Military Review

Suicide bombers for all time

28

Imperial Japanese man-torpedoes fleet We condemn "kaiten" in much the same way as kamikaze pilots. Fu, barbarity. And we have reasons for that. But "kaitens" are just a fresh example. And since история fleet has more than one century, then there are examples of a whole barge. Moreover, the main majority are from civilized Europe, and we did not lag behind much, and in some ways we were even pioneers.


But let's order.

And in order, we had the first firebrand.

This species appeared weapons around the fifth century BC. And it served very well as a psychological weapon for several tens of centuries. THAT firebrand was, as they would say now, a drone. A boat or just a bunch of combustible materials that could be set on fire and directed towards the enemy. And there everything is by the will of the gods ...

But it worked.

Over the years, worn-out ships began to be used as fire ships, because it was not a pity. But the essence remained the same. They stuffed everything that came to hand, set it on fire and sent it towards the enemy.

The efficiency was so-so, but here it was not even a matter of setting fire to enemy ships, but panic. Why did the firebrand live as a spectacular (not effective, namely, spectacular) weapon for so many years?

It's simple. Wood. The main material for the construction of ships with fire, as it were, was not at all friendly. Especially - a tarred tree, wrapped in tarred ropes. Because no matter how ineffective the firebrand was, they were reasonably feared.

And since fire-ships were feared in all fleets, there was a direct reason to use them! Russian sailors also did not shy away from this business, there are references to the use of fire-ships in the battle at Gangut (1714), and Count Orlov-Chesmensky with Admirals Spiridonov and Elfiston in the battle of Chesme in 1770 operated with fire-ships quite normally.


But the most famous use of fire-ships in the Middle Ages is, of course, the defeat of the Great Armada of the Spaniards, who were going to make the British feel bad. The so-called Battle of Gravelines on August 8, 1588, when the Spaniards were very painful and very insulting.


On the night before the battle, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Navy, Charles Howard, Duke of Nottingham, ordered eight old ships, filled with everyone in a row, to be made and launched towards the Spaniards. It is “to the side”, that is, to whom God will send. Without sight and adjustment.

By themselves, the firefighters did not cause much damage, but caused a terrible commotion and caused panic. The Spaniards rushed into the night to cut the anchors, which were attached with ropes for such a quick removal, and then many ships in the commotion inflicted damage on each other precisely because it was impossible to anchor them.

In general, the firecrackers completed the task 100%.

For 500 years, from the 14th to the 19th century, fire-ships quietly existed as a separate class of ships. It is clear that sea suicides were built on the principle of the cheaper the better. We took into account, of course, the ease of loading and placing the warhead, control, simplicity. Usually the fire-ships were single-deck, less often double-deck. They even carried weapons and crew. The guns were required in case a ship with an anti-terrorist boarding team suddenly came across on the way, firstly, and secondly, in order to pass for an ordinary ship.

But there were also characteristic differences between the fire-ship and ordinary ships. Here is a fairly accurate picture of a fire-ship, from which you can learn three differences from a regular ship.

Suicide bombers for all time

1. The door in the side closer to the stern. Intended for the evacuation of the crew.
2. The hatch, behind which there was a fuse cord that detonates the warhead.
3. The boat was not attached with a rope, as usual, but with a chain. The chain is off.

Let's just say that for the Middle Ages, care for the crew took place, and at the proper level. The crew of such a fire-ship accelerated the ship, directed it to the enemy ship, crashed into it, the fire-ship crew tried to attach their ship to the enemy ship as tightly as possible with the help of boarding equipment, and while the enemy was engaged in cutting and chopping the gear, the crew began to "tear the claws" through that very a door.

And someone set fire to the fuse, which was supposed to cause an explosion of gunpowder in the hold. This could be done even while sitting in the boat, the length of the cord allowed, there would be someone.

Of course, decoupling the two ships was not easy. The opponents understood this, and therefore tried with all their might to prevent a collision of ships. I would say they went out of their way, using guns and handguns. So sometimes not everyone was able to use the emergency door.

In general, the fight against the fire-ships was simple: to sink the ship before it approached. Or a tricky option: to sink the emergency boat. It was not easy, the goal was small, but often the result was worth it: in those days, the crew could easily deploy a fire-ship, since European sailors did not differ in their tendency to commit suicide.

