Military Review

How the collapse of the USSR was prepared: democracy, nationalism and the destruction of the army

67
How the collapse of the USSR was prepared: democracy, nationalism and the destruction of the army

Reagan and Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty in the East Room of the White House. December 1987


The collapse of the USSR was prepared by "democrats" and nationalists. Their ideology was based on anti-communism, Westernism and Russophobia.

"Modernization" of public authorities


After the glasnost program (revolution of consciousness), the "reform" of the authorities and administration began. Each stage of the breakdown of the state system was justified in the course of perestroika by different ideological concepts. As they developed, they became more and more radical and more and more deviated from the principles of Soviet life order. Initially (until the beginning of 1987) the slogan "More socialism!" (return to Leninist principles). Then the slogan "More Democracy!" It was an ideological, cultural preparation for the destruction of Soviet civilization and society.

In 1988, through the so-called. constitutional reform, the structure of the supreme government and the electoral system was changed. A new supreme legislative body was created - the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR (it met once a year). He elected from among its members the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the chairman and first deputy chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The congress consisted of 2250 deputies: 750 of them from territorial and 750 from national-territorial districts, 750 from all-union organizations (CPSU, trade unions, Komsomol, etc.). The Supreme Soviet of the USSR, as a permanent legislative and administrative body, was elected by people's deputies from among them for a period of 5 years with an annual renewal of 1/5 of the composition. The Supreme Council consisted of two chambers: the Council of the Union and the Union of Nationalities.

The new electoral law was controversial and poorly developed. The USSR Constitution as amended in 1988 and the new electoral law in terms of democracy were inferior to the basic laws of 1936 and 1977. The elections of the deputies were not completely equal and direct. A third of the composition was elected in public organizations, and their delegates. In the constituencies, there were over 230 thousand voters for each deputy mandate, and in public organizations - 21,6 voters each. The number of candidates for the deputy's seat was also smaller. The principle of "one person - one vote" was not observed in the elections. Some categories of citizens could vote several times. Elected in 1989 by the USSR Armed Forces was the first in the Soviet stories, among whose deputies there were almost no workers and peasants. Its members were scientists, journalists and management workers.

In 1990, the post of President of the USSR was established with the introduction of amendments to the Basic Law. Instead of the system of the collegial head of state (the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces), typical of the Soviet system, a presidential post was created with very large powers. He was the supreme commander of the USSR Armed Forces, headed the Security Council and the Federation Council, which included the vice-president and presidents of the republics. The Soviet president was supposed to be elected by direct elections, but for the first time, as an exception, he was elected by the people's deputies (in 1990, Gorbachev's victory in direct elections was already highly doubtful). In March 1991, the Council of Ministers of the USSR was abolished and a new type of government was created - a cabinet of ministers under the president, with a lower status and narrower opportunities than the previous Council of Ministers. In fact, it was a half-hearted attempt to move from the old control system to the American one.

In 1988, the law "On elections of people's deputies of the USSR" was adopted. The elections were held on a competitive basis, the institution of chairmen of the Soviets at all levels and the presidiums of local councils was introduced. They took over the functions of executive committees. Workers of executive committees and leading party officials could not be elected as deputies to the Soviets. That is, there was a process of removing the party from power. In 1990, the law "On the General Principles of Local Self-Government and Local Economy of the USSR" was adopted. The concept of "communal property" was introduced, it was determined that the economic basis of local Soviets was formed by natural resources and property. The Soviets entered into economic relations with enterprises and other objects. As a result, the division of public property and the decentralization of state power began. It was a victory for the local (in the republics - national) authorities.

"Reform" of the political system


In 1988, with the support of the leadership of the Central Committee of the CPSU in the Baltic republics (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia), the first mass anti-Soviet and anti-union political organizations, the People's Fronts, were created. At first, they were created to protect "glasnost", but quickly moved to the slogans of economic (republican cost accounting) and political ethnic separatism. That is, if it had not been for permission and informational, organizational, material support from Moscow, no mass movements in the Baltics could have appeared. The border was closed, that is, the West could only provide moral assistance.

The anti-Soviet opposition at the 6st Congress of People's Deputies was formed into the Interregional Deputy Group (MDG). MDG immediately began to use "anti-imperial" rhetoric and entered into an alliance with the leaders of the separatists. The MDG program included demands for the abolition of Article 6 of the Soviet Constitution (on the leading role of the party), the legalization of strikes, and the slogan "All power to the Soviets!" - undermining the monopoly of the CPSU on power (and later the soviets were declared a refuge for the communists and were liquidated). At the II Congress of People's Deputies, the issue of abolishing Article 74 was not included in the agenda. Democrats opposed the constitutional oversight law and elections to the constitutional oversight committee. The point was that Article XNUMX of the USSR Constitution proclaimed the priority of the union law over the republican one. This made it difficult for the development of separatism in the country. Thus, it was no longer a question of reform, but of the destruction of the Union.

At the III Congress, the Communist Party itself amended the Constitution on issues of the political system - Article 6 was abolished. The law was passed. The legal basis on which the party's leadership role was built was destroyed. This destroyed the main political core of the USSR. The President of the USSR got out of the control of the party, the Politburo and the Central Committee of the CPSU were barred from making decisions. The party now could not influence the personnel policy. National-republican and local elites freed themselves from the control of the Communist Party. The state apparatus began to turn into a complex amalgamation of various groups and clans. Strikes were also legalized. They became a powerful lever of influence of the republican and local authorities on the union center. As a result, the strikes of the same miners played a big role in undermining the Soviet state. In fact, the workers were simply used.

