Military Review

The first domestic military computer. How it all began

46
The first domestic military computer. How it all began

General purpose computer control panel M-20


At the dawn of the advent of computer technology, the Soviet Union felt rather confident. In the first half of the 1950s, Soviet computers were the best in Europe, second only to some American commercial models. Electronic computers were widely used to solve various problems, primarily for calculations. They have found applications in science and industry. The military began to show interest in computers. The first Soviet military computers, which appeared in the late 1950s, were used in the country's missile defense and air defense systems.

Creation of the first Soviet computers


The famous Soviet scientist Sergei Alekseevich Lebedev, who was at the forefront of the birth of domestic computing technology, had a hand in the creation of the first Soviet computers. Today Sergei Lebedev is rightly considered the founder of the Soviet computer industry. It was under his direct supervision in 1948-1950 that the first in the country, as well as in continental Europe, the Small Electronic Counting Machine (MESM) was created. The development was carried out in Kiev at the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.

The development did not go unnoticed, and already in 1950 Sergei Alekseevich Lebedev moved to Moscow, to the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering of the USSR Academy of Sciences (ITMiVT). In the capital, the scientist began to develop an even more advanced computer, which was included in history as a Large (high-speed) electronic calculating machine (BESM-1). The chief designer of the new computer was Academician Sergei Alekseevich Lebedev, who quickly selected and united a team of like-minded people, including from promising students. In particular, students of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute Vsevolod Burtsev and Vladimir Melnikov were sent to practice at the institute, who in the future themselves will become outstanding domestic engineers, scientists and designers in the field of creating electronic computers.

The development of BESM-1 was fully completed by 1953. In total, one computer was assembled, the assembly was carried out at the Moscow plant of calculating and analytical machines. Assembled in a single copy, the computer was intended for solving large production and scientific problems. At the same time, it served as the basis for the development of future even more powerful computers, as well as specialized military computers.


Sergei Alekseevich Lebedev, the founder of the Soviet computer industry

It should be noted that in the early 1950s, the USSR was rightly considered one of the leaders in the field of computer development. From the point of view of today, this sounds at least unusual, since by the end of its existence the USSR had lost this advantage, and modern Russia in the field of creating computer technology hopelessly lagged behind the most developed countries of the world. However, at the dawn of the formation of computers, everything was different. Assembled in 1953, BESM-1 was the fastest-operating electronic computer in Europe and one of the fastest-operating machines in the world. In terms of speed and memory capacity, this first Soviet supercomputer as of October 1953 was second only to the commercial model of the American company IBM - the IBM 701, whose deliveries to customers began in December 1952.

At the same time, computers of the early 1950s bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. BESM-1 provided maximum performance at the level of 8-10 thousand operations per second. The computer received a parallel 39-bit floating point arithmetic logic device. The number of bits for instruction codes is 39. The operative memory (RAM) of the first full-fledged Soviet computer was based on ferrite cores, and its capacity was only 1024 words (earlier Soviet computers used memory on mercury tubes or potentioscopes).

In addition, the electronic computer received a long-term memory device (DZU) on semiconductor diodes, the capacity of the device was also 1024 words. Some of the most frequently encountered subroutines and constants were stored in DZU.

In addition, BESM-1 could work with information storage devices on magnetic tapes: four blocks designed for 30 thousand words each, and on an intermediate storage device on two magnetic drums, which ensured storage of 5120 words each. The speed of information exchange with the drum reached 800 numbers per second, with a magnetic tape - up to 400 numbers per second. The input of information into BESM-1 was carried out using a photo-reading device on a punched tape, and the output of information was made to a special electromechanical printing device. At the same time, there was no system software in the machine.

Outwardly, it was a fairly massive computing machine, the creation of which took about five thousand vacuum tubes. Structurally, this Soviet computer was mounted on one main rack, there was a separate DZU rack, as well as a power cabinet, since the computer consumed a fairly large amount of electricity - up to 30 kW (this excluding the cooling system). The size of the computer was also quite large: the occupied area was almost 100 square meters.

