Military Review

Don Cossacks and Cossacks

130

In the articles about Stepan Razin and Kondraty Bulavin, little was said about the Don Cossacks. In some of these articles, Zaporozhye Cossacks were also mentioned. But when and how did these people appear in the southern steppes on the outskirts of the Russian state?


Some believe that the Cossacks are descended from the Brodniks, whose voivode, Ploskinya, after the battle on Kalka, on behalf of the Mongols, negotiated with the Kiev prince Mstislav and kissed the cross, promising: the victors "will not shed your blood."

Others talk about the possible origin of the Cossacks from the vassal of the Kiev princes of the nomads of the tribes of the black hoods.

Still others are from the Kasog tribe.

Grigory Grabyanka, who tried to write at the beginning of the XNUMXth century history Zaporozhye Cossacks, believed that they were descended from the Khazars.

However, none of the above had the slightest chance to stay in this territory until the time when historical sources record the appearance here of "real" Cossacks familiar to us.

The vast territory of the Great Steppe from the Volga to the Dnieper was a corridor of the Great Migration of Peoples, through which many tribes passed that shook the empires and kingdoms of the West: the Huns, Avars, Magyars, Mongols. These invasions swept away or carried away the tribes that had previously roamed here. But even without the Huns or Magyars going to the west, living in these lands was uneasy. And for a fairly significant part of the time, the Great Steppe of Europe was an uncontrolled "wild field". That is why organized groups of free people could appear here. However, the rulers of the Jochi ulus, better known as the Golden Horde, managed for some time to restore order in this territory, eliminating all mobs and communities independent of the authorities. Only after the catastrophic defeat of the state of Tokhtamysh by the troops of Timur in 1391 and 1395. these territories again became a no-man's land, and here again conditions appeared for the emergence of specific groups of the population that could become the progenitors of the Cossacks.

Versions of the origin of the word "Cossack" and the first Cossacks


The very word "Cossack" probably still has a Turkic origin. It is translated by various authors as “free man”, “exile”, and even “robber”. It is suggested that the Cossacks (or rather, a consonant word) were initially called mercenaries entering temporary service - in contrast to the soldiers, the permanent army of the khan ("oglans") and his subjects, called up in case of war ("sarbazy").

Then the Cossacks began to call the members of the robber groups that were not subordinate to anyone. A. Storozhenko, for example, argued:

“The Cossack craft developed especially among the Tatars who settled in the Crimea. If a horde ... abandoned the peaceful life of a shepherd, alone or in a company of the like ... went deep into the steppes, robbed merchant caravans, made his way to Russia and Poland to capture prisoners, whom he later sold at a profit in the bazaars, then such a vagabond and a robber was called in Tatar "Cossack" ".

However, there is also a version about the North Caucasian origin of the Cossacks. Some authors believe that they descended from the "Kasogs" tribe, whose representatives were called kasakh by the ancestors of the Ossetians, and the Mingrelians - kachak. His supporters consider the self-name of the Cossacks - Cherkasy - as an argument in favor of this assumption. Although, you must admit that it would be more logical if the Don Cossacks called themselves that, because they lived much closer to the Caucasus.

Later, the name "Cossacks" was transferred to independent communities of people who, for various reasons, fled to the territory of the Wild Steppe.

The appearance of the Cossacks was not unique in world history. Similar communities constantly emerged at the junctions of hostile civilizations. Thus, on the frontier between the two empires, the Ottoman and the Holy Roman Germanic nation, one could meet Yunaks, whom many considered to be similar to the "free Cossacks". And on the so-called Military Border - along the Sava, Tissa and Danube rivers, lived the border guards, who looked like the Cossacks of the Caucasian line.

Don Cossacks and Cossacks

The national composition of the first Cossacks was unusually variegated and diverse. These could be small detachments of deserters from the army of some khan, but there were also bands of fugitives from the Russian principalities. At first, all these small communities were mono-national, and, probably, were at enmity with each other, but gradually the process of their merger and unification began. They were replenished mainly by people forced for some reason to flee from their homes. Nationality and religion were no longer of decisive importance - members of the proto-Cossack communities were renegades who lived by their own laws. The downside of such a free life was complete lack of rights - these ancestors of the Cossacks were outcasts who could not count on the protection of some prince or khan. But for many fugitives, such a life seemed attractive. Among them there were people who were organically incapable of monotonous and monotonous work. Some were just robbers who fled from justice. But the majority was driven to despair by the extortions and arbitrariness of the local authorities, and dreamed of “going to the Cossacks” in order to live freely, hunting and fishing, and to rob some baggage train was also a good prospect.

Such a life attracted even residents of more remote regions - they went to the Cossacks from Lithuania and Poland. And not only "claps", but also the impoverished gentry, who were called "banites". Information about them is contained, for example, in the "History of the Khotyn campaign of 1621" by Yakov Sobessky, who reports:

"They renounced their previous surnames and adopted common nicknames, although some of them belonged to noble families before."

He also claims that there were people of other nationalities among the Cossacks:

"There are many Germans, French, Italians, Spaniards and others who are forced to leave their homeland as a result of the atrocities and crimes committed there."

And in the second half of the XNUMXth century, among the Zaporozhye Cossacks, one could also find Serbs, Montenegrins, Croats, Bulgarians and immigrants from Wallachia. The constant influx of all these people led to the fact that in the previously mainly Turkic-speaking Cossack gangs, the Slavs now began to predominate, in whose speech there were many words borrowed from their neighbors. As an example of such borrowings, we can cite the words ataman, esaul, kuren, kosh, bunchuk, maidan, which are now familiar and familiar to everyone. And it was not Slavic beshmet and chekmen that became popular clothes. Alexander Rigelman wrote in the XNUMXth century that the Cossacks “wear almost completely Tatar dress”.

Historical centers of the Cossacks


Historically, initially there were two centers of the Cossacks. The Don Cossacks settled near the Don and its tributaries, on the territory of the present Rostov, Volgograd and Voronezh regions of the Russian Federation, as well as the Luhansk and Donetsk regions of Ukraine. At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, they united into the Don Army.


Don Army Map

On the territory of modern Zaporozhye, Dnepropetrovsk and Kherson regions of Ukraine, Zaporozhye Cossacks appeared.


In historical documents, the Don is mentioned a little earlier. In 1471 - in the Moscow "Grebenskaya Chronicle". It tells about the famous icon of the Donskoy Mother of God, which it was the Cossacks who allegedly brought Dmitry Donskoy to the Kulikovo field.

Cossacks were first mentioned in 1489. In 1492, the Polish chronicler Marcin Belsky reported about the fortified camp of the Cossacks beyond the Dnieper rapids.

However, the Ryazan Cossacks appeared in the annals even earlier, who in 1444 "came on skis, with sulitsa, with a cube, and together with the Mordovians joined Vasily's squads." In 1494, the Horde Cossacks "who plundered near Aleksin" are mentioned, in 1497 - "Yaponcha Saltan, the Crimean Tsar's son with his Cossacks", and in 1499 the Horde Azov Cossacks were driven away from Kozelsk.

Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks were not isolated groups; quite often they coordinated their actions, arranging joint campaigns. In 1707-1708. in the Sich Kondraty Bulavin took refuge, and, despite the opposition of the koshevoy ataman, some of the ordinary Zaporozhians then went with him to the Don. But it was impossible to confuse the Donets and the Cossacks with each other. They differed in their way of life and even outwardly.

Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks


Appearance descriptions left by many contemporaries allow us to say that the Zaporozhian people apparently had more Turkic blood: they were usually dark-skinned and dark-haired. Donetsk people are usually described as typical Slavs, noting their fair faces and brown hair.

The Zaporozhians also looked more exotic: they had shaved heads, notorious Oseledtsy, long pendulous mustaches, "wide trousers as wide as the Black Sea."


Folk painting "Crimean Zaporozhets" ("Cossack Mamai"). Late XNUMXth - early XNUMXth century

However, I must say that harem pants from the Cossacks appeared only in the XNUMXth century, and they borrowed them from the Turks.

It is less known that from the middle of the XNUMXth century, pocket watches became fashionable among the Cossacks, which were considered a sign of wealth and success.

Don Cossacks dressed less flashy and wore beards, which was uncharacteristic for the Cossacks. At present, the appearance of the Donets seems to many to be typical Cossack and does not cause surprise, while the appearance of the Cossacks is often perceived as too folklore, deliberate and even theatrical. It is interesting that the Kuban (former Black Sea) Cossacks, direct and legal heirs of the Cossacks, have long looked quite traditional.


E. Korneev. "Black Sea Cossack", 1809

Dangling mustaches and donkeys can now be seen only in the mummers of the Cossacks of modern Ukraine.

Don Cossacks were divided into grassroots and horsemen. Sometimes the middle members were also singled out. The grassroots lived in places that later became the Cherkassky and First Don districts, in which the southern and eastern influence was more noticeable - both in clothing and in borrowed words, brunettes were more common. It was they who founded the first Cossack cities on the Don and went on sea voyages. The grassroots lived richer than the Verkhovtsy. From the message of the ambassador at the headquarters of the Trans-Volga Nogai Murza Izmail Turgenev, it is known that in 1551 the Nizovites imposed a tribute on the Azov.

Riding Cossacks occupied lands in the Khopersky and Ust-Medveditsky districts and had many similarities with the population of the neighboring Russian districts. On campaigns "for zipuns" they went to the Volga and the Caspian Sea.


A. Rigelman. Cossacks riding (left) and grassroots (right) villages

In the second half of the 1659th century, the thieves 'town of Ryga (Riga) appeared near the Volga-Don perevoloka, the Cossacks of which in XNUMX "until the winter of the merchants from the Don Rus' did not miss a single Budar. It was defeated by the grassroots Cossacks, who wanted to put the headstrong leaders under their control.

Grassroots and horseback Cossacks disliked each other: the grassroots put themselves in the first place and the Verkhovtsy were called muzhiks and chiga (the meaning of the word is unclear). There were differences in worldview and psychology, which was reflected in two versions of one proverb: the grassroots Cossacks said “even a dog’s life, but the glory of the Cossack”, and the horsemen - “even the glory of the Cossack, but the life of a dog”.