The 18th century brought a new class of ships to the world - battleships. That is, ships sheathed with armor and not so afraid of shells and fire. A new type of firefighters has also appeared, no less strange in terms of application: mine boats.

This class was invented in the USA during the Civil War. On the night of October 27-28, 1864, a steam launch under the command of Lieutenant Cushing, armed with a pole mine, attacked the southern battleship Albemarl, which was in the roadstead.


The crew of the longboat dismantled the "protective boom" made of logs, calmly swam up to the battleship and hit it with a pole mine into the underwater part. The Albemarl sank within a few minutes. The longboat, by the way, died with the entire crew, it is difficult to say whether from a mine explosion, or drowned, drawn into a whirlpool of a sinking battleship.

Convicts unknowingly, but nonetheless. Progress has shown that effective operation requires effective control of the launch vehicle. It is desirable until the last moment.

I liked the idea. Even then, the first submarines were trying to portray something like that, but steam boats were cheaper and more affordable means of delivering mines to the enemy. Statistics say that during the Civil War, the fleet of the Southern Confederation lost about 50 ships, 40 of them - from mines of all types, anchored, towed, pole.

The next step was the use of Whitehead mines, the prototypes of modern torpedoes. Actually, a boat with such a mine was slightly different from a boat with a pole mine, since it gave its crew a slightly greater chance of survival, but, as the first use of such boats by a Russian officer and future admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov showed, the descendants of the fire-ships had about the same psychological effect: During five raids of Makarov's mine boats, the battleship was slightly damaged and the gunboat "Intibach" with a displacement of only 163 tons was sunk.


Unfortunately, there is no exact data on how many Russian sailors died. Considering that operations were usually carried out at night, there should have been fewer casualties than during an attack during the day.


However, it was the psychological effect that affected the already not very active operations of the Turkish fleet.

As soon as torpedoes became torpedoes, and submarines became submarines, of course, the attack distances increased and there could be no question of a fire-ship-style approach. The increased range and rate of fire of naval guns almost put an end to this section, if not for a few nuances.

The first is torpedo boats. They have almost nothing from a fire-ship, but in the 20th century, the use of such ships was essentially no different from their progenitors of the 18th and 19th centuries. The speed increased, but still the torpedo boat approached almost point-blank, overcoming the barrier of everything that could shoot at it.


There is something in common, don't you think?


But there were also special operations, where there was everything from the firefighters of the past. Or almost everything.

For example, the failed operation "Lucid", the purpose of which was to disrupt the so-called landing of German troops in Britain. It was when France ended that the Germans began stirring in the country's ports, which the British interpreted as the beginning of preparations for the landing.

It is clear that the British tried with all their might to resist this. The RAF flew to bomb the transports that were going to Calais and Boulogne. However, the Luftwaffe immediately explained that the defeat in the "Battle of Britain" does not mean that the RAF can feel comfortable in the skies of France.

Then a simply gorgeous plan was developed in the spirit of the Duke of Nottingham.

Were taken three small tankers, already breathing in incense: "War Nizam" (1918), "War Nawab" (1919), "Oakfield" (1918).

The veterans were slightly patched up, and then each was filled with explosives and three tons of "Eger Cocktail": 50% fuel oil, 25% motor oil and 25% gasoline. The mixture was named after the commander of the operation.

Tests carried out by blowing up two trawlers stuffed with this nightmare showed that the explosion of a ton of this hellish mess spreads everything in a radius of about 800 meters.

It was assumed that the tankers would enter the harbors of Calais and Boulogne under neutral flags, approach the congestion of transports, and then the crews, disembarking in the boats, activate explosive devices. And hell will begin.

On September 26, 1940, all three fire ships set off on their last voyage. War Nizam and War Nawab went to Calais, Oakfield to Boulogne.

Alas, "Oakfield" not only did not reach its destination, it actually fell apart on the way to Boulogne, not even a third of the distance. The second to leave the race was "War Nizam", whose engine refused to work.

Carrying out the plan with one ship out of three did not seem like a good idea, and the fire-ships returned to the port. In early October, the British command tried to try again (two), but they also fell through due to a bad campaign. Well, and because of the greed of the British naval command, which regretted the operation of ships that could reach the goal without incident.

But I can't help but remember another operation, which turned out well, just a sight for sore eyes. This is Operation Chariot, which was carried out by British special forces in March 1942.

Much has been written about this operation, but in this case we are interested in the fact that the heart of the operation was actually the fire-ship, into which the destroyer Campbeltown was turned.