It was decided to use the capabilities of the computer in the missile defense system


The appearance of the first Soviet full-fledged computer, the BESM-1, coincided with the beginning of the era of development in the Soviet Union of its own anti-missile defense (ABM) system. For the first time, they started talking about this in our country back in August 1953. It was then that seven marshals turned to ministries and institutions with instructions to create means of combating enemy ballistic missiles. Such weapon long-range action was rightly considered as the main means of delivering nuclear warheads to military and industrial facilities of the warring countries. For reliable interception of missiles, modern radars and new computers were needed, which would be responsible for calculating and controlling radar stations.


Computer BESM-1 on the first floor of the ITMiVT building in Moscow

Especially for the creation of the Soviet missile defense system as part of KB-1, a new special design bureau was formed - SKB-30. At the same time, the Soviet scientific base and industry expanded cooperation in the development of tools that could solve scientific and technical problems. In particular, the ITMiVT of the USSR Academy of Sciences received a special assignment from KB-1 to create a new digital machine, which, in terms of its speed, was supposed to surpass previous models and become the heart of the radar control system for long-range target tracking.

By 1956, the first work on the design of the new complex was completed, the defense of the draft design of the experimental missile defense system took place in March. In the same year, the USSR Ministry of Defense issued a permit not to build GNIIP-10 - the State Research and Development Testing Ground, which it was decided to place in the uninhabited Kazakh desert Betpak-Dala, between the western shore of the famous Lake Balkhash and the lower reaches of the Sarysu and Chu rivers. The experimental missile defense complex and the new anti-missile range were closely tied to each other, the chief designer of the entire system was Grigory Kisunko, a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. At the same time, the director of ITMiVT Academician Sergei Lebedev issued a technical assignment for the creation of a new computer, which was designated M-40 and was originally intended for the "A" system. System "A" is the code name for the first strategic missile defense complex in the Soviet Union.

The task to develop a new supercomputer was given to two development groups, one of which was headed by Vsevolod Burtsev. Both groups successfully coped with the task. By 1958, two new M-40 electronic computers were ready. The computers were assembled by specialists from the Zagorsk Electromechanical Plant.

The first military computer M-40


At the time of its creation, the M-40 machine became the fastest among all Soviet computers that were mass-produced in the country. At the same time, Vsevolod Burtsev proposed and implemented in practice a number of solutions that are very important for the development of domestic computer technology. In the military computer M-40, for the first time, the principles of parallelization of the computing process were implemented in practice at the hardware level of an electronic computer. All the main M-40 devices (arithmetic, external memory management, RAM, control) received autonomous control units and could work in parallel. Also, for the first time in the USSR, a multiplex data transmission channel was implemented. This solution made it possible, without slowing down the computing process of the computer, to receive and send the received information and data immediately from 10 asynchronously operating channels, the total throughput of which was estimated at one million bit / s.


The first Soviet anti-missile V-1000

The M-40, as well as its further modernization, the M-50 (50 thousand floating point operations), were complex military complexes for the control of long-range radar and precise targeting of anti-missiles. They were responsible for the calculations required to build trajectories and target missiles at enemy ballistic missiles. On March 4, 1961, the first successful interception of a ballistic missile in world and domestic history was carried out at a specially created test site "A" in Kazakhstan. The system, in which the M-40 computer was responsible for calculating the trajectory of the anti-missile, was able to intercept the R-12 ballistic missile. The interception was carried out 60 kilometers from the launch site of the anti-missile. According to the data of the recording equipment, the missile missile miss was 31,8 meters to the left and 2,2 meters in height with an allowable radius of destruction of 75 meters. The fragmentation charge of the V-1000 anti-missile successfully destroyed the R-12 warhead, which contained a weight simulator of a nuclear charge.