Militarily, the Donets turned out to be more advanced than the Cossacks, as they managed to organize their own artillery.

The religion of the Don Cossacks was Orthodoxy, traditionally the influence of the Old Believers was strong, many of whom were forced to flee to the Don.

But among the Cossacks there were Catholics, Muslims, and even (unexpectedly) Jews.

The Donets necessarily wore pectoral crosses, while among the Cossacks, they appeared only in later times - under Russian influence. And the first church in the Zaporizhzhya Sich (Bazavlukskaya) was built in the XNUMXth century, before that they did without temples. So Gogol somewhat exaggerated the degree of devotion of the Cossacks in the story "Taras Bulba". But still A. Toynbee later called the Cossacks "border guards of Russian Orthodoxy."

There were differences in food preparation: the usual food of the Zaporozhians was kulesh, a soup made of flour (grouse), dumplings and dumplings, the Don people loved fish soup, cabbage soup and porridge.

Passion for borscht


In this place, it is probably impossible not to remember the notorious borscht. The Ukrainians have already convinced themselves that this is their national dish, and all other borscht is "fake." Now they are trying to convince the whole world of this.

In fact, soup with cabbage and beets has been known for a long time, in Crimea, for example, at the beginning of the new era it was called "Thracian soup". It is believed that the main difference between borscht and its predecessor soups is the initial roasting of the beets. There are two versions of the appearance of traditional borscht. According to the first, which is insisted in Ukraine, in 1683, during the war with the Turks, the Cossacks, allied to the Austrians, were in the vicinity of Vienna, where they found large fields planted with beets. By itself, it seemed tasteless to them, but they had to eat something - they had to experiment. First, they tried to fry it in lard, and then began to cook the fried beets with other vegetables.

According to another version, borscht was invented even earlier - by the Don Cossacks during the siege of the Turkish fortress Azak (Azov).

However, there are earlier mentions of borscht - in documents of the 1590th century, in particular, in the Novgorod Yamsk books and in Domostroy. Historians are also familiar with the "Decree on the meals of Troitskov Sergiev and the Tikhvin monasteries", dated XNUMX, where it is recommended to serve "wrestling and lopsha with pepper" for the "Forefeast of Christ's Nativity".

True, some believe that not beets were used in those borscht, but the herbaceous plant hogweed.

But even if it is the Ukrainian version of the invention of borscht that is recognized as correct, it turns out that this dish was first prepared outside Ukraine - in Austria. And it was not the Ukrainians who prepared it, but the Zaporozhians - the people about whom Johann-Gotgilf Fokkerodt wrote: “Fled from everywhere, a robber rabble” (“Russia under Peter the Great”).

Christoph Hermann Manstein, who served in the Russian army under Anna Ioannovna, in his Notes on Russia called the Cossacks "a mixture of every people."

Voltaire in his "History of Charles XII" describes the Cossacks as "a gang of Russians, Poles and Tatars, professing something like Christianity and engaged in robbery."

V. Klyuchevsky also incorrectly called them “rabble and wandering masses”.

In 1775, after the liquidation of the last Sich (Pidpilnyanskaya), the Cossacks left the territory of Ukraine altogether. Some of them went to Turkish possessions. Others in 1787 formed the Black Sea Cossack army, which on June 30, 1792 were granted lands from the right bank of the Kuban to the Yeisk town. The payment for such a valuable gift was the service of Russia and the rejection of the old way of life. So the Cossacks turned into the Black Sea, and then into the Kuban Cossacks. In 1860, other descendants of the last Sich Cossacks were resettled to the Kuban. These were the descendants of the Trans-Danube Zaporozhians who went over to the side of Russia in 1828, who at first formed the Azov Cossack army, located between Mariupol and Berdyansk. That is, the direct descendants and heirs of the Zaporozhye Cossacks live in Russia. And, following the logic of the Ukrainian version about the invention of borscht by the Cossacks, it should be admitted that the Kuban should be declared a real classic borscht. The only problem is that in the Kuban, as well as in Ukraine, there is no single canonical recipe for borscht, but there is a saying “in every house there is its own borscht”. Therefore, borscht should be recognized as a common dish of Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians, and not try to give the recipes for its preparation a political color. Moreover, in the composition of the Cossack army near Vienna there was also a certain number of specially invited Don Cossacks. And it is impossible to know for certain who first came up with the idea to put beets fried in lard in the pot with stew - the bottom or the Zaporozhets.

Let's say a few words at the same time about the famous naval borscht. According to the canonical version, its recipe was created by order of the commander of the Kronstadt military port S.O. Makarov.


Admiral Makarov S.O.

To exchange experience, Dr. Novikov visited Sevastopol (a city that was originally and always Russian, not Ukrainian), after which he formulated recommendations for laying meat, cereals and vegetables. He suggested laying the meat already cut (and not cutting it into portions after being cooked), to improve the taste he recommended adding tomatoes. Features naval borscht recipe became a way of cutting cabbage "checkered" (not shavings) and adding smoked meats. And on May 1, 1901, Makarov issued an order on a new method of cooking "command cabbage soup".

The way of life of the Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks


But back to comparing the Don Cossacks with the Zaporozhye Cossacks.

In fact, the difference was even more significant. Don Cossacks lived in the villages, got married and started a farm. In 1690, the Russian authorities tried to ban them from farming, but this order was sabotaged by them. And then government officials were smart enough not to insist on its strict implementation. But the Cossacks lived in kurens, the focus of which was the Sich.

The Ukrainian word "sich" is related to the Russian word "zaseka" and means a defensive fortification built using trees felled towards the enemy. But then the word "Sich" began to mean the capital of the Zaporozhye Cossack region and even the entire region beyond the Dnieper rapids. The government of this peculiar republic (the Cossack foreman) consisted of four people elected for a year: the chieftain of the kosh, a military judge, a military chieftain, and a military clerk.


Glad in the Zaporizhzhya Sich. In the background are large smoking houses. From an engraving of the XNUMXth century

For the Don Cossacks, an analogue of the Rada was a military circle, on which a military ataman, two esauls, a military clerk (clerk), a military interpreter and a podolmach were selected. When going to war, field chieftains and colonels were elected. After resigning from office, these people passed into the category of "military foreman".


Cossack military circle on the Don. XNUMXth century engraving


Unlike the Don Cossacks, the seches did not have wives and they considered it beneath their dignity to engage in any kind of work: from their point of view, money should be obtained exclusively in military campaigns - in order to immediately walk away and drink the booty and very soon set off on a new expedition. Moreover, these campaigns could be directed in any direction: the nationality and religion of potential victims were of interest to the Cossacks in the very last place. Here are some examples of such "illegibility".

The Belarusian priest Fyodor Filippovich in the "Barkulabovskaya Chronicle" (late XNUMXth - early XNUMXth centuries), for example, reports:

“The Zaporozhians repaired the great Skoda, and the glorious place Vitebsk was conquered, they took away a lot of gold and silver, they cut down the courteous bourgeoisie ... Bitter than evil enemies, Albo evil Tatars”
.
The same author writes about the rape of a 6-year-old girl by the Cossacks.

In 1595, the Cossacks of Severin Nalivaiko plundered Mogilev and burned 500 houses in this city.

Both Vitebsk and Mogilev are cities of the Commonwealth.

Krishtof Kosinsky, himself a nobleman, at the head of the Cossacks also burned and plundered the territory of this state.

In 1575, Zaporozhye detachments under the command of Bogdan Ruzhinsky ("Bogdanko") and the military captain Nechai, taking the fortress of Or-Kapy, invaded Crimea, plundered many cities, gouging out the eyes of men and cutting off the breasts of women.

Kafa, besieged by Ruzhinsky from land, Nechai - from the sea, "was taken by storm in a short time, plundered the city and massacred the inhabitants, except for 500 prisoners of both sexes."

In 1606 the Cossacks plundered and burned the Christian (Bulgarian) city of Varna - this is the territory of the Ottoman Empire. We are not even talking about the numerous Muslim cities burned and plundered by the Cossacks (often in alliance with the Don people).

The Cossacks of Hetman Peter Sagaidachny in 1618 plundered the Russian cities of Putivl, Livny, Yelets, Lebyadin, Dankov, Skopin, and Ryazhsk. They were repulsed from Moscow by the troops of D. Pozharsky.

In general, the Cossacks did not forget to beat and plunder any of the neighbors at the opportunity.

Sometimes they, according to the Pole L. Piaseczyński, "were an opus misericordiae" (a model of mercy): in 1602, having seized a merchant ship, the Cossacks exterminated the Turks, and the Greeks were just "robbed naked and given life."

Donets, according to Dortelli, killed the Turks without mercy, but the captured Christians of the Ottoman Empire were offered to ransom, “if only they themselves did not buy slaves; in this case they are killed mercilessly, as was the case last year (1633) with many Armenians. "

It should be said that the same Greeks in the Ottoman Empire did not deserve much sympathy, since they actively participated in the Slavic slave trade, and they themselves did not disdain to have co-religionists. Pavel Aleppsky in the 1650s reported about the Greeks of Sinop:

"Over a thousand Christian families live in this place, and in each family there are five or six captive men and women, or even more."

Yuri Krizhanich in the 60s. XVI century wrote:

“The Greeks, wishing to say about a slave, a slave, a slave or a seafarer, call him by the name of our people“ sklavos ”, a Slav:“ this is my Slav, ”that is,“ this is my slave ”. Instead of "enslave" they say "slavonit", that is, "slavish".

To avoid accusations of bias and partiality, let us inform you that the Don Cossacks also committed many atrocities in the war. For example, having taken the fortress of Azov, they "did not spare ... there is no man of age in it, neither old nor young ... they whipped every one of them."

Russian envoys to the Crimean Khan Zhukov and Pashin in 1657 report about the actions of the Don people, who during their mission staged a raid on the coast between Kafa and Kerch: “Tatars, and their jones, and all children are chopped off”.

At the same time, the Don people often showed touching concern for the "fodder base", agreeing in advance: to burn down the Crimean villages, or not to beat "all Crimean people without a trace"? If they planned to return to the same places in a couple of years, they were not ruined to the ground.

These rules did not apply when avenging a raid or defeat, and during the war between the Krymchaks and Turks with Russia.

