Currency for the state of workers and peasants

Currency for the state of workers and peasants

At the end of the 20s. of the last century, it became clear to the leaders of the USSR that the New Economic Policy (NEP) had failed and no longer corresponded to the interests of the state. This was the path leading to the conservation of an archaic society that actively resisted any attempts at modernization. There was a big war ahead: it was clear to everyone, both in the West and in the East, and the main victims of this war were to be states that did not set foot on the path of industrialization or did not manage to complete it.


Meanwhile, the private enterprises that emerged during the NEP period belonged mainly to the category of small, at best, medium-sized, and were focused on the production of goods that were in stable demand among the population.

That is, the new Soviet "businessmen" wanted to get quick and guaranteed profits and did not even think about long-term (seemingly risky) investments in strategic industries: the initial costs were enormous, and the payback period was very long. Perhaps, over time, they would have matured to the creation of large industrial enterprises, including defense ones. The problem was that the USSR did not have time.

On the other hand, the land, as the Bolsheviks had promised, became the property of the peasants, and the production of the same grain, which at that time was a strategic commodity, became extremely small-scale. Large land holdings, where farming was carried out according to the best Western standards, were liquidated, and many small peasant farms were balancing on the brink of survival, there were practically no funds left for the purchase of equipment, high-quality seed material and fertilizers, and the yield was extremely low. And at the same time, in the villages, due to low labor productivity, a huge number of able-bodied population was retained, which was not enough in the cities. There was simply no one to work at the new plants and factories. And how to build factories for the production of the same tractors, combines, trucks in a country where there is no one to buy them?

Thus, the Soviet leadership had little choice. You could close your eyes and ears and leave everything as it is - and after a few years outright lose the war to your neighbors: not only Germany and Japan, but even Poland, Romania and further down the list. Or make a decision on the urgent and urgent implementation of modernization and industrialization, while clearly understanding that the sacrifices will be great. Historical experience suggested that the standard of living of the bulk of the population of any country inevitably falls with rapid modernization, and the "rating" of reformers tends to zero. And Russia has already experienced this under Peter I, who until the time of Catherine II, even in the privileged environment of the nobility, was a rather negative character, and among the common people, the first emperor was openly called the Antichrist and ranked among the Aggels of Satan.

As is known, the leaders of the USSR chose the second path, but desire alone, even if supported by a powerful administrative resource, was not enough. There was no time not only for the development of our own technologies, but even for the training of personnel capable of creating them - there was still ahead. In the meantime, all this could be bought: both technologies and entire enterprises. And this, by the way, was not only a problem, but there were also potential opportunities: the Soviet Union could get the most modern plants and factories, even more advanced and technologically advanced than those that were available at that time in the countries where purchases were made. And so it all happened: huge factories, which were few even in America, were built on a turnkey basis in the USA by order of the USSR, then they were dismantled and sent to our country, where they, like a designer, were reassembled. All that was needed was money to purchase them, as well as to pay for the services of foreign specialists who would supervise the construction of workshops, assemble and adjust equipment, and train personnel. One of the options for solving this problem was the confiscation of currency and valuables from the population of the USSR.

We must say right away that the Soviet leaders proceeded from a completely logical assumption that only two categories of the country's population could have currency, gold, jewelry at that time. The first is the former aristocrats and representatives of the bourgeoisie, who could conceal them during the revolutionary expropriation. Since then it was believed that these values ​​were obtained through the criminal exploitation of the people, it was possible to confiscate them from the “former” “on legal grounds”, and repressions, as a rule, were not applied to persons who wished to surrender them voluntarily. Here is how FT Fomin describes his work with the currency dealers of those years in the book "Notes of an Old Chekist":

“In 1931, the Border Guard Directorate of the Leningrad Military District received a statement that a certain Lieberman had over 30 kilograms of gold buried in the ground and intended to smuggle it abroad in parts. It turned out that before the revolution Lieberman owned a small cardboard factory in St. Petersburg, and after the February Revolution he bought a large amount of pure gold bullion. After October, his factory was nationalized, he stayed to work there as a technologist. "

These suspicions were confirmed, and Lieberman agreed to transfer his treasures to the state. Let's continue to quote Fomin:

“When the remaining gold was seized, Lieberman asked to take into account that he voluntarily donates his gold to the country's industrialization fund.
“And please keep this whole gold bullion story a secret. I don’t want my acquaintances and especially my colleagues to know about it. I am an honest worker and I want to work calmly in the same place and in the same position.
I assured him that he had nothing to worry about:
- Work honestly, and no one will touch you, there will be no restrictions or, moreover, there will be no persecution.
That's how we parted with him. "



To the workers and peasants of those years, jewelry, with rare exceptions, could only be obtained by illegal means. Contrary to the stories about “Russia We Lost” and songs about the “crunch of a French roll”, the overwhelming majority of the subjects of the Russian Empire have never seen gold or diamonds. And the time when Soviet citizens could buy gold rings and earrings was also far away. At best, the jewels were hidden by former speculators and looters, at worst - by members of all sorts of anarchist and green gangs and detachments, which, under the pretext of "fighting counter-revolution", were engaged in outright robbery of defenseless people. This was the second group of citizens of the USSR who could, albeit not completely voluntarily, help the industrialization of the country.

It is precisely these categories of the population that have decided to "ask to share." It is characteristic that this decision aroused understanding and approval among the bulk of the population of the USSR. Suffice it to recall the famous novel The Master and Margarita, the author of which cannot be called a proletarian writer. In Chapter 15 ("The Dream of Nikanor Ivanovich"), which we will talk about later, M. Bulgakov's sympathies are clearly on the side of the Chekists, who are trying to "persuade" irresponsible currency dealers to hand over their valuables to the state.


Theater from the dream of Nikanor Bosoy. Illustration by P. Linkovich for the novel by M. Bulgakov "The Master and Margarita"

And in the story about the visit of Begemot and Koroviev to the Torgsin store, there is not even a trace of sympathy not only for the false foreigner customer, but also for the “counter workers” who are trying in every possible way to please him.

This novel is generally interesting in that Mikhail Bulgakov managed to talk about two campaigns to confiscate foreign currency, gold and jewelry from the population, which are necessary for the industrialization of the country.

Soviet stores of the Torgsin chain


The authorities used two methods to confiscate currency and jewelry. The first was economic: from 1931 to 1936, Soviet citizens were allowed to purchase goods in Torgsin stores (from the phrase “trade with foreigners”), opened in July 1930. The calculation was that people who own a relatively small amount of gold or other valuables would voluntarily come there.


Moreover, transfers from relatives from abroad were welcomed: the addressees received not currency, but commodity orders, for which they could purchase goods in Torgsin's stores. And no questions from the employees of the OGPU (about relatives abroad) to the happy owners of these orders were received. And the magic phrase "Send dollars to Torgsin" opened the way for letters sent to foreign addresses.


Torgsin-notification



Torgsin's commodity order

Prices in the shops were much lower than in commercial stores, but goods were sold there not for Soviet, but for Torgsin rubles, which were backed by currency and gold. The official exchange rate for one Torgsin ruble was 6 rubles 60 kopecks, but on the black market in 1933 35-40 Soviet rubles or half a US dollar were given for it.

The benefits of "Torgsins" were truly enormous. So, in 1932, in terms of supply of foreign currency, this trading network occupied the 4th place, second only to oil production enterprises and foreign trade organizations that supply grain and timber abroad. In 1933, 45 tons of gold items and 2 tons of silver items were received through the traders. But it was forbidden to accept church utensils from the population, they were subject to confiscation, which is quite logical and understandable: it was hardly possible to expect that gold or silver chalices, stars, diskos and so on were kept and inherited in a simple family. By the way, even in tsarist times they were allowed to be sold only to obtain funds to ransom prisoners or to help the starving. In total, the stores of this network earned from 270 to 287 million gold rubles, and the cost of imported goods amounted to only 13,8 million rubles. And about 20 percent of the funds allocated for industrialization in 1932-1935 came from the traders.


In torgsin



Branson De Cou. Torgsin on Petrovka, photo 1932

The Torgsin store, described in Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita, was located at its present address: Arbat Street, house No. 50-52. He was known to many as the Smolensky grocery store No. 2. And now there is a grocery store of one of the most prestigious retail chains. In Bulgakov's novel, this torgsin is called "a very good store."


Koroviev and Behemoth in Torgsin, still from the film "The Master and Margarita"

Indeed, according to contemporaries, this store was the best in Moscow, standing out even against the background of other shopping centers.


Torgsin on Arbat, photograph of the early 1930s.

There were also other stores of this chain: in GUM, on the first floor of the building where the famous Prague restaurant is located, on Kuznetskiy Most Street. All in all, 38 Torgsin stores operated in Moscow.


Store "Torgsin" on Kuznetsky Most Street (house 14), photo 1933



According to the testimony of the German architect Rudolf Wolters, who worked in the USSR, in the Torgsin stores “you can buy everything; a little more expensive than abroad, but there is everything. "

However, among the people, the very existence of torgsins, reminiscent of social inequality, was perceived negatively, which was also noted by Bulgakov. Koroviev addresses Muscovites:

“Citizens! What is this being done? Huh? Let me ask you this ... a poor man fixes a primus all day; he was hungry ... and where did he get the currency? Can he? AND? And then Koroviev pointed to the lilac fat man, which made him look very anxious. - Who is he? AND? Where did he come from? What for? Were we bored, perhaps, without him? Did we invite him, or what? Of course, - the former regent shouted sarcastically, croaking his mouth, at the top of his voice, - he, you see, in a ceremonial lilac suit, is all swollen from salmon, he is all full of currency, but ours, ours ?! "



Koroviev and Behemoth in Torgsin, still from the film "The Master and Margarita"

This speech aroused sympathy from all present and shudder from the store manager. And "a decent, quiet old man, poorly dressed, but neat, an old man who bought three almond cakes in the confectionery department", rips off the "foreigner" hat and hits him "flat on his bald head with a tray."