Speaking about the technical aspects of the military computer M-40, it can be noted that it was created on a mixed element base, in which both vacuum tubes and ferrites, and semiconductor transistors and diodes were used. At the same time, the speed of the machine increased to 40 thousand operations per second with a fixed point, which was about 4 times higher than the peak values ​​for BESM-1. The first full-fledged military computer received random access memory on ferrite cores with a total capacity of 4096 40-bit words. The external memory was a magnetic drum with a capacity of 6 thousand words. The military computer M-40 worked in conjunction with the equipment of the processor for exchange with the system subscribers and the equipment for keeping time.

For the creation and successful testing of the complex, the brain of which was the M-40 and M-50 computers, the team of leading developers of the M-40 computer was awarded the prestigious Lenin Prize. It was received by Sergey Lebedev and Vladislav Burtsev.
Author:
Photos used:
http://besm-6.ru
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 22 July 2020 05: 12
    0
    The dimensions of these Soviet computers were very large ... and the power consumption was the same.
    Good straps came out of punched cards ... the strength of the cardboard was at a height ... oh, it was a golden childhood.
    It's a pity, of course, too lagged behind the United States in the development of future generations of computers.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 22 July 2020 08: 01
      -15 qualifying.
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      It's a pity, of course, too lagged behind the United States in the development of future generations of computers.

      Scientists, who later fled over the hill, frightened the Central Committee with the fact that computers could replace them, so further developments were suspended, but no matter what, they continued in the army.
      1. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 22 July 2020 11: 53
        0
        In Russia and the USSR, there have always been "nuggets" among scientists and even ordinary people. But for various reasons, many were not given the opportunity to prove themselves.
        If the State cared, allocated the necessary funds, and did not persecute these people for their beliefs, then Russia would not almost always be in the role of catch-up.
      2. Maki Avellevich
        Maki Avellevich 25 July 2020 16: 15
        0
        Quote: Boris55
        Scientists, who later fled over the hill, frightened the Central Committee with the fact that computers could replace them, so further development was suspended

        looks like game.
        1. AML
          AML 31 August 2020 22: 25
          0
          Quote: Maki Avellevich
          Quote: Boris55
          Scientists, who later fled over the hill, frightened the Central Committee with the fact that computers could replace them, so further development was suspended

          looks like game.


          I will not argue that this is true, but there is a legend that at one time they wanted to create an electronic government. And it seems like yes, then they got scared and stopped developing it. But they stopped developing this particular system and not the whole direction
    2. unaha
      unaha 22 July 2020 09: 35
      +7
      We have not lagged behind. We curtailed our own developments and began to copy American ones. In this case, it is inappropriate to talk about the lag, it is laid down by definition.
      However, otherwise the result would have been the same - the USSR would have used "big" computers, but not "personal computers". That does not stimulate miniaturization and, accordingly, technologies for it.
      1. Licanat
        Licanat 22 July 2020 10: 21
        +2
        Right. Details in this video:

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlnh6ncU9J4
    3. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 11: 45
      +5
      In the 50s, everyone had it: lamps, ferrite, punch cards and 100 sq. m. The turning point came in the late 60s, with the invention of integrated circuits.
    4. AML
      AML 31 August 2020 22: 21
      0
      The first American computer was 20 meters long and had a live weight of 5 tons. performed 4 operations + - / *

