Military Review

Tank market leaders

36

Tanks T-90S of the Indian army. Photo by the RF Ministry of Defense / mil.ru


Main battle tanks remain one of the most popular commodities on the international arms and equipment market. Several countries offer their products of this kind, and some of these products have shown outstanding commercial success. In recent decades, the Russian T-90, German Leopard 2 and American M1 Abrams have become the most exported MBTs on the market.

The most popular


In 1999, the first export contract was signed for the sale of the T-90S MBT. In the following years, several similar agreements appeared, as a result of which the T-90S and its modifications became the best-selling tanks of our time. To meet the needs of customers, the production of such MBTs is carried out both in our country and abroad under license.

India became the largest buyer of the T-90S, which actually determined its commercial success. It was she who in 1999 became a starting foreign customer, and then established a licensed assembly. According to known data, now in combat units there are more than 1000 T-90S tanks and several hundred have been put into reserve. Algeria and Azerbaijan also became important customers - 400 and 100 tanks, respectively. Other countries limited themselves to purchasing dozens or units of equipment.


Turkmen T-90S. Photo Wikimedia Commons

The production of the T-90S and its modifications for existing orders continues to this day. In addition, there are regular reports of possible new export contracts. The number of exported and licensed T-90S is approaching 2 thousand. Fulfilling existing orders, apart from those expected, will increase this number.

It is important that we are talking about new build tanks. Export T-90s are mainly produced from scratch and specifically for specific customers. Finished equipment from Russian parts or from storage was transferred only to individual customers and in minimal quantities.

The reasons for the commercial success of the T-90 and its modifications are obvious. This MBT has the most favorable price-performance ratio. In terms of mobility, protection and weapons, the T-90S meets modern requirements. The proposed modernization projects improve all the main characteristics and qualities. At the same time, the tank remains relatively cheap - the cost of a modern T-90SM does not exceed $ 4,5 million, which is significantly less than the prices for foreign equipment.


Strv 122 - Leopard 2 of the Swedish army. Photo Wikimedia Commons

Used Germans


In terms of total export volumes - with certain reservations - the German MBT Leopard 90 can be compared with the Russian T-2S. Equipment of this type in various modifications has been produced since the end of the seventies, and by now approx. 3600 tanks. Until a certain time, the armed forces of the FRG remained the main customer of this technology. Mass export shipments began later.

After the end of the Cold War, the Bundeswehr command decided to drastically reduce the number of tanks in combat units. Tank troops were reduced and after a series of transformations in Germany, a little more than 300 Leopard 2 tanks, mostly of later modifications, continue to serve. Other equipment was taken to the reserve and then put up for sale. In addition, the production of tanks continued, mainly for export.

From the beginning of the nineties to the present, Germany has sold more than 2800 MBTs of the Leopard-2 family, and about two-thirds of this amount fell on vehicles from stock. The main buyers of such equipment were European states, which wanted to update the fleet of armored forces with limited spending. The countries of North and South America and Asia were also interested in tanks. However, not in all cases negotiations reached contracts. The country's leadership has banned the sale of equipment to several foreign countries.


Leopard 2PL - Polish modernization of a German tank. Photo Wikimedia Commons

An interesting fact is that some armored vehicles managed to change several owners. So, in the early nineties, several hundred MBTs were acquired by the Netherlands. Later they abandoned tanks and sold a significant number of used vehicles to Canada. Several of these tanks then returned to Germany, where they underwent modernization and returned to service.

The reasons for the popularity of the German MBT of the Leopard-2 line are quite simple. The Bundeswehr made a serious discount “for second-hand”, and the buyer could get a tank with sufficiently high characteristics and the remaining resource for an acceptable $ 1,5-2,5 million. However, later modifications have seriously risen in price. For Leopard 2A6 or 2A7, the manufacturer asks for at least $ 5-6 million.