In early 1990, the radical movement Democratic Russia was created. Anticommunism was at the heart of his ideology. That is, the Russian democrats adopted the ideas and slogans of the West during the Cold War. They became “enemies of the people”, destroying the Soviet state and leading the people to colonial dependence. In the sphere of creating a new state, the Democrats advocated a strong authoritarian-oligarchic power. It is clear that they did not speak directly about the power of big business (oligarchy). The authoritarian regime (up to the dictatorship) had to suppress the possible resistance of the people. Thus, the Western Democrats of the 1990 model were repeating the "white draft" of 1917-1920. When a strong authoritarian regime (dictator) had to suppress the Bolsheviks, who relied on most of the people. Create a pro-Western, liberal-democratic regime in Russia, make the country a part of "enlightened Europe."

The second leading anti-Soviet movement was various nationalist organizations. They led the way towards the creation of new principalities and khanates on the territory of the USSR, independent banana republics. They were preparing for a break with the union center and for the suppression of national minorities within the republics. Moreover, these minorities often determined the cultural, educational, scientific and economic image of the republics. For example, Russians in the Baltics, Russians (including Little Russians) and Germans in Kazakhstan, etc. In fact, the experience of the collapse of the Russian Empire with the “parade of sovereignties”, with the emergence of artificial and Russophobic regimes, was repeated at a new level.

A blow to security forces


All the main power structures of the USSR were subjected to a powerful information attack: the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the army. They were considered the most conservative part of the Soviet state. Therefore, the democratic perestroika tried to psychologically crush the siloviki. There was a process of destroying the positive image of all the armed forces in the public consciousness and undermining the self-respect of the Soviet officers. After all, Soviet officers could very quickly and easily neutralize all destructive forces in the USSR. Officers, the armed forces were one of the main foundations of the USSR-Russia. In fact, the experience of denigrating and decaying the imperial army in the period before 1917, which was the main stronghold of the autocracy, was repeated.

To destroy the tsarist army, the First World War plus an information attack was used: "democratization", the destruction of one-man command and officers. The Soviet Army was beaten in a similar way. The Afghan war was used to denigrate soldiers and officers: drunkenness, drugs, "war crimes", allegedly very high losses, hazing, etc. The image of an officer, defender of the Fatherland, was blackened. Now the officers and the military were represented as alcoholics, thieves, murderers and "obscurantists" who oppose freedom and democracy. Democrats, human rights activists and the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers attacked the Armed Forces from all sides. The priority of democratic, civil, "universal" ideals and values ​​over military discipline was asserted. The idea was actively introduced that soldiers should not follow orders that contradict the ideas of peace and democracy. The republics demanded that conscripts serve on the ground (preparation for the dismemberment of the Soviet Army on a national basis, informational and ideological training of future personnel of the national armies).

A powerful informational, psychological blow to the USSR Armed Forces was inflicted by the processes of defeat in the Cold War (World War III), unilateral disarmament, reduction of troops, elimination of the Warsaw Pact, withdrawal of the army from Eastern Europe and Afghanistan. Conversion is essentially a rout of the military-industrial complex. The growing economic crisis, which worsened the provision, supply of soldiers and officers, the social arrangement of the demobilized military (they were simply thrown into the street). Various political and ethnic conflicts were organized, in which the army was involved.

The military leadership was removed from the solution of the most important military-political issues. In particular, Gorbachev's statement on January 15, 1986 on the USSR's nuclear disarmament program came as a complete surprise to the generals. Decisions on the disarmament of the USSR were made by the top of the USSR, headed by Gorbachev, without the consent of the military. It was practically unilateral disarmament, demilitarization. Moscow capitulated to the West, although it had the best armed forces in the world and such novelties weapons and technology, which made it possible to overtake the whole world for decades and ensure the complete security of the USSR-Russia. The Soviet Army was destroyed without a fight.

As part of the Internal Affairs Directorate in 1987, special police units (OMON) were created, designed to protect public order. In 1989, the riot police received rubber truncheons, which had an important symbolic meaning. The militia from the people began to transform into a capitalist police (that is, to protect the interests of big business and its political servants). In 1989-1991. a personnel "revolution" took place in the Armed Forces, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the KGB, the courts and the prosecutor's office. A significant part of the qualified, most ideological personnel resigned. This was caused by personnel policy, information pressure (discrediting the authorities) and economic difficulties.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
Articles from this series:
Gorbachev's disaster

Last attempt to save the USSR
How Gorbachev ruined the USSR
How the USSR was killed
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  1. SASHA OLD
    SASHA OLD 27 July 2020 05: 22
    15
    The "marked" one should be put on trial until he died ...
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 27 July 2020 06: 05
      17
      The collapse of the USSR was prepared by "democrats" and nationalists. Their ideology was based on anti-communism, Westernism and Russophobia.
      And everything else is already secondary ...
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 27 July 2020 08: 08
        10
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        The collapse of the USSR was prepared by "democrats" and nationalists. Their ideology was based on anti-communism, Westernism and Russophobia.
        And everything else is already secondary ...