Cruelty in those days did not surprise anyone, it was easier to surprise with mercy. So the peculiarity of the Cossacks was not the prohibitive level of cruelty, but the aforementioned "promiscuity" and readiness to rob everyone in a row, whom they could reach and where they did not expect to meet an overly strong enemy.

The Zaporozhians themselves understood that they were not angels, not at all complexing about this and calmly calling things by their proper names. When the Russian authorities demanded to extradite Kondraty Bulavin, who had fled to the Sich, the Cossacks replied:

"This has never happened, so that such people, rebels or robbers, were given out."

The word "robber" did not offend the Sich. A legend widespread among them explains the need for a traditional long forelock (a sedentary): a hardened Cossack commits so many sins in his life that he will certainly go to hell, but God will be able to pull him out of there for a sedentary. Why and on what basis God is obliged to rescue the Cossacks from the underworld is not explained: there is a sinful hardened Cossack, there is a forelock - all the conditions are met, come on, Lord, pull it out.

In general, it can be assumed that people of different temperaments and attitudes rushed to the Don and Dnieper. If a peasant who fled from near Tula, Kaluga or Smolensk did not exclude the possibility of working freely in a new place, even with interruptions for war, campaigns for zipuns and robberies, he made his way to the Don. And if he wanted to live freely and cheerfully for several years (or months, as he was lucky), he had to go to the Sich, which needed a constant supply of cannon fodder. It was possible, of course, to hire a farm laborer for bread and shelter to some winter Zaporozhye Cossack - these could marry and start a farm, periodically joining the seches during their campaigns (we will talk about them later, in the next article). But was it worth fleeing to Zaporozhye to become there a powerless, non-claiming "golutva"?

It is unlikely that such a fate was dreamed of by both the fugitive peasants and the "dashing people" persecuted by law.

Of course, on the Don, too, one had to start from scratch, but at the first stages of colonization it was still possible to find free land along the tributaries of the Cossack river. It was only necessary to be able to master and protect it. And it was very difficult. It is known that in 1646 the tsarist authorities sent 3037 people of "eager people" to settle on the Don, a year later there were only 600 of them, the rest fled - not to the Don, but from the Don! It is possible to draw conclusions about what kind of people settled there voluntarily.

But soon the free lands on the Don ended, and new fugitives here could only count on the place of a laborer. Among them were many fugitives from the Polish-controlled regions of Ukraine, to whom even such a life seemed better than the previous one. Those of them who worked for the elders who became nobles were made serfs in 1796. And those who labored in the villages of the simple donors were ranked among the Cossacks in 1811.

The mistake in the choice could be corrected: it happened that the Don Cossacks went to the Sich, and, on the contrary, the Secheviks moved to the Don. In 1626, tsarist officials reported to Moscow:

“All of them (Cherkas) are on the Don with 1000 people. There are also many Don Cossacks in Zaporozhi. "

Once "1000 Cherkasians, with wives and children, and with them 80 carts of all kinds of junk" came to the Don at once "to live" (these were the winter Cossacks, we are talking about later, and the seches, who decided to settle down). And some of the names clearly indicate who exactly originally settled in these places. An example is the town of Cherkassky, founded in 1570.

Political ties of the Don Cossacks and Zaporozhians


The Don Cossacks quickly found themselves among the clients of the Moscow tsars. The first treaty with them was signed under Ivan the Terrible, the Don people participated in his campaigns to Kazan and Astrakhan. From 1570 the Donets began to pay salaries from Moscow - in money, gunpowder, cloth, bread and wine. In 1584 the Don Army took the oath to Fyodor Ioannovich.

Since the time of Peter the Great, relations with the Don Cossacks were no longer in charge of the Ambassadorial Order, but the Military Collegium.

Since 1709, the Don people were forbidden to choose the ataman on the circle themselves - this is how the order atamans appeared on the Don. In 1754, foremen were appointed by the authorities. Finally, in 1768, the Don elders were granted the Russian nobility.

And the Cossacks came under the influence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. But in 1569, after the conclusion of the Union of Lublin and the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Sich became part of the new state. The worst of all then was for the Orthodox Ukrainian peasants, whom the new Catholics pans did not regard as people. And the number of fugitives to the Sich increased dramatically.

The formal subordination of the Cossacks to the new authorities did not prevent them from claiming independence: they often made their campaigns without consulting Warsaw and without informing the king and his officials.

In general, the Zaporozhian Cossacks easily entered into various alliances - if this promised benefits.

The already quoted Johann-Gotgilf Fokkerodt reports: “Until now, they (the Cossacks) were hired indiscriminately for the Poles and Turks” (“Russia under Peter the Great”).

Indeed, in 1624 the Cossacks fought even as part of the army of the Crimean Khan Mehmed III Gerai against the Turkish troops and, together with the Crimeans, won a victory at Karasubazar (now Belogorsk).

In 1628, the Cossacks recaptured the troops of the Mirza of the Budjak Horde, Kan Temir, from the fortress of Chufut-Kale, who besieged the rebellious brothers Mehmed III and Shahin Geraev there. True, everything ended badly: reinforcements came from Turkey, and the Gerays, together with the Cossacks, had to flee to Zaporozhye.

The same Sagaidachny, just a year and a half after the campaign against Russia, when the Poles once again deprived him of the hetman's mace, sent an embassy to Moscow with the lowest request to accept the Zaporozhian Army into Russian service and welcome yesterday's robbers "like their servants." The Russian government refused such subjects. Cared for by Peter I, Mazepa betrayed his benefactor, as soon as the troops of Charles XII entered the territory of Little Russia. And, finding that the Swedes were not doing as rosy as he had expected, he entered into negotiations with Peter, promising him to seize and bring Charles and with the Poles promising to return the territories subject to him to the Commonwealth.

The Moscow authorities traditionally distrusted the Cossacks (Cherkasy) and tried to limit their contacts with the Don Cossacks. They also did not encourage the resettlement of the Cossacks to the Don. In this decree, the ban is motivated by the need to maintain peace with Crimea and Turkey:

"You are not ordered to accept Zaporozhye Cherkas, because they come to you according to the teachings of the Polish king in order to cause a quarrel between us and the Turks' sultan and the Crimean king."

This brings to mind the events of the Time of Troubles:

"Cherkasy came to the Russian state to the sovereign Ukrainian cities and places they fought, and much peasant (Christian) blood was shed, and the churches of God were cursed."

Finally, the Don people are reminded that the Cossacks belong to a different camp:

"You yourself know that the Zaporozhye Cherkasy serve the Polish king, and the Polish king is our enemy, and he is plotting any evil against our state."

But the relations between the Donets and the Cossacks as a whole were still friendly, as we will see in the next article. And since the time of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, as you know, the Cossacks came under Russian jurisdiction.

Soon we will continue our story about the Zaporozhye and Don Cossacks.
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  1. bya965
    bya965 3 August 2020 05: 07 New
    +4
    We collected a lot. My version.

    This is an old photograph of Russian Pomors.
    In the middle I am, 120 years later. My mom can't tell me apart in this photo.
    My ancestors moved to the Don in the 13-14 century.
    In the photo, my distant relative with a common ancestor is about the same 600-700 years old, only they did not go under the Mongols. Veliky Novgorod fell into decay and the ushkuyniki went to plunder the Mongols. They are also known by their reference city at the confluence of the Kama with the Volga, as the Khlynovtsy. So, 15 years before the Battle of Kulikovo, they plundered and burned the main city of the Golden Horde on Akhtuba. When the Mongols fell into decay, they settled between the Don and the Volga. But the ears did not forget to rob merchants on the Volga, mastered Siberia (chaldon, a man from the Don) and reached Alaska.
    Although the Don Cossacks have a South Russian accent, it is full of words characteristic only of Russian Pomors. They are found only in the Don and the North. Ushkuy is a bear (his head was made on the bow of the ship), ataman or vataman, there is in other Indo-European languages ​​(an archaic word), man is a man, vata is vatar-wind, a man who controls the wind, i.e. helmsman, chief on the ship.
    Zaporozhye with Donskoy in no way connected. In our country, so that someone in the Cossacks was accepted, rather a cancer on the mountain whistles. And in wives, in general, there are a lot of rules, before they preferred Turkish women, it was considered to marry Russians not to respect themselves. Dark should be. My wife is Russian (red, mom is blonde, he is dark blond), so until they saw my daughter that she was dark, the wife became the right one for relatives.
    Be Good!
    1. bya965
      bya965 3 August 2020 05: 25 New
      +9
      PS. By the way, the most ancient Cossacks are Ryazan. Few people know about this, but they still exist.
      The current Cossacks = Orthodox mummers. Previously, there were practically no priests on the Don, not to mention Siberia and the Cossacks have always stood for communal ownership of land. Those. now the mummers have become strong believers and very eager for private ownership of land.
      1. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 3 August 2020 07: 38 New
        24
        bya965 (Jura)
        PS. By the way, the most ancient Cossacks are Ryazan. Few people know about this, but they still exist.
        The current Cossacks = Orthodox mummers.
        The current "Cossacks" have absolutely nothing to do with that Cossacks. Costumed guys and even aunts who don't fucking do. In our city park there is a type of plaque of "honor" of "honorable Cossacks", and judging by the faces there, more likely a plaque of shame. All of us, without exception, have become Cossacks, even those who have never been from the Don and his ancestors from somewhere near Ustyug.
        As a descendant of the Don Cossacks on both lines, I am disgusted to look at these mummers:

        1. kalibr
          kalibr 3 August 2020 07: 53 New
          +5
          People love to "hold out" for the beautiful and glorified. Hence the "mummers". If we were the homeland of the uhlans, all these same people would run with delight in Confederate clothes ...
          1. Insurgent
            Insurgent 3 August 2020 08: 38 New
            +1
            Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks

            Such a film of the early 90s, in terms of artistic value, about the history of the Cossacks "Wild Field" (Sverdlovsk Film Studio, 1991), but still giving some idea of ​​the life and customs of the Cossacks, of the close coexistence of the Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks.

