Military Review

How the tank attack at Fuentes de Ebro ended

48

Spanish internationalists in battle with the armored vehicles of the Francoists. A picture of those years


I once shone purer than a lily,
And no one called me: cow!
And my pee was a rosebud
Look how shitty she is now.
Song of the Spaniards during the Spanish Civil War (Bessie A. People in battle. And Spain again: Transl. From English. M .: Progress, 1981.)
The memoir and journalistic book "People in battle" to this day is one of the best works about the national revolutionary war in Spain. A fighter of the International Brigade, the writer captured in it the harsh truth of the heroic anti-fascist struggle, when volunteers from different countries fought alongside the soldiers of the Spanish Republican Army. Poems in the text - translated by A. Simonov


Behind the pages of the civil wars. On October 11, at 4 o'clock in the morning, Kondratyev's regiment, located only five kilometers from the city, began to advance to the line of attack. Moreover, the infantry to the landing site on Tanks I traveled on foot, so preparation for the offensive took much longer than planned. Not all of them were able to sit on the tanks right away, and it immediately became clear that the infantrymen had practically nothing to hold on to ...


One of the BT-5s supplied to the fighting Spain from the USSR. Fig. A. Shepsa

From dawn to noon!


The darkness of the night had not yet been replaced by dawn, and the Francoists had already opened artillery fire on the brigade's positions, so that even before the offensive it had already begun to suffer losses. At the same time, its forces were stretched along the front line for almost four kilometers. The British were by the river, on the left flank, the Lincolnians stood by the road, and then the McPaps were located. That is, there were three infantry groups available, which were supposed to follow the three columns of tanks to the city.


Another of the tanks of the "heavy regiment" ...

As for the terrain along which it was necessary to move to the city, then, at first glance, it was quite tank-accessible: the plain after all. But it was all cut by many ravines, in addition, irrigation canals, hidden by vegetation, passed through it. The artillery preparation began only at 10.00 am, and even then the Republican artillery from two batteries of 75-mm guns fired only a few volleys at the enemy and fell silent. Now even the stupidest of the nationalist commanders has already understood that an offensive is being prepared here. So there could be no question of any surprise. Well, the effect of the shooting was very small. In any case, all the trenches of the nationalists and the positions of their weapons did not suffer from it.

Meanwhile, the tanks were refueling. That they would need a lot of fuel, no one had ever thought before. And only by noon the air in the sky above the city appeared aviation support: 18 Soviet single-engine bombers PZ "Natasha". They made only one approach over the positions of the nationalists, dropped bombs on them from a horizontal flight and ... flew away, since they had completed their combat mission. However, even now it could still be corrected if the Republicans had succeeded in a rapid tank breakthrough to the city with an armored landing force, in the capacity of which the soldiers of the 24th Spanish battalion were supposed to act.

The first line of trenches of nationalists in different sectors of the front was only 400 to 800 m, and one could hope that the high-speed BT-5 would cover this distance in just minutes!

How the tank attack at Fuentes de Ebro ended

There were among the tanks supplied to the Republicans, and these are: with the towers of the Mariupol plant named after Ilyich. A total of 1884 such tanks were produced.

"Tanks rushed, raising the wind ..."