        ALL this happened gradually. So, for example, earlier, deputies were elected not on a territorial basis, but by labor collectives, the salary was at the collective level. Also, the deputy could be recalled by the same labor collective if he did not correspond. When I began to be elected territorially, the ties were broken, it became impossible to recall.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Lexus
          Lexus 27 July 2020 13: 48
          +8
          Dmitriy hi
          Those days are long gone. As well as the collapse of the USSR itself. Today the collapse of Russia is on the agenda. And his "messengers" are far from being "Gazdep" and the opposition. The country should know its "heroes". At the weekend I was out in nature and again saw a virtually ditched "stub" of the once-longest railway on the planet with a track gauge of 750 mm. But you could ride tourists along the reserved Meshchera. But I don't care about it, as, incidentally, about everything. , and the "boyar" Yakunin did not have enough for a comfortable retirement life in the "London". The video is not mine, but it takes for the soul so that all the geeks involved in today's poverty and devastation, I want in the Red Marsh (there is such in the Ryazan region) " sayidami "to make them leave this light long and painfully.
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 27 July 2020 20: 50
            +1
            Good evening dear hi I'm not home yet, I'll watch the video later.
            The fact is that today we often hear lack of skill, and sometimes even gloating ----
            ... they chose the best of the best, and that's how they became reincarnated ...
            The conditions for rebirth were created gradually .... passed point of no return
            gradually, one by one ...
            Changes were made even after the name of the party was changed. ..
            Gorbachev, Andropov came to the prepared soil.
            No one will absolve them of their guilt, but to blame only them, Yeltsin also --- this means simplifying all the processes that have taken place. A simplified picture will not help you understand what happened and draw the right conclusions.
            1. Lexus
              Lexus 27 July 2020 21: 23
              +3
              The conditions for rebirth were created gradually ... the points of no return passed

              You are absolutely right. The roots of the misfortune were gradually tearing apart the vast country. Today, in every "splinter" we have interethnic enmity, either internal or with neighboring states. As well as liquidated political, economic, industrial and food security. You don't need to look far for examples - electronics, production equipment, components, spare parts, breeding and seed stock. Everything has been done to make it almost impossible to return to normal.
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 27 July 2020 22: 04
                +1
                .....electronics......
                Among my relatives there are those who graduated from institutes, technical schools, in these specialties. They worked at large enterprises in Leningrad. All these enterprises have changed a lot in a little over a decade. It is clear in which direction ... where are the employees now ...
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 27 July 2020 22: 19
                  +3
                  So I'm wondering who is "moving" Russian electronics today. Nearby is the Ryazan State Radio Engineering University - I know firsthand that the competition for admission to specialized faculties is zero point tenths. And that is not by vocation, but from lack of money. Naturally, no one wants to be an engineer for a salary of 30 thousand rubles. When is it possible, for example, for a Java developer to have a lot more than 100 thousand if the head works. This is the harsh reality. what
                  1. Reptiloid
                    Reptiloid 27 July 2020 22: 36
                    +1
                    .....interesting....
                    Last year Vladimir, Mordvin3, wrote an article ...Radio day. I then read about various similar technical faculties, universities ... specialties prevail --- management, public relations and the like ...
                    1. Lexus
                      Lexus 27 July 2020 23: 54
                      +5
                      management, public relations and the like ...

                      Alas, so. And after graduation, they go to work in their "specialty" - to "push" the public through "communication" loans, medical services, plastic windows and courses for personal growth.
                      1. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid 28 July 2020 06: 12
                        +3
                        hi I forgot to write yesterday that Medvedev canceled the Radio Day. There is no such holiday on the calendar anymore
                      2. Lexus
                        Lexus 28 July 2020 13: 14
                        +4
                        hi To them, "radiks", honor - they "imposed" "frequencies" on him and others like him from the antenna of "Goliath". As noted on May 7 in the CPC and O, they are going, despite the fact that they have banned drinking there for 10 years. We must offer them the "Russian pianist" to make a symbol of the holiday - she, too, was hindered by opponents of the Soviet holidays, but they didn’t do it and ended badly.
                      3. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid 28 July 2020 14: 07
                        +2
                        Well done! drinks
                        Quote: lexus
                        hi To them, "radiks", honor - they "imposed" "frequencies" on him and others like him from the antenna of "Goliath". As noted on May 7 in the CPC and O, they are going, despite the fact that they have banned drinking there for 10 years. We must offer them the "Russian pianist" to make a symbol of the holiday - she, too, was hindered by opponents of the Soviet holidays, but they didn’t do it and ended badly.
                      4. Lexus
                        Lexus 28 July 2020 14: 15
                        +4
                        I fully support! drinks

                        "Goliath"
      2. Drago
        Drago 29 September 2020 18: 53
        -1
        Everything is very simple - the Union went into a Maltrusian trap, and the communist principles of morality did not allow it to be overcome with the help of
        a proven method of robbery. The attempt of the KPSS to throw off the ballast came out of
        control.
  • Revolver
    Revolver 27 July 2020 06: 20
    12
    Quote: SASHA OLD
    The "marked" one should be put on trial until he died ...