      At that time, technologies + - were consistent everywhere. The breakthrough began after the advent of semiconductors. Although lamps have gone far since that time. Especially in miniaturization. I didn't see it myself, but experts claimed that there were almost tube microcircuits. If it were not for the heating of the cathode, it may have continued to be actively used.
    5. Evgeny Serostanov
      Evgeny Serostanov 30 September 2020 22: 07
      0
      Hello! The dimensions were determined by the element base.
    6. mainlion
      mainlion 8 October 2020 14: 47
      0
      After perestroika-catastrophe, the Americans came to the Institute for Nuclear Research. We started talking. The Americans asked to show them a computer with which the Russians calculated the power of a nuclear explosion near the epicenter, on the periphery, etc. Moreover, the Americans knew that the results were sufficient and accurate for those measurements. And they turned out to be no worse than theirs. How could this happen? Where is the computer? Ours showed them a brick and a tape measure. They were offended. As it is fashionable to call it now - trolls. They then approached on a grand scale: the field was divided into sectors, the sensors were laid, this and that ... Then ours explained: bricks were placed on the field of the landfill at a certain distance from the epicenter of the explosion. Marked. After the explosion, the remains were found. Distances were calculated using a tape measure. And then, according to the known physical formulas, everything else was calculated.
  2. Carib
    Carib 22 July 2020 07: 37
    +1
    The old men from the Politburo could not be trusted with planning the development of science and technology. This is in electronics, and the computing industry and in the automotive industry and many other places. According to the plan, they stopped developing their own, and began to steal and copy someone else's.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 24 July 2020 11: 20
      0
      Here, for those who are interested, an excellent resource on the history of computers https://www.computer-museum.ru/
  3. vadimtt
    vadimtt 22 July 2020 09: 55
    +2
    Eh, in the Soviet Union there were many successful and cunning developments of computers, it's a pity, almost everything went into the sand. Moreover, they began to suffer from copying to the detriment of their ideas. One Elbrus and PS2000 are worth something, especially the last one. I had to twist my brains on it in full, because in the late 80s there was little information available about parallel programming, and the standard blueprint documentation was still a quest wassat
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 11: 47
      0
      Eh. Elbrus and PSy were let down by the elemental base: (For example, due to the wild heat generation of domestic microcircuits, we had to fence a unique system of dijkost cooling on Elbrus-2 (which was originally created for the A-135). Performance was at the level of Cray-2 then, and here are the dimensions and reliability ... heh ... :(
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 11: 49
      +1
      PS3000 was, in fact, the first "completely parallel" (15 years before this became a trend)
  4. BAI
    BAI 22 July 2020 10: 41
    +2
    Outwardly, it was a fairly massive computer, the creation of which took about five thousand vacuum tubes.

    BESM-1 had 2000 lamps.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 11: 50
      0
      The spare were counted. For that in ENIAC, in MESM, in BESM-1, the replacement of burnt out lamps was constantly required
  5. Free wind
    Free wind 22 July 2020 10: 49
    -1
    As I remember tube TVs, I am attacked by a nervous trembling. The lamp will turn on, the TV will go out. Which lamp? And the devil only knows. Yes, there were also TV sets where lamps were inserted into the nests, there was a specific horror. And in these computers, there seems to be much more than 5000 lamps. Computers have reached incredible heights in 50-60 years. Scientists did not believe that this could be.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 11: 53
      +7
      The science fiction writers of the "golden age of optimism" (ie 50-60x) have everything amusing: either the hyperspace jump is calculated by manually filling punched cards, then the World Informator gives printouts to the request in a week :) IT and biotech are what science fiction writers (for very rare exceptions) overlooked .... As there in the "Andromeda Nebula": "Erg Noor twisted the handles of the calculation machine ..... Universal electronic machines such as ITU could not be installed on starships due to their size and fragility"
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 22 July 2020 21: 11
        +1
        Not necessarily they were wrong. If you look at modern laboratory computer installations (computer installations of a new type), then even laboratory stands there are the size of a house. And they have to decide when they start working on the tasks on which the "classics" will spend tens and hundreds of thousands of years. And this technique is low-cryogenic, fundamentally unsuitable for living conditions.
        So a businessman will have to wait a week for a printout of modeling the results of his business plan in a market economy or a starship to "twist the handles" on a specialized cryogenic computer crammed into the mass dimensions and the required reliability due to the ultimate specialization - the navigator has one, to control the thermonuclear reactor another, etc. etc.