However, the order to attack was followed only at about two in the afternoon. It is believed that not all of the 50 tanks participated in it (some simply did not start), but from 40 to 48 vehicles rushed towards the enemy, "raising the wind." So, by the standards of those years, it was just about the most grandiose tank attack of the Spanish Civil War. Since BT-5s did not have intercom, their commanders gave orders to the driver ... by pushing their legs in the back. And such shocks followed one after the other, and the tanks of the Republicans, firing rapid fire towards the city, rushed forward with a roar and roar. Never before or after this world история I did not see the Soviet people and Americans attacking the enemy shoulder to shoulder (the American battalion and 16 Soviet tanks advanced in the center), and the Canadians and the British supported the tanks on the flanks. However, for the sake of secrecy, the Republican infantry, which occupied the trenches along the front, was not warned of the attack and, seeing the tanks in their rear, began to shoot at them with fright. The tank landing considered that "they were already enemies" and also answered her with shots. It was only when the tanks crossed the trenches and rolled away that the Spanish infantry realized what was happening and tried to run after the tanks, but could not catch up with them. Yes, no one taught her how to interact with such fast tanks! Meanwhile, the speed of the tank attack turned out to be such that many of the paratroopers were thrown from their armor, while others were killed and wounded by heavy fire from the enemy. The worst thing, however, was that the tank drivers were not familiar with the terrain. Some of the cars ended up in irrigation canals and ravines. The tanks could not get out of them without help. Part of the Soviet tanks moved towards the city along the bottom of a dry irrigation canal. But when they were half way, the nationalists opened the floodgates on the dam, and huge masses of water rained down on the tanks, and Moroccans from both banks began to throw grenades and Molotov cocktails at the deploying tanks. Here the British and Americans managed to come to the aid of the tankers in time, and they managed to push the Moroccans back.


The height dominating Fuentes de Ebro

Several tanks managed to break through the barbed wire and enter the city. However, they had no idea what an ancient Spanish city was. And these are narrow streets, among which it is very difficult to maneuver and very easy to get lost, as well as high stone fences and houses ... However, the tanks managed to capture the height dominating the city, which caused panic among the Moroccans. And if the 21st brigade of anarchists were brought into battle, then it would be quite possible to expect the defeat of the enemy forces. But the anarchists refused to go on the attack on orders. The Spanish battalion of T-26 tanks did not have time to approach. As a result, several cars were lost already in the city itself, and those that survived had to retreat in the end, since they ran out of ammunition.


Streets of Fuentes de Ebro. That's how they are today, that's how they were then!

Fighters-internationalists remember ...


“I closed the turret hatch of my tank and looked through the periscope,” later recalled Robert Gladnik. “The tank was moving across a field overgrown with grass, and all I saw was the spire of the Fuentes Church, 90 meters ahead. Jumping on bumps, I lost almost all my troops, and then my tank landed in a deep ravine. No one responded to me on the radio, but the tank could move, and I managed to get out. Having shot all the ammunition in the direction of the church, I got out of the battle ...

“I was in the center of an advancing tank company,” wrote William Kardash. - I managed to successfully overcome the ravine, but at the most enemy positions my tank was set on fire with a Molotov cocktail. The engine did not start, and we cut off the nationalists who were trying to approach the burning tank with fire. Only when the fire got close to the fighting compartment, I ordered everyone to leave the car and then the crew of another car came to our rescue ... "


Damaged tank near the Ebro river

The attack of the British battalion was personally led by its commander, Harold Fry, but was immediately killed, and his battalion was pressed down by heavy machine-gun fire and lay down without reaching the enemy positions. The Americans covered almost half that distance, but they had to stop and dig in under the very noses of the nationalists. In both battalions, the soldiers understood that only a desperate dash towards the goal would save the matter. But this required all the forces, and the McPaps were farther than everyone else, from the enemy trenches. The commander and commissar were killed. Joe Dallet took command and led the company further, but he was also mortally wounded. Two McPaps squads attempted to cover the progress of the rest, but, according to the recollections of the internationalist fighters, the fire of the Maxim machine guns did not give the desired result, since they were inconvenient in the offensive. In addition, both the captain of the machine-gun company Thompson and his adjutant were seriously wounded, so there was simply no one to command the machine-gunners.


Another damaged BT-5. He got it hard!

But the commander of the artillery battery was given an absolutely ridiculous order: from your position to move forward with guns and open fire on the enemy! It was clear to the artillerymen that this at least meant the loss of an advantageous position, a pointless waste of time, but the orders were carried out in the army. And instead of firing, they set about dragging their cannons closer to the front edge ...


And then many of them turned into nationalist trophies and museum exhibits!