    On a stake to put him on the Execution ground. And even this is still not enough in comparison with his guilt.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 27 July 2020 08: 42
      13
      Quote: Nagan
      To stake him on the Execution ground

      I'm afraid the place of execution will not be seen from the stockade ...

      Humpback only hammered the last nail into the lid of the USSR coffin, and its destruction began with a thaw, continued in stagnation, and ended with perestroika. The active final phase began when the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decided to secede from the USSR (about independence), with the adoption of a new Constitution in 1993 and the formation of new legislation within its framework.

      ps
      Articles are constantly circulating that only Humpback is to blame for the collapse of the USSR. He is to blame, but he is not the only one, as they are trying to convince us. Khrushchev's slush, Brezhnev's degradation and the remake itself are stages of one process for the restoration of capitalism. We must always remember this.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 27 July 2020 09: 12
        +7
        ...... Humpback is to blame ...... but he is not alone ......
        This is the tip of the iceberg, he himself could not. The main destroyers did their business without advertising
  • alekc73
    alekc73 27 July 2020 13: 12
    0
    nothing has changed
  • tank64rus
    tank64rus 4 October 2020 15: 42
    0
    Yes, it will not die in any way, apparently not Heaven, not Hell do not accept IT.
  • Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 27 July 2020 05: 38
    +2
    The communists, the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the army were unable to retain power.
    1. tatra
      tatra 27 July 2020 06: 33
      +3
      Who then seized power in the USSR? After all, the enemies of the communists "have nothing to do" with responsibility for their seizure of the USSR. They have nothing to do with what they got after the destruction of the USSR.
      1. Pessimist22
        Pessimist22 27 July 2020 07: 07
        +4
        They also seized power, not forgetting to grab key industries and enterprises, and said: Vzhuh, and now democracy!
      2. Serg65
        Serg65 28 July 2020 13: 22
        +1
        Quote: tatra
        Who then seized power in the USSR?

        On Sunday, the last real communist died and not one emo communist even expressed condolences to her family! And what right do you have to be called communists?
    2. Boris55
      Boris55 27 July 2020 08: 08
      10
      Quote: Pessimist22
      the Ommunists .... could not hold on to power.

      How could they not, they are still in power, only their membership cards have been changed. laughing

      Quote: Pessimist22
      , The KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the army were unable to retain power.

      How can instruments of power hold on to power?
      How can an adjustable wrench keep the plumber from the proposed glass? laughing
    3. Plastmaster
      Plastmaster 29 July 2020 03: 29
      0
      Quote: Pessimist22
      The communists, the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the army were unable to retain power.

      And did not try
  • Ka-52
    Ka-52 27 July 2020 06: 43
    +2
    Now many people also use very similar techniques. They try to use and promote any event for their own purposes. To blacken, spit, spam with stupid and baseless accusations - the handwriting is very well recognized.
  • nikvic46
    nikvic46 27 July 2020 06: 46
    +4
    Perhaps under Stalin there was a secret squabble, but it did not reach the division into factions. Khrushchev, having come after Malenkov, somehow immediately considered the "dictatorship of the proletariat" unnecessary. Brezhnev finished everything in the 1977 Constitution. Chernenko was appointed so that he did not do anything. did it independently. Thus, Gorbachev had a carte blanche for a breakthrough to world "democracy." Here Yeltsin also played the role of the patient. After all, we love the poor. After Stalin, everything went as if written.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 27 July 2020 08: 17
      +1
      ..... bickering ...... not going to the division into fractions .....
      after the revolution, factions were specifically banned. Whatever confrontations took place, including with the participation of Trotsky, before the division into factions, they did not shout.
      Although Khrushchev was overthrown, the participants in his actions remained in the apparatus further, under Brezhnaai, under Andropov ...
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 27 July 2020 08: 47
      +4
      Quote: nikvic46
      After Stalin, everything went as it was written.

      It all started with the fact that Khrushch and Zhukov carried out a military coup and the murder of L.P. Beria. And after that they pee in memory of Stalin, and they pooped too.
  • Plantagenet
    Plantagenet 27 July 2020 06: 53
    +5
    "It is impossible to deny Gorbachev's personal responsibility for the death of Soviet power. Nobody, except him, from the" Kremlin galaxy "of the 80s could have initiated perestroika; suffice it to recall Gromyko, Grishin, Romanov and others. In the American magazine National Interest In 1993, there was even an article entitled "Andropov's Kidneys", the author of which argued that if Andropov's health had been better, there would not have been the whole chain of events that would have led to the collapse of the USSR This is a controversial and complex issue, but it is difficult to disagree with the fact that, despite the steadily increasing economic gap between the Soviet Union and the West, there were no direct signs of an explosion within the country, the population's discontent did not exceed the level acceptable for the leadership, the dissident movement was suppressed by Andropov, the situation was quite stable, there was no liberation movement in the republics Of course, latently, formidable and potentially harmful for the Soviet power These phenomena, but everything could drag on much longer.