        2. Bar1
          Bar1 3 August 2020 09: 21 New
          -18
          Quote: Varyag_0711
          As a descendant of the Don Cossacks on both lines, I am disgusted to look at these mummers:

          why are they dressed up? These are real Cossacks, Kozitsin, the battle chieftain, fought with the Ukrainians for the Donbas.
          Why are they mummers? They preserve the Cossack culture and resist the current government, which the authorities are trying to destroy with all their might.
          1. Varyag_0711
            Varyag_0711 3 August 2020 12: 34 New
            19
            Bar1 (Timur)
            They preserve the Cossack culture
            First, not Cossack, but Cossack. Learn to write correctly.
            and oppose the current government, which the authorities are trying to destroy with all their might.
            In general, some kind of nonsense of a gray mare, and even it is written chaotically. The current disguised Cossacks do not oppose any power, but rather support it very much.
            And the power does not destroy them, but also very much loves them.
            why are they dressed up? These are real Cossacks, Kozitsin, the battle chieftain, fought with the Ukrainians for the Donbas.
            I do not know whether he fought or not, but he has all the awards to the navel, and some completely exotic ones. And where did he manage to distinguish himself so much? Suvorov probably had less in his entire life. And Suvorov did not flaunt his awards, at best he wore only George on a frock coat.
            You have to be more modest, then you look people and reach out. And so, one window dressing with pendants, and banging with priests in a hickey. "Cossacks" damn ... Those Cossacks degenerated a long time ago, probably my great-grandfather was the last, well, maybe my grandfather still.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 3 August 2020 14: 50 New
              -21
              your literacy is reading articles on topvo, this is your bar. Do you know that Kozitsyn fought in the Donbas? This is just about your "literacy".
              1. Varyag_0711
                Varyag_0711 3 August 2020 16: 47 New
                16
                But I know that the same kozitsin in the first Chechen war with Dudaev led shura-muras and signed allied treaties on behalf of the Don Army with independent Ichkeria ...!
                your literacy is reading articles on topvo, this is your bar
                Don't worry, your bar is even lower fool , Fomenko and Nosovsky with a rezun to help you, a lover of alternative history with RenTV ... laughing
                1. Bar1
                  Bar1 3 August 2020 18: 44 New
                  -11
                  Quote: Varyag_0711
                  But I know that the same kozitsin in the first Chechen war with Dudaev led shura-muras and signed allied treaties on behalf of the Don Army with independent Ichkeria ...!

                  and can you prove it?
                  probably not. Chatterbox.

                  everything is in a heap of Fomenko and Rezun and Kozitsyn, although they all talk about different things. Your political credo is to swallow the incomparable, then heap a heap and sit on it. However, this is a common technique here.
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                    1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Lekov L
        Lekov L 4 August 2020 19: 53 New
        +2
        PS. By the way, the most ancient Cossacks are Ryazan.

        I know, near Shatsk, the Cossack settlement, my grandfather is from there ...
        Best regards soldier
        1. rich
          rich 7 August 2020 18: 14 New
          +1
          PS. By the way, the most ancient Cossacks are Ryazan.


          Lekov L (Mikhalych): I know, near Shatsk, the Cossack settlement, my grandfather is from there ...
          Best regards

          Terek (Grebensk Cossacks) also derive their origin from the Ryazan city Cossacks, who came to the Caucasus after the fall of Ryazan with their grandfather-ataman Urai (Yuri?)
          With respect
          Dmitriy
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 3 August 2020 09: 37 New
      -15
      about the engraving by the author. The first time I see that a Cossack would be without pants, what is this image? The Cossacks ALWAYS wore bloomers, and with them all sorts of janissaries, zouaves, etc. But the Cossack and no pants, an obvious fake.
    3. akunin
      akunin 3 August 2020 09: 45 New
      +2
      Quote: bya965
      They are also known for their reference city at the confluence of the Kama with the Volga, as the Khlynovtsy

      in general, the first name of the city of Kirov was Khlynov (it began to be called Vyatka 200 years later)
      flood
      "loafer, swindler, dealer", nizhegor., vyatsk., kazan. (Dahl), bum "tramp", resin. (also at Sholokhov), hlynda "tramp", Onezhsk. (Subv.), Khlynovets "rogue", Cherepovets. (Barsov), "idleness", olonetsk. (Kulik.), Gush "sluggishly, lazily go, go", Vologodsk. (Dal), olonetsk. (Sandpiper.). Wed also Khlynov - old. the name of Vyatka; the name of a suburb of Moscow, Vereshchagin, Pam. book Vyatsk. lips. 25, 323 et seq. (Quoted from FUF Anz. 8, 39). The rapprochement of Ilyinsky is fortuitous (IORYAS 20, 4, 157, etc.)
      .
      I don’t know, maybe there was still some kind of hlynov, but the current Kirov has not moved anywhere from the place of foundation.
      the confluence of the Kama with the Volga
      well, very far away. The city was founded by ushkuyniks in 1374.
      The dark ones should be
      I understand that
      everything got confused in the Oblonskys' house ...
      , but our people are mainly of Slavic appearance. hi
      1. bya965
        bya965 3 August 2020 12: 37 New
        +2
        Take a look here. For example, I come from Mikhailovka, so these Mikhailovka across Russia ...
        1. akunin
          akunin 3 August 2020 16: 20 New
          +1
          Quote: bya965
          For example, I come from Mikhailovka, so these Mikhailovka across Russia ...

          drive in "hlynov" in a search engine and all traces will lead you to Kirov.
          1. bya965
            bya965 3 August 2020 17: 53 New
            +2
            I agree, they came from Khlynov to the mouth of the Kama.
    4. Basil50
      Basil50 3 August 2020 11: 52 New
      +3
      boa965-y
      The author is not original in leading the Cossacks from the Turks.
      I once met a doctoral dissertation on the topic of the fact that the word * fur coat * was derived from the Persian word and, as an option, from the Hebrew * Shabbat *, where * fur coat * is festive clothing. So it’s not surprising that scientists who receive their academic degrees only after publication in imported publications can only write like that ........................
      Russian words are very popular that derive either from Jews or from the Turks, apparently due to their origin.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 3 August 2020 13: 12 New
        +3
        Watch the movie “My Big Greek Wedding”.
        - All words are of Greek origin
        - And the kimono?
        - Kimonas is winter in Greek, and when do they wear a kimono? Not in the heat ..
        1. 2 Level Advisor
          2 Level Advisor 8 August 2020 14: 12 New
          +1
          I'll correct you a little: "Himona" - Winter hi and so the film is very vital)))
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 8 August 2020 14: 14 New
            +1
            Quite right)). All the truth about brothers and grandmother laughing I know the hard way
            1. 2 Level Advisor
              2 Level Advisor 9 August 2020 07: 22 New
              +1
              yes ... with my Jewish-Greek family everything is very vital))) right at 10k .. we watch the film regularly)))
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 9 August 2020 13: 33 New
                0
                So I have Tsalkinskys)))))
    5. Looking for
      Looking for 3 August 2020 14: 26 New
      -2
      WHAT IS BREAD ???? !!!
    6. Boris ⁣ Shaver
      Boris ⁣ Shaver 10 September 2020 01: 48 New
      -1
      Quote: bya965
      And in wives, in general, there are a lot of rules, before they preferred Turkish women, Russians were considered to marry themselves not to respect

      Where did the Cossacks take their daughters, if "to marry a Russian, you don't respect yourself"? Well, one, two "do not respect" themselves, and the rest where? They changed their history to fairy tales that did not stand up to criticism. The clan and tribe were overshadowed by fictional characters. Sick.
  2. vomag
    vomag 3 August 2020 06: 15 New
    -28
    Cossacks are Jews ... what kind of Pomors are there? .. even now their language consists of at least a third of Yiddish (or Hebrew, if you like) ...
    1. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 3 August 2020 07: 41 New
      25
      vomag (sergey)
      Cossacks are Jews ... what kind of Pomors are there? .. even now their language consists of at least a third of Yiddish (or Hebrew, if you like) ...
      Completely sick fool ? What the hell is Yiddish? Have you been to Rostov for a long time? What language am I writing to you, Yiddish?
      1. Insurgent
        Insurgent 3 August 2020 12: 23 New
        +8
        Quote: Varyag_0711
        What the hell is Yiddish? Have you been to Rostov for a long time? What language am I writing to you, Yiddish?

        "I do not understand you no wassat " laughing
      2. vomag
        vomag 3 August 2020 13: 19 New
        -25
        Have you been to Rostov for a long time?
        Dear, what does Rostov have to do with it? the so-called Cossacks are Jews - Jews! what do you not understand? these are the remnants of the tribes of the Khazar and Avar Kaganate ... You are a regular sir D, U, R, A, K, as by the way, the majority on this site ... read the history ...
        1. Varyag_0711
          Varyag_0711 3 August 2020 16: 43 New
          22
          vomag (sergey)
          Have you been to Rostov for a long time?
          Dear, what does Rostov have to do with it? the so-called Cossacks are Jews - Jews!
          Oh, thanks for the enlightenment. I lived almost fifty dollars and I always thought that I was Russian, but it turns out that I was ... laughing
          these are the remnants of the tribes of the Khazar and Avar Kaganate ...
          Another alternative or just fool
          You sir ordinary D, U, R, A, K
          Rather it applies to you ...
          1. vomag
            vomag 3 August 2020 18: 38 New
            -9
            Quote: Varyag_0711
            Rather it applies to you ...
            you know, I just didn't expect anything else ... perhaps I'll give you a plus ..
    2. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 3 August 2020 13: 22 New
      -3
      As Stirlitz said "Red, furry Cossacks"
  3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 August 2020 06: 19 New
    +6
    I read it with pleasure, thanks!
    Although I was surprised why the Author did not mention the “Ukshui” version of the appearance of the Cossacks?
    hi
  4. svp67
    svp67 3 August 2020 07: 18 New
    +3
    Appearance descriptions left by many contemporaries allow us to say that the Zaporozhian people apparently had more Turkic blood: they were usually dark-skinned and dark-haired. Donetsk people are usually described as typical Slavs, noting their fair faces and brown hair.
    If everyone went to the Cossacks, then what kind of typicality can we talk about now ...
    But among the Cossacks there were Catholics, Muslims, and even (unexpectedly) Jews.
    Only an ORTHODOX Cossack could become a Zaporozhye Cossack, and what kind of religion you were before, this is your own business ...
    The creation of Cossack freemen is at first a "protest response" of many who considered themselves not groundlessly disadvantaged, or even persecuted by the state, and on those lands where it was very problematic for any state to reach, and only then, realizing that without the support of the state, the Cossack freemen not to survive, the Cossacks went to the service of the States. But which States they went to serve, this affected both their structure and even their appearance.
    1. haron
      haron 4 August 2020 09: 21 New
      +1
      Quote: svp67
      and only then, realizing that the Cossack freemen could not survive without the support of the state, the Cossacks went into the service of the States. But which States they went to serve,