Everything ended, as we remember, with the burning of the main Moscow torgsin, which Bulgakov does not feel sorry for at all.

Nikanor Barefoot Theater


Another method of confiscating valuables was forceful and was applied mainly to large-scale currency dealers, who turned over not in hundreds or thousands of rubles, but in millions. In 1928-1929 and 1931-1933. they were arrested by officers of the United State Political Administration (OGPU) and held in prison cells until they agreed to "voluntarily" give them "unnecessary" valuables. Many who read M. Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita probably paid attention to the description of the dream of Nikanor Ivanovich Bosoy, the chairman of the housing association at 302-bis on Sadovaya Street, where the “bad apartment” No. 50 was located. This is a dream, of course, included in the "golden list" of dreams of Russian literature along with the famous dreams of Vera Pavlovna (the novel "What to do"), Anna Karenina, Tatyana Larina, Pyotr Grinev and some others. Recall that this character was then “in the theater hall, where crystal chandeliers shone under the gilded ceiling, and on the walls of the kenkety ... There was a stage drawn by a velvet curtain, against a dark cherry background, strewn like stars with images of enlarged gold ten's, a prompter and even the audience. "


Illustration by A. Maksimuk

Then the “performance” began, in which the presenter and the young assistant tried to persuade the bearded (a hint of the length of stay in the “theater”) “spectators” to “hand over the currency”.

To many foreign readers this chapter seems like a pure phantasmagoria in the spirit of Gogol or Kafka. However, Bulgakov slightly distorted the true picture of what was happening then in the country, and the lines of his novel are surprisingly similar to the memories of Fyodor Fomin, left by him in the book "Notes of the Old Chekist". Judge for yourself.

F. Fomin:

“Your release,” we told him, “depends on your frank confession. After all, no one will allow you to use your millions in our country ”.

M. Bulgakov:

“The artist ... tore off the second burst of applause, bowed and spoke:“ After all, I had the pleasure of saying yesterday that secret storage of currency is nonsense. Nobody can use it under any circumstances. "

And here is how Fomin describes the work of assessing the values ​​that a particular currency dealer may have.

Zakhary Zhdanov, a former banker arrested in Leningrad on suspicion of storing currency and jewelry, issued to the state "gold bracelets, tiaras, rings and other precious things, as well as currency and various stocks and bonds - totaling about a million rubles." He also transferred 650 thousand francs to the industrialization fund, which were in his account in one of the Parisian banks. But Zhdanov's mistress claimed that he had 10 million rubles worth of valuables hidden. And then Fomin invited former brokers of the Petrograd Stock Exchange to face-to-face confrontation:

“Two old men enter. They are richly dressed: coats with beaver collars, beaver hats. They sat down against us. I asked if they recognized the person sitting in front of them.
- How can you not find out? - answered one of them. - Which of the financial businessmen of St. Petersburg did not know him? Zakhari Ivanovich was a prominent person. And he had considerable funds. But he left the bank clerks!
I asked them a series of questions. Both witnesses answered willingly and in detail. It was important for me to find out what amount Zakhary Zhdanov usually operated with. And all the answers boiled down to one thing: no more than 2 million.
- Maybe more? I asked.
- No, within the limits of 2 million, he usually conducted monetary affairs. And he would not keep some part of the capital as a dead fund - what a reason! Capital in circulation is a sure income. And Zakhary Ivanovich is not the kind of person to hide his capital. He loved, by a sinful deed, to show himself ...
The investigation into this case was completed. Zhdanov was sent to live in the Arkhangelsk region. "

And here is another very curious quote:

"The Border Guard Directorate of the Leningrad Military District received a statement that the daughter of the former merchant Sh., Henrietta, fled to Paris, taking with her a huge amount of currency and diamonds."

In Paris, the fugitive met her husband, a former White Guard officer who left Russia during the civil war. The informant also said that while leaving, Henrietta left about 30 thousand rubles in gold in Leningrad. The Chekists visited the woman's father and found more than a thousand five-ruble gold coins in his possession. When citizen Sh. Was charged with concealing valuables and complicity in the illegal departure of his daughter to the border, he offered to transfer another 24 thousand rubles to the industrialization fund, which were not found during the search, in exchange for a mitigation of punishment. But the most interesting was ahead: having received the promise of forgiveness, he wrote a letter to his daughter in Paris with a request to send in his name half of the amount exported abroad. Henrietta turned out to be a decent woman and did not leave her father in trouble. Fomin says:

“About two months later I receive a letter from Paris:
"Soviet Russia. Leningrad, the OGPU, the head of the border guard. Comrade! I acted honestly. I transferred 200 thousand francs to the Leningrad State Bank; I ask you to treat my father honestly too. Henrietta."

At the end of the chapter "The Struggle with Currency Dealers and Smugglers" Fomin says:

"In total, in only three years (1930-1933), the border guard of the OGPU of the Leningrad Military District transferred jewelry and currency worth more than 22 million gold rubles to the country's industrialization fund."

Is it a lot or a little? The construction of the famous Uralmash plant cost the state 15 million gold rubles, the Kharkov Tractor Plant was built for 15,3 million, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant - for 23 million.

From a modern point of view, one can relate differently to these methods of "mining" of gold and currency, used in those years by the Soviet state and the staff of the OGPU. We must not forget about other ways of obtaining funds for the purchase of industrial equipment and technologies: from massive grain exports to the sale of museum exhibits. However, it should be admitted that the party functionaries and government officials did not embezzle or plunder the money received in this way - they were used for their intended purpose. Plants and factories built with these funds laid the foundation for the industrial might of the USSR and played a huge role in the victory over Nazi Germany and its allies. These enterprises successfully survived the war, but, unfortunately, many of them in the 90s of the last century were ruined and destroyed by other "reformers". Which, unlike the leaders of the USSR of that terrible and ruthless era, did not forget about their pockets. And the new masters of life are now keeping the funds they receive in Russia away from the country, which they apparently no longer consider the Motherland.
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  1. VLR
    VLR 27 July 2020 09: 21 New
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    There were questions from users about the impossibility of comments. Thanks for pointing out the problem, everything was fixed.
    1. Lexus 27 July 2020 13: 26 New
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      Thank you for the article! Now all the fragments of the USSR are one big "Birch", only departments, such as, independent, "self-supporting", with the shameful volatility of "intergirl". Unlike the Great Country with the most solid and reliable currency, which could guarantee a constant price of goods for many years to come.


      1. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 14: 07 New
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        I look at the logo and never tire of being amazed: what a rich country it was! Even in Toyota Motors I had a share! laughing
        1. Lexus 27 July 2020 14: 18 New
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          Hi, hello! hi
          Yes, I just threw a "log into the firebox" to my "fans". And so, I traveled around the Ryazan region, which is still sickening. Once fields and meadows, now overgrown with weeds and weed forests, abandoned villages and villages, the remains of a narrow-gauge railway (wrote about this in an article about the collapse of the USSR). And yes, he collapsed, and did not stop. The fatal illness only progresses. Everywhere you look - everywhere "lower back". what
          1. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 14: 24 New
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            Alexey! hi
            "Have you heard what the Russians call" opu "? An economic paradigm! What a beautiful language !!!"
            1. Lexus 27 July 2020 14: 41 New
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              I'm not that sophisticated in manners. Therefore, I will characterize everything that happens as "a checkpoint with a broken turnstile." The Russian / Soviet man warns for a long time, but, having lost the last hope of achieving justice, he always gets down to business. Then the "watchmen" these very "paradigms" diverge at the seams.
          2. Sergej1972 28 July 2020 11: 47 New
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            There were a lot of abandoned villages in the 60s and 80s. This is an objective process. Narrow-gauge railways for the most part were dismantled in the late Soviet period, and some in the 50-60s.
    2. Svarog 28 July 2020 21: 44 New
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      Quote: VlR
      And the new masters of life, the funds they receive in Russia, are now keeping away from the country, which they, apparently, no longer consider the Motherland.
      Author:

      Interesting article, wonderful and imaginative style .. good
      It is not worth comparing with today's leaders ... at that time all of them would have simply been shot. These are not statists and not even entrepreneurs .. crooks, thieves and crooks ..
  2. Doctor 27 July 2020 09: 45 New
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    Having come to power, the Bolsheviks first of all took abroad the part of the gold reserves of Russia that fell into their hands, 375 tons, worth 485 million (this is the question of the cost of Uralmash).

    The event was hosted by Maksim Maksimovich Litvinov through the formally non-state cooperative trade organization "Tsentrosoyuz".

    The loot was put into secret accounts in Switzerland and the United States, and later used for the needs of the Comintern.
    1. Alexey RA 27 July 2020 10: 32 New
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      Well, the world revolution is the same. The exploiting regime is about to collapse under the pressure of the working masses - and then we will live ... we just need to help these masses a little.
      But no. Didn't collapse. But hopes of young men fed until 1927, when the British ultimatum smashed rose-colored glasses rrivals... It suddenly turned out that the world's first country of workers and peasants turned out to be in a deep fifth point and cannot even protect herself, let alone others. The army simply has nothing to arm with - the industry, which was kept on a starvation diet, was preparing to give up.
      In the report of the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council of the USSR “On the indicative plan for the development of the military industry” dated April 5, 1927, the production capacities of Soviet military factories were lower than that of state-owned and private military factories in 1916.
      (...)
      ... the data of the report of the Supreme Council of the National Economy of April 5, 1927 were indicative. The indicated capacities were achievable provided that capital works were carried out within the next 4-5 years for a total amount of approximately 320 million rubles (recall, in order to represent the value of this value, the total amount of the expenditure part of the USSR budget in 1926-27 was about 800 million rubles).

