Military Review

Combat aircraft. About fiery hearts

83
In this section we talked a lot about airplanes. We disassemble, sort out, discuss. Cannons and machine guns were under consideration. Probably the case when it's just time to talk about motors. The ones that instead of the heart, but very fiery in the truest sense of the word.


It is clear that you will have to speak twice, or even more, because the engines were different. Reciprocating, rocket and turbojet, liquid and air cooled and so on.

Today we will focus on air-cooled piston engines. Let's make such a kind of rating, since everyone loves this business so much.

I personally have a very respectful and reverent attitude towards the airmen. And in general, these are the workers of that war. And the best planes of World War II flew on air-cooled engines. Okay, almost everything. There were also very decent models in the family of liquid-cooled motors, but we will talk about them next time.

And now we have air-cooled motors that propelled WWII aircraft in the sky.

Pratt & Whitney R-1690 "Hornet". USA


Combat aircraft. About fiery hearts

This engine in its homeland in the United States was produced in number less than 3. Nevertheless, it is one of the engines that played a very significant role in stories world aviation... After all, it was the Hornet that became the progenitor of the German engine BMW.132 and all subsequent air vents of this company, the Japanese Kinsei, the Italian Fiat A.59R.

The total number of variations of the Hornet made in other countries was close to 100 thousand.

Pratt & Whitney R-1690 S1E-G Motor Specifications

Number of cylinders: 9.
Power: 740 hp at 2250 rpm at an altitude of 2900 m.
Specific power: 21,26 kW / hp
Valves: 1 inlet and XNUMX outlet per cylinder, OHV drive.
Compressor: 1-speed centrifugal 12.0: 1.
Fuel system: carburetor.
Weight: 460 kg.

Mitsubishi Kinsei. Japan



In 1934, Mitsubishi bought the right to license the production of the American radial engine Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet. And then the Japanese did a lot with this 9-cylinder engine: they added a second row of cylinders, albeit reducing the number of cylinders in a row from 9 to 7. And the result was a 14-cylinder double-row star, on which Japan fought the entire war. Not very successful, true, but nonetheless.

The Germans from BMW, who also bought this engine from the Americans and produced it under the BMW 132 brand, helped the Japanese a lot.

The first version was the Kinsei 3 engine, which did not differ much from the original Pratt and Whitney R-1689 Hornet. Engine power 840 hp from.

During the period from 1935 to 1945, the engine went through many modifications and as a result, the last was the Kinsei 62, a direct injection engine with a centrifugal compressor with two speeds, with an afterburner system similar to the German MW 50. Maximum power 1500 hp. from.

A total of 12 engines of all modifications were produced.

Kinsei engines were installed on many Japanese fighters. The list of models is impressive. Aircraft of the firms Aichi, Kawanishi, Kyushu, Mitsubishi, Nakajima, Nakajima / Mahshu, Showa / Nakajima, Yokosuka fought during the Second World War on Kinsei engines.

Kinsei 43 engine specifications

Volume: 32,3 liters.
Power: 1075 hp at 2500 rpm at 2000 m.
Number of cylinders: 14.
Valves: 2 per cylinder, OHV drive.
Dry weight: 545 kg.

Fiat A.74. Italy



In general, there was not much to write about this engine, because it is a licensed Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior, for which Fiat acquired a license.

However, there is a case when the copy turned out to be even better than the original. The Italians, who, well, cannot be blamed for wealth, did the impossible: they simplified the engine technologically so much that its cost price dropped by half. And - unbelievable, but true - performance characteristics did not suffer.

The A.74 family was produced in large batches. This engine was installed on Fiat, Macci, IMAM fighters.

Its most remarkable property is that all the simplifications of the engine went to its advantage. A.74 started up on frankly low-quality fuel, was not afraid of either heat or frost, felt great in the dust of the Libyan desert, it was very easy to repair and maintain.

Moreover, the A.74 became the base model for the subsequent engines, A.76, A80 and A.82. Starting with a 14-cylinder 870 hp engine, the series ended with an 18-cylinder 1400 hp unit.

A total of 9 A.316 motors were manufactured.

Fiat A.74 specifications

Volume: 31,25 liters.
Power: 960 hp at 2520 rpm at an altitude of 3000 m.
Number of cylinders: 14.
Dry weight: 590 kg.

Gnome-Rhône 14N. France



Probably the most successful French air vent. It was used mainly on the Bloch, Farman and Amiot bombers, as well as on the Polish PZL.43 Karas. The Germans also did not disdain the engine, the miracle transport "Messerschmitt" Me.323 carried six just such engines.

A very rational engine with an advanced valve system.

In total, almost 10 engines of all modifications were produced.

Volume: 38,67 l.
Number of cylinders: 14.
Valves: 4 valves per cylinder (2 inlet, 2 outlet).
Power: 1 HP at 060 rpm at 2400 m.
Dry weight: 620 kg.

BMW 801. Germany



This is also an introduction to the Hornet motor by Pratt and Whitney, but the Germans, even though they started working on the motor earlier, went much further.

The Germans made the engine a 14-cylinder, radial, two-row. The Japanese were not immediately able to inject, but BMW engineers had no problems. So the engine had a rated power of 1460 hp. and takeoff 1 hp.

Compared with American and Soviet (!) Similar engines, the engine from BMW was WEAK!

The explanation is simple: the Germans did not have enough oil at their disposal, or rather, 100% of the oil was imported. Therefore, the engine was designed for low-octane (by aviation standards) gasoline with a number of 95. Low-octane fuel also forced developers to play with supercharging, which also affected power.

The rest of the engine was pretty good.

The motor and the propeller were controlled by an automatic machine, which provided control of the propeller group with a single lever. Depending on the position of the gas sector, the machine selected boost pressure, fuel supply, ignition timing, supercharger speed switching and propeller pitch.

This assault rifle largely compensated for the lack of power in combat, providing the pilot with more opportunities to react in combat.

Many aircraft models from Blohm & Voss, Dornier, Heinkel, Junkers, and, of course, Focke-Wulf were equipped with BMW 801 engines.

The most famous aircraft carried by the Bavarian engine were the Focke-Wulf FW.190 and Junkers Ju.88. In principle, these two combat vehicles are enough to give an understanding of how good the engine was, made in the amount of more than 50 copies.

BMW 801D engine characteristics

Number of cylinders: 14.
Volume, l: 41,8.
Power: 1800 hp at 2700 rpm.
Valves: 2 per cylinder.
Weight, kg: 1012.

Bristol "Hercules". Great Britain



The loser duckling Perseus has turned into a real Hercules. A beast of beasts, capable of carrying both fighters and bombers. Yes, the Centaur was even cooler, but it only went into production in 1944. Until that time, the main British airman was the Hercules.

"Beaufighter", "Lancaster", "Stirling", "Wellesley", "Wellington", "Halifax" are mainly the names of bombers. Nevertheless, it was the steady and reliable operation of the Hercules that provided the British Air Force with the ability to operate in Germany, disrupting the work of numerous factories.

A total of 57 copies were produced.

Characteristics of Bristol "Hercules"

Volume: 38,7 liters.
Power: 1272 hp at 2200 rpm.
Number of cylinders: 14.
Dry weight: 875 kg.