The British command in 1942 decided to destroy the largest French dock in Saint-Nazaire, the dock "Louis Joubert Lock". That the Germans could not accept the "Tirpitz" in it.

The main striking force of the operation was the converted destroyer Campbeltown. The ship was lightened, its displacement reduced so that it could safely pass through the sandbanks at the mouth of the Loire. To do this, they removed everything that could be removed from it: guns, torpedo tubes, cut off superstructures and pipes. Eight 20-mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft guns were installed on the upper deck.

Additional reinforcement of the sides and decks with concrete was made so that an accidental projectile would not cause detonation of the charge. An explosive charge weighing 4,5 tons was placed in the space between the usual and constructed second sides, and then all this beauty was poured with concrete. This was done so that the demining team, which would definitely inspect the ship, could not immediately detect the explosives.

In the early morning of March 28, 1942, Campbeltown reached the dock gate under heavy fire and rammed it, just getting stuck in the dock gate.


In parallel, the British were shelling and bombing Saint-Nazaire, as well as the landing of commandos. The commandos, having lost more than half of their personnel (600 of 228 people returned), caused some damage, destroyed several guns, damaged the locks of other docks and the ships in them. But in the end they were forced to retreat or surrender when they ran out of ammunition.

While the fighting was going on, the Campbeltown crew was evacuated. Having repulsed the attack, the Germans relaxed. A large group of Kriegsmarine specialists went to study the Campbeltown stuck in the dock.


Almost nine hours later, at 10:30, the fire-ship exploded as planned, setting up a branch of the Apocalypse.

The dock was effectively incapacitated, killing about 250 Kriegsmarine soldiers and officers, so that the British commandos who suffered heavy losses during Operation Chariot could consider themselves avenged.

Another fleet used by fire ships was the Italian fleet. Taking into account the passion of Italians for compact sea villainy, the production back in 1938 of a series of MT boats (Motoscafo da Turismo), which had the most superficial attitude to tourism, but were light, small boats, capable of accelerating to 60 km / h. Regularly stuffed with 330 kg of explosives, they were excellent sabotage boats. The pilot was at the stern. Having brought the boat to the target and jammed the rudder, he had to jump onto a special life raft before colliding with the target.

Does it look like an 18th century firebrand? As for me - so completely.

The funniest thing in the history of MT boats is that they were used not only by the Italians, but also by the Israelis, who knew how they received several of these boats and used them against their enemies in the Arab-Israeli war of 1947-1949.

The MT boats took part in several operations, the most successful of which was the disabling of the British heavy cruiser York on 26 March 1941. Six boats took part in the operation, which entered the harbor at night and staged a fire show there.

In addition to the seriously damaged York, the Norwegian tanker Pericles was destroyed. All six Italian pilots were taken prisoner, but the operation really succeeded.

Subsequently, the Italians developed two more generations of fireboats: the MTM and the MTR. The former were used, while the latter were unlucky: the Ambra submarine carrying them to the place of operation was sunk.

Four survivors of the MTM war went to the Israeli military, and the Israelis successfully used three of them during the 1947-1949 Arab-Israeli War. In October 1948, the patrol ship "Emir Faruk" and a minesweeper were sunk with the help of fire-boats.

Nowadays, there is no place for firefighters on the battlefield. Yes, there are one-time applications like a terrorist attack with a boat filled with explosives from the American destroyer Cole in 2000, but this is rather an exception to the rule.

I deliberately did not say anything about the torpedoes with the Kaiten kamikaze. Simply because I am very calm about this weapon and I think that the "Kaitens" have not achieved success. The only large ship sunk by the Kaitens was the Missineve tanker with a displacement of 25 tons.


God only knows what a victory. However, like all the successes of the firemen in the 20th century. But this weapon was, if not effective, then spectacular for several centuries.
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  1. Brylevsky
    Brylevsky 25 July 2020 04: 57
    +6
    The Spaniards rushed into the night to chop anchors, which were fastened with ropes just for such a quick removal.