  6. xomaNN
    xomaNN 22 July 2020 11: 48
    +2
    What is the path cybernetics has traveled in half a century! I remember my coursework on programming in Fortran on EC1020 at 76 meters. That was also a computer tongue But then the Soviet computers were still their own and did not lag behind foreign ones so much.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 15: 44
      +1
      Why, 1976 ... Even 1994 with the present time is incomparable. Nowadays, everyone has a supercomputer in his pocket at the beginning of 200x (smartphone, that is) :) But the computing brain is used ... hmm ... not at all in the direction that the "fathers" assumed :)
      1. Tochilka
        Tochilka 28 August 2020 22: 22
        0
        That's for sure. The boss is like a giranet, so he begins to send all sorts of boobs. And other lewdness. Or the sidekick is in a traffic jam and sends different videos from tik-tok.
  7. tolancop
    tolancop 22 July 2020 12: 42
    +8
    Quote: Free Wind
    As I remember tube TVs, I am attacked by a nervous trembling. The lamp will turn on, the TV will go out. Which lamp? And the devil only knows. Yes, there were also TV sets where lamps were inserted into the nests, there was a specific horror. ....

    Something you are very nervous. And I doubt that you have seen tube TVs in your eyes. I, for example, do not remember the household lamp equipment in which the lamps were BURNED. ALL lamps in household appliances were INSERTED INTO PANELS, EVERYTHING !!! (in the PANELS, not in the SOCKETS !!!) And the lamps in the panels worked reliably, they did not cause problems for years (if the panel is normal).
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 22 July 2020 14: 15
      -1
      Let there be a socket, not a nest, as the Chukchi proverb says: "Uno is penisual", But this creation was very fragile .. And even a TV on legs, it staggered like an old drunk, and even pliers next to it. I also found MP-39 transistors - MP-41. Which were not soldered, but inserted. In the "Spring" mafon (there was such a portable reel, in the seventies, it was cool) it was, if I'm not mistaken.
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 15: 44
      +1
      How old are you?
  8. ont65
    ont65 22 July 2020 12: 50
    +5
    In fact, the first were two projects from ideologically different teams. In addition to Lebedva, with his large-scale plans, which required colossal money, Brook and Rameev worked in Moscow, who with their group at the Energy Institute in the summer of 51 launched their M-1 on trophy valves, which was assembled in one small room for 4 -x square meters. At that time it was the most mobile computer! Some danced from mechanical calculators, others tried to independently develop ideas first realized by German scientists during the war. Good ideas don't come straight away. Someone lives in the old, someone is trying to rethink the general technical ideas and principles. The creation of the first computers is a thriller no less interesting than the appearance of rocketry.
  9. iouris
    iouris 22 July 2020 15: 04
    +1
    Write about a strange story about how the United States sent two computer specialists to the USSR in the late 70s to ensure the transition to Intel architecture. Isn't that what made it manageable?
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 22 July 2020 15: 46
      +1
      Bullshit .... Going to the 370s was an idiotic decision.
  10. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 22 July 2020 19: 18
    0
    The USSR was a leader in the development and implementation of computers until the mid-1960s.
    Military development - space, piece products

    A sharp lag is in the era of personal computers. Mass PCs in our country could not appear, due to the lack of a civilian buyer capable of purchasing such a thing. And without this, the industry went into stagnation. The development of microelectronics based on piece items for research institutes and the military did not have great success
  11. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 22 July 2020 20: 43
    0
    good groundwork on the topic of computers ... sorry did not get the proper continuation
  12. tolancop
    tolancop 23 July 2020 11: 21
    +1
    Quote: Free Wind
    Let there be a socket, not a nest, as the Chukchi proverb says: "Uno is penisual", But this creation was very fragile .. And even a TV on legs, it staggered like an old drunk, and even pliers next to it. I also found MP-39 transistors - MP-41. Which were not soldered, but inserted. In the "Spring" mafon (there was such a portable reel, in the seventies, it was cool) it was, if I'm not mistaken.