      In relation to the value of the fixed capital of the military industry, which was estimated in 1925/26 at 228,7 million rubles. capital expenditures made were only 0,75%, with a minimum rate of 4% - which the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the National Economy knew very well, but could not do anything about it, since the other groups of enterprises in the metalworking and machine-building industries were not in the best condition
      © Simonov N.S. The military-industrial complex of the USSR in the 1920-1950s: the pace of economic growth, structure, organization of production and management.
    2. VLR
      VLR 27 July 2020 10: 38 New
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      Unfortunately, the leadership of the USSR then was dominated by supporters of the idea of ​​the World Revolution, who used funds to prepare it. Only after he received real power in the country
      statesman Stalin, the situation has changed. But even then he had to overcome the fierce resistance of all these Trotskyists and other left-wing extremist leaders, who are now en masse declared "innocent victims." And after Stalin's death, the former Trotskyist Khrushchev came to power, who again threw the resources of the USSR to help the "oppressed peoples" of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
      1. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 11: 59 New
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        Quote: VlR
        Unfortunately, the leadership of the USSR then was dominated by supporters of the idea of ​​the World Revolution, who used funds to prepare it. Only after he received real power in the country
        statesman Stalin, the situation has changed. But even then he had to overcome the fierce resistance of all these Trotskyists and other left-wing extremist leaders, who are now en masse declared "innocent victims." And after Stalin's death, the former Trotskyist Khrushchev came to power, who again threw the resources of the USSR to help the "oppressed peoples" of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

        laughing Trotskoy advocated super-industrialization, was against the NEP on principle. The statesman Stalin was more moderate in this matter. I don’t know about the former Trotskyist-Khrushchev, but Lev Davydovich Bronstein believed that without the spread of the revolution to the economically developed countries, socialism in Russia would be a temporary phenomenon - and he was right hi
        1. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 12: 39 New
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          Lev Davydovich Bronstein believed that without the spread of the revolution to the economically developed countries, socialism in Russia would be a temporary phenomenon - and he was right

          Albert, did the industrialized countries need socialism? No, in 1919-20, at the moment of fatigue from the last war, and at the same time - the Spanish flu pandemic, perhaps, was needed. As far as I remember, then there were even strikes by British stevedores and French sailors. The rest of our calls for internationalism ended in 1941 with posters: "German soldier, don't shoot the workers and peasants." The German soldier did not care deeply, he had a completely different idea. negative And Stalin envisioned building socialism in a single country, EMNIP. hi
          Have a nice day, everyone. drinks Yesterday's photo from Kronstadt - our ships. soldier
          1. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 12: 49 New
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            Welcome hi
            Judging by the Bavarian Soviet Republic and the improvement of the social system of the working people of Western Europe that followed after the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Civil War, laughing Ford and Rockefeller also began to improve, within the framework of the enterprises controlled by them, the social sphere of their workers in the States, at the same time pressing on the Jewish structure of the top of the Russian Bolsheviks in order to prevent a repetition of revolutionary events.
            Stalin - yes, building socialism in a single country
            1. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 13: 08 New
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              Judging by the Bavarian Soviet Republic and the improvement of the social system of the working people of Western Europe that followed after the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Civil War,

              and also Hungarian. And the Finnish attempts. This is me, offhand. wink Only that later, clearly anti-Russian and anti-Soviet elements came to power there. request
              Yesterday I did not visit the site, so all sailors - Happy Holidays! drinks
              Here are the handsome ships on the Neva - the day before yesterdaygood The frigate "Admiral Kasatonov".

              and the corvette "Boyky". Seven feet under the keel! drinks
              1. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 13: 19 New
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                Beautiful boats! good
                Because they were anti-Soviet, they had to make concessions to the working people)).
                1. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 13: 21 New
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                  Because they were anti-Soviet, they had to make concessions to the working people.

                  in general, we indirectly their workers benefited ... what drinks
                  1. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 13: 24 New
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                    So this is a fact that has long been known in the West - the role of the USSR in the social conditions of their workers. More precisely, the acceleration of their introduction. The father of the current state socialism of the capitalist countries is Otto von Bismarck, who read Marx, who was popular at that time in Europe. drinks
                    1. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 13: 27 New
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                      the role of the USSR in the social conditions of their workers. More precisely, the acceleration of their introduction.

                      Well, okay.... drinks
                      1. hohol95 27 July 2020 17: 34 New
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                        Workers who were treated in Ford factory hospitals were obliged to perform minor operations in the form of turning or other manual processing of some parts while lying on hospital beds!
                        Koi were brought to them from the factory workshops!
                      2. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 18: 25 New
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                        Rehab, however. Postoperative fellow
                      3. Okolotochny 28 July 2020 13: 23 New
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                        Recovery of motor skills))
                      4. Krasnodar 28 July 2020 13: 24 New
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                        Quite right, Alexey hi
                      5. Okolotochny 28 July 2020 13: 25 New
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                        In schools of the Russian Federation "these operations" are called Beading))
                      6. Krasnodar 28 July 2020 13: 28 New
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                        By the way, it works great - practically no physical effort is needed, but concentration, fine motor skills, a certain coordination and entering the usual pace of life accelerate rehabilitation. Nice topic.
          2. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 13: 55 New
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            the role of the USSR in the social conditions of their workers.
            At the same time, other social technologies were imported into the USSR.


            You load sixteen tons, and what do you get?
            Another day older and deeper in debt.
            Saint Peter, don't you call me, 'cause I can't go;
            I owe my soul to the company store ...

            You shipped sixteen tons, and what did you get?
            I got a day older and went deeper into debt.
            Saint Peter, don't call me, I won't come:
            I laid my soul in the master's shop.
            1. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 14: 07 New
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              Here they are - the aspirations of the English-speaking representatives of the world proletariat, who did not have the luck to work for the special distributors of the sensitive leaders of the most just order in the First State of Workers and Peasants in the World! Their share was hard - without confidence in the future, to pay off mortgages, loans for cars and food processors, the income from the sale of which went into the hands of bankers and exploiters, and not to special clinics who tirelessly think about the happiness of ordinary people as servants of progressive humanity from the CPSU. Enemies of the Communists destroyed the Red Civilization of Hyper-Ethnicity - the USSR, cowardly blaming the leaders of the Soviet system for this, but a simple English worker who leaves twice a year on vacation in Europe, not knowing what the happiness of a socialist sanatorium in Lazarevskoye is and the convenience without a toilet seat, but with the newspaper Pravda , and will return from decaying Paris to work for his exploiter-boss ..
            2. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 14: 13 New
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              I'm not talking about the current situation. I'm talking about the US mining industry in the 30s. and contemporary collective farms in the USSR.
            3. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 14: 18 New
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              The collective farms that freed the poorest and average representatives of the Russian super-ethnos in the USSR from the oppression of the kulaks cannot be compared with the plight of the working people of the United States, over which hung the Damocles Sword of the Great Depression, which the Fed masters were able to eliminate only by unleashing the Second World War, joining it only at the last stage, with difficulty overcoming the resistance of the Hitler Youth and Volkssturm in Normandy and the victims of the most severe defeat during the counter-offensive of wheelchair users of the Fedjandarmerie in the Ardennes.
            4. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 14: 40 New
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              and the victims of the most severe defeat during the counter-offensive of wheelchair users of the Fedjandarmeria in the Ardennes.

              well, they weren't that kind of wheelchair. what "Leibstandart" also took part, and these were elite armored-moto-wheelchairs. Piper even managed to arrange another war crime - the massacre at Malmedy, for which they tried to prosecute him later (the case also featured the crimes of the "handsome man" near Kharkov - everything was incomparably harder there), but it turned out badly to condemn. But then there were kind people who burned his place with a house in 1976. angry These kind people were not found later ... hi
              An interesting fact - before the Ardennes offensive, 20 Hetzers were converted into self-propelled flamethrowers. A flamethrower was put in place of the gun. Here, with Pikabu:

              the same car looks like:
            5. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 14: 45 New
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              I just read about a ghoul - more KGB than Mossad.
            6. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 14: 54 New
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              I just read about a ghoul - more KGB than Mossad.

              Albert, there are no words. And everyone like him then probably beat himself in the chest and yelled that, they say, "I am a soldier, and war is war. " In Kharkov, at the beginning of 1943, they did much more terrible things. For example, they burned down our hospital along with the wounded. We arrived, got used to it, then boarded up the windows and threw incendiary grenades. And this is a small fraction of the crimes committed by the "asphalt guard" "Sepp" Dietrich ... negative
            7. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 25 New
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              I read - he burned villages with children and women. Frostbitten ghoul.
            8. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 15: 39 New
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              I read - he burned villages with children and women. Frostbitten ghoul.

              not that word. He also had time to advance ... a ghoul-mnogostanochnik ... negative
      2. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 14: 51 New
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        These kind people were not found later ...
        "Mossad" does not surrender its own! laughing
      3. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 14: 59 New
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        "Mossad" does not surrender its own!

        and for some reason I am deeply not sure that the KGB was engaged in the elimination of such criminals. Caught up at home, like Tonka the machine gunner - yes. Ideological enemies, and having a flock, like a bandera - yes. And such killers ... FIG knows. In this regard, the Mossad wins over. They have clear criteria in relation to the enemies of their own people. Ie, figs you can hide if you shit ...
      4. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 15: 03 New
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        Well, to be honest, apart from the destruction of Black September, I have not heard of any other similar operations.
        The Simon Wiesenthal Center operates within the legal framework.
      5. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 15: 19 New
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        The Simon Wiesenthal Center operates within the legal framework.