    Author's speculation? Try to choose a steel anchor-chain with a hand spire at least from a 10-meter depth ... The ability to cut the anchor rope with a knife is a "bonus", but not the very purpose of using vegetable anchor rigging on sailing ships.
    1. BAI
      BAI 25 July 2020 20: 25
      +1
      Try to choose a steel anchor chain with a hand spire from at least a 10-meter depth

      Although anchor chains have been known since the time of Alexander the Great, more or less massive use of anchor chains began in 1638 (with the Spaniards we have 1588). Until 1638, and even after, there were anchor cables, up to 26 cm in diameter.
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 29 July 2020 14: 19
        0
        Navy chains have been known since ancient times. For example, the Bosphorus Strait was blocked by chains. But, judge for yourself, in the 16th and early 17th century, metallurgy was not yet so developed. Therefore, anchor chains would be heavy and expensive. What ships were the largest during these times? Spanish galleons. What was the displacement of the galleon? The anchor rope calmly kept the ship at the anchorage.
        For an anchorage depth of, for example, 10 meters, the length of the anchor line / chain should be 3 times longer.
        In order for the anchor to hold the boat, the rope / chain must be dragged along the bottom soil, making the anchor heavier.
        Anchor chains began to be introduced in the fleet with the growth of tonnage and the improvement of metallurgy, as well as the reduction in the cost of metal products (chains).
  2. Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 25 July 2020 05: 43
    +4
    For a sailboat, a chain is an expensive and difficult pleasure. The anchor was not the only one.

    Did the battleships appear in the 18th century?

    War Nizam, War Nawab, Oakfield were tankers or trawlers?

    recourse
    The destroyer Campbeltown was made easier by cutting off the superstructures, even the pipes, and then concreting the sides and deck ... Is it all above the waterline ?! Maybe the author did not fully cover this episode? The British were good sailors and knew about stability.
    1. VIP
      VIP 25 July 2020 07: 41
      +3
      I wanted to ask myself: what are the armored men in the 18th century?
    2. Cristall
      Cristall 25 July 2020 22: 54
      0
      Quote: Lynx2000
      Did the battleships appear in the 18th century?

      How to say
      ship "Samum", which had 12,8-mm iron sides
      "Floating batteries" Lave (Love), Devastation (Devastation) and Tonnante (Tonnant) - small (1625 tons) and low-speed (5-6 knots), but armored (4-inch solid wrought iron plates on a thick wooden substrate) steamers, on which a small number of large-caliber guns were installed that fired explosive shells. They successfully bombarded the Crimean coast and forced the Kinburn fortification at the mouth of the Dnieper to surrender.
      this is the second half of the 19th century .. But these are armored ships.
      Battleships appeared in the 60s of the XIX century
      The first armored steam ship of a new type, suitable for sailing on the high seas, was the French armored battery battleship La Gloire ("Gloire" - "Glory"), launched in 1859
      Maybe the author had

      but this is the 15th century
      Imjin war veterans won't understand
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 29 July 2020 13: 56
        0
        Everything that you described - 19th century. If I am not mistaken, the first all-metal hull of the propeller-driven sailing ship "Warrior / Fighter" was built by the British in the 60s of the 19th century. Conventionally, it is considered the prototype of the battleship class. Sheathing with copper sheets on top of wood does not count.
        Imchinskaya war of the 16th century, there were no battleships yet.
        what
        Before Chemulpo, Tsushima and the Port Arthur raid were a little less than 400 years ...
  3. Errr
    Errr 25 July 2020 05: 52
    +3
    From the text of the article:
    The crew of the longboat dismantled the "protective boom" made of logs, calmly swam up to the battleship and hit it with a pole mine into the underwater part. The Albemarl sank within a few minutes. The longboat, by the way, died with the entire crew, it is difficult to say whether from a mine explosion, or drowned, drawn into a whirlpool of a sinking battleship.
    There are several inaccuracies here. Better to read in English at https://www.gutenberg.org/files/16298/16298-h/16298-h.htm#Page_314
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 25 July 2020 06: 58
    +6
    The hero of the Battle of Chesme, Lieutenant Ilyin, watches a fire on a Turkish battleship after an attack by a fire-ship under his command.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 25 July 2020 12: 19
      +6
      Quite recently I read about fire-ships. To say that they are brave is to say nothing. As, however, and the "pole". At the same time, people did not abandon the idea of ​​continuing to live at all. And there, as the card will fall. Or a bullet.

      1. Observer2014
        Observer2014 25 July 2020 20: 48
        -2
        Quote: lexus
        Quite recently I read about fire-ships. To say that they are brave is to say nothing. As, however, and the "pole". At the same time, people did not abandon the idea of ​​continuing to live at all. And there, as the card will fall. Or a bullet.


        yes good
  5. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 25 July 2020 07: 29
    +2
    Roma zhzhot)
    Tests carried out by blowing up two trawlers stuffed with this nightmare showed that the explosion of a ton of this hellish mess spreads everything in a radius of about 800 meters.