American products


American tank builders can boast of significant commercial successes. MBT M1 Abrams of the first modification went into series in the early eighties and was initially produced only for the US Army. Later, the first export contracts appeared, and by now Abrams was able to become one of the leaders in sales.


M1A1 tank of the Egyptian armed forces. Photo Wikimedia Commons

In total, more than 10 thousand M1 tanks were produced - most of them went to their own army. Approx. 2200 machines, both new and retired. At the same time, such equipment was acquired by only six countries that have good relations with Washington.

The largest foreign operator of the Abrams family tanks is the Egyptian army. She acquired approx. 1200 MBT version M1A1. Both ready-made tanks and assembly kits were purchased. Most of such equipment remains in operation, although several dozen vehicles had to be put into reserve. Saudi Arabia acquired approx. 400 tanks of the M1A2 version and the modified M1A2SA modification. Kuwait received over 200 A2 tanks. Iraq, Australia and Morocco were forced to limit themselves to a few dozen tanks.

Advertising materials claim that modern versions of the M1 Abrams MBT compare favorably with other vehicles with increased characteristics and improved combat qualities. However, these tanks, depending on the modification, can be quite expensive. So, M1A1 for Australia, taken from storage and repaired, cost approx. $ 1,2 million apiece, and the cost of the latest modifications can reach $ 8-9 million.


M1A1 of the Iraqi Army. Photo US Department of Defense / defenseimagery.mil

It is easy to see that the United States in the production of its "Abrams" focused on its own rearmament, while the export of equipment was not a priority. In addition, the high cost and willingness to cooperate only with a limited circle of friendly states affected the commercial prospects of the American MBT. However, all this did not prevent the obtaining of very remarkable results.

And others


In addition to Russia, Germany and the USA, other countries are now producing and exporting their MBTs. First of all, this is China. The PRC industry has developed a number of tanks with different characteristics, intended only for export supplies. Some of them went into series and are supplied to customers. Nevertheless, in terms of its number, none of these MBTs can yet compete with the market leaders. But China continues to pursue this direction and looks to the future with optimism.

Also of note is the French MBT Leclerc. It was produced from 1990 to 2008, and during this time, approx. 860 dmg. More than 400 tanks were acquired by the French army, and the rest were sold to the only foreign customer - the United Arab Emirates. The main problem of Leclerc, limiting its export potential, was the high cost. Due to the most modern electronic equipment, tanks of the latest series cost more than $ 10 million.


MBT Leclerc of the UAE army. Photo Lostarmour.info

Present and future


The situation on the international MBT market in recent decades is quite simple and predictable. Potential buyers choose equipment in terms of quality and cost ratio. In addition, in some cases, political factors play a role: it is not always possible for a specific country to conclude a contract with a specific supplier.

Apparently, the current market situation will not undergo major changes in the foreseeable future. The T-90S and its modifications will remain the most popular new tanks, and the Leopard 2 will retain its leading position in the used market.

However, there are already prerequisites for changing this situation. A new major player appears on the market - China. In addition, the leading countries are engaged in the development of promising tanks, which will also be able to enter the market in the future. However, such processes will take more than one year, and so far the situation should not change.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 20 July 2020 05: 59 New
    +2
    I did not read anything new in the article.
    1. alma
      alma 20 July 2020 07: 14 New
      15
      Just a repetition of the material to refresh the "knowledge"
    2. Sidor Amenpodestovich
      Sidor Amenpodestovich 20 July 2020 08: 10 New
      -6
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I did not read anything new in the article.