    Some Western Sovietologists predicted that the cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union would be the struggle of non-Russian nations for independence. That did not happen. As always in Russia, everything was decided in the center. And the disastrous for the regime was not so much perestroika in itself (despite the fact that, of course, the economic reforms that made up its essence were poorly thought out and even worse implemented), as openness, disorienting, disarming and confusing the ruling political class, the ruling elite . "

    Georgy Ilyich Mirsky “Life in three eras”
  • Gardamir
    Gardamir 27 July 2020 07: 12
    +3


    Here he is a fighter against the Soviet Union. Yes, here many have to carry it on their hands. He gave them democracy and kolyuas. If it were not for Yeltsin, there would be no andashinvvorov.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 27 July 2020 07: 33
      +1
      Quote: Gardamir
      If not for Yeltsin, there would be

      Yeltsin was immensely popular with people, like Gorbachev and Kerensky, these can also be remembered. The crowd was delighted.
      The collapse of the Union was a foregone conclusion, everyone was hating on the "scoop": the party members themselves, non-party members, labor shock workers, dissidents, soldiers, officers and generals.
      1. Gardamir
        Gardamir 27 July 2020 07: 48
        10
        over the "scoop" everyone was hating
        indoctrination. The Soviet Union is evil, the communists are evil. Forward to the victory of democracy. Rights and freedoms are our everything.
        Now also propaganda and reality diverge even more. They talk about patriotism, but money is being brought abroad.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 27 July 2020 08: 03
          +2
          Quote: Gardamir
          Now also propaganda and realities diverge

          Brainwashing technology has not changed.
        2. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 27 July 2020 09: 22
          +2
          Quote: Gardamir
          over the "scoop" everyone was hating
          indoctrination. The Soviet Union is evil, the communists are evil. Forward to the victory of democracy. ......
          That hunchback, that drunk, played the role of rulers close to ordinary people, they said deliberately simply .. Such techniques. negative
          The humpback's wife did not like ordinary people, she behaved in a Western manner. They were not ready then to accept Western norms in the USSR. And that says a lot. And the drunk, as was customary, the wife kept in the shadows, the wife is the hostess.
  • Oleg Skvortsov
    Oleg Skvortsov 27 July 2020 08: 02
    +4
    Why hasn't Gorbachev been hanged yet as a state criminal? Because the current political regime is built on the rubble of the USSR and on the blood of the people. There is nowhere to put hallmarks on each representative of the current government.
  • populist
    populist 27 July 2020 08: 46
    +6
    Why did the Union collapse?
    There were many reasons for the collapse of the USSR. But the very first and main reason was that people who were extremely arrogant and completely ignorant of many areas of public life took up the reforms.
    Moreover, the obvious traitor Yakovlev, who became the gray cardinal of perestroika, penetrated into the very center of the reforms.
    In China, the reforms were successful.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 27 July 2020 22: 39
      +1
      In China, the reforms were successful.

      To do this, the State Emergency Committee had to arrest EBN, and he did it up to his ears.
      1. populist
        populist 28 July 2020 08: 26
        +1
        Quote: Aviator_

        To do this, the State Emergency Committee had to arrest EBN, and he did it up to his ears.

        Yes, according to all the canons of a military coup d'état, the GKChP was supposed to arrest a number of leaders. But the members of the State Emergency Committee all together turned out to be people even more worthless than the reformers of perestroika themselves.
        Even then, suspicion arose of the fake or provocative nature of the GKChP.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 28 July 2020 09: 16
          +2
          "The circle of functionaries is narrow. They are terribly far from the people." - a revised quote from a classic.
  • Sether
    Sether 27 July 2020 09: 32
    0
    It is not necessary to blame Gorbachev for everything, the people themselves are to blame because they showed him drunk Yeltsin and his art on TV, and the people liked it. And when the GKChP was the people were against and supported Yeltsin again and was against Gorbachev, and now he was to blame. Then it was necessary to think and not listen to the enemy of Yeltsin and his successors
    1. depressant
      depressant 27 July 2020 14: 15
      +6
      Well, I don’t know which people liked Gorbachev and Yeltsin. Where I lived at that time, these characters were laughed at openly. Raisa Gorbacheva was despised. My parents considered Gorbachev a du.ra.kom and a traitor, and Yeltsin a scoundrel, which was later confirmed. As a communist, my father was very upset about what was happening, but the Russian rank and file of the CPSU in the republics could not do anything, since by that time they had already been completely replaced by locals in all decision-making centers. Since the appearance of Gorbachev on the political stage, local party members have openly supported separatism, and earlier they somehow disguised themselves. Everything was clear to everyone at once. Not having at least some safe opportunity to resist the ongoing villainy, many began to disperse to their national "apartments", Georgians to Georgia, Greeks to Greece, Dagestanis to Dagestan, Armenians ... to Krasnodar! Only the old people did not believe that the Union would disintegrate. Russians, even non-partisans, felt especially bad and dangerous as traditional, in the opinion of the locals, bearers of communist morality.
  • iouris
    iouris 27 July 2020 10: 33
    0
    It would be better if they wrote how they would destroy what was left.
    1. depressant
      depressant 27 July 2020 14: 34
      +3
      Colleague, and the article is about this. Not a single article on VO is posted on the "just about something" principle. Yesterday, in the News section, we recalled the Czechoslovak events. The thread stretches straight to the one in the Khabarovsk Territory. If Putin uses force there, it will be the postponed end of Russia. This article shows by what political means separatism was supported in the USSR. Based on historical experience, we must assess the current domestic political situation, look for signs of the activities of those who want to split Russia into pieces. Surely there are such people.
      1. iouris
        iouris 28 July 2020 10: 58
        0
        If the author understood the topic, he would write about other reasons. The USSR did not "collapse" but was dissolved. The reasons for the dissolution of the USSR lie "at the top" and are not related to the factors that the author indicated in the title. If for thirty years we have not understood the real reasons why the state is dissolved every few decades, then taking into account the "acceleration" we must prepare for the fact that this "know-how" will be used again.
        1. depressant
          depressant 28 July 2020 11: 02
          0
          Colleague, I completely agree with you. It is necessary not only to understand the reasons, but also to find a way to neutralize them. This is if we want to save Russia.
          1. iouris
            iouris 28 July 2020 11: 11
            -1
            The reasons are well known.
            Quote: depressant
            if we want to save Russia