    The fact that you called the socket a socket indicates that you had nothing to do with them ...
    Normal lamp sockets (something like carbolite with metal edging) were very reliable. There were polystyrene panels - rubbish, but I met them only once.
    I had a BW TV "Record" on legs. As the drunkard did not swing, the pliers did not lie nearby. Worked without problems for 20 years. Transistors of the MP series, I did not just find it, I started with them. But I never heard of the fact that the transistors were inserted somewhere, and not soldered ... Something with the reliability of the information coming from you, I see big problems ...
  13. tolancop
    tolancop 23 July 2020 11: 23
    0
    Quote: iouris
    Write about a strange story about how the United States sent two computer specialists to the USSR in the late 70s to ensure the transition to Intel architecture. Isn't that what made it manageable?

    Are you right with the architecture from Intel? They switched to IBM - it was. And they sinned with DEC: DCK, Elektronika-60 ...
  14. tolancop
    tolancop 23 July 2020 11: 27
    0
    Quote: Bersaglieri
    Bullshit .... Going to the 370s was an idiotic decision.

    Maybe. But, I suppose, there were still some reasons for this. Offhand: the ability to use someone else's software.
    1. KPblC
      KPblC 23 July 2020 23: 22
      -1
      The foundation was and VERY BIG. The entire Soviet backlog on computers was a vinaigrette of non-standardized computers with a unique architecture and software, which all ministries produced by ordering computers for themselves according to unique technical specifications and rentals, and standardization and a common program field were needed yesterday.
  15. Virus-free crown
    Virus-free crown 23 July 2020 20: 22
    0
    Eh ... I read the article - I remembered my youth !!! good

    To the author of the article - ours with a brush !!! hi drinks

    What, it turns out, I am ancient, that at one time I managed to program on BESM-6 laughing lol
  16. K298rtm
    K298rtm 23 July 2020 20: 32
    0
    In the mid-70s, in the field of computers for aircraft, the USSR lagged behind the United States, but was slightly higher than the level of France (judging by the BIUS on the head French SSB - it is in a museum in Cherbourg).
  17. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 31 July 2020 18: 07
    0
    Was the decision to copy the Ibiam episode a mistake? Undoubtedly. But, we got access to a lot of programs written in the West. Also with the SM computer series. Everything is in Russian, but in case of system errors, the translator swears strictly in English. And in our office they bought the last BESM-6, already on microcircuits. but then the iron curtain began to open and the personal machines went like a shaft ... The Apricots worked for a very long time ... Maybe now they are somewhere alive ...
  18. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 31 July 2020 18: 09
    0
    Quote: tolancop
    Quote: iouris
    Write about a strange story about how the United States sent two computer specialists to the USSR in the late 70s to ensure the transition to Intel architecture. Isn't that what made it manageable?

    Are you right with the architecture from Intel? They switched to IBM - it was. And they sinned with DEC: DCK, Elektronika-60 ...



    Why did they forget Hewlett-Packard? M-6000, SM-2M, SM-1100 ...
  19. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 31 July 2020 18: 11
    0
    Quote: tolancop
    Quote: Free Wind
    As I remember tube TVs, I am attacked by a nervous trembling. The lamp will turn on, the TV will go out. Which lamp? And the devil only knows. Yes, there were also TV sets where lamps were inserted into the nests, there was a specific horror. ....

    Something you are very nervous. And I doubt that you have seen tube TVs in your eyes. I, for example, do not remember the household lamp equipment in which the lamps were BURNED. ALL lamps in household appliances were INSERTED INTO PANELS, EVERYTHING !!! (in the PANELS, not in the SOCKETS !!!) And the lamps in the panels worked reliably, they did not cause problems for years (if the panel is normal).