      There are a couple of questions here.
      There was "Star Cossack Ileyka Muromets" who was sitting at the heroic outpost. Before all were the Cossacks Ryazan, Meshchersky. After that, the border of their habitation constantly descended to the south, completely simultaneously with the borders of the Russian state and the borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The main function of the Cossacks was to alert and eliminate the raids of the steppe inhabitants on Orthodox lands. It is not known that the Cossacks had any other religion besides Orthodoxy.
      Is it possible to divide the periods of existence of the Cossacks into several eras. Initially, these were border formations at the hand of princes, the era of Vladimir Svyatoslavich - Vsevolod B.G. And it is clear that the "best" people were not sent to the periphery in the steppe to serve, those who were needed but uncontrollable were sent there.
      After the Mongol invasion, the service fell apart. But the border lands are still lands, and there were residential people who did not want to be burdened with the attention and taxes of the Horde. Try to burden it, you won't find it in a day. Gradually, Moscow was collecting land, and the border was gradually moved to the south. The princes are not fools, and it is not bad for them to have border guards as friends, as it was before. We agreed from about the beginning of the 15th century, Ivan 3 and Yagailo already had everything on the ointment. Not without problems, of course, but all the same.
      Why Orthodoxy and Russian? Dak kotchnevnikov have where to run, and sedentary ?? Who is sedentary? Well, that's clear. Since the 16th century, as a result of the expansion of the Turks, the places of the Cossacks received "international recognition", and violent people from all over Europe threw them there. Cossacks in Europe are also not uncommon. Some Foxes are worth something.
      Maybe in another way. History will soon be a thousand years old, the head does not see its tail.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 3 August 2020 07: 28 New
    +7
    Glad in the Zaporizhzhya Sich. In the background are large smoking houses. From an engraving of the XNUMXth century
    Cossack military circle on the Don. XNUMXth century engraving
    Author, you made a mistake with the illustrations, swap the signatures.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 3 August 2020 08: 54 New
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      Glad in the Zaporizhzhya Sich. In the background are large smoking houses. From an engraving of the XNUMXth century
      Cossack military circle on the Don. XNUMXth century engraving
      Author, you made a mistake with the illustrations, swap the signatures.

      yes
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 3 August 2020 09: 22 New
        +5
        The author was really mistaken, although both illustrations are from books about the Zaporozhye Cossacks.
    2. VLR
      3 August 2020 12: 18 New
      +5
      Yes, it seems to be confused, rearranged
  6. kalibr
    kalibr 3 August 2020 07: 50 New
    +7
    Ryzhov's articles are easily recognizable. Firstly, they are large, secondly, they are informative, and, finally, they are simply interesting. And with "literature" everything is all right. I especially liked the passage about the forelock and God.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 3 August 2020 12: 16 New
      +5
      True, the author constantly has one drawback - the interpretation of events in accordance with his own preferences. Well, the mistakes are quite "childish", like - "the self-name of the Cossacks - Cherkasy".
  7. DWG1905
    DWG1905 3 August 2020 08: 36 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author interesting. An interesting moment is the study of the Germans on the origin of the Don Cossacks and their reckoning among racially related peoples. In particular, the analysis of women's suits and their comparison with the German ones. Descendants of the Ostrogoths or an essential component?
    1. Andobor
      Andobor 3 August 2020 16: 01 New
      0
      Quote: DWG1905
      Descendants of the Ostrogoths or an essential component?

      The landscape of the Cossacks, not the steppe - the river, on large rivers in the steppe zone life has not been interrupted since the Upper Paleolithic, and the adjacent steppes, depending on the climate, the peoples changed, and whoever didn’t just rummaged, the Ostrogoths were shaking, and from them the Cossacks got culture and can be seen by blood, and from others, therefore it is so difficult to understand this.
  8. Catfish
    Catfish 3 August 2020 09: 07 New
    +6
    Those of them who worked for the elders who became nobles were made serfs in 1796. And those who labored in the villages of the simple donors were ranked among the Cossacks in 1811.

    Here is such an irony of fate ... request
    Thanks to Valeria for the tasty and informative story. smile
    And special thanks for hell, forelock and gentlemen of God. good laughing
  9. Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk 3 August 2020 09: 07 New
    +2
    And this, in my memory, the fourth, version of the origin of the Cossacks has the right to life.
    What is known is known for a long time. Everything else is version.
    There are a dozen more such versions to write. What's the point?
    Although it is interesting to read.
  10. Force multiplier
    Force multiplier 3 August 2020 11: 48 New
    -4
    The Cossacks are Khazars (they are Kasogi. Khazars are a later term, but more widespread due to the peak of their power under the Khaganate). Sarmatian people, closely related to Adygam. It is necessary to clarify that the Romans distinguished and classified peoples primarily by phenotype and material culture. The Iranian language of the Sarmatians, which is spoken of in textbooks and Wikipedia, is only an assumption and is based on the fact that they were all united under the rule of Alan during late antiquity. In any case, even in Iran, Iranian speaking is the result of the contact of the local population with the Indo-Germans. This does not mean that originally these peoples spoke Alan or IE languages. And it does not mean that the Khazars are Türks, just because for some time they were under the rule of the Türks. Naturally, the Khazars are not the Goths and not their descendants, although, again, they were subject to the Goths (and adopted from everyone the vocabulary, which was preserved in places, despite the fact that after baptism they switched to Church Slavonic).

    It is easy to see that due to the specifics of the habitat (the steppe, completely unsuitable for the defense of settled settlements), the Khazars have always voluntarily surrendered sovereignty in exchange for "rights and liberties" and have always sided with the strongest in the region, or who seemed to be such (the Swedes of Karl XII- go or 3rd Reich). An exception is the kaganate, but, with well-known reservations

    self-name of the Cossacks - Cherkasy

    Cherkasy is an exonym. The Zaporozhians identified themselves as "the people of the ancient Cossack, originally named Kozarsk"
  11. sevryuk
    sevryuk 3 August 2020 11: 52 New
    +2
    The argument in favor of this assumption, his supporters consider the self-name of the Cossacks - Cherkasy


    This is not a self-name, this is a different name - from the Muscovites, which is clearly visible in the toponymy of the Kharkiv region, where there are nearby settlements: Russkaya Lozovaya - Cherkasskaya Lozovaya, Russians - Tishki - Cherkassky Tishki.
  12. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 12: 39 New
    12
    I didn’t want to read the material at first, but then I opened it, looked at who the author was, and decided to read it. smile
    The overall impression is so-so. From the point of view of style and literary form without any complaints, but the research part, it seems to me, requires expansion and deepening.
    I liked one thesis voiced by the author, such a generalization did not occur to me personally, namely:
    The appearance of the Cossacks was not unique in world history. Similar communities constantly emerged at the junctions of hostile civilizations. Thus, on the frontier between the two empires, the Ottoman and the Holy Roman Germanic nation, one could meet Yunaks, whom many considered to be similar to the "free Cossacks". And on the so-called Military Border - along the Sava, Tissa and Danube rivers, lived the border guards, who looked like the Cossacks of the Caucasian line.

    But this generalization, in my opinion, is very valuable, in fact, basic, and has not received further development in the article. Well, okay, if the author aimed only and exclusively at comparing the Zaporozhye Cossacks with the Don Cossacks, then perhaps I want too much.
    But even simply comparing those and others, the author does it somehow "unscientific".
    First, why compare them at all? Just because of the name "Cossack"? You can only compare similar objects, it is not for nothing that there is a saying in Russian about the inadmissibility of comparing the finger and the end point of the gastrointestinal tract. Or horseradish with carrots. Before looking for differences, it is necessary to show similarities. What is common between the Don and the Cossacks? Is there a lot of this in common? How do they differ from the rest of the people who surround them - peasants in the north, nomads in the south? But after we have disassembled and illustrated their "similarity", that is, they have proven that these are really related concepts and their comparison is permissible, we can begin to analyze the differences.
    Now about the differences. It is not enough just to show them, you need to explain the reason for their occurrence, or at least state the corresponding hypothesis.
    I understand and share the author's sympathy for the Don Cossacks, I myself am partly their descendant (one of the great-grandfathers was from the Don).
    If I was asked in a table conversation during libations: "Misha, what do you think, who is cooler - Don Cossacks or Zaporozhye?" I would answer: "What a question, of course, Don ones. They are ... in trousers with stripes, and those in trousers ... Donets are ... well, how can I tell you ... warriors! And the Cossacks are bandits I watched "Taras Bulba" with Mortar? Do you remember how they were going on a campaign? There! No, there! To the Tatars! No to the Turks! We vote! Aida! Did you see "Quiet Don"? and it is, the difference. So the Donets are steeper. Pour! "
    The author's approach, of course, is far from so primitive, but certain similarities with what I described are still caught. smile
    And, finally, about Ukraine.
    Personally, I got the impression that the author wrote this article solely for one purpose - to troll the current Svidomo in nezalezhnoy. Say, your Cossacks are actually thinner than ours, and besides, they are still here in the Kuban, you have not a single one left, so that the origins of your statehood have all gone to Russia a long time ago and have nothing of their own. you are not, by-by-by. smile
    In general, I put the article a plus, but with a heavy heart. I feel this is just the beginning, it will get worse further ... smile
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 3 August 2020 13: 11 New
      +6
      Personally, I got the impression that the author wrote this article solely for one purpose - to troll the current Svidomo in nezalezhnoy.
      This is especially noticeable in the anecdote about borscht.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 14: 15 New
        +5
        This is especially noticeable in the anecdote about borscht.