The result of the attack was sad: the international brigade was forced to lie down in no-man's land and dig single cells in the heavy, rocky Spanish soil. The orderlies were only able to pull out all the wounded from the battlefield closer to night. And then the whole team moved back. True, several minimally damaged tanks were also pulled out in the dark.


This is how the damaged tanks were sent to the rear.

The losses among the inter-brigade were quite large. McPaps had 60 killed and over 100 wounded. Two of the three commanders were killed, the third was seriously wounded.

The Lincolns had 18 killed, including the commander of their machine-gun company, and approximately 50 wounded. The British had the minimum number of casualties: six were killed, but there were many wounded. The Spanish battalion's losses were also very high, both from "friendly fire" during a tank breakthrough, and after, since the landing was in the rear of the Francoists and was surrounded there and completely destroyed. There were only a few wounded among the gunners.


The Soviet T-26 and BT-5 tanks that fell into the hands of the nationalists were painted like this ...

In the tank regiment, 16 crews were killed, including the deputy commander of the regiment Boris Shishkov, who was burned to death in the tank. Many tankers were injured and burned. Different sources also cite different data on the number of destroyed tanks. Some have 16, and somewhere around 28, but if you count on average, then the losses could well be about 38-40% of their original number.

Lesson, but not for the future!


The sad experience of the tank landing at Fuentes de Ebro was subsequently not taken into account by the Soviet command, and the landing on tanks was widely used during the Great Patriotic War until heavy losses forced to change this tactics. However, the reasons for this are clear. The Soviet press reported about the events in Spain not at all what was actually happening. And the "details" of the battle at Fuentes de Ebro were completely secret, even from the military.


So! They were afraid of "friendly fire" ...

As for the fate of Colonel Kondratyev, although he returned from Spain alive, he did not remain in this state for long. In 1939, a unit of it on the Karelian Isthmus was surrounded. The help he asked for did not come, and he tried to get his part out of the "cauldron", and then committed suicide, apparently thinking that he would not be forgiven for retreating without an order. Later, General Pavlov was shot, also a "Spaniard" who did a lot to spread the Spanish experience. The famous "Spanish Diary", a book written by Mikhail Koltsov, also failed to shed light on the reasons for the defeat of the Republicans by the nationalists. By the way, he was also shot as an enemy of the people - in 1940.
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Tanks in the reeds. BT-5 at Fuentes de Ebro
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 10 August 2020 04: 49 New
    +9
    The lack of competent interaction between the combat arms was the Achilles heel of the Red Army in those years ... the Germans knew this very well and beat Red Army units in parts. In Spain, the picture was also observed.
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 10 August 2020 05: 27 New
    +8
    It was smooth on paper ..
    1. kalibr
      10 August 2020 07: 18 New
      19
      The problem, dear Ivan, was also that our military in Spain were OBLIGED to carry out the orders of local commanders! Obliged! Military advisers could express their "competent opinion", but the order was subject to mandatory execution. That is, when Kondratyev asked about the intelligence data about the guns in Fuentes, he was told that it was insignificant. He would say in response - "oh, well, you do not know, well, my people, my tanks - I will not send people to death." But he couldn't say that. And General Walter could not summon the commander of the anarchist division and shoot him in front of the formation for not following the order - "these are our Spanish affairs." But the Spanish commanders could write complaints to Madrid that "the abundance of Soviet military specialists on the Aragonese front turns us into something like a colonized nation." So the Republicans got what they should have gotten. Stupidity and shortsightedness are always punishable!
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 10 August 2020 07: 31 New
        +4
        Pluralism of opinions in the army request
        Ellos pasaron
        1. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 11: 13 New
          +3
          Quote: Tlauicol
          Pluralism of opinions in the army