            1) In what form and what boundaries? 2) It depends on who these "we" are (since there are antagonistic contradictions). Not everyone is interested in this.
          2. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 28 July 2020 23: 04
            +1
            Quote: depressant
            Colleague, I completely agree with you. It is necessary not only to understand the reasons, but also to find a way to neutralize them. This is if we want to save Russia.

            Often there is a phrase ((she was also here)) that people with little knowledge were then at the top, but you couldn't get to that level by chance. rises. ...
            This means that the purpose of the selection at that time was to assemble just such a team, with the same qualities and knowledge
            1. depressant
              depressant 29 July 2020 05: 38
              +1
              By the way, yes. I remember that when the daze passed, everyone rushed to look for who Putin was. The newspapermen interviewed neighbors, probably in a Moscow apartment. One of them remembered him and said: "Polite. Always greets." And nothing more. This is from Novaya.
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 29 July 2020 07: 25
                +1
                Good morning Lyudmila! hi I am now reading about the post-revolutionary period, when industrialization, construction, and raising the educational and cultural level were carried out. Nothing happened by itself, just like that. There was a deliberate systematic work of the party and its representatives. An entire generation raised the country, raised the same children. That is why the Nazis were defeated. Now various foreign researchers are studying and trying to understand this experience. Without groaning and lying, it is so important. Also "" late Stalinism "((this is their term) Why am I?
                If you have such experience, such developments, then it's funny to say that you overlooked, did not notice, did not guess ...
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 27 July 2020 10: 41
    +3
    As part of the Internal Affairs Directorate in 1987, special police units (OMON) were created, designed to protect public order. In 1989, the riot police received rubber truncheons, which had an important symbolic meaning.

    In fact, special units for protecting public order and preventing riots in the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were created back in 1966 - special motorized police units as part of the explosives. 4 regiments, 40 battalions and 2 companies - about ten thousand people.
    And yes, the "democratizers" aka "rubber sticks" were adopted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1962 (along with handcuffs), and the procedure for wearing and using them was established in 1966. The standard for the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR was PR-73 (the figure, as it were hints at a year of adoption).
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 27 July 2020 11: 35
      +4
      Yes sir. "Dubinal" could have been registered in the 60s without any problems.
      "... the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR on July 7, 1962, issued an order, which declared the need" in order to suppress the riots caused by hooligan elements "[1, F.39. D.383. P.110 +, to be adopted by the police rubber stick and handcuffs, explosion-bags with tear gas. This difficult decision was officially announced in the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 900-387 of 17.08.62 "On measures to improve the activities of the Soviet police."
      "So, according to the UOOP of the Khabarovsk Territory in 1963, special means were used: rubber stick - 494
      times, handcuffs - 240 times, stick and handcuffs - 73 times, in total - 807 cases. In 1964: rubber stick - 624 times, handcuffs - 206 times, stick and handcuffs - 76 times, total - 906 cases * 1, F.53. Op. 6. D.5. P.91 +. "
      Although it is worth noting that later there was a rejection of truncheons as a special tool:
      "... after the publication in June of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR" On the Basic Duties and Rights of the Soviet Militia to Protect Public Order and Fight Against Crime "and the adoption on June 20, 1973 of a new Regulation on the Soviet Militia, the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs issued order No. 260 prohibition
      the use of a rubber stick by employees of territorial and transport police bodies ”. At the same time, tear gas and handcuffs remained in service with the Soviet militia until the collapse of the USSR. "
      (quoted by SPECIAL MEANS OF THE SOVIET POLICE: LESSON LEARNED (1962-1973), V.Zh.Dorokhov).
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 27 July 2020 12: 18
        +1
        Quote: Ryazanets87
        Although it is worth noting that later there was a rejection of truncheons as a special tool:

        Hmmm ... judging by the title of the order, the future democratizer was banned only for police officers. SMFM with their dual status was not affected. what
    2. BAI
      BAI 27 July 2020 11: 44
      +2
      rubber sticks "were adopted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1962 (together with handcuffs)
      And they were dark yellow, not black as they are now. And there was no transverse process.
      1. Whiteidol
        Whiteidol 29 July 2020 00: 22
        0
        I found the dark yellow PR when he was a cadet of the MVShM of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
  • BAI
    BAI 27 July 2020 11: 42
    0
    The collapse of the USSR is an inevitable result of the existing set of circumstances. Like the collapse of Russia in 1917. Neither Nikolai 2 nor Gorbachev had much influence on the events taking place. They (or anyone else in their place) could speed up or slow things down. But to prevent - no. By and large, all their fault is that they turned out to be the leaders of states at the time of their disintegration.
    1. depressant
      depressant 27 July 2020 21: 10
      +2
      Background - briefly.
      Stalin's cooperatives, strictly accountable to the state, were liquidated by Khrushchev as an alien capitalist element. But the idea of ​​such a production has not gone anywhere. It was taken up by enterprising criminals and realized by them in the form of illegal production through the corrupt decomposition of law enforcement and party structures. With the arrival of Brezhnev, the "industrial underground" blossomed in a variety of variants, especially in the union republics, as it successfully fell on the local mentality, which puts feudal-clan customs above the not very clear and acceptable communist idea. And since there were many republics allied with the RSFSR - present-day Russia, the RSFSR was unable to resist the massive influx of negativity from all sides in the form of corruption, corruption of law enforcement officers, deviation of party members from moral norms and began to act according to the principle "you cannot overcome, lead! " A feedback of defeatist sentiments was formed between the center and the regions on the basis of mutual understanding. Which ultimately led the country to disintegration. This is, among other conditions, for example, in the form of support for the taken direction towards the collapse of the USSR from foreign special services ...

      So all of the current, so outraging us, it all comes from there. It's kind of understandable. And I would not have spent so much text on describing where the corruption glue of the current vertical of power comes from, if it were not for the persistent feeling of the possibility of the collapse of Russia itself, arising on the basis of obvious signs of its preparation. Indeed, if in the USSR the party leadership made constant curtsies towards the people like "The people and the party are united!", Covering up the opposite tendency, now the population is insolently, just for show and is consistently excluded by the authorities from decision-making.
      For example, once there was a mayoral election in my village, now no. Since then, the mayor stopped receiving the population. Once upon a time there were reception days at the local council of deputies. Now there is no. And whether there is advice itself, no one knows. There, the door is constantly closed. Rumor has it that the mayor and deputies sometimes gather at night and secretly resolve some issues. Once it was possible to go to some gas, electricity or water supply organization to resolve the issue or at least get through to them, but now it is not possible, only through some regional structure, all attempts to reach which are useless. There is a police station but is permanently closed. Apparently optimization. If anything, call the area. Thus, the population is cut off from the opportunity to influence the authorities that govern their lives. Legislatively approved three election days have already turned any election into their imitation. Leontyev's proposal to deprive young people under 25 of the right to vote further narrows the possibility of feedback between the population and the government.
      Thus, we are implicitly but very persistently told that we are political ballast for the authorities. But also economic ballast. After all, nothing is being done for the large-scale industrialization of the country, which deprives the population of the opportunity to find a decent job, increases the outflow of our clever people abroad. None of the powerful people are seriously concerned about the employment of citizens. Moreover, it follows from Putin's recent statement that the program to reduce poverty has been postponed for six years, but, one must think, the program to enrich the government itself has hardly been postponed. After all, the doors are now wide open as never before for hard workers from Central Asia who are willing to share their salaries with their employers, that is, everything is being done so that the bulk of the indigenous population of Russia finally feels their uselessness to the country in full. I felt it and was loudly indignant. And since in different regions the indignation will manifest itself in different ways, then it is here that there will be those with a "spotless reputation" who will say, they say, the central government is bad, because the country is large, multilingual, heterogeneous and therefore poorly managed, so let's share. And with the secret permission of the central government itself, large-scale agitation for partition will be conducted. Despite the rule of the Constitution on integrity and the law on extremism. As for the foreign special services working in this direction, such work never stopped despite the alleged opposition to it. There is no need to dwell on the quality of our special services. Thus, if the ruling elite led us to the collapse of the USSR, then the current one is doing everything so that the people want the collapse of Russia themselves ...
      And if Putin has no intention of facing this kind of situation, let him think carefully about peaceful and wise methods of preventing it. The democratizer is not the weapon used to solve problems of unity and loyalty.
      1. BAI
        BAI 27 July 2020 22: 15
        +1
        a persistent sense of the possibility of Russia's disintegration itself, arising on the basis of obvious signs of its preparation.

        Here you are right. History repeats itself, and the repetition periods are rapidly diminishing. Almost the same situation: Byzantium before the collapse, Russia in 1917, the USSR in 1991 and the Russian Federation now.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 28 July 2020 05: 52
          0
          Quote: BAI
          a persistent sense of the possibility of Russia's disintegration itself, arising on the basis of obvious signs of its preparation.

          Here you are right. History repeats itself, and the repetition periods are rapidly diminishing. Almost the same situation: Byzantium before the collapse, Russia in 1917, the USSR in 1991 and the Russian Federation now.