    Efficiency approaching nuclear weapons? belay
  6. Chifka
    Chifka 25 July 2020 07: 50
    +7
    It seems to me that the comparison with the Japanese kamikaze is not entirely correct. With the use of fire ships, a specific opportunity was provided (and even planned) to rescue its crew. Realization of salvation in practice is another matter (chance, luck, etc.). Suicide bombers in Japan were initially prepared for death, and the opportunity to survive for them was not provided.
  7. VIP
    VIP 25 July 2020 08: 11
    +2
    "to carry out our plans with one ship out of three did not seem like a good idea, and the fire-ships returned to the port" because there were so many fire-ships. One fell apart, the other's engine was covered. And they came back too?
  8. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 25 July 2020 08: 25
    +3
    I remembered the use of a fire-ship during the siege of Antwerp in 1585, when 800 Spanish soldiers were killed. The ship had a stone casemate, where gunpowder was stored (to enhance the high-explosive effect), a clock mechanism and a false wick.
    The author of the idea is Fiderigo Giambelli.
    1. Lynx2000
      Lynx2000 25 July 2020 09: 04
      +4
      Since childhood I love the magazine "Science and Technology":

      "To produce an explosion on" Luck "a long fuse was taken out of the cellar, and on" Nadezhda "a kind of clock mechanism was placed in the cellar itself (it was after this incident that the name" infernal machine "appeared), for the manufacture of which Giambelli donated his own alarm clock. However, the alarm clock, instead of ringing, set in motion an ignition mechanism of flints and flints surrounded by powder pulp. Considering how rare even simple pocket watches were at that time, one can only be surprised at such extravagance of the engineer. But this sacrifice was not in vain. on April 4, 1585, thirty ordinary burning fire-ships were launched downstream of the Scheldt, and with them two "infernal" ones, which outwardly differed from the rest only in their large size. To repel such a massive attack on the bridge, many soldiers gathered, led by the duke himself Parma - Ever lighter fire ships were successfully intercepted and either towed ashore or sunk. the massive and solid "Hope" and "Luck", despite all the efforts of the Spaniards, reached the bridge, under which they got stuck. They began to hastily extinguish them, while on "Success" they noticed a burning fuse, which they immediately destroyed. However, the presence of the clockwork on the Nadezhda was not detected. Soon there was a really hellish explosion, which, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, was heard throughout West Flanders, that is, 80 kilometers.

      Content source: https://naukatehnika.com/adskie-branderyi.html
      naukatehnika.com "
  9. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 25 July 2020 09: 05
    +2
    The most famous use of fireburners (effective, not spectacular) is Chesma. In fact, one fire-ship (out of four) destroyed almost the entire Turkish fleet.
  10. ares1988
    ares1988 25 July 2020 09: 22
    +2
    Dive at 60 km / h? Hmm ...
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 25 July 2020 11: 53
      +2
      Quote: ares1988
      Dive at 60 km / h? Hmm

      You want to live ...
  11. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 25 July 2020 11: 52
    0
    The author, as always, covered the topic with the right amount of humor. Pretty clear. Not without errors, but respect!
  12. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 25 July 2020 12: 01
    0
    Abidna, you understand! Why did you forget Deutsche ?! They weren't sewn with cellophane, too! And fireboats, they had ... and torpedo "microsubmarines"!
    "Biber" (German Biber - beaver) - midget submarine of the German submarine forces. The crew of the boat is one person; The boat carried two G7 torpedoes as the main armament. A 2,5-liter Opel gasoline engine (intended for one of the Opel Blitz modifications) and an electric motor were installed, which allowed the boat to develop 6,5 knots above water and 5,3 knots under water, respectively. Released in a quantity of 324 pieces. The existing "Biebers" were consolidated into 9 flotillas