Shvetsov ASh-82 (M-82). the USSR



Doubling the stars of the M-62 engine with a decrease in the number of cylinders in a star from 9 to 7 was the standard move at that time. The Germans did it, the Japanese did it, Shvetsov did it. Moreover, the M-62, which had left the father of the Cyclone of the American company Wright, was quite a normal engine.

Accordingly, the M-82 was not supposed to be any worse. And he was not.

The result was a very reliable and unpretentious engine, the only drawback of which was good cooling. Accordingly, the M-82 cabin was warm from the heart. Any.

Naturally, the ASh-82 went down in history as a motor weapons Victory, that is, the Lavochkin La-5 and La-7 fighters. But, in addition to the famous ASh-82 fighters, he carried Pe-8, Su-2 and Tu-2 quite regularly, which testifies to the versatility of the engine. The most interesting thing is that after the war, ASh-82 continued to lift everything into the sky. Fighters La-9, La-11 and Yak-11 quickly gave way to jet engines, but the passenger Il-12 and Il-14 (especially) carried passengers on civil flights for a very long time.

Well, the fact that the engine also became a helicopter on the Mil Mi-1 and Mi-4 machines, says ... But what can I say, it was a great engine! 70 units is not a joke, it is a recognition of its quality and capabilities.

And in the history of Soviet engine building it became the first engine with direct fuel injection in the ASh-82FN version.

Characteristics of ASh-82

Volume: 41,2 liters.
Power: 1700 hp from. at 2600 rpm in takeoff mode.
Compression ratio: 7,0.
Number of cylinders: 14.
Weight: 868 kg.

Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp. USA



It is a masterpiece. I put the Soviet engine no less than the ASh-82, if only because in the USSR in the 30s there was not even a tenth of the capabilities that American engineers could use.

But Double Wasp is still a masterpiece of engineering. The main engine of the Allied Air Force in World War II.

List of aircraft equipped with this engine. Is the list of winners. Republic P-47 "Thunderbolt", Chance Vought F4U "Corsair", Grumman F6F "Hellcat", Grumman F8F "Bearcat". These are fighters. Bombers Martin B-26 "Marauder" and Douglas A-26 "Invader".

After the war, the Double Wasp, just like the ASh-82, did not leave the stage and regularly carried passenger aircraft. Douglas, Convair, Martin were all friends and Double Wasp.

The last engines were produced in 1960. A little less than 125 copies were made in total.

Volume: 45,9 liters.
Power: 2000 hp from. at 2700 rpm at an altitude of 4350 m.
Number of cylinders: 18.
Dry weight: 1068 kg.

Summary. The Americans were definitely the trendsetters and trends in the development of air-cooled aircraft engines and the leaders. The rest copied, caught up, but, alas, nobody managed to overtake. Although ASh-82 and BMW.801 can be considered very good attempts.

It's hard for me to think of what motors could be produced in the Soviet Union, if we had at least 20% of American technologies and theoretical base of designers, with such specialists as Mikulin and Shvetsov. But, alas, it turned out as we know.

On the other hand, someone may have a different opinion, so here is a bunch of motors, everyone can arrange them in the order they see fit.
Author:
83 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. lucul
    lucul 31 July 2020 18: 17 New
    +1
    Good analysis, generally agree.
    Of course, I would like more R&D of motor engineering in the USSR, but in hindsight it is easy to say ...
    1. figwam
      figwam 31 July 2020 18: 47 New
      11
      The AN-62 is still flying on the ASh-1938 of the 2 model.
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 31 July 2020 20: 26 New
        +2
        Long rocked, but handsome! good
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 31 July 2020 18: 20 New
    12
    Thanks for the interesting insight. I did not know that all these engines are from one "dad")))
    I can't say about imported ones, but one more property - fire safety, or rather, the ability to extinguish fires, was inherent in our engines.
    From the memoirs of a relative. In the 50s, he, a young engineer, flew from city to city on IL-12 as a passenger. Everyone was asleep, but he did not want to be young, so he looked out the window. At some point, I noticed sparks escaping from the engine, and then smoke and flames!
    But the plane went into a dive and the fire was extinguished. The awakened passengers did not even understand anything! At the airport, a relative approached the crew commander and expressed his gratitude to him. The commander asked not to tell anyone about this, and then casually mentioned that this technique had to be used during the war ...
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 31 July 2020 20: 12 New
      +3
      But the plane went into a dive and the fire was extinguished.

      It is understood that the pilot shot down the flame with a stream of air. But during the transition in the peak, the height is quickly lost, so the passengers willy-nilly wake up.
    2. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 31 July 2020 20: 30 New
      15
      I do not understand who put a minus for a purely technical comment simply because of dislike for the commentator. Balbes.
      I'll fix Munus, good luck! drinks
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 31 July 2020 20: 41 New
        +9
        Don't scold my personal minusors! )) I'm used to them like fleas!
        They don't let me relax)))
        1. sg7s
          sg7s 2 August 2020 14: 42 New
          +1
          Well, they don't understand how important it was to create such an engine ... Yes, 55 degrees in the cockpit, yes, an open canopy, BUT - G-2 (G-6) did them calmly, all the Hartmans were immediately landed ... Lavochkin immediately took up 1500 (then for 1850 hp) The Klimovskys even M-107 with their 1200 - smoked nearby, thanks to Yakovlev's talent (he himself flew on his brainchildren, "flying" planes) ...
    3. Undecim
      Undecim 1 August 2020 12: 13 New
      +5
      But the plane went into a dive and the fire was extinguished.
      A pique is when the trajectory angle is at least 30 degrees. Such a volt on IL-12 passengers should have been pretty scary. Maybe not dive, but glide, which is more logical in order to bring down the flame.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 1 August 2020 13: 14 New
        +1
        I do not know. I am a tanker, and I wrote it down from the words of Uncle Seva. In principle, he was also a land man - an engineer at a research institute. Maybe sliding)))
    4. sg7s
      sg7s 1 August 2020 21: 53 New
      +2
      Ash-82 is a real breakthrough. (1850 forces) ... How much will you change the candles for? and a couple of cylinders "give way", with a sneeze you will reach? This is history, this is our victory ... The second (and fourth) Gustavs lost to Lavochkin only because of the star ... forced into the FN .. Two 4s added advantages. But not a fact ... Yes, I was warming myself , yes, with an open flashlight. yes, the quality of the flashlight - no, yes, the pilots with a temperature in the cockpit of 20-55 degrees flew, but they forgave everything for the verticals, for the turns (58 versus 15.8 for Messers (g-16.7). doctrine - no advantage - DUMP ... our - (well, we all - "to victory"), I know from myself - they will get it - on the teeth.
      1. Train
        Train 13 September 2020 15: 55 New
        0
        Something I did not hear that LA 5 did ME 109 g6-g14. According to our veterans, the Germans have always been faster. Do not forget that there was a lot of FN engines. Mostly ordinary ASh82. I watched Kozhedub's interview and the question to him, will he catch up LA FV190 (the model was not named) at the ground. Here is his answer: In a fast chase, yes, maybe, but in a protracted, no. FV will go away, slowly but go away. The motor of the aircraft dies
    5. Vilensky
      Vilensky 2 August 2020 18: 40 New
      +2
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      In the 50s, he, a young engineer, flew from city to city on IL-12 as a passenger. Everyone was asleep, but he did not want to be young, so he looked out the window. At some point, I noticed sparks escaping from the engine, and then smoke and flames!