        The scoundrel Eichman was kidnapped by the "Mossad" outside any legal framework. True, on a tip from Wiesenthal. And they did the right thing! Because they have a clear national policy regarding own nation, and not a strange desire to kiss the whole world in the ass, to forgive debts to various "brothers", to ask for negroes (with their own unresolved housing issue), etc., etc., and at the same time, for some reason, remain a scarecrow for the whole world. hi Sorry if I said something wrong. We have neither friends nor allies. hi
      6. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 36 New
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        They were right - with Satanovsky, (who is Solovyov's team), I do not agree on many things, but he somehow correctly defined - Russia is the only state in the world that continues to serve its foreign policy. All resources are for her.
      7. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 15: 44 New
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        with Satanovsky

        I can listen to this with interest.
        which Soloviev's team

        I can't stand this rosy gingerbread at all. Fair. hi
      8. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 45 New
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        Exactly the same drinks
      9. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 15: 54 New
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        Exactly the same as drinks

        bow down drinks
        As for the traitors .. In the mid-2000s, I bought a book, right at the entrance to the metro. Glossy. With photos. It was called "Great betrayal". fellow Some Cossacks on the cover ... what what Well, I think about the betrayal of some "Cossacks" who went over to Hitler's side. I sat down in the subway and began to read ... scum (my words!), and gave it to the Soviet Union ... belay Very interesting point of view! A book was written on the basis of the memoirs of those of the "Cossacks" who managed to escape, and, sitting in warm countries, wrote themselves articles and memoirs. Naturally, embellishing the feats of the "soldiers" in the fight against Soviet soldiers, but quietly keeping silent, what matters "heroes" with German stripes on their uniforms worked in Yugoslavia ... no I spat! Here a then it was printed ... negative
      10. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 02 New
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        It was in the West that the themes of the "immoral" transfer of the USSR to Voasovtsy, Shkurovtsy and other scum, which hastened to surrender to the Britons and Amers, were popular - like their fate was tragic crying
        By the way, in Israel in the 50s there was also a dilemma - what to do with kappo? There were all sorts of courts (a couple of pieces in total), lynches (not numerous), but then they came to a consensus that workers and soldiers were needed - the children of these same Kappos. Therefore, everything was hushed up quietly.
      11. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 16: 08 New
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        but then they came to a consensus that we needed workers and soldiers - the children of these same Kappos.

        so Joseph Vissarionovich reasoned the same way, and all sorts of "Cossacks" and "Vlasovites" received liberal prison terms, and not a mass execution. hi
      12. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 10 New
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        And rightly so - there was a real shortage of healthy men after the war.
      13. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 16: 19 New
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        And rightly so - there was a real shortage of healthy men after the war.

        yes, and some of the former traitors quietly lived up to the collapse of the Union, and then began to put forward their own vision of history.hi I'm talking about the Baltic SS, Bandera, etc. negative
      14. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 42 New
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        "I ate Estonian sprats - helped the SS veterans!" wassat
      15. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 16: 48 New
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        "I ate Estonian sprats - helped the SS veterans!"

        Uh-huh, something like that. Especially when most of their own fish farms were destroyed. So, I have to bow to the sprats! request
      16. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 52 New
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        The Balts were destroyed even earlier.
      17. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 17: 02 New
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        The Balts were destroyed even earlier.

        then whose sprats are we eating? belay drinks
      18. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 17: 04 New
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        Kaliningrad, mostly.
      19. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 17: 07 New
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        Kaliningrad, mostly.

        Anton, relieved! fellow Thanks, exhaled! drinks ... I really haven't eaten them for three years ... wink but still! for the power of pride! laughing drinks
  3. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 17: 01 New
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    And in Konig it is not destiny to breed them?
  4. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 17: 14 New
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    In the mids, a wave of protests by Norwegian fishermen swept through Norway, outraged by the dumping of Russian competitors, who were selling their catch in Norwegian ports at bargain prices. The point was that it was more profitable for ours to unload and dump in Norway, because the port dues in Murmansk exceeded the same somewhere in Trioms several times.
  5. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 17: 00 New
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    I bought Doshirak and gave me another cartridge for a rifle aiming at the defender of the Juche ideas from the DPRK! I bought it in Pyaterochka - at the same time I helped world Zionism, meanly bombing Syria! am
  6. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 17: 09 New
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    I bought it in Pyaterochka - at the same time I helped world Zionism, meanly bombing Syria!

    killed a beaver - saved a tree? laughing
  7. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 18: 28 New
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    Downloaded the e-book - saved the beaver fellow
  8. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 18: 56 New
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    I downloaded the book and supported the rights holders! negative
  9. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 19: 08 New
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    Supported right-wing blocs - made a sacrifice to the altar of the world of profit and cash fellow
  10. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 19: 22 New
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    And he supported the Masters of the West! Haters of the Free Russo-Aryan Plowman!
    The circle is closed.
  11. Hantengri 27 July 2020 19: 54 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    The circle is closed.

    The circle will be formally closed when the Free Russo-Aryan Plowman, unable to endure such a round-up, gets drunk, chops down a tree and kills a beaver. hi laughing
  12. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 20: 00 New
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    will kill the beaver
    He will roast it on the coals of a felled tree and devour it, choking and munching, in front of Greta Thunberg's salivating eyes!
  13. Hantengri 27 July 2020 20: 28 New
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    "I wouldn't fork out,
    And feed the alien
    No to fork out,
    And he does not hum and calves. "(C)
    Poor girl! wassat
  14. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 20: 48 New
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    Whoever dances a girl dines on her!
  15. Hantengri 27 July 2020 21: 15 New
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    Greta ??? Supper?! This is how much vodka you need !!! laughing
  16. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 21: 20 New
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    "The cat jumped up in his chair in offense.

    “Have mercy, queen,” he croaked, “would I allow myself to pour a lady of vodka? This is pure alcohol! "(C)
  17. Hantengri 27 July 2020 21: 37 New
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    "As for the daddy, he did not sober up. He has his signature number. He
    drinks maize, and then, as I understand it, alcohol gets into his blood and
    turns into sugar or something else. Magic, not otherwise. Daddy
    tried to explain it to me, but it was hard for me. The liquor goes to
    stomach: how can it get from there into the blood and turn into sugar? Just
    stupidity. And if not, so witchcraft. But I'm leaning towards another: daddy
    claims that he taught his friends, whom they call Enzymes (not otherwise than
    foreigners, judging by the last name), convert sugar back into alcohol and therefore
    knows how to stay drunk as much as his heart desires. But still he prefers
    fresh taco, if it comes along. "(Henry Kuttner, Cauldron of Troubles)
  18. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 21: 42 New
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    I love Kuttner !!!
    "An owl was flying by. I spat at it. Hit, by the way ..."
  19. Hantengri 27 July 2020 21: 46 New
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    Similarly!
    "On the way back, he spat on a dove ..." drinks
  20. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 21: 53 New
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    In general, I love the "Grainsback's nest chicks", I was brought up on these books, although somewhere "cyberpunk" is closer to me. And even steampunk - and even more so!
  21. Pane Kohanku 28 July 2020 10: 17 New
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    Greta ??? Supper?! This is how much vodka you need !!!

    Igor, wait, or something, with Anton, until she becomes an adult! laughing
  22. Hantengri 28 July 2020 10: 36 New
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    I still won't drink that much!
  23. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 19: 28 New
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    This is you in vain! Swedes, how wonderful they are if you teach them how to use cosmetics!
  24. Hantengri 28 July 2020 21: 38 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Swedes, they are wonderful,


    "While he was sitting there, in the chamber of King Adalstein, one eyebrow went down to his cheekbone, and the other rose to the roots of his hair. Egil had black eyes and fused eyebrows. He did not drink when the mash was brought to him, and he raised that then dropped his eyebrows. " (from)
    Genes, however! laughing
  25. Lexus 28 July 2020 13: 32 New
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    She, the poor thing, already managed to be born in the "Swedish family". laughing Hi!
  26. Pane Kohanku 28 July 2020 13: 50 New
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    Hi!

    Hi! drinks I suspect our chatter annoys Greta! wink
    and so it was already in the "Swedish family" to be born

    Don't show Mom Gretin to Uncle Kostya - he'll run out of saliva and lick his mustache to the bone! wink drinks

    She just wants to ask us: "What have YOU done to reduce the greenhouse effect?" laughing
  27. Lexus 28 July 2020 13: 55 New
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    Oh ... brother! I'm already afraid that she will come to Anton to "celebrate" her majority. laughing

    She just wants to ask us: "what have YOU done to reduce the greenhouse effect?"

    Huh ... I started eating less legumes. Hai is better to drive the right to download to Mexico. laughing
  28. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 19: 36 New
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    I'm already afraid that she will come to Anton to "celebrate" her coming of age.
    It became reckless. She will come Swedish, will leave Russian. Or Jewish, to the extreme, depending on my mood laughing
  29. Lexus 28 July 2020 19: 44 New
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    Hello! I do not feel even a bit of doubt that, at least, it will be possible to make a "human friend" out of her. Only then with the police and the "guard" you will not vypresh - in the doorframe with his teeth will scream, "having tasted", and imbued with the "Russian soul". winked laughing
  30. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 19: 48 New
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    Basically, she's cute. It's just that no one ever told her that she was a woman.
  31. Lexus 28 July 2020 19: 57 New
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    Now it is not accepted by them. Even when she becomes a mother, she will be called "Parent No. ..." By the way, it is not at all clear what number will be in a country with emancipation, which has gained the upper hand over common sense and human nature. Apparently, the magistrate or the court will establish. recourse
  32. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 19: 25 New
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    I peed in an urn and covered it with foil so that it would not evaporate into the atmosphere.
  33. Lexus 28 July 2020 19: 50 New
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    I peed in an urn and covered it with foil so that it would not evaporate into the atmosphere.

    Not okay! Needed, like in Waterworld with Kevin Costner. To ensure that a waste-free "cycle" of water is guaranteed. Didn't pop Isal - didn't drink .. laughing
  34. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 19: 55 New
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    I hardly remember "Water World". Remains of impressions: "Mad Max" on the water "
  35. Lexus 28 July 2020 20: 12 New
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    Yes, somewhere the same. But much more lively and more fun.

