Military Review

Chemical tank HBT-7

22
Chemical tank HBT-7

HBT-7 wheeled. Part of the tracks are suspended under the shelves


In the thirties, Soviet engineers worked on the direction of chemical tanks... As part of an extensive program, several variants of such equipment were developed based on the BT series tanks. Early examples of this kind carried smoke equipment or flamethrowers, which allowed them to solve various problems. Then they created the HBT-7 tank, capable of performing both flamethrowing and smoke release.

On a common platform


The BT series tanks became the basis for chemical vehicles in the mid-thirties. The first projects of this kind provided for the installation of a flamethrower or tank smoke equipment. So, light chemical tanks HBT-2 and HBT-5 could hit targets with a jet of burning liquid or machine gun fire. At the same time, another tank was created, called the HBT-5, on a similar base. With the help of a standard TDP-3 device, he could set up smoke screens, and used a machine gun for self-defense.

The processing of BT tanks into chemical vehicles provided for the removal of some of the units, main armament and ammunition storage with the subsequent installation of new devices. The resulting vehicle retained its external resemblance to the base model and had similar tactical and technical characteristics. At the same time, there was a certain margin for modernization.

A logical continuation of the already implemented ideas was the combination of smoke and flamethrower equipment on one chassis. Such a sample was developed in 1936 at the SKB of the Compressor plant, which already had extensive experience in the development of chemical armored vehicles and systems for it. The new tank was based on the BT-7 design, as a result of which it received the HBT-7 index. The designation HBT-III is also known, indicating the serial number of such a development.

Technical features


During the development of the new project, the basic BT-7 retained the hull, turret, power plant and chassis. At the same time, the 45-mm gun and its ammunition, as well as the radio station, had to be removed. The project involved the use of fenders to install new units. For this reason, the removed tracks were proposed to be transported not on the shelves, but under them.

Inside and outside the hull and tower, various devices and devices from the KS-40 chemical system developed by SKB Kompressor were mounted.


The turret retained the standard 7,62 mm DT machine gun. The gun mount was used to mount a flamethrower. The flamethrower hose was equipped with an armored casing-mask. It was equipped with a pneumatically actuated Pitot shut-off valve. The ignition was carried out with two candles powered by the tank battery.

A pair of nozzles was placed on the roof of the engine compartment for spraying a toxic substance, degassing or smoke mixture. The pipes to the nozzles were located next to the exhaust manifolds, which provided heating of the chemicals and made it possible to efficiently spray them at any ambient temperature.

The liquid payload was transported in two tanks with a capacity of 300 liters. They were placed on fenders inside casings made of 10 mm armor and connected to a common system using pipelines. The supply of liquids to the fire hose or sprayers was carried out using a pump and other devices. HBT-7 could take on board only one type of liquid chemicals to solve a particular problem. The tank could either attack the enemy with a fire mixture, or treat the area with chemicals.

The KS-40 flamethrower provided the release of the burning mixture at a distance of up to 70 m. The liquid supply was enough for several dozen shots. 600 l of the smoke mixture allowed the curtain to be put on for 40 minutes. Feed sprayers were used to contaminate or degass the area. At an optimal speed of 12-15 km / h, the tank could process the CWA in a strip up to 25 m wide. Degassing was carried out in a strip of 8 m.

The removal of part of the standard equipment made it possible to lighten the base chassis, but the new equipment fully utilized this load capacity and even went beyond it. The original BT-7 weighed 13,7 tons, while its chemical version - 15 tons. The increase in mass hit the mobility. The average speed on tracks was reduced to 16,5 km / h, on wheels - to 21 km / h.

Failed tests


In 1396, "Compressor" prepared an experimental tank HBT-7 and brought it to the test. It was found that the resulting armored vehicle is capable of solving the assigned tasks, but its characteristics are far from ideal. There were a lot of problems of various kinds that made it difficult to operate or worsened the overall potential.


One of the main problems of the HBT-7 was its excess weight. The power plant was still able to cope with the loads, but the speed and cross-country ability on the ground dropped. Also, the load on the chassis increased, and its maintenance and adjustment were now more difficult.

The chemical apparatus, in turn, showed high performance. The flamethrower made it possible to hit targets at the required ranges, and the spray devices ensured effective treatment of the terrain. However, insufficient tightness of the pipelines appeared, which could lead to the leakage of dangerous liquids, which threatened the safety of the crew.