      A similar situation happened to me on the Il - 14 in 1972. Night flight Palanga-Vilnius. Only we did not dive, but landed in Kaunas with the replacement of the aircraft.
  3. Ilshat
    Ilshat 31 July 2020 18: 27 New
    0
    The compression ratio is quite small ...
    Good article.
  4. Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 31 July 2020 18: 32 New
    0
    I would like to read a good article or book about Pratt Whitney R-1830, and his descendants. It's a masterpiece too ...
    1. Andrey.AN
      Andrey.AN 31 July 2020 22: 32 New
      -1
      Here the best was created fifty years ago, on the Tu-90 engine with a differential transmission. This machine is still the queen of unobtrusive heights. For a defensive doctrine, it is steeper than the new Tu-160; satellites graze its trail.
      1. Ilshat
        Ilshat 1 August 2020 08: 25 New
        +1
        Tu-90?
        Are you talking about the Tu-95 and NK-12?
        If about him - old, economy, power density with modern ones is not comparable ...
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 1 August 2020 21: 57 New
      +1
      I would like to read a good article or book about Pratt Whitney R-1830, and his descendants. It's a masterpiece too ...
      Connors J. The Engines of Pratt & Whitney: A Technical History. Read to your health.
  5. NF68
    NF68 31 July 2020 18: 34 New
    11
    The explanation is simple: the Germans did not have enough oil at their disposal, or rather, 100% of the oil was imported. Therefore, the engine was designed for low-octane (by aviation standards) gasoline with a number of 95. Low-octane fuel also forced developers to play with supercharging, which also affected power.


    Really? The first versions of this engine ran on gasoline with an octane rating of 87 units. And later, the main part of the engines installed on the bombers just ran on gasoline with an octane rating of 87 units.

    Compared with American and Soviet (!) Similar engines, the engine from BMW was WEAK!


    And if you just look at the relevant sources and not write something that, to put it mildly, does not quite correspond to the real state of affairs ?:

    BMW-801 E-2000 hp., 1942. BMW-801 D2 1943 at altitudes up to 1000 meters - 2060 hp. BMW-801 D2 with MW-50 1944 2000 hp. BMW-801 S 1944 2000 hp from 1945 2200 hp. BMW-801 F-2400 hp. Where are they weaker?

    Many aircraft models from Blohm & Voss, Dornier, Heinkel, Junkers, and, of course, Focke-Wulf were equipped with BMW 801 engines.

    The most famous aircraft carried by the Bavarian engine were the Focke-Wulf FW.190 and Junkers Ju.88. In principle, these two combat vehicles are enough to give an understanding of how good the engine was, made in the amount of more than 50 copies.


    In general, the Germans produced almost 30 engines of the BMW 000 type. According to Roman, more than 801 units were produced. 50 of them were stolen by the Romanians and other gypsies.


    All experimental BMW 801 engines were manufactured at the BMW-Werk 1 plant in München-Milbertshofen. Pre-series and serial production began there. In July 1941, the former Bramo plant in Berlin-Spandau and in May 1942 the new BMW Werk 2 plant in München-Allach began mass production. The main burden for the manufacture of BMW 801 engines was carried by BMW. The factories in Allach and Milbertshofen produced 14 ​​engines by the end of the war. At the plant in Spandau - 605. According to published by Richard Faltermair in the Flugzeug Classic (4213), issue no. 2003, and in the report of the BMW company "Program Execution" dated February 10, the data until the end of the war, the production of engines looked like this way:

    1940: 232 engines.
    1941 year: 1708.
    1942 year: 5225.
    1943 year: 8658.
    1944: 12
    January 1945 of the year: 631.
    February 1945 of the year at Allach: 310.
    March 1945 of the year at Allach: 375.
    The total number of engines produced can be considered equal to almost 30. The largest number of engines manufactured in one month - 000 units - took place in May 1450.



    It's hard for me to think of what motors could be produced in the Soviet Union, if we had at least 20% of American technologies and theoretical base of designers, with such specialists as Mikulin and Shvetsov. But alas, it turned out as we know.


    This also requires tens of thousands of highly qualified specialists of various specialties.

    Article for first graders and written by first grader. Anyone who more or less understands what the speech is about can go to this page:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aircraft_engines

    Where there is 2 orders of magnitude more information and this information covers the topic much more fully.
    1. lucul
      lucul 31 July 2020 20: 12 New
      +5
      And if you just look at the relevant sources and not write something that, to put it mildly, does not quite correspond to the real state of affairs ?:

      The article contains data of a "clean" engine, without injection of a water-methanol mixture, if anything)))
      And you drive with injection, put methanol injection on the Ash-82 - it will show you 2600 hp))))
      1. dauria
        dauria 31 July 2020 21: 06 New
        +5
        And you drive with injection ...

        Yes, here NF68 (Nikolay.) Went too far. I remember very well that the Fock 190 was born with 1500 horsepower on 801A after a failure with 139. And 1700 horsepower is on D1 and D2. And series E is small, grew into F, but the war ended. And Kurt Tank himself made a long-nosed Dora on water cooling, when he realized that a two-row star rested against the ceiling.
        1. NF68
          NF68 2 August 2020 16: 52 New
          0
          Quote: dauria
          And you drive with injection ...

          Yes, here NF68 (Nikolay.) Went too far. I remember very well that the Fock 190 was born with 1500 horsepower on 801A after a failure with 139. And 1700 horsepower is on D1 and D2. And series E is small, grew into F, but the war ended. And Kurt Tank himself made a long-nosed Dora on water cooling, when he realized that a two-row star rested against the ceiling.


          The failure with the BMW-139 was that the Germans did not plan to mass-produce this engine as well as the 18-cylinder BMW-140 developed on its basis. And the Germans did not plan to mass-produce the BMW-801 before the war either, and were engaged in it only in order to use the developments for the development of a more promising 18-cylinder BMW-802 on its basis. When the Germans attacked Poland on September 1, 1939, they did not expect this war to become a truly serious World War. But when they realized that they were mistaken and that the war would already be real, only then they hurriedly grabbed the organization of the production of BMW-801, since the development of the Luftwaffe was restrained by the lack of aircraft engines produced in the country and abroad. The BMW-801 E has already become a thorough study of engines of this type with external air intake, and not from the engine compartment, and therefore the BMW-801 E has already developed 2000 hp on takeoff. against 1700 hp. the first BMW 801 D2. Moreover, both engines ran on synthetic C2 gasoline with an octane rating of 95-97 units. Install on the FW-190 D and Ta-152 Jumo-213 A, Jumo-213 E, DB-603 E, DB-603 EC and DB-603 L K. The tank had to be primarily due to the fact that in the first half of 1944 BMW factories were badly damaged by the Allied aircraft and organize the production of more advanced BMW-801 F-2400 hp for low and medium altitudes and high-altitude with 2-stage 4-speed superchargers BMW-801 R-2000 hp. impossible. At the beginning of 1945, at the stands, the BMW-801 F developed not 2400 hp, but 2580 hp. Those. K. Tank and BMW-801 could still be used by the Allies, without interfering in this matter.

          http://alternathistory.com/aviatsionnye-dvigateli-firm-siemens-bramo-bmw-po-materialam-karla-prestelya/
        2. NF68
          NF68 4 August 2020 16: 15 New
          0
          Quote: dauria
          And you drive with injection ...