          pluralism was in the militia - yes. There were elected commanders, collegial decision-making almost by voting, and other crap in the spirit of "military democracy." There was no pluralism in the army. There was a command vertical, as it should be. Political advisers, of course, did their best to mold the Republic's army into a semblance of the Red Army with commissars, commanders "from the plow" and other attributes of the "people's army", promoted the communists, not disdaining to "purge", as in the same Aragon and Catalonia. In July 1937, political tribunals were established, and in August, public criticism of the USSR was banned. And, of course, brilliant political advisers from the USSR insisted on curtailing the system of self-government at enterprises, which, as expected, led to a sharp deterioration in the economic situation in Catalonia - production fell to 30% of the pre-war level. The workers (among other things, who collected Soviet planes at the factories) received 100 grams of bread a day. Well, this is generally a separate big topic ...
          Another thing is that the top of the Republic army was a jar of spiders. At the same time, according to the same Berzin and Kulik, who did not know how to fight a damn thing.
      2. Dr. Frankenstucker
        Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 10: 45 New
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        The problem, dear Ivan, was also that our military in Spain were OBLIGED to carry out the orders of local commanders! Obliged!

        and what outrages you? There is actually a subordination, no? Kondratyev was not an adviser, but a specialist, and therefore was directly subordinate to the headquarters of the 11th division, to which his tanks were attached. Why would he be so frightened not to obey the orders of Lister or Commander-21 Kasado?
        He would say in response - "oh, well, you do not know, well, my people, my tanks - I will not send people to death"

        What nonsense? That is, any commander can take a pose and refuse to obey the order?
        1. kalibr
          10 August 2020 11: 27 New
          +5
          Quote: Dr. Frankenstucker
          That is, any commander can take a pose and refuse to carry out an order?

          Not any, namely ours, Soviet, and nowhere else, namely in Spain during the specified period. The Germans and Italians did just that. They were ASKED, not ordered!
          1. Dr. Frankenstucker
            Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 11: 46 New
            0
            Quote: kalibr
            Not any, namely ours, Soviet, and nowhere else, namely in Spain during the specified period.

            what was it that gave him such a privilege?
            1. kalibr
              10 August 2020 13: 54 New
              +5
              Quote: Dr. Frankenstucker
              what was it that gave him such a privilege?

              The one who gives the weapon makes sure that it is used correctly and protects his people.
              1. Dr. Frankenstucker
                Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 14: 44 New
                -1
                Shpakovsky, these are sentiments. First, it does not "give", but "sells" - the difference, I think, is understandable. Secondly, Kondratyev was an ordinary military commander, a military expert, subordinate to the immediate Spanish command (which is logical). He, in fact, was sent to fight, not supervise. And by the way, his stay was paid by the Spaniards.
                1. kalibr
                  10 August 2020 16: 20 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Dr. Frankenstucker
                  He, in fact, was sent to fight, not supervise.

