - atomic bombs. But in general, the figures are comparable. Here and there - tens of thousands. Only, however, Marinesko did without atomic bombs, only two at that time on the entire planet. Marinesko and a dozen torpedoes was enough.
It is likely that the destruction of Gustlov was embarrassed, because for the occupied Germany they were preparing batches of bread, they wanted to win over the Germans, and then the death of such a large number of people, partly civil, from the torpedoes of one small submarine.
Finally - about the Marinesko. His mother was Ukrainian, and his father served in his youth as a fireman on a warship of the Royal Romanian Navy. After some quarrel with the authorities, my father fled to Russia and settled in Odessa. The growing up Alexander Marinesko graduated from school as a young man, and then in the thirties - and the Odessa Nautical School. Sailed on ships in the Black Sea. As a long-distance navigator Marinesko was drafted into the Navy and after studying he asked for a submarine.
Always calm, confident, he was very persistent in his skill in achieving his goals. In command of the ship, he never raised his voice, did not shout at his subordinates. All this created for him an unshakable authority, he deserved the love and respect of the sailors.
In contrast to all this, it remains to add that Marinesko was kicked out of the fleet for drunkenness and poor discipline. Marinesko got the job warehouse. They finally got drunk and began to drink drunk state property entrusted to him. He was caught and convicted in 1949 for 3 of the year.
As you can see, Alexander Marinesko is a rather controversial figure. And the feat can be interpreted differently ... Despite all the contradictions, the award nevertheless found a submariner: in 1990, he was posthumously awarded the golden star of the Hero of the Soviet Union.
Feat Marinesko and tragedy "Gustloff"
Alexander Marinesko is one of the most controversial figures of the Great Patriotic War, around which controversy has not yet subsided. A man covered with many myths and legends. Unjustly forgotten, and then returned from oblivion.
Today in Russia they are proud of him, perceived as a national hero. Last year a monument to Marinesko appeared in Kaliningrad, his name was entered in the Golden Book of St. Petersburg. Quite a few books have been published on his exploits, among them is the recently published Submariner Number 1 by Vladimir Borisov. And in Germany, he still can not forgive the death of the ship "Wilhelm Gustlof." We call this famous military episode "the attack of the century", while the Germans consider it to be the largest maritime disaster, perhaps even more terrible than the death of "Titanic."
It would not be an exaggeration to say that the name Marinesko in Germany is known to everyone, and the theme of "Gustloff" today, many years later, stirs the press and public opinion. Especially recently, after it came out in Germany and almost immediately became the best-selling novel The Trajectory of the Crab. Its author, a well-known German writer and Nobel Prize winner Günther Grass, opens unknown pages for East Germans to flee to the west, and the Gustloff catastrophe is in the center of events. For many Germans, the book has become a real revelation ...
It is not for nothing that the death of “Gustloff” is called “sheltered tragedy”, the truth about which both sides hid for a long time: we always said that the ship was the color of the German submarine fleet and never mentioned thousands of dead refugees, and the post-war Germans who grew up with a sense of repentance the crimes of the Nazis, silent about this story, because they feared accusations of revanchism. Those who tried to talk about the dead at Gustlof, about the horrors of the Germans fleeing from East Prussia, were immediately perceived as “far right”. It was only with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the entry into a united Europe that it became possible to more calmly look to the east and talk about a lot, which was not customary to recall for a long time ...
Price "attack of the century"
Whether we want it or not, we still don’t get around the question: what did Marinesko drown — the warship of the Hitlerite elite or the refugee ship? What happened in the Baltic Sea on the night of January 30 1945?
In those days, the Soviet army advanced rapidly to the West, in the direction of Koenigsberg and Danzig. Hundreds of thousands of Germans, fearing retribution for the atrocities of the Nazis, became refugees and moved to the port city of Gdynia - the Germans called him Gotenhafen. On January 21, grand-admiral Karl Doenitz issued an order: "All German ships that are available must save all that can be saved from the Soviets." The officers received an order to redeploy submariner cadets and their military property, and in any free box of their ships to accommodate refugees, and especially women and children. Operation Hannibal was the largest evacuation of the population in the history of navigation: over two million people were sent to the west.
Gotenhafen was the last hope for many refugees - there were not only large warships, but also large liners, each of which could take on board thousands of refugees. One of them was the "Wilhelm Gustlof", which seemed unsinkable to the Germans. Built in 1937 year, a magnificent cruise ship with a cinema and a swimming pool served as the pride of the Third Reich, it was intended to show the world the achievements of Nazi Germany. Hitler himself participated in the descent of the ship, which was his personal cabin. For Hitler’s Cultural Leisure Cultural Organization, the liner delivered holidaymakers to Norway and Sweden for a year and a half, and with the start of World War II, became the naval squadron of the 2 cadet training division and scuba diving.