          Yes, here NF68 (Nikolay.) Went too far. I remember very well that the Fock 190 was born with 1500 horsepower on 801A after a failure with 139. And 1700 horsepower is on D1 and D2. And series E is small, grew into F, but the war ended. And Kurt Tank himself made a long-nosed Dora on water cooling, when he realized that a two-row star rested against the ceiling.


          Pay attention to the altitude characteristics of the FSh-82 FN:



          It could only be forced up to an altitude of no more than 1500-1600 meters. What are the 2600 hp. with water-methanol forcing, if the blower above 1600 meters was no longer capable of providing an increase in pressure?
      2. NF68
        NF68 2 August 2020 16: 29 New
        0
        Quote: lucul
        And if you just look at the relevant sources and not write something that, to put it mildly, does not quite correspond to the real state of affairs ?:

        The article contains data of a "clean" engine, without injection of a water-methanol mixture, if anything)))
        And you drive with injection, put methanol injection on the Ash-82 - it will show you 2600 hp))))


        In the "article" so that it could be called an article, it would not hurt to at least briefly recall how and from what considerations this or that engine was developed and how this engine was further developed. It would also not hurt to briefly mention which variants of this engine were produced and developed. You can try to put the injection of water methanol on the ASh-82. Only with a strong boost would not hurt a more powerful supercharger, which could increase the boost pressure by about 0,3-0,4 atmospheres. On ASh-82 FN, it was possible to force the engine only up to a height of about 1,5 km. higher performance of the supercharger was no longer enough to force the engine up to an altitude of 5 km. Large, as you write, the power of 2600 hp. creates very high mechanical and thermal loads. Significantly more than it was in reality with a maximum power of 1850 hp. As a result, if the ASh-82 develops 2600 hp, it will collapse very quickly with a terrible roar. I also brought a "clean" version of BMW-801 E without water methanol, which developed 2000 hp without water. on takeoff in 1942 and the BMW-801 D2 also developed 2060 hp without water methanol. on takeoff and up to an altitude of 1 km.
    2. Octopus
      Octopus 31 July 2020 20: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: NF68
      This also requires tens of thousands of highly qualified specialists of various specialties.

      Dear Vladimir Vladimirovich, using the example of his grandparents, he clarified this issue long ago.
      1. Alexandra
        Alexandra 31 July 2020 23: 52 New
        +3
        In May 1941, instead of the 18-cylinder M-71 engine (for which Polikarpov's fighter and the Sukhoi attack aircraft were created for that), she launched a 14-cylinder M-82 engine (for which no aircraft was developed at that time) apparently her grandmother, and not granddad.

        In the future, the 18-cylinder double "star" was found to be put into production only in 1947 (ASh-73). It was not “tens of thousands of highly qualified specialists”, but the fact that even the M-82 was “proactive” and was able to break into the series only after Shvetsov managed to break through to receive Stalin:

        "The Perm plant, which by this time was producing obsolete motors, found itself in a difficult position, since the proposed by Shvetsov two-row motors M-71 and M-81 did not find support either from the leadership of the NKAPnor from aircraft designers. Even a fan of Shvetsov stars, Polikarpov, offered the M-185 engine of the Zaporozhye Design Bureau for his new I-90 fighter (note - the I-71 Polikarpov fighter made its first flight with the M-185 engine on April 8, 1941) ... Now you understand what was required courage to challenge the decisions of the NCAP and the Government at that difficult time. But in order for the decision on the fate of the plant and the two-row star of Shvetsov to be made, it was necessary to rise even higher. The meeting with Stalin was organized by Nikolai Gusarov, secretary of the Perm regional party committee. Thanks to his persistence, on May 4, 1941, Shvetsov was received by Stalin. And in the course of a difficult conversation, he was able to convince Stalin to leave the production of an air-cooled engine at plant No. 19. As a result, on May 9 and 10, 1941, Government Resolutions were issued, instructing plant No. 19 to organize the production of the M-82 engine, and also to release the plant from the production of AM-35A .. "
        1. irontom
          irontom 2 August 2020 10: 00 New
          0
          Here you do not talk a little about the problems with the M-71 that he experienced with reliability and prolonged fine-tuning, and the M-82, despite the initiative, turned out, but this motor had enough problems, but compared to the M-71 it is much less. 71 was badly needed, several promising aircraft were tied to it. The same Polikarpov at the beginning of the 42nd was forced to deliver the M-82, or the Su-6, even in the 43rd modified M-71F, continuous failures, as a result, Sukhoi was forced to install the AM-42. ASh-73 completely redesigned the design, lit the stars.
          In short, the stone flower did not work out. And how easy it was at the beginning, to pair a pair of M-62.
          1. Alexandra
            Alexandra 2 August 2020 16: 23 New
            +1
            Quote: irontom
            Here you do not talk a little about the problems with the M-71 that he experienced with reliability and prolonged debugging


            To begin with, the M-71 successfully passed 50 hour bench tests before the M-82 engine.

            "Experimental department of plant No. 19 prepared for serial production two powerful radial air-cooled motors M-71 and M-82A. These motors have successfully passed joint 50-hour tests, M-71 in February 1941 and M-82 in April 1941 of the year."

            But the leadership of the NKAP did not need all these double stars of air cooling of the 19th plant, especially the so-called "excessively powerful" M-71, the overall diameter of which, 1380 mm, was 80 mm higher than the bar set in the spring of 1940: "The overall diameter of air-cooled motors for combat aviation is not more than 1300 mm." .

            "The government decree" On the production of M-62 and M-81 engines "dated October 23, 1940 stated that the most important at the moment, and certainly the priority, is the M-81 engine compared to the M-71, in connection with which the director and the chief designer of plant # 19 needs to take all measures to develop it and launch it into serial production, having released at least 10 engines in November and at least 30 engines in December.
            However, less than a month later, everything changed. At this time, a program for the production of new aircraft by the NKAP factories for 1941 was approved, in which there was not a single combat aircraft (except for the Li-2 with the M-62IR) with the engines of the factory # 19. The situation around him has aggravated - a natural desire arose to redesign this one of the largest engine factories in the country for the production of more demanded liquid-cooled engines. In particular, order NKAP # 659 of November 23, 1940 ordered to organize at plant # 19 in parallel with the production of air-cooled motors M-62 and M-62IR, the production of liquid-cooled motors M-105. As for our own developments, it was proposed: “In 1941, the M-81 engine at the plant №19 should not be produced. Limit the production of the M-71 engine by bringing it to state tests and releasing a small series in an experimental workshop in the amount of 20 pieces. "
            On December 14, 1940, instead of M-105, it was decided to master the production of motors designed by A.A. Mikulin AM-19A to ensure mass production of the MiG-35 fighter, which was then considered (judging by the planned production volume for 3) the most promising.
            It is no secret that the production of liquid-cooled motors and air-cooled motors requires significantly different equipment. Therefore, the re-profiling of the plant required serious expenses - a complete replacement of a special machine tool park. Moreover, it would be problematic to return to the production of air-cooled motors in the future. The prospect of being out of work loomed in front of Shvetsov's design bureau.
            There were still some hopes that the M-71 would be in demand on the I-185 fighter or the new experimental Sukhoi Su-6 attack aircraft, but Shvetsov's main stake was the M-82 engine, which had not yet been officially exposed. Having entered the factory bench tests in 1940, he did not avoid the manifestation of some "childhood diseases", but thanks to persistent design refinement, by the spring of 1941 his improved version M-82A (factory designation) was created. By this time, the issue of fulfilling the order to restructure the plant also stood squarely ... "