          Surprisingly, many books on the history of Byzantium have appeared recently ...
          Infuriates the creation of ministers and ministries in the regions. With its own staff and bureaucracy.
          These are the local kings and the mongrels. For the sake of strengthening their own power, they will support separatism. After all, they may think, as it was already -----theirs, foreign ministers, look how they live, and we are like that! ....... And they will strive for their better life, like those of those ministers. And if you recall the words, expressions, new ministers and deputies about macaroshkas, turning off the light for the poor ... about small pensions, they say, drunkards and parasites, the picture takes on a new meaning. ((Wrong word theirs specially wrote for these
          There were some words about universal suffrage ... doubts ...
          On the other hand, attempts to create estates are visible. .....
          Examples of Lyudmila are just in the subject.
  • 7,62h54
    7,62h54 27 July 2020 12: 08
    +2
    Who is in power now, benefactors or what? The same ones, only repainted according to the decor. When they were listed as communists, then the membership cards were discarded, some became democrats and some liberals.
  • 1536
    1536 27 July 2020 12: 56
    +5
    The US state exists to print money. The states of Europe are no longer states at all, but countries, territorial entities. Britain is trying to portray something here, but neither funds, and, most importantly, human potential, it has not enough for something new. Today, the PRC is perhaps the only country that can move forward if the Chinese stop creating a "Chinese wall" around them, constantly expanding its borders, but at the same time leaving only the Chinese inside the "Chinese wall". And what about Russia? In the late 1980s, it suddenly turned out that no one needed the USSR. Despite the fact that the majority of citizens intuitively wanted to preserve the union, since it is always easier to survive together than separately, the USSR collapsed. There was no rod to hold it. The ruble was not a hard currency in international settlements, the people were afraid of the word "nationalism" like a fire, as the antonym of "communism", the economy, thanks to the organization of the sale of minerals to capitalist Europe, as well as their distribution for free to the so-called allies from the "socialist camp", became marking time because of inertia in management and because of outright sabotage. And this was at the moment when the whole world was moving to a new technological order. Party organs turned into a kind of petty-bourgeois interest clubs depending on the regions, nepotism and nepotism flourished, apparently, the underworld began to penetrate into the power and legal structures precisely in those years. They also blocked the private initiative of citizens, the adoption of laws at the grassroots level, allowing each person to start his own business in order to relieve the burden on the state industry, such as food, textile, and the local industry was completely destroyed along with consumer cooperation. Retail has become a hotbed of crime and corruption. The people slowly began to turn into lumpen, waiting for handouts from the state. (Does it look like anything?)
    Tell me, was it impossible to flood the Soviet market with cars? Or make jeans for people under license? Maybe someone refused to sell these licenses in foreign countries? If some refused, others were ready to sell. Or organize a lot of jobs in private enterprises (they were then called artels)? So why did the USSR continue to exist in its last years? To maintain the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the comfortable life of its elite, the “chosen ones,” so to speak? And when the "leading role of the CPSU" was canceled, the USSR collapsed? But then, when people realized what they had done, when people began to die, opportunities were lost, children were not rejoicing, when overseers from the United States and other countries came and began to plunder the land and peoples, then the realization of the catastrophe came. But there was nothing to be done? Is it democracy to blame for the fact that a person was outplayed by gimmicks and outright cheats? And are nationalists to blame for the fact that these thugs had some kind of national identity?
  • nikvic46
    nikvic46 29 July 2020 06: 35
    0
    I think the moral climate suits everyone. Write what you want. Self-censorship in our time is a chimera. '' One phrase MV Popov stuck in my head. "In the ideology and morality of the USSR there was a denial of the negative .." And this is true. Now the negative is being sold to us as positive. One on RTD broadcasts how he managed to get rid of the feeling of shame. At the same time, for some reason he means a naked man. And from this he concludes that shame is the initial stage of envy. Who will really answer what is happening in Khabarovsk. two month.
  • cniazev.borys
    cniazev.borys 23 August 2020 20: 29
    0
    Everything that happened in our country during the time of M.S. Gorbachev -the top of the iceberg several hundred years old. The collapse and destruction of the Russian Empire had been planned for a long time. The country's security is the competence of the special services. The situation for the collapse of the USSR by the 80s or a creeping counter-revolution was at the ready. "False democrats" and nationalists had only to come to see and win.
  • Vitaly Utkin
    Vitaly Utkin 24 September 2020 14: 42
    0
    What was the reason for M.S. Gorbachev's failure? The fact that he, having received the absolute power of the secretary general in the country, immediately began to introduce democratic principles into the environment of degenerates, primitives.

    Democracy is the rule of the people. But in order to exercise reasonable government, the mentality of this people must be true morality. The majority of the Russian people professed drunkenness and fascism.

    Gorbachev, possessing very many positive features, could do much more good for the people of the country if he carried out the reforms he had outlined, using the fullness of his secretary general power. Only by “cultivating” the people over several decades of wise and strict (!) Government, it would be possible to transfer democracy to such a people.

    If we continue to indulge the dominant mass form in our country - with its evil, aggressive, devoid of Love and stuffed with psychopathology mentality, with its nothing-understanding of religion - then no other positive state reforms will help to prevent further decay and decay of souls on the territory our country.

    ***

    It is necessary to educate the spiritual and moral principles of humanism.

    Why in the “calm” countries of the “East” friendliness, cordiality, disinterestedness, hospitality are characteristic national features - in contrast to Russia, where you can hardly find this now? The reason ... In those countries, this is how the education of many generations of people went. And in Russia, the “masses of the people” have been educated for almost an infinitely long time on the ideas of aggressive intolerance and fear; as well as drunkenness.

    Spiritual culture on Earth is close to decay.
  • Azamat Ramazanov
    Azamat Ramazanov 11 October 2020 14: 14
    -1
    This was done by disguised enemies of the Soviet regime. Chubais Eltsin Gaidar Sobchak Popov Luzhkov. All communists in the past