  36. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 19: 14 New
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    Fu! How it went! I'm only talking about dinner and dancing ...
  37. Lexus 28 July 2020 20: 06 New
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    And we are about too. The main thing is not to overdo it with "dancing"! lol
  38. hohol95 27 July 2020 22: 42 New
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    And what did you do by going to the library?
    And he didn't save the beaver and didn't pay the rightholder ...
    Piracy???
  39. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 22: 49 New
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    Piracy???
    Definitely !!! Better let the beavers gnaw the hold of the Flibusta, but I won't pay the rightholders !!!
  40. hohol95 27 July 2020 22: 51 New
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    Then sign up for the library! drinks
  41. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 23: 12 New
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    Alexei! In which?!?!? What the district can get through the remnants of the Soviet library collector does not suit me. And in the St. Petersburg "Public" I will not even be allowed to the porg!
  42. Korsar4 28 July 2020 20: 54 New
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    Eh. It was a glorious time. And the ability and desire to wander around libraries: Leninka, her dissertation hall, the Library of VASKhNIL, Inostranka, GPNTB.

    It seems that it is not prohibited even now. But you rarely find a whole day.
    And part of the day is better to save money on the road. And from the fishing net.

    But something is lost.
  43. hohol95 27 July 2020 17: 38 New
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    Only "Alexandra and Sophia"!
  44. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 17: 49 New
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    Damn, I have not seen this brand in St. Petersburg for 15 years!
  45. hohol95 27 July 2020 22: 39 New
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    "Big Lunch" of the same company!
  46. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 22: 45 New
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    It seemed to me that the chemicals in Big Lunch are more nutritious! Your instinct did not disappoint!
  47. AU Ivanov. 27 July 2020 18: 10 New
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    Estonians practically did not produce sprats. Lithuanians too. The Latvians were engaged in sprats.
  48. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 19: 25 New
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    Yes, of course you are right.
  49. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 57 New
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    In all Kanadas, this vision of history has long been put forward
  50. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 15: 57 New
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    And I like his lapserdaki like. wassat
  51. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 03 New
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    Maoist Lapserdaks laughing
  52. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 07 New
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    Well, against the background of Wolfych's "acidic" jackets ... laughing
  53. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 32 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Well, to be honest, apart from the destruction of Black September, I have not heard of any other similar operations.
    The Simon Wiesenthal Center operates within the legal framework.

    One Baltic Nazi was killed in Latin America. This is the Mossad. There was also the Nokmin (Avengers) organization - they did a lot in Europe and Latin America, but this is a "private organization". ))
  54. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 15: 41 New
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    but this is a "private organization". ))

    convenient, agree? wink in all aspects! good "this is not us, these are little green men on our own initiative" yes
  55. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 46 New
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    The initiative was truly private and before the creation of the State of Israel
  56. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 30 New
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    The Mossad would blow up his car or the whole house or shoot him while shopping, say. Here slaughtered three guard dogs, he shot from everything that was at home, there were no shots in response and died, having gone by the products of combustion. The handwriting is not Mossad.
  57. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 19: 46 New
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    The Mossad would blow up his car or the whole house or shoot him while shopping, say.
    I'm starting to doubt: who took the methods from whom, the Mossad from the Sicilian mafia, or, nevertheless, on the contrary ... laughing
  58. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 20: 08 New
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    Difference between Cosa Nostra and Jewish families:
    1) An Italian invited you to his restaurant, will provide a driver and a car, and after a hearty meal, somewhere near a vacant lot, a bandit will get out from the back seat of the car and throw a stranglehold around his neck
    2) The Jew will invite competitors to the restaurant and blow up along with the institution
  59. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 20: 16 New
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    I agree that the second option is less energy intensive and more mutually beneficial for the contracting parties. What do you think about the Irish?
  60. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 20: 29 New
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    They have been out of business for a long time)).
  61. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 20: 56 New
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    Well, how ... Even the Goblin could not correctly translate the slang expression "shani" in Guy Ritchie's immortal film. laughing
  62. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 26 New
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    No, the handwriting is more of Cascade than of Kidon. Read about how he got banged.
  63. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 15: 40 New
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    Didn't hear about Cascade at all request
  64. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 46 New
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    Very high quality unit with completely crazy preparation
  65. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 15: 48 New
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    And submission?
  66. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 15: 49 New
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    Belonged to the KGB of the USSR
  67. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 03 New
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    I didn't realize right away that you were talking about this Cascade. But, I'm sorry, it was created in 80 and was sharpened for other tasks.
  68. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 11 New
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    And before him there was ..? laughing Just in the 80th, the unit was put on a military uniform.
  69. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 17 New
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    I do not know. It is believed that the Soviet leadership thought about creating special forces on a permanent basis, following the Munich terrorist attack.
  70. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 19 New
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    You are talking about anti-terror, I mean operatives of the "dagger".
  71. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 29 New
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    Do you think that the storming of Amin's palace is anti-terror?
  72. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 53 New
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    No, this is called state terrorism. Spetsnaz, engaged in sabotage and reconnaissance, and a subdivision engaged in operational work within the framework of "foreign intelligence" - a bit of a razor. And Amin's palace are they?
  73. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 16: 57 New
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    Operation Storm-333, Alpha Unit.
  74. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 17: 02 New
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    These are other people)).
  75. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 16: 29 New
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    the Soviet leadership thought about creating special forces on a permanent basis

    By the way, the first commander of the "Alpha" group was Vitaly Bubenin - the same one who defeated the Chinese on March 2, 1969, who shot the groups of Strelnikov and Rabovich from an ambush on Damansky Island. During that battle, he had to change the armored personnel carrier - the first one was hit. soldier
  76. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 16: 55 New
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    Was he a border guard?
  77. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 17: 05 New
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    Was he a border guard?

    Yes. Commander of the Sopka outpost Kulebyakiny. I managed to drive up with my own people when the Chinese were already preparing the last group of ours to "put the squeeze on" - the group of Sergeant Babansky (also, by the way, later became a general). soldier Bubenin was still getting older then, it seems. Uncle Kostya (Sea Cat) should be asked ... he knows a lot about those events ... drinks
  78. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 17: 07 New
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    I spoke with a participant in Israel - China still hates
  79. Pane Kohanku 27 July 2020 17: 13 New
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    I spoke with a participant in Israel - China still hates

    Duc, the beginning was too vile on the part of the "Chinese non-brothers"! negative Fifteen of our men were laid in a few minutes from an ambush. From the first group (Strelnikov), no one survived, from the second (Rabovich) - only the fighter Serebrov survived, and then, there it came to hand-to-hand combat (and there were ten times more Mao fans), and they managed to beat him off half-dead - a wounded Chinese with a bayonet finished off ... angry
  80. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 18: 16 New
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    The man said - our Chinese partners are cruel and cunning.
  81. Pane Kohanku 28 July 2020 10: 16 New
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    The man said - our Chinese partners are cruel and cunning.

    exactly. Exactly... angry
  82. Alexey RA 27 July 2020 18: 13 New
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    Quote: Krasnodar
    Their share was hard - without confidence in the future, to pay off mortgages, loans for cars and food processors, the income from the sale of which went into the hands of bankers and exploiters, and not to the special clinics of the servants of progressive humanity from the CPSU who tirelessly think about the happiness of the common people.

    In vain you joke. This song hails from the early 30s, when the orders of the beginning of the century reigned in the US coal industry.
    Moreover, this is also a kind and sweet description of the usual difficult life of miners. There is not a word in it about the same "War in Harlan County", when in order to suppress the miners' protests (which broke out after a 10% decrease in salaries), the National Guard had to be introduced - a local sheriff and hired by the company gangsters the guards did not handle the situation.
    The Harlan County War was one of the reasons for the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, which guaranteed workers the right to unionize, bargain collectively and take collective action such as strikes.
  83. Krasnodar 27 July 2020 18: 18 New
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    Was reading. There were prerequisites for the world revolution, and May Day is celebrated because of the events in Chicago
  • VLR
    VLR 27 July 2020 19: 11 New
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    Well, in any case, Trotsky needed Russia as a "bundle of brushwood" that should be "thrown into the furnace of the world revolution." And super-industrialization according to Trotsky is to pour gasoline on a "bundle" so that it burns brighter.
    And Stalin decided that there was nothing for such states as Russia and the USSR to scatter in favor of the revolution in other countries.
    1. Sergej1972 28 July 2020 12: 05 New
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      Nevertheless, the countries of people's democracies under Stalin provided gigantic assistance.
    2. Krasnodar 28 July 2020 12: 43 New
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      Stalin and Trotsky had one goal - to preserve the gains of the revolution in Russia. The methods were different - Bronstein was right, Stalin ... in principle, if you follow the further development of events, he acted correctly, waiting for France, the WB and Germany to get bogged down in a war like WWI. No one expected the success of the blitzkrieg and the quick surrender of the French. As a result, according to the results of the Second World War, only in Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Slovenia (under Tito) the Communists could be brought to power from the industrialized developed countries. Accordingly, socialism in Russia turned out to be a temporary phenomenon hi
  • Sergej1972 28 July 2020 11: 50 New
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    Small amendment. When the decision on NEP was made, Trotsky resigned himself to it. And quite skillfully, using market methods, he led the Concession Committee.
    1. Krasnodar 28 July 2020 12: 47 New
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      Trotsky at the same time opposed the failed Polish campaign, asking to postpone this, attracted tsarist specialists in all spheres of the country's life, and Stalin at that time skillfully monitored the opinion of the majority, slowly gaining full power in the USSR.
      1. Karenius 28 July 2020 13: 02 New
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        Albert Jan, barev!
        Are we confusing anything, Albert? After all, it was Trotsky who then shouted that the rear of the red army was in Berlin ... Remember, Albert Jan, the Trotsky always acted so that there were as few Russians as possible, and the most effective way to this lies through military defeats ...
        Shalom.
        1. Krasnodar 28 July 2020 13: 20 New
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          Barev, akhperjan laughing
          Karen, these are very complex, confusing theories, incomprehensible even to those who come up with them)),
      2. Sergej1972 28 July 2020 13: 38 New
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        One cannot disagree with this.
  • Sergej1972 28 July 2020 11: 55 New
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    And the establishment of people's democratic regimes in the countries of Eastern Europe, China, North Korea and North Vietnam and all kinds of assistance to them? This is all under Stalin. And what about his last speech at the 19th Congress of the CPSU, where he expressed confidence in the spread of communist ideas in Western Europe, as well as in Asia and Africa?
  • Hantengri 27 July 2020 10: 53 New
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    Quote: Arzt

    Having come to power, the Bolsheviks first of all brought abroad the part of the gold reserves of Russia that fell into their hands, 375 tons.
    The event was hosted by Maksim Maksimovich Litvinov through the formally non-state cooperative trade organization "Tsentrosoyuz".
    The loot was put into secret accounts in Switzerland, and later used for the needs of the Comintern.