            "NKAP did not give plant No. 19 instructions on preparing for serial production of M-71 motors, and even vice versa, the equipment available at plant No. 19 for the production of air-cooled motors is removed and transferred to other factories. The removed equipment is considered redundant, based on the given program for 1941 on M-62. And it is absolutely not taken into account that Plant No. 19 will have to make motors M-71 and M-82. Thus, instead of preparing for the production of new powerful motors at Plant No. 19, conditions are created that prevent their introduction. From our point of view, the false goal of plant No. 19 only for liquid motors does not accidentally lead to conditions that prevent the introduction of new, most valuable motors ... Our appeal to you is not intended to infringe on the serial production of AM-35A motors at plant No. 19. We think that that the actual infringement of the introduction into serial production at plant No. 19 of new powerful air-cooled motors is not an accidental misunderstanding of the role of powerful air-cooled motors lag in combat aviation, but there is a deliberate fact. To get acquainted with the actual state of affairs at plant 19, it would be desirable to call a number of plant employees for information, since we think that the information given to you does not sufficiently illuminate the actual state of affairs at the plant ... " Signed: Yakovlevsky (8 GU NKAP), Biryukov (plant # 19), Senichkin (Research Institute of the Air Force), Kozlov (plant # 19), Ferapontov (plant # 19), Frakter (plant # 19) , Ermakov (plant No. 19)

            In general, the Red Army Air Force did not receive its Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp and aircraft for it during the war.
            1. irontom
              irontom 2 August 2020 17: 08 New
              0
              This story is well known.
              The information you provided only says that the Perm plant was decided to be redesigned for liquid pipes.
              NKAP did not give the plant number 19 instructions on preparation for serial production of M-71 engines,

              This is nothing more than an additional print, as we see in this reflects the group letter, the motors M-71 and M-82 go further in the description. and everywhere with the same Serov.
              Signed this letter: Yakovlevsky (8 GU NKAP), Biryukov (building 19), Senichkin (Air Force Research Institute), Kozlov (building 19), Ferapontov (building 19), Fractor (building 19), Ermakov (w-19).

              The fact that the NKAP M-71 was not needed is your pure IMHO, as far as I remember from the same documents in the Chronologies of Radionov M-71, Shvetsov was demanded in a very ultimatum form, there is a very informative document on December 41st.
              With 82, it was also not very good. This is written in detail. - The birth of La-5 or the development and refinement of the M-82 engine during the Second World War
              Gennady Serov

              After all, you will not deny the fact that Shvetsov, when he met with Stalin on May 4, pushed the M-82, which means there was a reason to say that he did not like the M-71 funny.
              My opinion is that the designer knew the real state of affairs with these engines and took into account the possibility of installing the M-82 on already mastered production aircraft, when the heavier and larger M-71 was suitable only for the aircraft designed for it.
              50-hour stand-ups do not say anything, getting on a real plane these stand-ups quickly end.
              Polikarpov received the first M-71 on February 16, 1941, just like the later motors received did not start flying like that, the same trouble with Sukhoi. At one altistory forum, a colleague under the nickname "Petrov" long and stubbornly argued the conspiracy theory that Polikarpov was deliberately slipped into illiquid motors, that Shevtsov was engaged in sabotage.
              1. KERMET
                KERMET 8 August 2020 08: 39 New
                0
                From all that has been written, you correctly noticed only this:
                My opinion is that the designer knew the real state of affairs with these engines and took into account the possibility of installing the M-82 on already mastered production aircraft, when the heavier and larger M-71 was suitable only for the aircraft designed for it.

                Those. Shvetsov understood perfectly well that at that moment in time Stalin needed a motor that could be put on the aircraft already in the series, period. At the time of the decision, the M-82 did not have any advantages in terms of power of attorney and reliability over the M-71, moreover, it was more intense in thermal mode from the entire line of promising engines.
    3. sg7s
      sg7s 1 August 2020 22: 01 New
      -2
      Hey, Vasily. about the "first graders" did not get excited? Or a BMW fan? Do you ride an X6 for an hour? motors are still called "samovars", in courses, no ?! I will not even give arguments - you will not understand, an ignoramus ... you, fans of beh and geldings (engines, of which at 2 liters they are trying to squeeze out 200-250 forces) , normal engineers simply despise, because - no way !! Physics, chemistry, how many hours did you study? Not in our unfinished RF-II, but in the USSR ?? Come on, charts, formulas ... I'm sick of you, ... (banned) to argue ...
      1. NF68
        NF68 2 August 2020 17: 00 New
        0
        Quote: sg7s
        Hey, Vasily. about the "first graders" did not get excited? Or a BMW fan? Do you ride an X6 for an hour? motors are still called "samovars", in courses, no ?! I will not even give arguments - you will not understand, an ignoramus ... you, fans of beh and geldings (engines, of which at 2 liters they are trying to squeeze out 200-250 forces) , normal engineers simply despise, because - no way !! Physics, chemistry, how many hours did you study? Not in our unfinished RF-II, but in the USSR ?? Come on, charts, formulas ... I'm sick of you, ... (banned) to argue ...


        They don't try to use 2-liter gasoline engines, but without problems and without tuning they already get 421 hp:

        https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_M_139

        It looks like "normal" engineers, in your idea of ​​this, do not know?
        1. sg7s
          sg7s 2 August 2020 17: 52 New
          -2
          No, "normal" engineers are not in the know, from a 2-liter squeeze out 250 - a scam and only, there was a Chrysler 6L, there were Urals, Krazy, Zilas, dt, t-130. what else to call, the KKS-25/5 crane, t-4, rode everything freely ... and drove, sat down in the Urals in the morning, came, loaded, unloaded (all myself, even though the owner was) I can send a photo, later I was engaged in metallurgy, polymers ... I will also send a photo of the workshop empty and working) ... Where. who, how. can you answer ??
    4. sg7s
      sg7s 2 August 2020 14: 49 New
      0
      about OXIDANTS we will gutare, m-50 (emnip)? Hey, sir, let's talk about the war, and not about the BMW? They got these on the roads, stupid ... Or on geldings, they have - what for the price is better ... Who was better in the air? Did you understand or do you ride on "samovars"? are not friends with engineering? And with BP, flight dynamics ?? but with ... too lazy to click ...
    5. A1845
      A1845 5 August 2020 17: 39 New
      +1
      Quote: NF68
      Article for first graders and written by first grader.