30 January 1945 of the Year Gustlof went out on its last flight from Gotenhafen. About how many refugees and military were on board, data from German sources differ. As for the refugees, before 1990, the figure was almost constant, since many of the survivors of that tragedy lived in the GDR - and there this topic was not subject to discussion. Now they began to give testimony, and the number of refugees has grown to ten thousand people. In relation to the military, the figure almost did not change - it is within a thousand and a half people. Counting was done by “passenger assistants”, one of which was Heinz Schön, who became the chronicler of the death of Gustloff after the war and authored several documentary books on this subject, including The Catastrophe of Gustloff and SOS - Wilhelm Gustlof.
The submarine "C-13" under the command of Alexander Marinesko hit the liner with three torpedoes. The surviving passengers left terrible memories of the last minutes of the "Gustlofa". People tried to escape on rescue rafts, but most kept only a few minutes in icy water. Nine ships participated in the rescue of its passengers. The horrific paintings bump into the memory forever: children's heads are heavier than the legs, and therefore only the legs are visible on the surface. A lot of children's feet ...
So, how many managed to survive in this disaster? According to Shen, 1239 people survived, half of them, 528 people - personnel of German submariners, 123 man of auxiliary female navy, 86 injured, 83 crew member and only 419 refugees. These figures are well known in Germany and today it makes no sense to hide them here. Thus, 50% of submariners survived and only 5% of refugees survived. We have to admit that, basically, women and children died - they were completely unarmed before the war. Such was the price of the “attack of the century,” and this is why in Germany today many Germans consider Marinesko’s actions a war crime.
Refugees become hostages of a ruthless military machine
However, we will not rush to conclusions. The question here is much deeper - about the tragedy of war. Even the fairest war is inhuman, because civilians are the first to suffer from it. According to the inexorable laws of war, Marinesko sank a warship, and it is not his fault that he sank the ship with refugees. A huge fault in the tragedy lies with the German command, which was guided by military interests and did not think about civilians.
The fact is that "Gustlof" left Gotenhafen without proper escort and earlier than planned, without waiting for escort ships, since it was necessary to urgently transfer German submariners from the already surrounded East Prussia. The Germans knew that this area was especially dangerous for ships. The fateful lights included on the Gustlof after the message was received about the movement of a team of German minesweepers towards it played a fatal role - it was along these lights that Marinesko discovered the liner. And finally, on his last voyage, the ship did not leave as a hospital ship, but as a military vehicle, painted gray and equipped with anti-aircraft guns.
Until now, Schen’s figures are practically unknown to us, and data continues to be used that the Gustlof lost the color of the German submarine fleet - the 3700 sailors, which could be completed from 70 to 80 submarines. This figure, taken from the message of the Swedish newspaper "Aftonbladet" from February 2 1945, was considered indisputable in our country and was not questioned. Until now, unusually tenacious legends, created back in 1960-s from the light hand of the writer Sergey Sergeyevich Smirnov, who then raised the unknown pages of the war - Marinesko's feat and the defense of the Brest Fortress. But no, Marinesko was never "Hitler's personal enemy", and three-day mourning in Germany over the death of "Gustloff" was not declared. This was not done for the simple reason that thousands of people were waiting for the evacuation by sea, and the news of the disaster would have caused panic. Mourning was declared by Wilhelm Gustloff himself, the leader of the National Socialist Party in Switzerland, who was killed in 1936, and his murderer, student David Frankfurter, was named Hitler's personal enemy.
Why do we still do not dare to name the true scale of the tragedy? It is sad to admit it, but we are afraid that the Marinesko feat will fade. However, today even many Germans understand: the German side provoked Marinesco. “It was a brilliant military operation, thanks to which the initiative of domination in the naval war in the Baltic was firmly intercepted by the Soviet sailors,” said Yury Lebedev, deputy director of the A. Marinesko Museum of Submarine Forces of Russia. “With its actions, the C-13 submarine approached The end of the war. It was a strategic success of the Soviet navy, and for Germany it was the biggest maritime disaster. Marinesko’s feat is that he destroyed the seemingly unsinkable symbol of Nazism, a dream ship that propagates " The Third Reich ". And the civilians who were on the ship became hostages of the German military machine. Therefore, the tragedy of the death of" Gustloff "is not an accusation of Marinesko, but of Nazi Germany."
Recognizing that the sunk "Gustlof" were not only German submariners, but also refugees, we will take another step towards the recognition of the historical, though unfavorable fact for us. But it is necessary to get out of this situation, because in Germany "Gustlof" is a symbol of misfortune, and in Russia it is a symbol of our military victories. The issue of Gustlof and Marinesko is very complex and delicate, affecting the present and future of relations between Russia and Germany. It was not for nothing that the Consul General of Germany Ulrich Schening who recently visited the Museum of the Underwater Forces of Russia named after A.I. Marinesko left such an entry in the book of honorable guests: “In 60 years after the tragic events of World War II, the time finally arrived when Russians and Germans were building the future together. this calls for the death of the German airliner "Wilhelm Gustlof" in January 1945. "
Today we have the opportunity, even in such a difficult matter, to go to reconciliation - through historical authenticity. Indeed, in the history there is no black and white colors. And the uniqueness of Marinesko is that his personality does not leave anyone indifferent. His legendary personality may have been prepared for immortality. He became a human legend and will remain it ...