      Was the article written personally for you? Where is it indicated? I can't find something in the text ...
      However, you have conceit. "The state is me!"
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 20 July 2020 09: 15 New
        +2
        And for me as well! I am a reader and forum member like everyone else. But who are you to consider me a renegade or an upstart?
        For four years I have read and expressed gratitude to this author and more interesting articles.
        So here you have a shot in the air!
        1. Sidor Amenpodestovich
          Sidor Amenpodestovich 20 July 2020 09: 34 New
          -2
          Your initial comment is an arrogant arrogance. It should be more modest. Well, or at least try.
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 20 July 2020 09: 35 New
            0
            You have a perverse perception of the statement of fact.
            1. Sidor Amenpodestovich
              Sidor Amenpodestovich 20 July 2020 10: 02 New
              -3
              Then explain, for whom did you write "I have not read anything new in the article"?
              1. The leader of the Redskins
                The leader of the Redskins 20 July 2020 10: 06 New
                +3
                For those with whom I communicate here, I argue sometimes. Have you read some kind of discovery for yourself in this opus? Congratulations. Thank the author and do not clog the air please. I am working.
                1. Sidor Amenpodestovich
                  Sidor Amenpodestovich 20 July 2020 10: 11 New
                  -5
                  My dear fellow, you are ignorant. and a perfect example of a pseudo-intellectual.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 20 July 2020 19: 05 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Sydor Amenpospestovich
                    My dear fellow, you are ignorant. and a perfect example of a pseudo-intellectual.

                    Dear quirite, tell me, what new have you learned from this article? That the T-90 is being sold to anyone who can buy? Or the fact that the US sells its Abrams only to its allies or to those it holds by the throat? Or the fact that, because of the gold value, everyone turned away from the Gaul, except for the Arabs, who ... piss with money?
                    1. Sidor Amenpodestovich
                      Sidor Amenpodestovich 21 July 2020 10: 01 New
                      0
                      Well, you have not read anything new for yourself in the article, why bother and notify all the respectable public with a comment about this?
                      Close the page and turn your gaze to something else.
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 21 July 2020 18: 44 New
                        0
                        Quote: Sydor Amenpospestovich
                        Well, you have not read anything new for yourself in the article, why bother and notify all the respectable public with a comment about this?
                        Close the page and turn your gaze to something else.

                        In fact, the Comments exist precisely so that everyone can express their opinion. For example, you spoke out against those who did not find anything new in the article, but at the same time did not say what you learned from this article.
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 20 July 2020 06: 29 New
    11
    Just numbers, 2000-T-90, 2200-Abrams, 2800-Leopards.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 20 July 2020 07: 11 New
      +4
      I gave you a plus. And then some of the offended completely minus.
    2. alexmach
      alexmach 20 July 2020 14: 06 New
      +4
      And how did the author of the T-90 come out the most popular then? The author has not read his own article or what?
  3. Doccor18
    Doccor18 20 July 2020 07: 45 New
    -1
    Apparently, the current market situation in the foreseeable future will not undergo major changes ...

    It seems to endure. Few people need MBT for 10 million bucks.
    Russia and China will rule the ball in export tank construction in the foreseeable future.
    The United States will shove its expensive "toys" into sworn friends. And Europeans will be demonstrators of technology at exhibitions to flaunt ...
    1. avib
      avib 20 July 2020 08: 44 New
      -4
      Everything will be decided by market conditions and politics. India will never buy Chinese tanks. No NATO country will sell tanks, for example, to Iran. The world is divided, markets are divided. Countries such as Egypt, with both Abrams and, in parallel, T90 - an exception to the rule. A rare exception.
      As for vtyuhivat. You can suck in bullshit. Maybe someone agrees to take bullshit - but for free. So this is already a big policy that costs a lot of money.
      With the development of anti-tank weapons - in recent years, tanks have become less significant combat units. There the Dutch generally abandoned tanks, the rest of the NATO are also reducing the number of tanks. Trend.
      1. 5-9
        5-9 20 July 2020 10: 00 New
        0
        They refuse tanks only because of poverty and the absence of a real threat of war.
        Iraq also has M1 and T-72 at the same time .... well, as it is, M1s are broken or broken and are in a joke ... there is no money to send for repairs in the USA
        1. Lebed
          Lebed 20 July 2020 10: 07 New
          10
          Quote: 5-9
          there is no money to send for repairs in the USA

          Yes, let them send to us. We will understand and repair.
          1. 5-9
            5-9 20 July 2020 15: 59 New
            0
            They have old М1А1 ... There is nothing to watch ... But the Saudi М1А2SА analogue of SEPv. 2 can be felt ...
      2. Private-K
        Private-K 20 July 2020 10: 19 New
        +3
        Quote: avib
        With the development of anti-tank weapons, tanks have recently become less significant combat units.