                  That's wrong ... But I should have! After all, a representative of a great country. The Germans and Italians did just that and ... they all respected them!
                  Sells? And he could not sell! Did others sell them a lot? We must appreciate this "could". The difference is understandable, I guess.
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 10 August 2020 07: 35 New
    +7
    What did the USSR take from this aid to Spain? Economically, nothing. Politically, nothing. In the military field, nothing. We got a few dozen Spanish kids, with whom they were worn like a written sack. We received about 40000 Spaniards who fought against the USSR, allegedly this is revenge for helping the Spanish communists .. 2-5 thousand people fought for Germany to the end. In terms of armament, enthusiastic responses all around, our tanks, the tanks themselves, And the planes are the coolest. It seems that even captured weapons were not used for study. The same heavy machine guns were not bad, it was possible to study, The same messers, if only the wreckage could be transported to the USSR. but apparently nothing happened. The lack of interaction was explained by the lack of reliable communication. But how can one explain the frequent clashes of our troops among themselves in Chechnya? Except for lurking and betrayal, I have no other explanation. Send into battle, giving the command: go there, I don’t know where, grab that, I don’t know what. The Bolsheviks, after the shot of Aurora, went on the attack. And then they shot back, and immediately, after 4 hours, rushed to the attack, hurray, but passaran. The Spaniards were fond of bullfighting, they drove around horses, they should have known that if they had nothing to hold on to, then they would not sit on a horse for a long time. They could have been on the turret of a tank, at least some chains and ropes to fasten, what they could hold onto, because it was not the first time we drove tanks. Maybe it’s true, they didn’t want to hold out.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 10 August 2020 07: 52 New
      16
      What did the USSR take from this aid to Spain?
      From this "aid" to Spain, the USSR took out three quarters of its gold reserves - 510 tons of gold. At the current exchange rate, taking into account the value of the coins, it is approximately $ 20.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 10 August 2020 08: 35 New
        14
        And in addition, the realization that light tanks are already yesterday, that in addition to regimental artillery, anti-tank artillery and other technical "sobering up" are also needed.
        "Messer", by the way, also appeared there and "spurred" our leadership to create new machines, which developed 3 (!) Types at once.
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 10 August 2020 12: 34 New
          +1
          Messers appeared in Spain in the spring of 1937, in the summer it was already clear that this "seriously thin and long" task was given to the designers in January 1939, 1.5 years later, after the I-16s began to be received from them .. Here I have a lot of questions. I wonder if there were any attempts to simply install more advanced, streamlined hoods on the I-16, the forehead is still absurdly huge, and the resistance is natural.
          1. Dr. Frankenstucker
            Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 12: 47 New
            0
            Quote: Free Wind
            I have many questions here. I wonder if there were any attempts to simply install more advanced, streamlined hoods on the I-16

            the question is rather strange. "Streamlined hood" on the M-63? How do you imagine this?
            1. Free wind
              Free wind 10 August 2020 14: 07 New
              +2
              on LA-5 they solved this problem, on the same Zero. On the I-16 they installed some kind of fashionable in America hood, "Watter", and got a drop in speed. Not a specialist at all, can increase the length of the propeller shaft, and improve aerodynamics.
              1. Dr. Frankenstucker
                Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 15: 31 New
                +3
                Quote: Free Wind
                on LA-5 they solved this problem

                well, the La-5 had a different engine. Polikarpov also tried to experiment with the double-row star M-85. But it was a completely different car.
              2. not main
                not main 10 August 2020 23: 39 New
                +2
                Quote: Free Wind
                on LA-5 they solved this problem, on the same Zero. On the I-16 they installed some kind of fashionable in America hood, "Watter", and got a drop in speed. Not a specialist at all, can increase the length of the propeller shaft, and improve aerodynamics.

                First, the ASh-5 engine (later FN) was used on La-82, which differed from the M-62 in a shorter piston stroke! Plus purely optical sensations, the I-16 was only 6 meters long!
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 August 2020 20: 47 New
        +3
        I think if you take into account the cost of the coins, then a little more. Excluding antique value, slightly less. The parity of the value of the exported "good" ranges from 10 to 40 billion. Limit bars, respectively, are limited by the terms of the cost of a troy ounce and numismatic antiques.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 10 August 2020 07: 56 New
      +9
      What did the USSR take from this aid to Spain? Economically, nothing.
      510 tons of gold is somewhat more than nothing. laughing
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 10 August 2020 08: 34 New
        +4
        Well, do not forget that after refusing to support the Third International, Stalin expressed himself in the following vein: “Instead of idle chatter ... we will now support the struggle of true communists with help ... The world proletariat will now see with its own eyes who is his real friend, who is ready to share everything necessary with him, and who does nothing and only hides behind appeals and slogans ... "Do not forget that at that time" the communist ideology "," the struggle of the world proletariat against the oppressors "- it was very serious, it was supported at the highest level. Stalin needed to show that he would support any "communist-popular" movements with all his might and that "world revolution" was not an empty phrase for him.
        1. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 12: 37 New
          +1
          Quote: Snail N9
          and the fact that "world revolution" is not an empty phrase for him.


          empty. The "world revolution" in the 30s has long been a fiction. Stalin was a pragmatist, not a utopian.
      2. kalibr
        10 August 2020 08: 39 New
        +5
        Outstripped, Anton! I just wanted to write and sent to the store. And he came ... Hugh Thomas has some interesting material about this episode. And about many other things ... And his book has already been translated into Russian!
        1. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 14: 51 New
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          And much more ...