    The panels were plastic and burned out once or twice. But if it was possible to get it from the military and solder it, then they stood forever: the contacts in them were gilded ...
  20. Artunis
    Artunis 1 August 2020 13: 47
    0
    The article is interesting, but short. Especially with regards to the general picture of the state of development in the late USSR, continuous stereotypes of the newspaper level. Everything is far from quite so in terms of the lag in development and in practical implementation in hardware. As strange as it may sound, we didn’t lag behind and if we didn’t get ahead, then in any case we went head-to-head with the West, and on our own independent path. I will not go into details - there are a lot of letters. And there were several independent development centers - Kiev, Minsk, Leningrad, Moscow, of course, and even Tashkent! Suffice it to recall the Setun computer based on the ternary number system - a revolutionary and promising project even now. And the element base was completely own and no worse than the western one. An example - the world's first 16-bit processor was developed and began to be mass-produced in the USSR (Zelenograd), in the USA then only an 8-bit processor in the 80s. The paradox (tragedy) is that at the level of the Central Committee of the CPSU a decision was made (at the insistence of the GDR - some comrades) to copy IBM computers for mass production for the needs of NarHoz, and their developments did not go into series and funding was minimized.
    As for the current situation - there are developments and very promising (Elbrus and others), but there is no microelectronics production base from the word "absolutely", everything is done in hardware in China (well, or almost everything) - in the 90s everything was deliberately destroyed under the motto "We will buy everything!" So we buy a doge for a military man. Sadness!
    1. AML
      AML 31 August 2020 22: 40
      0
      Now all mass production of microelectronics is in the Asian world. Not in China, so in Malaysia or the Philippines
  21. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 11 September 2020 19: 48
    0
    The first photo is valid. The computer specialist is in felt boots. Was it really so cold there?
  22. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 11 September 2020 19: 51
    0
    Quote: Artunis
    The article is interesting, but short. Especially with regards to the general picture of the state of development in the late USSR, continuous stereotypes of the newspaper level. Everything is far from quite so in terms of the lag in development and in practical implementation in hardware. As strange as it may sound, we didn’t lag behind and if we didn’t get ahead, then in any case we went head-to-head with the West, and on our own independent path. I will not go into details - there are a lot of letters. And there were several independent development centers - Kiev, Minsk, Leningrad, Moscow, of course, and even Tashkent! Suffice it to recall the Setun computer based on the ternary number system - a revolutionary and promising project even now. And the element base was completely own and no worse than the western one. An example - the world's first 16-bit processor was developed and began to be mass-produced in the USSR (Zelenograd), in the USA then only an 8-bit processor in the 80s. The paradox (tragedy) is that at the level of the Central Committee of the CPSU a decision was made (at the insistence of the GDR - some comrades) to copy IBM computers for mass production for the needs of NarHoz, and their developments did not go into series and funding was minimized.
    As for the current situation - there are developments and very promising (Elbrus and others), but there is no microelectronics production base from the word "absolutely", everything is done in hardware in China (well, or almost everything) - in the 90s everything was deliberately destroyed under the motto "We will buy everything!" So we buy a doge for a military man. Sadness!



    Head to head? The M-6000 had ferrite memory. And the Americans are already on semiconductors, the HP-21 MX machine. We were lagging behind by 10 years. And when we got personalities in our department, I realized that we were forever behind ...
  23. bbss
    bbss 15 September 2020 00: 39
    0
    In the early 70s, I served as an urgent in the country's air defense, specifically in the capital of Kyrgyzstan, the city of Frunze. He was an operator of a reconnaissance and target designation radar. And I got from the battalion on a business trip to the brigade's command post ... That's where I happened to observe a combat computer (it seemed to be located in my own kunga) and its work in exercises. I don't know what kind of car. Perhaps it was part of the ASURK system ... I knew it not by rank, but it's a pity. Now that's very interesting.