      there are many inaccuracies in the article
      it is a pity that the author was in a hurry, the topic is very interesting
  6. mark1
    mark1 31 July 2020 18: 48 New
    10
    An overview of engines, especially aircraft engines, is always interesting. Hopefully not the last one. But when considering the characteristics, I would like to add more details
    1. Power - takeoff / rated at 0m, altitude with reduced rated power, emergency / combat modes
    2.Dimensions (in this case, diameter)
    3.In addition to the liter power, the specific - kg / l / s
    4 And everything in the table
    This is not cleverness (for this it would be possible to name a dozen more parameters and wishes), but simply allow a more objective comparison of the listed samples
    1. sg7s
      sg7s 1 August 2020 22: 12 New
      0
      There is such a thing! I agree, but let's put at the forefront not "power", but, say - the compression ratio (about piston), if - HPT or HPT - temprice KS, the degree of pressure increase, the degree of bypass, if turboshaft, then just efficiency ... Dimensions - after, not the point, well, 178 from 176 are not very different (I'm talking about the diameter of the CFM-56 CPM (well, let the 5-ki A-3, he flew 737 from 800 himself), if about helicopters - here the shafts, tail screws and so on ... Vitya, hello, how are you? Century is grateful, be healthy, friend !!
  7. Operator
    Operator 31 July 2020 18: 50 New
    10
    The request to the VO administration is to provide Skomorokhov with an editor who would check his opuses before publication.
  8. AU Ivanov.
    AU Ivanov. 31 July 2020 18: 50 New
    +4
    ASh-62. Was put on Ishachki and still rumbles on Annushki.
    1. Ilshat
      Ilshat 1 August 2020 08: 05 New
      0
      Already rarely.
      And only in the summer (Yakutia).
  9. Pavel57
    Pavel57 31 July 2020 19: 39 New
    +1
    An article for boys of all ages.
  10. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 31 July 2020 20: 14 New
    -1
    good article ... informative ... and really very successful design of the American, which gave rise to a lot of interesting solutions
  11. Octopus
    Octopus 31 July 2020 20: 33 New
    +6
    Yeah.

    1. What is this strange approach to PV? WASP is series engines, of which, with all due respect to the 2800, the first should be called twin, double seven, the V-24 and DC-3 engine.

    2. Where did Wright go? The second major American series of engines, and it was casually mentioned in connection with Shvetsov. Boeing bombers - B-17, B-29, medium Land Lease North American B-25, original Sherman tank, by the way - Wright engines
  12. certero
    certero 31 July 2020 22: 50 New
    -6
    the future showed that Soviet designers were very cool. at least our jet engines immediately began to do no worse, and even better than the western ones.
    So if at least as you said 20% of the USSR's capabilities and technologies were, then ours would have made the engine better.
    1. Ilshat
      Ilshat 1 August 2020 00: 12 New
      +7
      Quote: certero
      our jet engines immediately began to do no worse

      First there were copies of German Jumo 004 and BMW 003, then English licensed "Nene" ("Rolls-Royce") - https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%9A-1
      And only then, having mastered copying, they began to do it themselves.
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 1 August 2020 00: 12 New
      +2
      Quote: certero
      the future showed that Soviet designers were very cool. at least our jet engines immediately began to do no worse, and even better than the western ones.

      Which for example?VK-1 (RD-45) - The first mass-produced Soviet turbojet engine. Produced by the Moscow plant "Salut". Developed under the leadership of Vladimir Klimov, produced at the State Aviation Plant GAZ-116. Based on the British Rolls-Royce Nene engine sold in the USSR. All others were inferior both in terms of weight and size characteristics and fuel efficiency ...
  13. Fitter65
    Fitter65 1 August 2020 00: 07 New
    +8
    The result was a very reliable and unpretentious engine, the only drawback of which was good cooling. Accordingly, the M-82 cabin was warm from the heart.

    To be honest, I could not understand what the author wanted to say with this phrase. And how did you warm the M-82 cockpit on the same Tu-2? .. Again, the reason for the high temperature in the cockpits of La-5/7 aircraft is the unsuccessful layout of the engine compartment. In the "normally" designed La-9/11, the temperature in the cockpit was quite normal.
    1. Sergey_G_M
      Sergey_G_M 1 August 2020 16: 16 New
      0
      It's hard to say even about an unsuccessful layout here, because the La-5 turned out by installing the M-82 on the LAGG, they did it quickly with minimal design changes, there was no time for engineering and design work - it was urgent. And then, of course, they finalized it.
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 2 August 2020 01: 38 New
        +1
        Quote: Sergey_G_M
        It's hard to say even about an unsuccessful layout, because La-5 was made by installing the M-82 on the LAGG,

        It is necessary to write correctly LaGG
        Here's a little more about the temperature ...
  14. VicktorVR
    VicktorVR 1 August 2020 08: 24 New
    0
    "The gloomy Bavarian genius" is obvious :), it's scary to look at the internal combustion engine - a bunch of connectors, hoses, wires, and in fact it works and works reliably.
    "Englishman" is generally an "orbital station", even at first glance, a very low-tech contraption.

    Is there really no photo of a CLEAN domestic ICE on the Web?
    As you look at the photo, the "collective farm" LuAZ is remembered :(.
    1. Octopus
      Octopus 1 August 2020 10: 42 New
      +4
      Quote: VicktorVR
      "Englishman" is generally an "orbital station", even at first glance, a very low-tech contraption.

      Exactly what at first glance. English engines, including this one, were not only really the most advanced in engineering, but also very widespread.
  15. 2112vda
    2112vda 1 August 2020 08: 41 New
    -2
    Quote: Ilshat
    Compression ratio is very small

    Why does an aircraft engine need a high compression ratio? It's not a constantly throttled gasoline engine. The aircraft engine operates at steady-state conditions close to maximum power. Air cooling imposes a limitation on increasing the compression ratio. According to the results of the Second World War, it was understood that an air-cooled engine is preferable for aviation because of its higher reliability and maintainability. It is a pity that the author did not show in-line and V-shaped air vents in the article, among them there were very interesting samples. Modern "attempts" to convert car dropsy into aviation versions show that people simply do not know history and do not want to use the experience of previous generations.
    1. Octopus
      Octopus 1 August 2020 10: 40 New
      +1
      Quote: 2112vda
      The aircraft engine operates at steady-state conditions close to maximum power.

      Seriously?
      Quote: 2112vda
      Air cooling imposes a limitation on increasing the compression ratio.

      What are the restrictions imposed by cooling on the compression ratio?
      Quote: 2112vda
      Air cooled engine is preferred for aviation

      It depends on which one.
      Quote: 2112vda
      Modern "attempts" to convert car dropsy into an aviation version show

      What is the mass / power of modern mass and cheap automobile engines allow their use in aviation.
    2. Ilshat
      Ilshat 1 August 2020 10: 44 New
      +1
      The compression ratio is needed at least to improve efficiency.
      What is needed for a combat aircraft, range ...
      Modern piston aircraft engines have the same compression ratio as automobile engines.
      Aviation gasoline, octane number under 100 and 7 - a bit strange ...
  16. Free wind
    Free wind 1 August 2020 09: 05 New
    0
    Quite an interesting article, and a message to climb on the Internet for more complete information.
  17. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 1 August 2020 09: 09 New
    +1
    I read that they could not get a resource at ASh, as at Prit Whitney .... even after the war.
  18. Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 1 August 2020 09: 52 New
    0
    And I have always wondered why the flow in a turbojet engine does not rush in the opposite direction? In theory, he shouldn't care ... Is he spun up before fuel injection?
  19. VicktorVR
    VicktorVR 1 August 2020 10: 21 New
    0
    When considering all the splendor, the question arises - were wrenches with "ratchets" / "ratchets" in use then? Or at least cap / end? Or was it all twisted with horns?
  20. iouris
    iouris 1 August 2020 11: 09 New
    +1
    In general, there have always been problems with the "heart". Then problems with the "head" began.
  21. Oberleutnant
    Oberleutnant 1 August 2020 12: 52 New
    0
    Interesting details. Thank!
  22. tivivlat
    tivivlat 1 August 2020 14: 44 New
    -1
    the most interesting!, for such engines, yes a 4-stage centrifugal compressor, with a flow rate of 40-50 cubic meters of air per second, with an air compression ratio of 3 at each stage, the wings must of course be removed, and 2-3 Mach secured
  23. 2112vda
    2112vda 1 August 2020 15: 56 New
    +2
    Quote: Octopus
    cheap car engines allow their use in aviation.