        I hear about the end of the "era of tanks" since my boyhood - from the 2nd floor. 1980s.
        But Bkrya happened in the desert in 1991 and the wrestlers calmed down.
        Until the 2nd half of the 1990s. And again: "the tanks have outlived theirs!"
        But then the second war in the Persian Gulf of 2003 happened - tanks were needed again (who would have thought!). And hoo as needed. Moreover, even the most technologically advanced amers.
        And here again - "tanks driving scrap metal!"
        But the war in the Donbass - 2014-15 - again tanks.
        What is it!
        It would seem that armies are saturated with PTS above the top of the head, or can be saturated even higher if necessary - it is already easy to carry out their business. But the tanks remain extremely needed as soon as it comes to the Cause. Despite its vulnerability to both PTS and other types of weapons.

        Quote: avib
        the dutch abandoned tanks altogether

        Nobody is interested in the opinion of the Dutch about tanks. That’s not at all interesting.
        However, it should be noted that they removed them from service primarily for financial reasons. Well, in the absence of a real "military threat": well, who will get to the little cozy Holland in tanks?


        Quote: avib
        the rest of NATO are also reducing the number of tanks. Trend.

        The military from the Bundeswehr persistently want and have already achieved an increase in the reduced tank fleet.
        Trend? Or maybe everything should be considered from a different angle, and the matter is not at all in the tanks themselves, and not even in purely military reasons, but in the situation and condition of Western European countries, the brains of people who came to power, the geopolitical situation? AND?
        1. avib
          avib 20 July 2020 11: 17 New
          +1
          Quote: Private-K
          Trend? Or maybe everything should be considered from a different angle, and the matter is not at all in the tanks themselves, and not even in purely military reasons, but in the situation and condition of Western European countries, the brains of people who came to power, the geopolitical situation? AND?


          People who came to power in Western European countries express the opinion of the majority of residents of Western European countries. This is how democracy and elections work.
          Perhaps their position does not coincide with yours, but this does not mean that it is incorrect.
          They live with their brains and very well. I hope you will not compare the standard of living of North Korea, militarized to the teeth, and Holland, which has abandoned tanks. Like Holland, no one is going to attack North Korea. What for? Until they were engaged in the development of nuclear weapons, no one cared about them at all. Well, after they had something there - and the sanctions went and hunger and further down the list - no one is interested in having a psychopath with a nuclear bomb nearby - Kim's brains are really not Western European.
          I fully agree with you that the quantity and quality of weapons in different countries cannot be viewed as a simple function depending, for example, on the number of people in the country - everything is much more complicated. And the tanks ... the next generation will probably already be unmanned, and there will be no more wars with fronts of thousands of kilometers and tank breakthroughs, because there will probably be no wars between equal in strength and large countries, and if there is, then there will be no longer tanks participate.
          1. Out
            Out 20 July 2020 15: 22 New
            0
            This is how democracy and elections work.
            Modern democracy, if we recall the historical meaning of this word, is an oligarchy.
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 20 July 2020 11: 16 New
        +3
        "Massive" cheap tanks are no longer needed. Now the doctrine of "tank waves"
        will not pass. Therefore, the number has decreased in the armies of all countries.
        But an offensive without tanks is impossible. They coordinate all other forces
        forming the backbone of battle battalion groups.
      4. Alf
        Alf 20 July 2020 19: 09 New
        0
        Quote: avib
        The Dutch have given up on tanks altogether,

        The Dutch have legalized drugs at all, and what should everyone do?
        Quote: avib
        the rest of NATO are also reducing the number of tanks.