    Where does this information come from? I mean, what documents is it confirmed? A very idiotic move, even taking into account the idea of ​​a world revolution. And the Bolsheviks were not idiots. They were pragmatists and could not help but understand that this gold, in the near future, oh, how useful they will be inside the country. Therefore, this "schema" is more reminiscent of the unsubstantiated fantasies of the "overheads" from the "Ogonyok" magazine, during perestroika, than something capable of existing in reality.
    1. Engineer 27 July 2020 11: 07 New
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      Is the link to the monograph a confirmation?
      Or just scans of archival documents will suit you?
      There is no mention of 375 tons here, but the amounts are very impressive
      http://militera.lib.ru/research/gorlov1/pre.html
      The Reich finally "burned down" on the so-called. Frankfurt secret fund of subsidies for the world revolution in Western Europe for a gigantic amount of 50 million gold marks. By that time, having officially delimited the functions of the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs and the Comintern, the Bolsheviks forbade their "agents" to use diplomatic couriers to transport currency and diamonds by diplomatic mail. 50 million were transferred through dummies to Germany through Estonia and Sweden in the summer of 1921, when the NEP had already begun. Formally, the distribution of this money was in charge of the "troika" - Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, in fact, it was Zinoviev alone who disposed of it, who in practice entrusted everything to the Reich. The latter, having confirmed in the fall of 1921 that he had received 50 million, remained silent for almost the whole of 1922, not sending a single secret report to the ECCI.

      In the end, Osip Pyatnitsky, secretary of the ECCI and head of its budget committee, "put on" the Reich (through a personal check of his cash desk in Germany) and in November 1922 established out of these 50 million "Comrade Thomas" gave KIM Germany 2 million gold less stamps than envisaged by the ECCI estimate; He concealed (that is, appropriated) 8 million 760 thousand gold marks, additionally transferred to him through the trade mission of the RSFSR in Berlin. A grandiose scandal erupted - after all, 50 million were intended to carry out a revolution in Germany, which the Bolsheviks, despite the Rapallo Treaty of 1922, really began in the fall of 1923 (the infamous "Red October" in Germany, colorfully described by Larisa Reisner in the book "Hamburg on the barricades ").
      1. Undecim 27 July 2020 11: 23 New
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        Is the link to the monograph a confirmation?
        Is this a monograph?
        1. Engineer 27 July 2020 11: 43 New
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          The objection is fair.
          Bad link
      2. Hantengri 27 July 2020 11: 46 New
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        Quote: Engineer
        http://militera.lib.ru/research/gorlov1/pre.html

        What has this monograph to do with it? After all, we are not talking about military cooperation between the USSR and the Weimar Republic. And not even about the financing of the Comintern (this is an indisputable fact), but about: The idiocy of the following statement:
        "Having come to power, the first thing the Bolsheviks did was take abroad the part of the gold reserves of Russia that fell into their hands, 375 tons."
        As soon as they came to power in October 1917, all the gold in the treasury was immediately taken abroad to support the world revolution! Well, what! It's a pity chtoli ?! We, the Bolsheviks, do not need despicable metal to retain power and govern the country! We are not bourgeois!
        1. Engineer 27 July 2020 11: 58 New
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          The foreword of the book spoke precisely about financing the world revolution.
          Later I ran through the works of the author of the preface, but there is more of journalism than historical research. Therefore, the argument turned out so-so. Or it didn't work out at all)
          The statement of the question may sound like this: how much of the funds (for example, the gold reserve) was spent on financing the world revolution and supporting the labor movement abroad. I have no answer yet
          1. Hantengri 27 July 2020 12: 11 New
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            Quote: Engineer
            The foreword of the book spoke precisely about financing the world revolution.

            Yes, but, in the 21-30s. and not "Coming to power, first of all." laughing
    2. Doctor 27 July 2020 11: 29 New
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      Where does this information come from? I mean, what documents is it confirmed?

      Verbatim report of the 3rd session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR of the 4th convocation (April 1928), pp. 792-793.

      They were pragmatists and could not help but understand that this gold, in the near future, oh, how useful they will be inside the country.

      This is if you consider them people interested in the prosperity of Russia.
      In fact, it was a group of international adventurers who seized power in the country in the wake of revolutionary chaos, and were unsure of their ability to keep it.
      Naturally, the first thing they did was to take out the cashier. wink
      1. Hantengri 27 July 2020 12: 06 New
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        Quote: Arzt
        Verbatim report of the 3rd session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR of the 4th convocation (April 1928), pp. 792-793.

        Those. "Hundreds of millions of rubles" in 1921 is, in your opinion, 375 tons of gold "the first thing", "having come to power"?
        Quote: Arzt
        This is if you consider them people interested in the prosperity of Russia.

        And if you consider them people who were going to retain the seized power? Or, in your opinion, did they accidentally keep her? Didn't want to, but had to?
        Quote: Arzt
        In fact, it was a group of international adventurers who seized power in the country in the wake of revolutionary chaos, and were unsure of their ability to keep it.
        Naturally, the first thing they did was to take out the cashier.

        Very stubborn and smart "adventurers" turned out, however! lol Not only were they swept away all the opponents from the country, but they also gathered together the already collapsed country and turned it from an agrarian power into an industrial one!
        1. Doctor 27 July 2020 13: 01 New
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          And if you consider them people who were going to retain the seized power? Or, in your opinion, did they accidentally keep her? Didn't want to, but had to?

          Of course they were going. But we weren't sure.

          Not only were they swept away all the opponents from the country, but they also gathered together the already collapsed country and turned it from an agrarian power into an industrial one!

          Look at the motives. Did they want to collect the country? No, the whole world. For them, Russia is a bridgehead.

          Many are misled by industrialization. Big factories, big tanks, big planes.
          These are all tools for conquering the world, the people are a resource.
          The pyramids are big too, but what's the point?
        2. Doctor 27 July 2020 13: 09 New
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          Those. "Hundreds of millions of rubles" in 1921 is, in your opinion, 375 tons of gold "the first thing", "having come to power"?

          The confiscated goods from the bourgeois went first.
          It was still necessary to get to the main reserve, having finished with Kolchak.
  • Operator 27 July 2020 11: 56 New
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    375 tons of gold is the remainder of the gold reserve of the Russian Empire (preserved after payments by the Kolchak people to arms suppliers and theft by the Czechs), confiscated by the Czechs in 1918 in Kazan in the amount of 505 tons, then transferred to the government of Kolchak, captured by the Red Army in Nizhneudinsk in 1920, returned to Kazan and exported abroad by the Soviet government in 1921.

    Litvinov, on behalf of the Soviet government, entered into a secret agreement with representatives of the governments of the Entente countries on the transfer of this gold to partially cover Russian debts for the period up to October 1917 in exchange for diplomatic recognition of the RSFSR.

    The gold-for-recognition transaction was executed by both parties.
  • Alexander I 31 July 2020 17: 11 New
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    Listen, maybe now the United States is falling apart with money taken from the collapsed USSR and the Comintern is alive)))
  • iouris 27 July 2020 10: 41 New
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    Nicely
    Russian
    hug a Russian, -
    but you
    and name
    "Russia"
    lost.
    What is this
    fatherland
    for those who forgot about the nation?
    What nation do you have?
    Cominterin?
    Wife,
    yes apartment,
    yes current account -
    this -
    fatherland,
    heavenly bushes.
    (V.V. Mayakovsky. From the poem "Good!")
  • Operator 27 July 2020 11: 31 New
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    In 1933, after Franklin Roosevelt came to power in the United States, the circulation of gold in the country (with the exception of jewelry) and the export of all types of gold products abroad were prohibited. Non-jewelry gold was forcibly redeemed by the US Treasury at a symbolic price. These rules were in effect until the early 1950s.

    In addition, the United States introduced a 90% income tax, and since 1939, other types of taxes on individuals have been sharply increased. Only such non-market measures made it possible to stop the long-term economic crisis in the country and begin the transfer of industry to a war footing (and not at all the so-called New Economic Policy of Roosevelt, all the steam from which went out into the whistle in the form of the construction of a single Hoover Dam).

    And none of the Russophobic liberoids buzzes about the brutal attitude of the American government towards its citizens.
    1. 5-9
      5-9 27 July 2020 13: 15 New
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      There, for hiding for another 10 years.
      But this did not help either, at 38 the crisis began to gain momentum again ... only the war saved ...
  • Undecim 27 July 2020 11: 38 New
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    Meanwhile, the private enterprises that emerged during the NEP period belonged mainly to the category of small, at best, medium-sized, and were focused on the production of goods that were in stable demand among the population.
    That is, the new Soviet "businessmen" wanted to get quick and guaranteed profits and did not even think about long-term (seemingly risky) investments in strategic industries: the initial costs were enormous, and the payback period was very long. Perhaps, over time, they would have matured to the creation of large industrial enterprises, including defense ones. The problem was that the USSR did not have time.

    After reading this beginning, I decided. that Samsonov is again tormenting history. However, I was surprised to see the author.
    Dear author, the problem was that the Soviet "businessmen" were not allowed to shoot at the strategic industries. In addition, private traders were prohibited from employing more than twenty hired workers. Therefore, it is unfair to blame them for their unwillingness to create a private tank factory.
  • Jünger 27 July 2020 11: 42 New
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    Thus, the Soviet leadership had little choice.