        I remembered borscht here too. hi Maybe not essential, but it speaks about how tightly this dish is included in our common cuisine (although we cook it in different ways). drinks At a meeting on the results of the Soviet-Finnish war in April 1940, General Khrulev reported on the beginning of the production of soups-concentrates, and borscht was among them.
        Khrulev. Yes. Comrade Stalin, the industry has now developed a very good concentrate - vegetable. This is an exceptional concentrate, a wonderful vegetable concentrate, and is prepared in 24 servings. We made concentrates: sour cabbage soup, fresh cabbage soup and red borscht. After 10 minutes of boiling, borscht is obtained. You know what a savings it is in the kitchen. Transportation of vegetables is completely unnecessary. The product is easy to stack and good.
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 13: 48 New
      +8
      And the Cossacks are some kind of bandits. Pure lads. Did you watch "Taras Bulba" with a Mortar? Do you remember how they were going to hike? There! No, there! To the Tatars! No to the Turks! We vote! Ayda!

      In 2015, after a long break, I decided to reread my favorite school novel - "Taras Bulba". wink Having read up to this place, only one word came to mind - "hooliganism!" laughing well, the time was such that here ... And so - yes, at school it was a favorite work. drinks I generally love Gogol .. yes if I see a beautiful place with a river, I immediately say the words of Khoma Brut: "I would like to live here and fish ..." good
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 14: 51 New
        +9
        But I don't like Gogol. "Taras Bulba" is perhaps the only work that I can read from him without disgusting feelings. Well, even "Evenings ...", I guess.
        I remember Taras from the school curriculum. I don't remember in which class I studied, I only remember that in the summer on vacation I found this book by chance in the library and was surprised how much thicker it was than what I read at school. Interested, began to read the full text - ohrenel. I was especially impressed by the cut-off breasts of the Polish panties, and in general the atrocities on both sides. But how unlike Gogol it was - so much strength, energy, pain, anger, after "Petersburg Tales", "The Inspector General" and other things - just a breath of air.
        In general, the Cossacks are a topic, it seems to me, that still needs significant improvement. Too many different freaks around the Cossacks feed on various freaks, turning this, in general, quite an ordinary phenomenon into something super-duper-mega-trooper cool. Although, if you think about it, then this is, in fact, just a consequence of the inability of the state to fully control its own territory. A sort of rudiment, a relic of the Middle Ages ...
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 15: 07 New
          +5
          perhaps the only work that I can read from him without disgusting sensations.

          Michael, I have never experienced such sensations. request
          I was especially impressed by the cut-off breasts of the Polish panties, and in general the atrocities on both sides.

          I don’t remember about the breasts, but everyone there committed atrocities.
          A sort of rudiment, a relic of the Middle Ages ...

          Michael, if people are given an unstable power and a barrel in their hand, very many will plunge into this Middle Ages with joy, and will drag others there. hi
          There are too many different freaks around the Cossacks

          I agree completely .... It is especially surprising to see some "Cossacks" in our north-west ... what
          By the way, are you aware that there were many Little Russians officers in the Gatchina army of Pavel Petrovich? I would venture to suggest: when the representatives of the poor Little Russian nobility could not get into the guards regiments, many went to serve the heir! The well-born majors-guards looked at them with dislike ... hi
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 15: 50 New
            +7
            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            never felt like this

            And from Gogol's satire I always wanted to wash my hands after reading. I turned the pages with them ... smile
            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            if people are given an unstable power and a barrel in their hand, very many will plunge into this Middle Ages with joy, and will drag others there.

            Exactly. Therefore, I believe that such a phenomenon as the Cossacks in their state is not something that you cannot be proud - you need to be ashamed. No, well, you can establish a couple of Cossack regiments, so that they pranced at parades - Don, Kuban, there ... The Cossacks played their role, and not always progressive, it's time to rest, into history ... This is about today.
            And regarding the bygone eras - by and large, the Cossacks are a freeman, a time bomb that will explode anyway, sooner or later, as it rushed into the Civil. With all the cases - Cossack chauvinism, separatism and other delights of lawlessness and anarchy with a cherry on the cake - General Krasnov is at the head of this mess.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 16: 02 New
              +6
              And from Gogol's satire I always wanted to wash my hands after reading.

              Not to me. And last night I was happy to re-watch The Inspector General directed by Yuri Solomin. hi each - his own, and this is wonderful! drinks
              And regarding the bygone eras - by and large, the Cossacks are a freeman, a time bomb that will explode anyway, sooner or later, as it rushed into the Civil.

              and who wanted to lose their privileges? Uh, no! stop there was a demolition of age-old traditions!
              Mikhail ... just the same operetta Cossacks (I'm talking about trick-or-treating figures, not real fighting people) are now the smallest freelancer who "can explode." There are other "potential freemen" ... hi
              General Krasnov at the head of this mess.

              He gave up the mess! Looked in 1918 ... and screwed it up! But for me the "watershed" was in the Great Patriotic War. If in Civil, everyone had their own truth, then there was a specific plan for the genocide of our peoples by another country. Therefore, this figure will remain for me the greatest scum comrades. Ah, but what kind of books did he write .... Have you not read? drinks
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 17: 06 New
                +4
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                operetta Cossacks

                These clowns - no, of course. Although in the 90s, when they started smoking, it was scary. It's good that they screwed the wick. But the ass "Pussy Riot" still managed to kick. smile
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                "potential freemen"

                The rest all somehow do not pretend to be delegated any powers to maintain order, for example. Well, I am not considering Chechnya, there is a special conversation there. The rest of the structures, such as football fans with their ultra-right ideology, are simply fascists, religious (including Orthodox) extremists so far do not climb into power and do not demand an exclusive position for themselves.
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                Ah, but what kind of books did he write ...

                Long ago I read my memoirs. I haven't read anything else, I don't even know what else he wrote. For me, he was initially a negative figure - he sucked up to the Germans, dreamed of separating the Don from Russia, and purely for the sake of the memory of his great-grandfather, who from the 18th to the 20th inclusively there, on the Don, and later near Kakhovka, chopped white heads off, could not I perceive Krasnov as something at least somewhat positive. Denikin, though he "fought for a single and indivisible" and later behaved, in general, decently, but this one ... They hung and well.
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                Looked in 1918 ... and screwed it up!

                He screwed up because the Germans were lathering up to leave, and the Reds of his Don army were poking around at the very least. And then, as if, Denikin asked him very much about it.
            2. Engineer
              Engineer 3 August 2020 16: 56 New
              +3
              not that you can't be proud - you need to be ashamed

              And how do the atrocities of the Cossacks differ from the atrocities of the Tatars that were massively used by the Moscow tsars?
              Or remember how our military leaders described the devastation of Sweden during the Northern War.
              And why not be proud of such things as the conquest of Siberia and "Azov sitting"?
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 17: 21 New
                +6
                I reasoned more in relation to the present day and events, shall we say, about a century ago.
                Yes, and you need to be ashamed not of what they did, but of the fact that right up to the XX century. they still existed as an estate. The very fact of the presence within the state of such an entity as the Cossacks speaks of its weakness and backwardness. The Cossacks played a certain role at one time, but at the latest, in my opinion, after the end of the Caucasian wars, it had to be liquidated. Not physically, of course. Just within ten, maybe twenty years to equalize in rights with the rest of the population, and not create a semblance of oprichnina out of them.
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 3 August 2020 17: 30 New
                  +6
                  It's just that any phenomenon has decay and decay in its finale.
                  The inconsistency of the Cossacks with the new forms of war manifested itself not earlier than the 20th century. And then, in Manchuria, many Cossacks distinguished themselves.
                  As for the oprichnina, I partially agree, but this is more from the weakness of the police.
    3. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 3 August 2020 14: 51 New
      +6
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Personally, I got the impression that the author wrote this article solely for one purpose - to troll the current Svidomo in nezalezhnoy.

      I'm afraid, taking into account all the peculiarities of the materiel published by the author, it turned out not only Svidomo to troll, but in general everyone who is interested in the topic of the Zaporozhye Cossacks. Because so much of what has been said raises questions, "where did this come from so beautiful?"
  13. arturpraetor
    arturpraetor 3 August 2020 14: 46 New
    12
    Not for the sake of trolling or hitting, but only for the sake of, so to speak, constructive criticism. I can be wrong with the exact numbers, but the order of numbers will clearly illustrate this.

    The author, like many of his predecessors, asserts that the Zaporozhye Cossacks are seches, children of the steppes, mainly of Turkic origin. Moreover, we have specific historical information on the number of Zaporozhye Cossacks in certain campaigns. For example, in the campaign to Moscow Sagaidachny allegedly brought 10-12 thousand Cossacks, near Khotin in 1621 there were already up to 25 thousand of them, and during the Khmelnytsky region the register of Zaporozhye Cossacks was brought to 40 thousand, while Khmelnitsky himself wanted to increase it to 80. At the same time, directly during the war, the number of the Orthodox army could reach 120 thousand people, and they all called themselves Cossacks. But how can this be, if the number of Sichs rarely exceeded the mark of 5-6 thousand people? request

    Further, one more question - how did the descendants of princes and the Orthodox Lithuanian gentry in large numbers constantly fall into the ranks of the descendants of the Turks, freemen from the borders? Why did they go there? This is a historical fact, but the Cossacks are still characterized as a crowd of fugitive peasants. The same Bogdan Ruzhinsky - for a second, prince. As well as Dmitry Vishnevetsky, nicknamed "Baida". Like many other princes who went to the Cossacks. Was it so interesting for them to stand at the head of the Turkic-servant freemen? Why, then, did the petty princes of the Moscow principality and the Russian kingdom not burst into the Don? what

    Plus, one more question. If the Zaporozhye Cossacks are only seches, then the registered Cossacks, it turns out, are not Cossacks, not Cossacks, although since the time of Khmelnytsky the registered Cossacks suddenly called themselves the Zaporozhye Army? But what about the unregistered, hunt, court, police, unpaved, robbery Cossacks, at worst - armor? Some of them were also related to the Zaporozhye Army. But they were not hawkers. How did practically all Orthodox peasants in the southeast of the Commonwealth rush to declare themselves Cossacks, if the Sich was small and certainly could not accommodate several million people?