          Well, for example, Comrade Thomas is lying about the volume of Soviet supplies.
          1. kalibr
            10 August 2020 16: 16 New
            +6
            Who's not lying? Do you have more accurate sources? Share ...
            1. Dr. Frankenstucker
              Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 16: 26 New
              +1
              Quote: kalibr
              Who's not lying?

              rightly so.
              1. kalibr
                10 August 2020 17: 51 New
                +3
                Well, share more reliable figures ... All to you, and I am the first, they will thank you.
                1. Dr. Frankenstucker
                  Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 21: 39 New
                  0
                  Why are Soviet data so bad?
                  1. kalibr
                    10 August 2020 22: 28 New
                    +3
                    Nothing! You just write that Hugh Thomas's data is incorrect. So you know the source of more accurate information. Naturally, I am interested in what this source is. Because in my book about tanks in Spain, I gave several of them ... And about how to trust Soviet data and authors, read my material here on VO about the Fiuma incident. You are a new person here - it will be interesting for you. Everything is there with links to documents from the Navy archive in St. Petersburg.
      3. Free wind
        Free wind 10 August 2020 10: 54 New
        0
        I don’t want to write on this topic, but I have a double attitude to this event. In fact, the Republicans did not lose the war. But if they won, then Hitler's army would have had enough pendel so that Spain would fly to the Atlantic. And so Franco kept at least some kind of neutrality, it is loudly said of course, but nevertheless. And after the war, when he was hinted at the Nazi criminals that he was hiding, and the values ​​that settled in Spain during the war, Franco hinted at the gold of Spain.
      4. Phil77
        Phil77 11 August 2020 03: 47 New
        +3
        Anton! And Valery Kharlamov? His mother is Spanish!
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 11 August 2020 13: 59 New
          +3
          Anton! And Valery Kharlamov? His mother is Spanish!

          A familiar search engine last year found the contents of a duffel bag on the Karelian Isthmus. Found who the owner is. The son of one of the Spanish revolutionaries, in 41 went to the front near Leningrad. Further more. We started to learn the story of the guy. It turned out that in 41 he was wounded there. So the swag remained. And he died already in the 42nd, and at the Oranienbaum bridgehead.
          By the way, about the aforementioned bridgehead. Here is a photo taken on Saturday in the area of ​​the Krasnaya Gorka fort. The complex of our trenches according to all the rules - there is a trench right below. We were looking for mushrooms ... laughing
    3. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 12: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      The same messers, if only the wreckage could be transported to the USSR. but apparently nothing happened.

      judging by what "everything"? On November 11, 1937, the rep-ts captured the "Bertha" that had landed on the forced one in their location. In January 38, the French tested it, then returned it to the Republicans, they handed it over to the Soviets, and in February the Soviets were dismantled and taken to Odessa. In 1938, Suprun and Stefanovsky tested the Bertha and concluded that it was slower than our fighters. By the way, this "Spanish" 109th then (in 1941) flew in a special squadron consisting of captured Me 109, Me 110, Do 215 and Ju 88 aircraft (three each).
    4. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 13: 21 New
      0
      Quote: Free Wind
      But how can one explain the frequent clashes of our troops among themselves in Chechnya?

      And Spain has something to do with it? Have they invented friendly fire there?
    5. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 16: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      What did the USSR take from this aid to Spain? Economically, nothing. Politically, nothing.