    History has shown that the Soviet leadership had only one choice - a rope on a branch and a noose around the neck, for -
    "And you friends, how do not sit down, all musicians are not suitable."
    But instead of self-liquidation, the party leadership has liquidated the people for 70 years and seized values ​​from people.
  • BAI
    BAI 27 July 2020 12: 32 New
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    Speaking about the currency for the state, one should start with the monetary reform of 1922-24.
  • Trilobite Master 27 July 2020 17: 22 New
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    And I liked the article, despite the controversial introduction. I mean the first three paragraphs. If you replace them with something like
    By the end of the 20s. the NEP program fulfilled its main task, creating the preconditions for the start of the planned industrialization of the country.
    The idea that in 1919 at Versailles was concluded not peace, but "a truce for twenty years" occurred to more than one Marshal Foch. The world was preparing for a new war, and this was obvious to all participants in the world political process, just as it was obvious that the new war would be a war of motors. In such conditions, the fastest industrialization for the USSR was not a "whim" of its leaders, but the only way to survive, the only way to keep itself on the political map of the world.

    and further on in the text, then, in general, even me, an amateur to quarrel, would not have had any comments. smile
    According to the comments.
    As I expected, the comments directly related to the content of the article can be divided into two parts - the supporters of the justification of the measures used by the Soviet government to obtain funds for industrialization, and their opponents. I certainly consider myself to be among the first.
    Human nature has two extremes (in fact, more, of course, but in this case it makes sense to consider two smile ) - the first, when people are ready with bare ass in the cold wind in the steppe to build a plant or a cosmodrome for a ration of bread, and be happy, and the second, when they dream of filling their house with "petty bourgeois joys" (© Ksenia Sobchak smile ), lock on all the bars and enjoy them, constantly experiencing the fear that someone will come and take it all away from them. It is clear that in this case there is no question of any space flights. So, most people in one way or another have features of both one extreme and the other, so that, with some effort, they can be tilted in one direction or another. Whatever one may say, but the communists tried to create a people, consisting mainly of people of the first category, and nationalization, that is, the socialization of all the riches located on the territory of the country, regardless of whose property they are, is a necessary step on this path. The goals of the Soviet leaders were wonderful, correct, progressive, and I probably would like to live in such a society that they dreamed of building, when a person's happiness is brought by the work done, and not the reward received, the creation of the good, and not its consumption ...
    The only question is whether such a world is possible ... sad
    Apparently I have a Monday attack of romanticism, it happens sometimes. smile
    I’ll go at the end of the working day and put in a little pragmatism. smile
    1. Engineer 27 July 2020 22: 42 New
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      How firmly the idea that petty bourgeois joys is something unworthy has become firmly entrenched in our minds.
      The funny thing is that the first model was carried out in the USSR in a forced or "voluntary - compulsory" manner and immediately went into oblivion with the collapse of the USSR. But the variant with the transformation - the transition from "small bourgeois joys" to something larger, charity, volunteering, involvement, horizontal social cooperation is carried out in our country at an order of magnitude slower than in countries where the culture of "consumer society" was implemented a long time ago. At least the option with Russian Bill Gates donating most of his fortune to charity is still absolutely impossible.
      With such a distorted consciousness, our society resembles a person who was abused in childhood.
      1. VLR
        VLR 27 July 2020 23: 01 New
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        And who can donate really large and serious amounts with us? Participants in loans-for-shares auctions from the 90s? Why did they steal (and many still continue to steal) in order to share "honestly stolen" with someone?
        1. Engineer 27 July 2020 23: 14 New
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          So this is the salt, they built the spiritualized people of the "new formation", and in the end they got the standard snatchers and goons.
          And the "decaying" and "petty-bourgeois" give us a head start.
        2. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 23: 39 New
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          Actually, the daughter of Ralif Safin, a certain "Alsou" successfully spends papa's money on children with cancer, but does not advertise these acts.
          1. Engineer 27 July 2020 23: 49 New
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            Two reservations - "papa's money" and "daughter" (she was 83 and is not a product of the Soviet system)
            You can also recall the conflicting data about Usmanov's charity (or "charity"?)
            1. 3x3zsave 28 July 2020 00: 26 New
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              My respect, Denis! I have friends and foes of this age, and perhaps you will be surprised, they are flesh and blood of this system. As for Alsou ... Yes, he may atone for the sins of his father, but in Islam, everyone is responsible for his actions before the Almighty. In addition, being a media personality, she, unlike, say, Angelina Jolie, does not advertise this activity.
              1. Engineer 28 July 2020 09: 36 New
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                Perhaps, "Soviet parents" gave "Soviet education" after the collapse of the USSR. Theoretically I admit
                PS Anton, welcome)
      2. 3x3zsave 27 July 2020 23: 32 New
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        With such a distorted consciousness, our society resembles a person who was abused in childhood.
        Actually, the way it is.
      3. Trilobite Master 28 July 2020 00: 22 New
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        "The culture of a consumer society" is also a culture. In a couple of generations we will grow up to everything that you are talking about. If you're lucky. If we fit on an equal footing in this model of the world order, which I have significant doubts about. Although, in the end, of course, someone will fit in.
        A hundred years ago, Russia took its own development path, different from that of the rest of the world, and achieved successes unthinkable in the West (in certain areas, of course, not in all, but these are particulars). Thirty years ago, she left this path, turning from the undisputed leader of the alternative path of development into the traditional middle peasant. What and why the USSR was not enough to survive the crisis of the 80s is a separate conversation, but the fact remains - the state, which, despite many unfavorable circumstances (cold climate, in the first place), showed the effectiveness of its system, ceased to exist. Many weak and insignificant subjects arose on its territory, and China took its place in the world, the place of the leader of an alternative way of development.
        You can argue endlessly about the effectiveness or inefficiency of the socialist method of management in comparison with the capitalist one, the supporters of the capitalist one will talk about the inevitability of the collapse of the USSR, the supporters of the socialist one will nod at China, its successes ... But I am sad.
        I, in spite of everything, remain an optimist in life and believe that, nevertheless, humanity in a global sense is getting better over time and I also believe that the first socialist state that appeared a hundred years ago was the very first swallow that did not make spring. Using the experience, legacy and tragedy of the Soviet Union, China is now rapidly developing, progressing and leaving behind all competitors. In his footsteps (already in his, and not in ours, unfortunately), sooner or later others will certainly follow and will also begin to show outstanding results in development. including in science, in improving the standard of living of an ordinary citizen, etc.
        And "petty bourgeois joys", Denis, are something "unworthy", reprehensible in the mass consciousness not because of their "petty" or "bourgeois" nature, but because their whole meaning lies in their "exclusivity", then there is inaccessibility for the majority. Faience toilet bowls, silver forks, pineapples have long ceased to be petty bourgeois pleasures, but other, more exclusive and difficult to access, equally small and completely unnecessary nuances have taken their place.
        I don't see anything unworthy in tasting these joys. It is not worthy, in my opinion, to exchange your life solely for their achievement.
        1. VLR
          VLR 28 July 2020 06: 59 New
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          The fact of the matter is that the level of happiness, oddly enough, does not depend on the amount of money. I was always amazed with what visible pleasure in Egypt children on the street eat bread - ours do not get so much pleasure from chocolate. Of course, even moping with a full wallet and in a villa in some Marbella is more comfortable than with an empty one in a poor apartment on the outskirts of the city. But I have the impression that every person by nature has a certain level of happiness, which cannot be exceeded, no matter how hard you try. Travel will be perceived as commuting to work in the subway and minibus. Diamonds will delight no more than jewelry. A person will quickly fill up with gourmet delicacies and want fried potatoes.
          An interesting example is Napoleon Bonaparte, who achieved unprecedented success, but they say that shortly before his death, he said: "God, was I happy even two hours in my life?"
          So we cannot say that in the United States all people are necessarily happier than in Vietnam, and in Germany than in Jamaica.
        2. Engineer 28 July 2020 11: 41 New
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          You can argue endlessly about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the socialist method of management in comparison with the capitalist, supporters of the capitalist will talk about the inevitability of the collapse of the USSR

          It's really better not to argue about the economy, I'm now more interested in the moral and ethical aspect. The discourse-culture of consumption versus “culture of creation” refers precisely to this plane.
          A hundred years ago, Russia took its own path of development, different from the path of development of the rest of the world, and achieved successes that were unthinkable in the West (in certain areas, of course, and not in all, but these are particulars)

          USA, Japan, Germany laugh immodestly.

          "The culture of a consumer society" is also a culture.

          This is not just a culture, it is a culture that originated and developed organically, and was not imposed from above. This is a culture that, with a bunch of innate defects, has the ability to evolve and overcome them. You mentioned her in conjunction with Ksyusha, perhaps "on the machine", but you definitely stigmatized her with this.
          Let me just remind you of some episodes of the evolution of the culture of consumption into the culture of conscious, more responsible consumption.
          1899 (!!!!!!) Conspicuous consumption Veblen
          1954 pyramid of needs with self-actualization at the top. Maslow
          1976 "To have or to be?" Fromm's essay
          Modern concepts of life / work balance here
          Thus, the West has long recognized the problem and has already begun to transform its consumption model.

          And what about the USSR?
          1929-1953 was the period of over-exploitation of the population. In principle, I do not want to discuss the reasons, I will highlight only a fact that is recognized by almost everyone.
          1953-1970 over-manipulation ("the current generation will live under communism")
          1970-1980 growing apathy and frustration

          One of the unequivocal markers of the moral bankruptcy of the USSR was the formation of four categories of supply for the population. The concept of social justice has been replaced with the exact opposite.