        Are they going to fight at all? The military doctrine of the Bundeswehr generally states that the Bundeswehr exists only for local wars.
        1. avib
          avib 20 July 2020 19: 24 New
          +1
          Quote: Alf
          Are they going to fight at all? The military doctrine of the Bundeswehr generally states that the Bundeswehr exists only for local wars.

          No, they are not. Why should they fight? Against who?
          1. Alf
            Alf 20 July 2020 19: 27 New
            0
            Quote: avib
            Quote: Alf
            Are they going to fight at all? The military doctrine of the Bundeswehr generally states that the Bundeswehr exists only for local wars.

            No, they are not. Why should they fight? Against who?

            So they shout about the Russian military threat 25 hours a day.
            And why did they stir up the supertank with the Franks? Who should be chased with a tank for ... hundred million? Unruly Zusul?
            1. avib
              avib 20 July 2020 19: 29 New
              0
              Quote: Alf
              Quote: avib
              Quote: Alf
              Are they going to fight at all? The military doctrine of the Bundeswehr generally states that the Bundeswehr exists only for local wars.

              No, they are not. Why should they fight? Against who?

              So they shout about the Russian military threat 25 hours a day.


              Is Russia really going to attack any of the NATO countries?
              They are definitely not going to attack Russia. For why?
              For the bowels? All this can be bought.
  4. 123456789
    123456789 20 July 2020 12: 35 New
    -5
    Quote: voyaka uh
    “Massive” cheap tanks are no longer needed. Now the doctrine of "tank waves" will not work. Therefore, the number has decreased in the armies of all countries.

    Russia has the most tanks in the world - their number is comparable to the common tank fleet of NATO, American media write. The European countries participating in the alliance have 11 thousand tanks, the USA and Canada together - 18 thousand. The Russian Ground Forces have 22 thousand tanks at their disposal.
    1. Alf
      Alf 20 July 2020 19: 19 New
      +1
      Quote: 123456789
      European member countries of the alliance have 11 thousand tanks,

      Can I go by country?
  5. 123456789
    123456789 20 July 2020 19: 52 New
    -1
    [quote = Alpha] [quote =
    Is it possible by country? [/ Quote]
    Table with data on the number of tanks in the countries of the world