    A small private question - is why suddenly the Cossacks were unable to enter their own artillery? Why, then, was the post of general transport (the first after the hetman), responsible primarily for artillery, was introduced as part of the general foreman? Like, there is no artillery, but is there a person responsible for it?

    Another small question - if the Church of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Sich was founded in the 1576th century, then why does Yavornitsky indicate that the first Church of the Intercession on the Sich was built in XNUMX (two centuries earlier than the date you indicated), even on the Tomakovskaya Sich, and was revived every time the Sich "moved" to a new location?

    Therefore, all this ends with one more question - maybe not everything is so unambiguous with the Cossacks, and it is not worth talking about the Cossacks "vaapche", while describing essentially only the Secheviks? And if you take up the article, then take a deeper interest in the question, so that later it does not turn out that the Cossacks suddenly had no artillery at all?

    Again, not to stir up a conflict, but if you are "in the subject" at least in general about the Zaporozhye Cossacks and read the current article, it will become clear that the author bases his point of view on the fact that he generally knows about the Donets, about historical anecdotes, too, but the Cossacks are of little interest to him, therefore he uses theses that look like when analyzed in detail ... Doubtful. At least for the same artillery.

    However, it seems to me that some comrades (this is no longer for the author of the post) will rush to minus me, since I dare to assume something positive about the Zaporozhye Cossacks ... laughing
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 15: 04 New
      +7
      I was waiting for you, Artem, in this thread. smile hi
      I think that the discussion between you and Valery may well beautify the thread, in any case, I will be upset if for some reason it does not take place.
      In general, I shut up, take a seat closer to the stage and wait for Valery. smile
      1. arturpraetor
        arturpraetor 3 August 2020 15: 17 New
        +6
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        I think that the discussion between you and Valery may well beautify the thread, in any case, I will be upset if for some reason it does not take place.

        I'm afraid it may not take place. There is not a lot of free time nowadays, I wrote this big commentary in several calls, also according to an abbreviated program. So this is more likely not a challenge to discussion, but a call to everyone who is interested in the topic to study the issue more deeply and form their own opinion.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 15: 30 New
          +4
          Well, let's hope. smile
          In any case, a start has been made, we are waiting for an answer. smile
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 3 August 2020 15: 40 New
            +4
            I think there will be no discussion.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 15: 57 New
              +4
              Well, here, Viktor Nikolaevich, and you there too ... sad
              What if Valery comes right now, writes such a comment that Artyom’s zealous will not stand it and he will answer too ...
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 3 August 2020 16: 12 New
                +5
                "Suddenly, like in a fairy tale, the door creaked ..."
                What will Valery write? Before writing about the Zaporozhye Cossacks, that you forgot to understand the issue?
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 17: 08 New
                  +4
                  On the other hand, how to keep silent? It's a serious question, reputation is at stake ... smile
                  Okay, that's a joke, of course. smile
                  No, no, I won't cry, honest non-party! smile
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 3 August 2020 20: 36 New
                    +4
                    In general, we haven't had any holivars for a long time.
                    Where is the cabin, so that the carpenter is straight ??
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 22: 19 New
                      +4
                      Denis, and you publish an article about the Mongols. smile
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 4 August 2020 10: 06 New
                        +2
                        Nothing to waste on trifles
                        Only Stalin, only hardcore wassat
                      2. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 4 August 2020 12: 38 New
                        +2
                        So about Stalin here so every third article. Come in and hack as much as your heart desires. I thought you wanted something fresh ... smile
                      3. Engineer
                        Engineer 4 August 2020 21: 10 New
                        +2
                        Stalin on VO is El Classico am
          2. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 16: 45 New
            +4
            What if Valery comes right now, writes such a comment that Artyom’s zealous will not stand it and he will answer too ...

            and we, hoping for the best ... while we discuss the eternal question: what is still better - a stake or a thong ... what Yes, I know I’m bored, but the question is far from resolved! tongue drinks (and then dear Phil and Vera will come and throw a stone at me) drinks
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 17: 27 New
              +5
              Quote: Pan Kohanku
              count or thong ...

              We decided long ago. Some priest, some priest, some priest's daughter. smile
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 17: 31 New
                +3
                Some priest, some priest, some priest's daughter.

                You are unclear, Mr. the best commentator! wink Your answer does not make it clearer, which of them has a count, and who is in thongs on bare feet! stop drinks
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 18: 50 New
                  +6
                  What is unclear here? smile
                  Suum cuique, which in translation from the divine Latin means "To each his own".
                  In expanded form, this can be formulated in the form of the ten commandments.
                  "Deserved stake, get a stake"
                  "Who deserves a thong, let him get a thong"
                  "Let the one who wants the stake get the thong"
                  "Let the one who wants a thong get a stake"
                  "Col is not a thong, it is never too long"
                  "Thongs do not count - they do not entertain on the head"
                  "Hit it with a stake"
                  "Cover it with a string"
                  "Thongs are not hung on a stake"
                  "They don't change a stake for a thong"
                  laughing
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 3 August 2020 19: 27 New
                    +4
                    And by combining all this, a slingshot is obtained.
                  2. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 11: 14 New
                    +2
                    And by combining all this, a slingshot is obtained.

                    Eck your engineering idea has earned, however ... wink drinks "Nice boy ... Our man, ours!" (m / f "Treasure Island") laughing
                2. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 11: 16 New
                  +2
                  Suum cuique, which means "To each his own" in divine Latin.

                  It looks like it's time to start your quote book. You have lived up to your title once again good Tangerines were born last night, looks like Michael? wink today there is nothing to read again, I suggest further discussion. drinks
                3. Phil77
                  Phil77 4 August 2020 12: 36 New
                  +1
                  Hi Nikolay, since you are in such a playful mood, get it!
                  * -Rose!
                  -So?
                  -You, after all, today made a splash on the beach. But for the future, mind you, sho thongs are worn with a narrow strip-back !!! *. bully bully bully
                4. Phil77
                  Phil77 4 August 2020 12: 39 New
                  +2
                  * Seryoga Zverev at a doctor's appointment.
                  -My dear doc, I wore a thong yesterday and I can't take it off!
                  -Yes, my dear! Why?
                  I like it very much! *. laughing
                5. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 12: 45 New
                  +1
                  Really like it!

                  But he was a normal soldier of the Soviet Army, and now - "Ultramarines, forward!" laughing that's what Bochema did to the man! request
                6. Phil77
                  Phil77 4 August 2020 12: 51 New
                  +1
                  Rebirth? Blurred mind? After all, on the left photo there is such a normal boy! fellow Oh, this bochema! Oh, these amateurs to be expensive!
                7. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 13: 04 New
                  +1
                  Oh, these amateurs so it was expensive!

                  .... who made from a modest junior sergeant of artillery - a pretentious commander of the blue flotilla! laughing
                8. Phil77
                  Phil77 4 August 2020 13: 12 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Pan Kohanku
                  blue flotilla!

                  Squadra azura? Why, Nikolay, so on the Italian national team? They did not deserve, right! wink laughing
                9. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 13: 15 New
                  +1
                  They did not deserve it, really!

                  if they are assigned such a coach, they will never lose, because they will be afraid of his anger ... fellow
                10. Phil77
                  Phil77 4 August 2020 13: 22 New
                  +1
                  Nikolai, you know, until 95 / accident / he was a completely normal guy. Moreover, he could be respected, because he built his own quarry himself! Without a shaggy hand. Well, and then apparently the roof was blown off What we see now. He is not the first, not the last.
                11. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 13: 48 New
                  +1
                  What we see now. He is not the first, not the last.

                  well, yes .... And God bless him. Let him live well if he is a good person! drinks
  14. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 12: 42 New
    +1
    Since you're in such a playful mood, get it!

    Hello! fellow now Uncle Kostya will connect, licking his lips, and will lay out this on the topic - that at least stand, at least fall. drinks
  15. Phil77
    Phil77 4 August 2020 12: 48 New
    +1
    And I'm on a branch about intelligence, with Astra discussing the uniform of the SS and NKID officers. what
  16. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 4 August 2020 13: 00 New
    +1
    What kind of religious denomination will we create - the Society of Witnesses of the Great Stake or the Universal Church of the Appearance of the Prophet in Thong? We need to decide, but to start already, why pull?
  17. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 13: 12 New
    +1
    We need to decide, but to start already, why pull?

    It depends on how the "prophet" in thongs will look ... Maybe we will appoint priestesses of the cult then? Will we put a pylon instead of a stake for them? fellow I'd go to such a "sermon" ... what And some would even run as fast as they could! laughing
  18. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 4 August 2020 15: 10 New
    +1
    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    Maybe we will appoint priestesses of the cult then?

    First you need to recruit an adept. And for this you need ... Either a lot of dough, or a Great Idea. It's a pity to spend the money on such a thing, so you still need to start with the Idea.
    The Great Stake is the pillar of the universe and the Great Thongs that announced the Earth ...

    Here's where to start. Not all at once, we will reach the pylon.
  19. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 15: 42 New
    +1
    Here's where to start. Not all at once, we will reach the pylon.

    You have written so well that I think many will be in business. drinks
  20. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 10: 30 New
    +1
    Here's where to start. Not all at once, we will reach the pylon.

    there is nothing to read the second day. Who is going to spend the weekend how? drinks
  21. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 5 August 2020 12: 49 New
    +1
    I'm in the woods on the river. I'll be back tomorrow night.
    For now, I propose the following for discussion.
    The stake and thong are one. Those who disagree go to school.
    I will defend this even in the ring.
    We say "string" - we mean count.
    We say "stake" - we mean thongs.

    laughing
  22. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 13: 11 New
    +1
    We say "stake" - we mean thongs.

    I'll correct - you need to write with a ladder, like Mayakovsky. wink
    Inspired by:
    When they took the thongs away, I didn’t protest - I don’t have thongs.
    When they took the colas, I was silent - I didn't have a cola.
    When they drove those who disagreed to school, I did not attach any importance - I have two higher ...
    When they demanded to look at the thong pylon and promised free booze ... I happily joined the worshiping adepts!
    drinks
  23. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 16: 23 New
    +1
    Stringophiles !!!! laughing bully laughing
  24. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 16: 32 New
    +1
    Stringophiles !!!!

    and colophages! laughing
  25. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 16: 37 New
    +2
    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    and colophages!

    polymorphic bacteria. Fi, fi, fi! What a disgusting thing! lol
  26. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 16: 46 New
    +2
    polymorphic bacteria

    There are also coliphages - viruses. But Sergei-Corsair would better tell about this, he should be savvy in this. wink
  27. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 16: 33 New
    +1
    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    I'll correct - you need to write with a ladder, like Mayakovsky.