          Problem statement
          I will try to explain why your vision of the USSR, Mikhail, is not bad, but very bad for today's Russia.
          1. She postulates the spirituality and moral superiority of the USSR over the West. "We did not eat from the belly, but dreamed of BAM and space." This automatically implies the same superiority of modern Russia as the successor of the USSR. This is not just a myth, it is precisely that very petty-bourgeois consumption, indulgence of our vanity and the passing off of need as virtue. We did not eat from the belly because for a long time the food was not enough, to put it mildly. And then they didn't eat, because those who ate from the belly, they explained to us that it was low and petty-bourgeois and we had to create.
          2. The idea of ​​the superiority of the USSR makes us constantly look back in search of solutions. "But in the USSR ..." So nothing will come of it. Any decision is good only in the context of its time. Now there are new realities. We need visionaries who look ahead rather than looking back all the time. USSR recipes - ideology, education, space race no longer work. At all.
          3. In the theory of games, it is substantiated that as long as all participants are playing honestly, they get a small but steady profit. But as soon as one participant or part, playing for a raise, completely breaks the rules of the game, they get the jackpot. The USSR taught everyone to play fair. Then he threw the population on an epic scale. We must make every effort to ensure that this does not happen again.
          Proposed solution.
          We must accept the USSR 100% as part of our history and culture. We must 100% reject social, ethical and any other constructs generated by the USSR. They are either thoroughly Pharisaic or ineffective in the current environment, even if they were previously useful.
          1. Trilobite Master 28 July 2020 12: 51 New
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            If you understand me in such a way that I consider the USSR an ideal state and cherish the dream of returning to its realities, then this is not so. The USSR for me is an unsuccessful attempt to build a society of a new type. At the same time, one failure does not exclude the possibility that such a society will still be built in the future. Moreover, I personally am sure that it is to him that humanity as a whole will come after a while - somewhere through the natural evolution of the consumer society, somewhere through revolutions, somewhere through reforms.
            I am also far from thinking about opposing the "culture of consumers" and "culture of creators", because in my understanding they are just two entities of one dialectical pair and they cannot exist outside the process of interaction with each other. A society becomes stable and prosperous when its components mutually balance each other, excluding bias in one direction. In my opinion, now this balance, at least on the scale of Russia, has been violated and the bias is directed towards "consumers". Not in the sense of consumers there are more than creators, but in the sense that in each individual person there is more consumer and less creator. Hospital average. By and large, now in Russia the level of social significance of a person is determined solely by the volume of goods consumed by him. Not produced, but precisely consumed and precisely exclusively. Roughly speaking, in order to become a famous, successful composer it is not enough to be able to write good music, you also need to be a good businessman, and this should not be so. One skill to write music should be enough. smile
            There must be balance in everything. And if in Russia I see this bias, then somewhere else (Japan? China? Brazil? Africa?) Will be, or even there is already a bias in the opposite direction.
            Well, about
            Quote: Engineer
            USA, Japan, Germany laugh immodestly.

            so they relaxed now. Half a century ago, they were not at all laughing. smile
            1. Engineer 28 July 2020 13: 17 New
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              If you understand me in such a way that I consider the USSR an ideal state and cherish the dream of returning to its realities, then this is not so.

              No)
              I understand that you state the great attractiveness of the USSR in the field of ideology specifically for yourself
              but in the sense that in each individual person there is more consumer and less creator.

              This has always been the case for the vast majority of people. From my bell tower, of course. I always start a dialogue with a potential employer with the phrase "paid attention to my salary expectations?" At the same time, I do not think that I have realized myself as a person, but have fully realized myself as a professional, including the so-called. "common good". My products fly in space, they are in the Kremlin GKD, they work in Novosibirsk, etc. One is in front of my house.

              Roughly speaking, in order to become a famous, successful composer it is not enough to be able to write good music, you also need to be a good businessman, and it should not be so. One skill to write music should be enough.


              Come to the auditions, sign a contract. Spread it openly for now on any mass platform. Then paid subscription, advertising, remote. You don't have to be a businessman. The key skill is the ability to negotiate. Without socialization, nowhere. This has long been taught in the West from school. Zimmer simply achieved a joint work with an already well-known composer and then on the knurled one.
              so they relaxed now. Half a century ago, they were not at all laughing.

              In the 70s, the overall advantage of any of these countries is quite obvious - the inertia of the impulses that gave impetus to the development of the USSR has dried up.
              The USSR lost the 80th year completely and irrevocably.
              1. Trilobite Master 28 July 2020 13: 38 New
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                Quote: Engineer
                This has always been the case for the vast majority of people.

                Only the "percentage" of both changes.
                Quote: Engineer
                Come to the auditions, sign a contract. Spread it openly for now on any mass platform. Then paid subscription, advertising, remote.

                And when to write? smile
                However, the conversation is not about this, but about the fact that the main measure of respect for a person in modern Russia is how much he spends, not how much he produces, that's all. This is sad and, in my opinion, much more dangerous for society than the masturbation of some citizens in the history of the Soviet Union.
                1. Engineer 28 July 2020 13: 47 New
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                  And when to write?

                  Professional creativity is, first of all, a craft. For many centuries. Organization of working time is the problem of the creator. According to legend, Mozart finished his overture to Don Juan on the day of the premiere.
                  that the main measure of respect for a person in modern Russia is how much he spends, and not how much he produces, that's all.

                  Alferov, Navalny, Dud, Zagitova, Shipulin against Medvedev, Rottenberg, Kadyrov, Gundyaev. Who is more respected in modern Russia ??
                  It's not so bad, Mikhail, right word)
  • Aviator_ 27 July 2020 18: 41 New
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    Good article, informative. Respect to the author.
  • Olgovich 28 July 2020 10: 44 New
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    It became clear to the leaders of the USSR that the New Economic Policy (NEP) had failed and no longer corresponded to the interests of the state.
    NEP restored the completely destroyed economy of the country (factories started working) and fed its population: the consumption of food and clothes almost caught up with the consumption of well-fed Russia in 1913, but after the so-called. glorified "modernization" it all collapsed into tartarates with millions of deaths from hunger 1932,33,37,39,46,47
    the Soviet leadership had little choice. You could close your eyes and ears and leave everything as it is - and in a few years outright lose the war to your neighbors: not only to Germany

    Yeah, first, instead of arranging Germany in 1918 in 1945, the Bolsheviks ... kept them and fed them with gold (as they continued in 1922), supported them, and now .... we need to prepare for a war with her.
    The leaders were "smart", yes ... \
    ,
    there was practically no quality seed material and fertilizers left, the yield was extremely low

    Comrade author, the level of productivity of the NEP and 1913 "leaders" only .....1956 d (except 1937) d, although later there were years with less. And this is after all their "battles" for bread with millions of victims, lost outright.
    Contrary to the stories about “Russia We Lost” and songs about the “crunch of a French roll,” the overwhelming majority of the subjects of the Russian Empire have never seen gold or diamonds.

    What a gross, dull lie ... And who is it for?

    And on WHAT did this, the so-called. "power from its first day, if not on a systematic, organized robbery of citizens: did it produce anything, didn’t receive loans? Opening and robbery of bank cells of bank depositors, bank funds, confiscation of actual deposits — from the first day of this" power, etc.

    Another robbery: 1918.01.12. By decree of the Supreme Council of the National Economy, a section of noble metals was approved and a state monopoly was established on the trade in gold and platinum, including all gold (enterprises and individuals) subject to surrender to the state.

    Another robbery 1920.02. GOKHRAN - State repository of values ​​of the Republic of Soviets. The first task set before Gokhran by the government was to accept from Soviet institutions within a three-month period all that they had "in storage, in management or on record of values." The surrender to the Gokhran included values ​​"in museums and scientific institutions", "transferred for the use of religious communities", "in the possession of

    Another robbery: 1920.07.03. Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars "On the confiscation of precious metals, money and various values", according to which even "gold medals issued for scientific merit" were seized free of charge and "regardless of the number of them"

    Another robbery: 1921.01.03. Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars “On requisition and confiscation of valuables kept by individuals and societies, medical and pharmaceutical property, on the exercise of the right of requisition and confiscation.

    Another robbery: September 20, 1931 the Economic Administration (ECU) of the OGPU by circular No. 404 authorized the seizure of gold and silver household items. The authorities began a complete confiscation of valuables from the population, which affected the interests of the general population.

    Another robbery: Torgsin from 1931 to 1936, who for five years bought gold, silver and even diamonds from MILLIONS of citizens, Togsin shops -1.5 thousand pieces, which took values ​​for a penny and sold goods for wild prices: in France for the same gram of gold it was possible to buy butter, bread, etc. 300-400% more than in Torsin (Torgsovlyud). 90% of sales are BREAD and cereals, grain, i.e. people handed over everything of value accumulated in Russia in order to simply physically survive under the "people's" government. Crosses, coins, earrings, orders and medals, rings

    This is called the population had no values ​​before the revolution? Let me remind you that for the withdrawal it took SEVERAL regulations and TEN years!

    The authorities robbed and postal orders to citizens from abroad, opened and robbed envelopes from there, and what was happening in the cells, where citizens were thrown in attempts to take funds, cannot be described in words: - torture, blackmail, extortion - until they give everything up, up to the capture hostage until the ransom arrives. Banditry.

    Etc. For example, the author does not write about the shameful robbery of Russian churches, palaces, Russian museums, the Hermitage, works of art melted into scrap, paintings sold abroad in hundreds for a penny, etc.

    A frankly weak article, strikingly different from excellent articles about, for example, the Foreign Legion.
    1. Jünger 28 July 2020 11: 16 New
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      Quote: Olgovich
      A frankly weak article, strikingly different from excellent articles about, for example, the Foreign Legion.

      I agree, but here the author sat on his favorite ideological hobbyhorse and there is nothing you can do about it. Religious issues sharply divide people.
      By the way, Vaschenko has the same theme, he writes about the ancient Slavs - it is very expensive to read. Begins a bagpipe about the communists - at least take out the saints.
  • Dimy4 28 July 2020 16: 56 New
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    functionaries and government officials did not embezzle or plunder the money received in this way - they were used for their intended purpose

    Key difference from the existing government. At all levels.