    Obviously, another supporter of "universalism"! In the 30s of the last century, there were unmeasured ones, though it really didn't end very well. Who was imprisoned, who was shot. But they have done enough "business". Now it’s time to “repeat the past” again. To paraphrase one of the famous songs: "Dancing on a rake, dancing is not for the weak." First, figure out how automobile engines differ from aviation ones in operating modes and structurally. Well, on homemade pepelatsi, you can at least put rubber motors from rubber bands from panties. "Dashing DIYers" we know everything better than anyone else.
    1. Ilshat
      Ilshat 1 August 2020 16: 08 New
      0
      Like nobody thinks, at all ...
      Neither engine builders, nor entire institutions ...
      To accelerate the creation of aircraft piston engines (APD), modern domestic automobile engines are being adapted, said the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation, Denis Manturov.
      The continuation of the relevant research work (R&D "Adaptation-2020"), following the results of the competition, will be carried out by the Central Institute of Aviation Motors named after P.I. Baranova.

      This is actually the main road, adaptation ...
      Old motors to hell with him that look archaic, so heavy and eat as if not into themselves.
      1. irontom
        irontom 2 August 2020 10: 12 New
        0
        Only you confused the soft with the hard, the internal combustion engines of the middle of the last century with modern ones, where they have a narrow niche of the ALA. sports and training vehicles with a capacity of up to 500 hp. It's just that at the end of the 20th century, ICEs in aviation did not actually develop when automobiles continued to improve, and at the beginning of the 21st, a paradoxical situation became when cars began to be committed, now they are adapting to the aviation requirements of diesels.
        1. Ilshat
          Ilshat 2 August 2020 10: 59 New
          0
          I have not confused anything.
          ASh-62 on AN-2 is absolutely unbearable.
          This should not be the case at all, in principle.
          And it's not a fact that a diesel of comparable power, an automobile, cannot be there.
          And the UAV may have a niche for diesel engines, including those for 500 forces.
          Or with spark ignition, but with jet fuel ...
          1. irontom
            irontom 2 August 2020 15: 48 New
            0
            I have been working in civil aviation for 30 years, just at the An-2, now I work at the Airbus. The ASh-62 on the An-2 is an example of an ideal match, they have been looking for a replacement for the motor since the 70s, the result of the An-2 on the ASh flies to this day and the An-3 with theaters has been released very little. One of the main advantages of PD is excellent throttle response, which is very important for flights near the ground, especially valuable for a chemist.
            PD in our time with a capacity of more than 500 hp meaningless, theater operation will surpass it in terms of the sum of its characteristics.
            1. Ilshat
              Ilshat 2 August 2020 15: 51 New
              -1
              It was not replaced by AN-3, but by L-410.
              With such a flow and fuel, he didn't give up.
              1. irontom
                irontom 2 August 2020 15: 59 New
                -1
                Neither Elka nor An-28 could replace his ability to land and take off from a very small patch, perhaps a helicopter, but the cost of a motorcycle watch is not comparable. Although, Ana mostly fly, alas, there is a problem with spare parts. A real replacement for TVS-2MS, but here again the price of the issue, the replacement is too expensive.
                1. Ilshat
                  Ilshat 2 August 2020 16: 13 New
                  -1
                  They fly rarely and only in summer.
                  I say what I see.
                  There are no such piglets.
                  Or some kind of lane or a helicopter.
                  But he's dear, it's just PPC ...
                  How many cases were there - people sat at the point for 2 weeks with almost no food - there was no road, and the helicopter was a million two hundred ...
                  L-ki - fly, an-ki do not.
                  You can say a lot about helicopters, I generally have a bad attitude towards them (not because they are bad, but just bad with them all the time).
                  But I flew the AN-2 for the last time about 25 years ago, before Berezov, but I don't remember.
                2. Ilshat
                  Ilshat 2 August 2020 16: 54 New
                  -2
                  Quote: irontom
                  Neither Elka nor An-28 should be replaced

                  Since you are well acquainted with the topic - calculate how much the AN-2 flight will cost for 150 km round trip, empty there, take back 2 people and equipment, nothing like that, a winch, boxes, no more than 300 kg.
                  If not stressful by itself.
            2. Ilshat
              Ilshat 2 August 2020 16: 16 New
              -1
              Quote: irontom
              TVD in terms of the sum of its characteristics will surpass it

              For UAVs, efficiency is more important.
              So it’s not a fact.
  24. borys
    borys 1 August 2020 17: 26 New
    +1
    Since when did Mr. Manturov become a great specialist in
    aircraft engines?
    1. iouris
      iouris 1 August 2020 20: 02 New
      +1
      Yes, he is a great specialist in everything: industry and trade and ... Noblesse oblige.
  25. Undecim
    Undecim 1 August 2020 21: 14 New
    0
    Today we will focus on air-cooled piston engines.
    And why only radial, and where the rest?
  26. 2112vda
    2112vda 2 August 2020 06: 42 New
    0
    Quote: Ilshat
    Not motorists, not entire institutions

    Dvigatelists know and don't fuss. Understand what they are dealing with. I will keep quiet about the "whole institutions". CIAM is a servitude organization; it receives instructions from its superiors, well, "very effective managers." Well, there are solid specialists in all branches of mechanical engineering and natural science. So, the consumer will receive another "Georgian dish-priests". As recently as Friday I received a set of drawings developed by one research institute for verification. A dreary picture of what will happen next, I don't know.
    I recently came across one statement on the Internet on aviation.
    "Aviation is the lot of cautious bores, for dashing heroes have all been in the ground for a long time." This statement seems to refer to the 30s of the last century.
    1. sg7s
      sg7s 2 August 2020 14: 57 New
      -1
      let's leave the piston for posterity .... What about the bark for PD-8 (12) copied well? Itself is simply not in the courses in detail, but about the hot - like the rules, that with wide-chord shoulder blades and "core". ? It is important, be-200, jets, ms are waiting ...
  27. fighter angel
    fighter angel 2 August 2020 15: 05 New
    0
    . Author
    "The most interesting thing is that after the war the ASh-82 continued to lift everything into the sky. La-9, La-11 and Yak-11 fighters ..."

    Yes, dear Roman will know that the Yak-11 was equipped with an ASh-21 engine, an air vent with a capacity of 570 hp, but not an ASh-82.
  28. Alexandra
    Alexandra 2 August 2020 20: 22 New
    0
    Quote: irontom
    The information you provided only says that the Perm plant was decided to be redesigned for liquid pipes.