    "Seehund" (German Seehund - seal) - midget submarine of the German submarine forces, the most successful design of midget boats not only in Germany, but in general during the Second World War. Developed on the basis of the "Hecht" boat. The boat's crew consisted of two people; The boat carried two G7 torpedoes as the main armament. The boat was fitted with a 60-horsepower Büssing diesel engine and an AEG electric motor, which allowed the boat to develop 7,7 knots above water and 6 knots under water, respectively. The boat could autonomously sail 300 miles above water and 63 miles under water; plunged to a depth of 50 meters, while a depth of 5 meters could reach from the surface in 4 seconds. Released in the amount of 285 pieces. Used in 1945
    THERE WERE OTHERS!
    BRANDER BOATS: By the time the Allies landed in Normandy, the German designers created a prototype of the radio-controlled boat "Linse" (displacement - 1,8 tons). In its bow there was an explosive charge weighing 300 kg with a contact fuse and a remote self-destructor. The aircraft engine made it possible to reach a speed of 34 knots.
    But the really original example of a radio-controlled "torpedo boat" was developed in 1945, but unrealized project "Tornado". It was decided to use it as a power plant ... a pulsating jet engine of the Argus 109–014 type (weight 138 kg, length 3,6 meters, average thrust 2,35–3,29 kN), borrowed from the design of the Fi 103 (VI ). As on a cruise missile, the engine in a long cylindrical casing, ending in front with an air intake and a nozzle at the back, had to stand above the deck on special pylons (a fuel line ran inside the front pylon). According to preliminary calculations, the speed of the boat using a jet propulsion should have reached a record high of 65 knots! This made it possible to place a powerful explosive charge weighing 700 kg in the Tornado hull, free from the propulsion system.
    1. BAI
      BAI 25 July 2020 20: 15
      +1
      But what about the Italian submarine - the SLC "Maiale" torpedo?
  13. Disorder
    Disorder 25 July 2020 13: 54
    0
    This class was invented in the USA during the Civil War.


    But what about the experiments on the Russian fleet in 1862

    On the night of October 27-28, 1864, a steam launch under the command of Lieutenant Cushing, armed with a pole mine, attacked the southern battleship Albemarl, which was in the roadstead.


    There was also the sinking of the Hausatonic corvette by the Hanley submarine on February 17 of the same year.


    Subsequently, the Italians developed two more generations of fireboats: the MTM and the MTR. The former were used, while the latter were unlucky: the Ambra submarine carrying them to the place of operation was sunk.


    MTM boats were originally in service with the 10th MAS flotilla. They were used in the Souda Bay (where the cruiser York was damaged and the tanker Pericles was sunk) and off Malta.
    The submarine "Ambra" was not sunk, but was sunk at the base in La Spezia in September 1943. The MTR boats were supposed to be used in the attack on the port of Syracuse in July 1943, but the "Ambra" was discovered and attacked by Allied anti-submarine forces. As a result of the injuries received, she was forced to terminate the operation and return.
  14. abcdefg
    abcdefg 25 July 2020 19: 33
    0
    Admiral Spiridonov ?? !!
    Bravissimo !!! ...
  15. BAI
    BAI 25 July 2020 20: 12
    +1
    The door in the side is closer to the stern.

    There were no doors in the fleet. There were no kitchens and toilets.
    There were clinkets, galleys and latrines.
    1. vahpus
      vahpus 25 July 2020 20: 39
      -1
      Quote: BAI
      There were no doors in the fleet. There were no kitchens and toilets.
      There were clinkets, galleys and latrines.

      There were and are.
      And doors.
      And toilets.
      And the kitchen.
      Thieves also try to use an incomprehensible language (hair dryer) to bother. These pontores of marine themes are very similar to them.
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 31 July 2020 00: 57
        0
        Quote: vahpus
        Quote: BAI
        There were no doors in the fleet. There were no kitchens and toilets.
        There were clinkets, galleys and latrines.

        There were and are.
        And doors.
        And toilets.
        And the kitchen.
        Thieves also try to use an incomprehensible language (hair dryer) to bother. These pontores of marine themes are very similar to them.

        laughing
        And the riot on the battleship Potemkin, which began allegedly because of the "wormy meat" was due to the "misunderstandings" of the sailors to the innovation, "navy-style macaroni" was served.
        Tradition and conventions are serious stuff.
        Why not call the (sconce) the spire a winch?
  16. Ivan Tixiy
    Ivan Tixiy 2 September 2020 15: 42
    0
    What did the author want to say with this article? What is killed in war? So let him find the numbers of how many, on average, a soldier went on the attack before he died, during the Second World War. How long, on average, does an infantry platoon commander live in battle? It turns out that the suicide bombers have a better chance of surviving ...