    What? Mayakovsky and thongs? Theme.Although, if you consider the written * Slap in the face of public taste * 1912
    * Dear d'Artagnan, I admit everything ... *. bully
  28. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 16: 36 New
    +1
    Although, if you take into account the written * Slap in the face of public taste * 1912

    Yes, he was ready to serve pineapple water to the fallen women in the bar! laughing in general .. there was an intricate fate ... well, let's not talk about it. drinks
  29. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 16: 45 New
    +1
    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    let's not talk about it.

    Why not?
    * I'm lying on someone else's wife
    the ceiling sticks to ....
    / ass /
    but we do not grumble - we make communists
    in spite of bourgeois Europe ... *
    V. Mayakovsky.drinks
  30. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 16: 48 New
    +1
    but we do not grumble - we make communists
    in spite of bourgeois Europe ... *

    Do you like roses?
    And I crap on them /!
    The country needs steam locomotives
    We need metal!

    (He is) drinks
  31. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 16: 56 New
    +1
    * Came-
    busily
    behind the roar
    for growth, looking
    saw
    just a boy.
    Took, took away my heart
    and just went to play
    like a girl with a ball! .. ... *
    And again he.
  32. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 16: 59 New
    +1
    For fun
    our planet
    Little equipped.
    Must
    pull out
    joy
    in the days to come.
    In this life
    to die
    not difficult.
    Make a living
    much more difficult

    (he is, "Sergei Yesenin", 1926).
  33. VLR
    5 August 2020 17: 13 New
    +2
    When I read these lines of Mayakovsky, I realized that he is, after all, a genius poet:

    After all, soft moons have no power over us, -
    the lights of the lanterns are more elegant and trenchant.
    In the land of cities they were called masters
    and they climb to erase us soulless things.
    And from the sky to the howl of the human horde
    the maddened god is looking.
    And his hands in the rags of his beard,
    dust-eaten roads.
    He is a god
    but screams about cruel retribution,
    and in your little souls there is a worn-out sap.
    Throw it!
    Go and stroke -
    pet dry and black cats!
  34. VLR
    5 August 2020 17: 15 New
    +2
    And these are:

    Someone's fault took revenge on the city, -
    people crowded
    ran in a herd.
    And there,
    in wallpaper,
    between the shadows of wine
    wrinkled old man crying on the piano.
    The legend of torment is spreading over the city.
    You grab the note -
    Blood on your fingers!
    And the musician can't get his hands out
    from the white teeth of the furious keys.
  35. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 17: 18 New
    +2
    genius poet

    I agree on all points!
  36. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 17: 02 New
    +2
    Nikolai, how do you like his * Tale of Little Red Riding Hood *? bully
    * Once upon a time there was a cadet
    a cadet was wearing a red hat
    Except this hat
    inherited by the cadet,
    .not a damn thing in it red was not
    and no .... * what
  37. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 17: 04 New
    +1
    How do you like him * The Tale of Little Red Riding Hood *?

    gone, Sergei! good Not as good as you, I know his work! request But I remember about Lilya Brik:
  38. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 17: 10 New
    +1
    Yes, okay! In poetry, the best special is Sergey / Corsair /. That's who the expert! hi
  39. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 17: 17 New
    +1
    That's who the expert is!

    and not only this! good
  40. Phil77
    Phil77 5 August 2020 17: 35 New
    +1
    *Love.
    Only in my sore
    the brain was you!
    Silly comedy stop the move!
    Look! I'm ripping off the armor toys.
    I, the greatest don Quixote! *.
    And again he.
    It's time for the cat to go get food!
    wink
  41. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 17: 44 New
    +1
    It's time for the cat to go get food!

    yes, I need to buy something of mine too ... drinks
  42. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2020 13: 21 New
    +1
    I'm in the woods on the river.

    On Sunday, I drove twenty kilometers from Pskov, walked about fifteen minutes - the forest was combed, the grandmothers sell chanterelles. I found several chanterelles, four russula (I love it very much. Why does everyone disdain?) And one flywheel. laughing sparsely, but fried. Then he stood in a traffic jam near Bekovo for an hour - the dude flew out under a truck - to death ... From Pskov to a house in the South-West, thanks to traffic jams, it took six hours! request
  43. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 August 2020 17: 17 New
    +1
    There are few fish - only two tails. But I scored mushrooms - I can hardly carry. Ten kilograms, no less. Almost everyone is white. Photo from the phone cannot be inserted. request
  44. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 6 August 2020 17: 27 New
    +1
    Photo from the phone cannot be inserted.

    Sergey-Phil also asked me today how it is done, but I cannot help - I have a push-button mobile! request
    There are few fish - only two tails. But I scored mushrooms - I can hardly carry. Ten kilograms, no less.

    Sincerely, from the bottom of my heart - congratulations! good drinks now you just start cleaning ... wink
  45. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 August 2020 18: 11 New
    +1
    Come on. smile
    The wife has already agreed to take over this process. smile
  46. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 6 August 2020 18: 19 New
    +1
    The wife has already agreed to take over this process.

    I bow to your wife and her care! love
    Are you tired? Under today's Valery, we are chatting with the Cossacks about everything. They started with the Cossacks, switched to arms, and almost switched to nationalities. laughing drinks
    I'm higher on the branch to you anti-fascist anti-string verse dashed off - translated from ancient Supeetnos.
  47. VLR
    4 August 2020 18: 08 New
    +2
    In Sumer and Babylon there was something like that. Then it was roughly called "temple (or cult) prostitution"
  48. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 4 August 2020 18: 21 New
    +2
    In Sumer and Babylon there was something like that. Then it was roughly called "temple (or cult) prostitution"

    Dear Valery! good Please! drinks The article is in the studio! yes At the same time we will discuss the thongs again ... wink
  • VLR
    4 August 2020 05: 22 New
    +3
    No, there are 2 articles ahead about the Cossacks, and now there is no point in discussing. We'll have to predict something and get ahead of ourselves.
  • Byurer
    Byurer 3 August 2020 16: 50 New
    +5
    "A crowd of fugitive peasants" ... Suffice it to look at the more or less famous participants in the Khmelnytsky uprising. Bohun, brothers Nechai, Zhdanovich, Krichevsky, Gulyanitsky, Doroshenko, Vygovsky, Pushkar, Teterya, Gladky, Morozenko, Zolotarenko, Zelensky, Chornota, Nemyrych, Podobailo, Sirko, Gogol - almost all Zaporozhye colonels were gentry. Yes, and in previous times it was not very different. The author looks completely incompetent in the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, for example, for some reason he classifies the troops of S. Nalivaik among them, who was always in confrontation with them, except for the events of 1596, and even took a direct part in suppressing the uprising of K. Kosinsky. Such outright blunders are scattered throughout the article, it's just too lazy to focus on each
    1. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 3 August 2020 17: 16 New
      +6
      Quote: Burer
      almost all Zaporozhye colonels were gentry. Yes, and in previous times it was not very different.

      EMNIP and not only colonels. Even among the rank-and-file Cossacks, poor gentry were often met.
      Quote: Burer
      The author looks completely incompetent in the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, for example, for some reason he classifies the troops of S. Nalivaik among them, who was always in confrontation with them, except for the events of 1596, and even took a direct part in suppressing the uprising of K. Kosinsky.

      And here the problem begins with the terminology, since in fact all free Cossacks (this is if we exclude the courtiers, policemen and armored ones, who, as it were, in direct service) are considered Cossacks, and therefore in the minds of many they are automatically assigned to the Sich. Even the Cossack autonomy of Khmelnitsky was called the Zaporozhye Army, although most of the Cossacks had no direct relation to the Sich and Zaporozhye as a region. Because of this, many who want to master the topic at a swoop start to get confused, and with half a turn they write down all the Cossacks as Secheviks, although this was only a small group of the total mass. Even the colonels you indicated commanded the troops (and were in charge of the administrative-territorial units) separately from the Sich, since the secheviks acted as an independent unit led by the koshev ataman during the Khmelnytsky region. But both of them were called Cossacks, which causes confusion. It just so happened that you can't figure out the topic without detailed digging ... But detailed digging is far from interesting to everyone. And if it suddenly starts to contradict the usual picture of the world, according to which the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks are always hawkers and bastards, then in general, as they say here in Ukraine, “baptize that tikai”.

      However, this already concerns not only and not so much the author, but many other users on the Internet in general, who rush, with the air of absolute authorities, to build the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, based on the history of the Don Cossacks, and deriving various funny things from this.
  • Operator
    Operator 3 August 2020 15: 28 New
    -8
    The Cossacks are a purely Russian phenomenon, in the sense that the overwhelming majority of Cossacks have always consisted of Orthodox Russians. The presence of pot-bellied little things in their composition (Poles, Tatars, Turks, Jews) was an exception that proves the rule.

    The Slavic / Turkic origin of the word "Cossack" is irrelevant - trying to find the root of the Cossacks in linguistics is akin to finding Roman roots in the Russian Federation.

    Brodniks, Khazars (destroyed at the root by Svyatoslav), Polovtsy, Pechenegs and other foreign frontiers are also not in business - the basis of the Cossacks was formed by the Russians who fled to the southern border regions from the oppression of the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian feudal lords after the division of Russia into the Russian principalities of the North East and Russian regions, which became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later included in the union state of Rzecz PospoLita).
  • Uncle Izya
    Uncle Izya 3 August 2020 18: 42 New
    -1
    Catherine II seems to have called the Cossacks Cherkas
  • Lionnvrsk
    Lionnvrsk 9 August 2020 07: 57 New
    0
    Quote: arturpraetor
    But both of them were called Cossacks, which causes confusion. It just so happened that you can't figure it out here without a detailed digging into the topic ...

    Look at the checker, and not the jags on it! yes