    A completely illiterate decision. Even Stalin, who was very far from aircraft engine building, understood this after Shvetsov's explanations.

    The fact that the NKAP M-71 was not needed is your pure IMHO, as far as I remember from the same documents in the Chronologies of Radionov M-71, Shvetsov was demanded in a very ultimatum form


    So can you tell me whether you rely on Rodionov's chronology or other sources, and why after Shvetsov's meeting with Stalin on May 13, 1941, the order of the People's Commissariat for Aviation (NKAP) No. 438 "On the release of M-82 motors at plant No. 19" was issued. An order for the serial production of M-82 engines, under which not a single aircraft was developed at that time, and not an order for the serial production of M-71 engines, for which the I-185 and Su-6 were developed, which had already begun flight tests with the M-71?

    http://engine.aviaport.ru/issues/09/page30.html

    "However, the M-82 engine was put into production only shortly before the German attack, suffered from many" childhood illnesses "and required painstaking refinement. Few of the aircraft designers who have already taken the dare while eliminating the defects of the propeller engines based on the M-105 or AM-35A, was eager to plunge into the maelstrom of puzzling problems again.Only the experienced NN Polikarpov, still convinced of the merits of the "stars", designed his new I-185 fighter for an experienced 18-cylinder M-71 engine (Nvzl = 2000 hp .) and serial, but less powerful M-82. Here the People's Commissariat of the aviation industry intervened, in May 1941 persistently "recommended" all aviation design bureaus to work out variants of combat vehicles, including fighters, with "eighty-second" engine.
  29. Temnukhin Anton
    Temnukhin Anton 5 August 2020 00: 23 New
    0
    Interesting article. Many thanks to the author!

    Allow me to come up with a rational proposal :) more precisely, just a proposal :) more precisely express your wishes. Perhaps the author would be interested to consider not just a comparison of motors from different countries, but to make a short history of the engines of this or that country, so to speak, the dynamics of the development of motors, for example, in the USSR, or in Germany, comparing the resulting motors with those of the enemy at "control points". At least I would be very interested to see a similar analysis. If there are already such works, then I will be very grateful if someone can suggest a link.

    Thank you very much for your attention to the comment.
  30. 2112vda
    2112vda 5 August 2020 08: 10 New
    -1
    Quote: AlexanderA
    Only experienced N.N. Polikarpov

    The only aircraft designer who was a mechanic engineer by profession. It is clear that he was the best person to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the designs of different types of engines.
  31. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 5 August 2020 14: 28 New
    -1
    Accordingly, the M-82 was not supposed to be any worse. And he was not.
    The result is a very reliable and unpretentious engine, the only drawback of which was good cooling

    Controversial judgment from the author.
    Only the lazy did not read the series of articles DEVELOPMENT AND REFINING OF THE M-82 MOTOR IN THE YEARS OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR, concerning the stepwise development of cylinders. And all the same, the post-war resource of the Ash-82 for civil aviation of 400 engine hours is scanty.
    About the M-82 (ASh-82) on the Il-12.
    In addition, in the army, unreliable engines ruined the reputation of a generally good aircraft. This shortcoming in the TDA was, of course, not the same as in Aeroflot (the military Il-12 flew much less than civilians), but nevertheless, accidents and disasters happened in the troops for this reason. So, in the early 50s. the crew of the Tula regiment led by Mr. G. Miroevsky and the crew of Mr. V. Bordyugov from the 25th regiment (Kirovograd) crashed due to the failure of one engine on takeoff.


    Failure of engines during takeoff of the Il-12 is one of the most common types of flight accidents, even a special technique was developed for takeoff on one engine, simulating a failure on takeoff:
    However, already in the first months of regular operation of the Il-12 in Vnukovo, an incident occurred that revealed a flaw in the aircraft, which became truly its Achilles' heel. For many airport workers, this case is especially stuck in the memory, because that day their children could have died. The local leadership decided to send 43 pioneers to Adler on a brand new plane that flew in only a few tens of hours. The crew was headed by one of the most experienced pilots V. Chernyakov. He climbed aboard, cheerfully greeted his young passengers, but what happened next could only be dreamed of by the commander in a nightmare. During the takeoff run at a speed of 110 km / h, when he was about to take the helm, the left engine failed. Chernyakov did not dare to continue takeoff and took all measures for emergency braking. The tragedy did not happen: the bow support did not allow the Il-12 to be skipped, and the long strip of the capital airport made it possible to avoid rolling out and possible damage.

    This case forced additional tests to be carried out to work out the method of action in case of one engine failure on takeoff. A brigade of the Research Institute of Civil Air Fleet, headed by Mazuruk, took up the work. An adobe platform (takyr) near Ashgabat was chosen for testing, the size of which made it possible to conduct such flights with minimal risk. The leading engineer-methodologist of the Institute M.V. Rosenblat took up the development of the test program. In the first flight, only he, Mazuruk and flight mechanic Ilchenko remained on board. They decided to act in accordance with the IL-12 Flight Manual. As planned, during the take-off run, when the pilot took over the steering wheel, the flight mechanic turned off the left engine, and only started feathering the propeller after 5 seconds, because Rosenblat calculated that this is exactly the time the crew needs to make any decisions in case of a sudden emergency. In those seconds, the situation became almost catastrophic. Immediately after turning off the engine, Mazuruk energetically switched the gas sector of the working engine to afterburner. The plane torn off from the runway began to turn intensively and roll to the left. The pilot made incredible efforts to keep him, but the Il-12 did not want to continue takeoff and even struck the landing gear with the unretracted landing gear. However, no matter how long the takyr was, it still ended, and in order not to ditch, the crew had to start the left engine. In the end, the technique was developed. Its essence boiled down to the recommendation to transfer the operating engine to afterburner smoothly, thus the unfolding moment also appeared blurred, and the pilot managed to parry it. But its authors still had great doubts about the effectiveness of this technique, because what kind of endurance one must possess in order to act "smoothly" in an extreme situation!

    Since 1948, the IL-12 entered international routes. The first was the Moscow-Sofia line, which was served by the joint Soviet-Bulgarian airline TABSO. The planes were flown by mixed crews, while the commander was certainly an Aeroflot pilot. In addition to Sofia, the Il-12 began to fly regularly to Berlin, Belgrade, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Vienna, Kabul, Prague, Tehran, Stockholm, Helsinki, Ulan Bator and Hami (Western China). On August 2, 1954, an IL-12 flight (commander V.K. Zamula) opened the Moscow-Paris passenger line.

    In general, the crews liked the plane. And the speed, range, and comfort level were much higher than that of the Li-2. But the engines ... Their MTO at the beginning was 100-150 hours, which during the war years was considered quite sufficient,


    So the author's opinion is unfounded.
  32. Dedok
    Dedok 5 August 2020 16: 10 New
    0
    Quote: VicktorVR
    When considering all the splendor, the question arises - were wrenches with "ratchets" / "ratchets" in use then? Or at least cap / end? Or was it all twisted with horns?

    somewhere lie like the memory of his father - caps, heads - both American and German
  33. The comment was deleted.
  34. Oleg Bykov
    Oleg Bykov 14 October 2020 22: 29 New
    0
    Bristol Hercules with sleeve distribution is something special ...
    engine