    № Enterprise
    Country
    Number of tanks per piece
    Information Date
    1
    Russia
    22710
    2008
    2
    China
    9000
    2014
    3
    USA
    8725
    2011
    4
    India
    5978
    2011
    5
    Egypt
    4145
    2011
    6
    Pakistan
    4000
    2006
    7
    Ukraine
    3784
    2011
    8
    Turkey
    3763
    2014
    9
    Syria
    3500
    2005
    10
    North Korea
    3500
    2011
    11
    Iran
    2895
    2006
    12
    Germany
    2500
    2014
    13
    South Korea
    2429
    2012
    14
    Taiwan
    1926
    2014
    15
    Vietnam
    1829
    2014
    16
    Israel
    1680
    2011
    17
    Belarus
    1608
    1999
    18
    Cuba
    1600
    2014
    19
    Kazakhstan
    1266
    2014
    20
    Yemen
    1250
    2014
    21
    Greece
    1244
    2013
    22
    Jordan
    1179
    2014
    23
    Algeria
    1105
    2014
    24
    Libya
    1085
    2014
    25
    Saudi Arabia
    1055
    2006
    26
    Poland
    990
    2014
    27
    Nigeria
    938
    2014
    28
    Japan
    902
    2011
    29
    Morocco
    871
    2011
    30
    Burma
    800
    2006
    31
    Mongolia
    735
    2014
    32
    Eritrea
    700
    2014
    33
    Bangladesh
    662
    2013
    34
    Cameroon
    638
    2014
    35
    Afghanistan
    600
    2014
    36
    Brazil
    581
    2009
    37
    Mexico
    567
    2014
    38
    Spain
    552
    2014
    39
    Thailand
    542
    2011
    40
    France
    527
    2013
    41
    Italy
    480
    2013
    42
    United Arab Emirates
    436
    2014
    43
    Argentina
    430
    2014
    44
    Ethiopia
    400
    2014
    45
    Romania
    350
    2014
    46
    Azerbaijan
    320
    2014
    47
    Lebanon
    310
    2014
    48
    Peru
    300
    2014
    49
    Angola
    300
    2014
    50
    Serbia
    272
    2014
    51
    Chile
    272
    2014
    52
    Шри Ланка
    250
    2008
    53
    Canada
    235
    1999
    54
    United Kingdom
    227
    2013
    55
    Switzerland
    224
    2014
    56
    Georgia
    220
    2011
    57
    Sudan
    200
    2014
    58
    Iraq
    197
    2014
    59
    Venezuela
    194
    2014
    60
    Kenya
    186
    2014
    61
    Cyprus
    184
    2013
    62
    Finland
    169
    2013
    63
    South Africa
    168
    2014
    64
    Austria
    162
    2013
    65
    Sweden
    160
    2014
    66
    Netherlands
    144
    2011
    67
    Ecuador
    140
    2014
    68
    Portugal
    137
    2014
    69
    Norway
    136
    2008
    70
    Чешская республика
    123
    2013
    71
    Armenia
    110
    2011
    72
    Cambodia
    100
    2014
    73
    Singapore
    100
    2014
    74
    Tanzania
    96
    2014
    75
    Oman
    93
    2014
    76
    Uruguay
    85
    2014
    77
    Bulgaria
    80
    2013
    78
    Croatia
    80
    2013
    79
    Zimbabwe
    77
    2014
    80
    Malaysia
    64
    2014
    81
    Chad
    60
    2014
    82
    Australia
    59
    2014
    83
    Denmark
    57
    2013
    84
    Belgium
    35
    2013
    85
    Hungary
    32
    2013
    86
    Republic of Macedonia
    31
    2014
    87
    Laos
    30
    2014
    88
    Zambia
    30
    2014
    89
    Slovakia
    20
    2014
    90
    Slovenia
    20
    2014
    91
    Ireland
    14
    2014
    92
    Indonesia
    0.0
    2014
    93
    Philippines
    0.0
    2014
    94
    Haiti
    0.0
    2014
    95
    Burundi
    0.0
    2014



    Источник информации: http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Military/Army/Main-battle-tanks#-%D1%81%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%BC%D0%B0
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 20 July 2020 21: 44 New
      0
      Indonesia - 61 Leopard 2RI, 42 Leopard 2+ (2A4) deliveries completed in 2016 - article VO 28.02.2017 "Army of the Archipelago: Indonesia's defense industry is steadily developing".
    2. Grazdanin
      Grazdanin 20 July 2020 22: 01 New
      0
      This source is crap complete. The Military Balance is a must watch. There are adequate numbers.
      According to The Military Balance, more than 10 thousand armored vehicles remain in reserve, while the active fleet of tank units does not exceed 2800 units.
    3. Alf
      Alf 21 July 2020 18: 59 New
      0
      There are 7500 tanks in your list of European NATO allies, but not the 11000 that you brought. Burundi, Israel, Haiti, Zambia, etc. should not be referred to as EuroNATO.
  6. 123456789
    123456789 22 July 2020 10: 09 New
    0
    Quote: Alf
    There are 7500 tanks in your list of European NATO allies, but not the 11000 that you brought. Burundi, Israel, Haiti, Zambia, etc. should not be referred to as EuroNATO.

    Start all over again on the cola!
    Quote: 123456789
    American media write... European member countries of the alliance have 11 thousand tanks,

    I don't know how they thought:
    mb Ukrainian as their own
    mb arithmetic of American media
    mb translation difficulties
  7. KOLORADO73
    KOLORADO73 25 July 2020 21: 54 New
    0
    Anglo-Saxon tanks are the best: Abrams and Challenger!