Tanks HBT-7 could accept only one type of liquid at a time and, accordingly, the tank could solve only one combat mission. To perform another, it was required to drain the liquid cargo, process the tanks and refuel, which took a lot of time. Thus, the formally universal chemical tank did not differ in particular flexibility of use and ease of operation.

There were also problems with weapons for self-defense. Recycling tower weapons led to the fact that the DT machine gun lost the ability to aim fire.

Second prototype


According to the test results, the HBT-7 chemical tank was criticized and did not receive a recommendation for adoption. At the same time, the built prototype was handed over to the Red Army for trial operation. With his help, the troops had to gain experience for the subsequent development of the expected serial equipment.


Scheme of chemical equipment KS-40, built using a pump

Already in 1937, the Kompressor plant developed an improved version of the chemical apparatus called KS-50. The main feature of this project was the abandonment of an engine driven pump, instead of which a pneumatic displacement system based on a compressed gas cylinder was now used. In addition, the tanks were slightly altered. Their total capacity was increased by 50 liters.

Soon an experienced HBT-7 appeared with KS-50 equipment. It was built on a new serial assembly chassis - the first prototype was not altered. Tests have shown that the KS-50 system is easier to operate and much more efficient than the previous KS-40. With the same level of performance, the upgraded HBT-7 was simpler and more reliable. However, the problems with the weight of the armored vehicle and the loads on the chassis were not resolved.

Project abandonment


Tests of two experimental HBT-7 showed the fundamental possibility of building a chemical tank with a flamethrower and spray equipment. At the same time, they demonstrated insufficient characteristics of the BT-7 chassis. Important conclusions were drawn based on the results of the HBT-7 / HBT-III project and other developments.

It was decided to stop the development of the HBT-7 project due to the impossibility of obtaining the desired results when using the available components. It was also decided to abandon the idea of ​​a universal chemical tank carrying a flamethrower and smoke devices. As a result, the HBT-7 turned out to be the first and last Soviet model of its kind. In addition, they abandoned further work on specialized tanks with smoke extinguishing equipment - it was proposed to mount such means on linear tanks.

Two built chemical tanks on the basis of BT-7 with KS-40 and KS-50 equipment were transferred for trial operation to one of the units of the Red Army. The mastery of this technique and the accumulation of the necessary experience continued for several years. The last mentions of two chemical tanks date back to the end of 1940. It is not known whether the experienced HBT-7s managed to stay in service until the start of World War II and take part in battles. However, the limited technical and operational characteristics would not allow them to realize their full potential.
Author:
Photos used:
Aviarmor.net; Solyankin A. G. et al. "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century", vol. 1
22 comments
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  1. Free wind
    Free wind 2 August 2020 06: 18 New
    -4
    The article is not new, of course, I would like to see the decoding of the scheme. otherwise the principle of action is not clear. Interestingly, they were afraid of chemical attacks, but they were afraid to use them .. Although sometimes information leaks out that ours once used, but the wind was in our direction, the wind rose was always in our direction, and they were poisoned themselves, and the Germans threatened. Rumors of course, but some archives of the Second World War are classified for another 50 years.
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 2 August 2020 06: 32 New
    +1
    Chemical tank HBT-7

    Chemical as a unifying term for various directional tanks (smoke protection, flamethrower, and even chemical weapons) HBT-7 is a flamethrower tank, with smoke equipment, like the Germans. For the 30s it will, but today ......flamethrower tank HBT-7
  3. svp67
    svp67 2 August 2020 06: 45 New
    +4
    In 1396 "Compressor" prepared an experimental tank HBT-7
    It is a pity, it is a pity that the project was unsuccessful ... otherwise it could have been used against the Teutons on Grunwald or in the war for the Livonian inheritance ...
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 2 August 2020 07: 08 New
      0
      So the T-34 had some flamethrower, the flamethrower was installed instead of the machine gun, technical data at the level of this sample. They were only afraid to use them, there were very bad stories with captured flamethrowers. But the T-34-85, I don't even know whether they were or not.
      1. svp67
        svp67 2 August 2020 07: 13 New
        +4
        Quote: Free Wind
        But the T-34-85, I don't even know whether they were or not.

        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 14: 13 New
          +2
          In addition to the T-34 flamethrower, the KV-8 was serially produced with a flamethrower and a 45mm cannon in the turret instead of 76,2mm.
          The most famous after the military one is OT-54.
          1. svp67
            svp67 2 August 2020 14: 54 New
            +2
            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
            The KV-8 was serially produced with a flamethrower and a 45mm cannon in the turret instead of 76,2mm

            Yes, like this ...
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 2 August 2020 20: 04 New
        +1

        They were only afraid to use them, there were very bad stories with captured flamethrowers.