      From this war, Stalin brought out the conviction that revenge is needed. I noticed that the majority are generally not aware of the Soviet-inspired guerrilla war of 1944 in the Aran Valley in northern Catalonia and the actions of the 14th special corps. According to the plan, the Spanish separatists were to seize the province and declare it a "liberated territory", immediately turning to the anti-Hitler coalition (huh, to the USSR, more precisely) with a request for legitimization. Doesn't it look like anything?
      Well, it's true, Franco crushed the Reds with an iron hand, although, of course, he risked a lot - against the background of Nazi crimes in the rest of Europe, his punitive methods might not have been understood. But, nevertheless, he won. And the "metro builder" Enrique Lister went to Africa. By the way, he shot five and wounded three fishermen who refused to give him their boats.
  4. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 10 August 2020 13: 57 New
    +7
    The Soviet T-26 and BT-5 tanks that fell into the hands of the nationalists were painted like this ...

    The BA-6s that the Francoists received were then lit up at parades.

    BA-6 army of General Franco at the parade on the occasion of the liberation of Catalonia. February 21, 1939 (ASKM).
    1. rich
      rich 10 August 2020 17: 17 New
      +6
      The Soviet T-26 and BT-5 tanks that fell into the hands of the nationalists were painted like this ...

      As a rule, Spanish symbols were applied on the mask of the gun and the stern of the tower and the Andreev flag on the tower hatches, for identification by their aircraft









      the nationalists also applied the Andrew's flag to their Air Force and Condor squadron
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 10 August 2020 17: 52 New
        +7
        As a rule, Spanish symbols were applied on the mask of the gun and the stern of the tower and the Andreev flag on the tower hatches, for identification by their aircraft

        I read about the red and yellow colors of the Spanish flag, but about the Andreev flag - you surprised me, Dmitry! I honestly didn't know! Thank! drinks
        1. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 10 August 2020 20: 42 New
          +2
          Some of the German Luftwaffe experts who passed the Condor called it the "Burgundy Cross")
          1. kalibr
            10 August 2020 22: 24 New
            +2
            This is mistake. Burgundy cross with thorns.
        2. rich
          rich 11 August 2020 15: 31 New
          +3
          You surprised me, Dmitry! I honestly didn't know! Thank! drinks

          Alaverdi, Pane Kohanku drinks I also always learn a lot of new and interesting things from you.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 12 August 2020 11: 59 New
            +1
            I also always learn a lot of new and interesting things from you.

            Thank you for your kind words, Dmitry! Your comments are more informative. Mine are mostly friendly chatter. hi Will live! I am sincerely glad of our company. drinks
      2. kalibr
        10 August 2020 17: 57 New
        +6
        There were many options. For example, such:
        1. kalibr
          10 August 2020 18: 01 New
          +6
          Pane Kohanku. By the way, there are even more color images and photos in this book. An extensive bibliography on the topic is also given there. Published in your St. Petersburg publishing house "Polygon".
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 11 August 2020 12: 22 New
            +3
            By the way, there are even more color images and photos in this book. An extensive bibliography on the topic is also given there. Published in your St. Petersburg publishing house "Polygon".

            I checked the book with good illustrations. Didn't know what they were co-writing. hi
            If you issue an article about "tiznaos" - we will read it with pleasure. yes everyone loves "shushpanzer"!
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 10 August 2020 18: 54 New
    +5
    ... the famous "Spanish Diary" is a book written by Mikhail Koltsov. By the way, he was also shot as an enemy of the people - in 1940.

    So, those who did not shoot themselves were spanked by their own, it turns out that those who died in a "normal" battle were most fortunate.
    Thanks to Vyacheslav! hi
    BT-5 Republicans, his photo was already in the article.

    Fiat-Ansaldo CV-3/35 wedge.

    Light tank Pzkpfwg-1A. Battalion de Carros de Combate. Teruel. 1937 g.
    Light tank Pzkpfwg-1B. Agrupacion de Carros de Combate. Seville. 1939 g.
    1. kalibr
      10 August 2020 22: 23 New
      +4
      Quote: Sea Cat
      So, those who did not shoot themselves were spanked by their own, it turns out that those who died in a "normal" battle were most fortunate.

      Well, there were also those who managed to escape to the West and stay alive and with money. But these, this, "Spaniard" will be discussed in a separate article.