        Who was afraid - the Red Army or the Wehrmacht?
        Flamethrower tanks were used by both sides since June 22, 1941!
        Who mistreated the prisoners?
        Do you remember what the British and French soldiers did with the captured Germans if they had bayonets with a saw on the butt ???
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 2 August 2020 20: 57 New
      0
      For the Teutons and other "guys from the orders" a platoon of HT-26 or OT-130 would be enough.
      1. svp67
        svp67 2 August 2020 21: 17 New
        +1
        Quote: hohol95
        For the Teutons and other "guys from the orders" a platoon of HT-26 or OT-130 would be enough.

        It would be enough ... but they appeared much later than 1396
  4. BAI
    BAI 2 August 2020 11: 39 New
    +2
    For BT tanks (i.e. Christie's) we see sloped (although only frontal) armor. So the T-34 with rational angles of inclination of the armor is not a pioneer in this.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 14: 26 New
      +1
      The T-34 is essentially a deep modernization of the Bteshek (Christie) with anti-cannon armor and a diesel engine. Rational angles of piercing armor were used in armored vehicles earlier, the same French Somua and AMR-35. The experienced Soviet TG (Tank Grott) and BT-IS "Turtle" also had a rational slope of armor. T-34 and KV-1 - this is what they collected the most advanced ideas at that time: anti-cannon armor, a diesel engine, a powerful 76,2mm cannon, a welded or cast armored hull and a turret without mounting on corners, like Renault and Gochix. The KV also had an advanced torsion bar suspension.
      Yours!
    2. svp67
      svp67 2 August 2020 14: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: BAI
      For BT tanks (i.e. Christie's) we see sloped (although only frontal) armor. So the T-34 with rational angles of inclination of the armor is not a pioneer in this.

      And who was the T-26 arr. 1939
    3. Monar
      Monar 3 August 2020 06: 49 New
      0
      Here we are. And what do we see? Sloped armor.
  5. BAI
    BAI 2 August 2020 11: 49 New
    0
    The BT series tanks became the basis for chemical vehicles in the mid-thirties.

    On what basis does the author make this statement?
    There were HT-26, 139,133,134 based on the T-26.

    Flamethrower tank XT-134 during tests at the NIBT Polygon in the summer of 1940. A flamethrower is clearly visible on the upper frontal sheet of the hull. The car arrived from the Karelian Isthmus, where it took part in the battles. Additional shielding was preserved only on the turret; it was removed from the hull before testing to reduce weight
    1. svp67
      svp67 2 August 2020 14: 59 New
      +1
      Quote: BAI
      On what basis does the author make this statement?

      The author wanted to say the same that the BT tank was also converted into flamethrower modifications, this is how the words "OSNOVA" should be understood
    2. BAI
      BAI 2 August 2020 16: 44 New
      +1
      There were HT-26, 139, 133,134 on the basis of the T-26.

      Typo. 139 was not there.
  6. Thunderbringer
    Thunderbringer 2 August 2020 12: 18 New
    0
    600 liters of combustible mixture, no radio station, radius of destruction 70 meters.
    That is, you must first drive up to the enemy 70 meters on this thing.
    Brilliant! Disposable tank, disposable crew.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 14: 29 New
      +1
      Quote: Thunderbringer
      600 liters of combustible mixture, no radio station, radius of destruction 70 meters.
      That is, you must first drive up to the enemy 70 meters on this thing.
      Brilliant! Disposable tank, disposable crew.

      It's gorgeous to throw such comments with a message!
      And have you tried to strain by comparing with his peers from Italy and Germany?
    2. Doctor
      Doctor 2 August 2020 14: 42 New
      +1
      That is, you must first drive up to the enemy 70 meters on this thing.
      Brilliant! Disposable tank, disposable crew.

      And what about the cleaning of the city? For example Grozny to Chechen?
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 3 August 2020 08: 22 New
      0


      Have you heard of such machines?
      Okay, Italians, but it turns out that the Germans also considered their tankers "disposable"?
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 2 August 2020 20: 14 New
    0
    The author, as always, got bogged down in verbiage, and never got acquainted with the topic. As with the concept of "average speed".
    The increase in mass hit the mobility. The average speed on tracks was reduced to 16,5 km / h, on wheels - to 21 km / h.
    The maximum speed of this tank on tracks was 50 km / h, on wheels - 70 km / h.
    And 16,5 and 21 is the speed at which contamination of the area with OM or degassing was ensured.