Military Review

China is preparing to send the first mission to Mars

77
China is preparing to send the first mission to Mars

China prepares for the first Martian mission. According to the Chinese Corporation of Aerospace Science and Technology (CASC), the Changzheng-5 (Long March 5) carrier rocket was delivered to the launch site of the Wenchang cosmodrome on Hainan Island.


China is preparing to send the first Chinese probe "Tianwen-1" ("Questions to the Sky") to the red planet to explore Mars. The Changzheng-5 launch vehicle is supposed to directly launch it into a transfer orbit between Earth and Mars.

It is planned that in the period from the second half of July to the first half of August, the first Chinese mission to explore Mars "Tianwen-1" will be launched.

- said in a statement.

A probe for exploring Mars has already been delivered to the cosmodrome. According to available information, the launch of the rocket may take place on July 23. According to preliminary calculations, the probe will take seven months to reach the planet's surface. If successful, it will send the received data to Earth in 2021.

According to the plans of Chinese scientists, "Tianwen-1" should enter the orbit of Mars, make a certain number of rotations around the planet, and then land and continue studying the surface of the planet.

As stated, the main goal of the mission is to search for possible signs of life on Mars. In addition, Chinese scientists want to understand whether conditions on this planet can change in the future so that it becomes suitable for human life.
77 comments
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  1. Klingon
    Klingon 17 July 2020 10: 05 New
    +8
    here, and we have long been catching up .. we’re not rockets but space skyscrapers and air temples
    1. military_cat
      military_cat 17 July 2020 10: 11 New
      20
      In the coming month, a window opens for the most convenient launches to Mars for the next two years. NASA also plans to launch the Perseverance rover in early August. Good luck to the Chinese, they will need it, the ChZh-5 is a new rocket that flies a little and once crashes. Also heptilnitsa, like Proton, but the Chinese do not care.
      1. Starover_Z
        Starover_Z 17 July 2020 10: 21 New
        +5
        As stated, the main goal of the mission is to search for possible signs of life on Mars. In addition, Chinese scientists want to understand whether conditions on this planet can change in the future so that it becomes suitable for human life.

        Did the Chinese decide to colonize Mars in the near future? Then it will not be the “red”, but the “yellow” planet!
        1. Runoway
          Runoway 17 July 2020 11: 12 New
          -10
          Why is it all torn? Is there a real answer?
          Learning is bullshit (there is a lot of unexplored on my planet)
          Minerals bullshit (they can't get helium 3 from the Moon)
          REN TV's version of the search for artifacts for breakthrough technologies seems to be the most reasonable
          1. Per se.
            Per se. 17 July 2020 12: 52 New
            +5
            Quote: Runoway
            Why is it all torn? Is there a real answer?
            And why did the Americans rush to the moon? On the move, already back in 1969, they took it and began to fly. Now something is no longer flying, although more than 50 years have passed, and the technical wonders of the XNUMXst century have long been in the yard. It was big politics, first of all, it was necessary to prove the "advantages" of capitalism.

            Now the Americans are no longer interested in the Moon; they reached Mars. The first device "Spirit" (English, "spirit"), worked for more than 5 years, and "Curiosity" ("curiosity"), appeared on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012, and is still working there, to the glory of NASA and the United States. According to the engineering team "Curiosity", plutonium heat and electricity generators will work for about 7-8 years! This is something, considering that storms on Mars are one of the most global phenomena in the entire solar system. Storms can last for several months and cover enormous territories. There are giant tornadoes and dry lightning. Apparently, there is no need for American technology; in some Sahara it would not be enough for a year, but on Mars everything is easier, as on the Canadian island of Devon.

            Why do the Chinese need Mars? You have to understand that this is first of all big politics, and only after science and technology. In terms of “development,” I will quote Vladimir Putin about who will be the first to fly to Mars, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin replied (in an interview with Govorukhin on April 2017.04.03, XNUMX):
            "A machine. Why? Because everyone is planning flights to Mars, but few people know that in in today's conditions and in today's spaceships, a living cell is unlikely to reach it. It's just that a living cell in such a hard space, in the distant, is not protected by a spaceship... Probably, everything is changing and, probably, such opportunities will appear, but there are still problems. Therefore, for now, probably, research will be carried out with the help of technology. "
            I hope no one will suspect the president's incompetence. And, yes, the Americans "flew" to the moon in rag spacesuits, with diapers, most importantly, during the years of maximum solar activity. Also, according to the declared orbits of NASA (the passage of the Earth's radiation belts at the equator), which guaranteed a hundred percent lethal dose of radiation, but there was little information about this then.
        2. Doliva63
          Doliva63 17 July 2020 20: 46 New
          0
          Quote: Starover_Z
          As stated, the main goal of the mission is to search for possible signs of life on Mars. In addition, Chinese scientists want to understand whether conditions on this planet can change in the future so that it becomes suitable for human life.

          Did the Chinese decide to colonize Mars in the near future? Then it will not be the “red”, but the “yellow” planet!

          The Chinese state flag is red, so do not worry, Mars will remain red - on the maps, at least laughing drinks
      2. Roman123567
        Roman123567 17 July 2020 11: 17 New
        +1
        Dokha, July 14 - RIA Novosti. The UAE Space Agency and the Muhammad bin Rashid Space Center announced on Tuesday that the launch of the first Emirati probe to Mars from Japan was postponed due to bad weather conditions, the UAE government said on Twitter.
        The first probe entirely made by Emirati engineers and scientists was due to travel to Mars on Wednesday 15 July.
        "The UAE Space Agency and the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Center, in cooperation and after consultation with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, responsible for the launch of the launch vehicle, announced the postponement of the launch date of the UAE Mars exploration mission - the Hope probe - due to weather conditions at the launch site. site on the island of Tanegashima, Japan, "- said in the message.
        It is noted that experts are currently considering another date for the launch of the probe in July, which will be announced in the near future. (The start is scheduled for July 17)
        The UAE's Nadezhda spacecraft was delivered to the Japanese Tanegashima cosmodrome for preparation for a launch to Mars in April. The probe was created in six years and will be the first UAE mission to Mars, its main task will be to study the planet's atmosphere and its climate.


        No noise and dust !!
        Maybe, of course, they won't take off .. but I'm surprised by the fact itself ..
      3. K-612-O
        K-612-O 17 July 2020 11: 21 New
        0
        So this is, in fact, he is, modified by the Chinese comrades.
      4. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 17 July 2020 12: 33 New
        11
        Quote: military_cat
        Good luck to the Chinese, they will need it, the ChZh-5 is a new rocket that flies a little and once crashes. Also heptilnitsa, like Proton, but the Chinese do not care.

        For ZhZh-5, a hydrogen-oxygen engine YF-77 was created.
        Now the Chinese are developing the ZHZ-9 superheavy rocket for the lunar and Martian programs .. Its planned carrying capacity is 140 tons. The Chinese rocket will be a real giant with a diameter of the main part of 10 meters. She will have four accelerators, each with a diameter of five meters. The height of the rocket is 93 meters. The engine thrust during take-off is about 6 tons. By 000, the Chinese promise the first launch.
        In addition, China is developing the Great Campaign 8, a less powerful reusable launch vehicle, which is scheduled to make its first flight as early as 2021. It will land in the same way as the Falcon-9 and the Falcon Heavy steps - vertically.
    2. Edvagan
      Edvagan 17 July 2020 10: 41 New
      +1
      Skyscrapers are also needed, and I am not against temples. This does not interfere with the development of our space program. In my opinion, the main reasons are the lack of political will, good organization, sensible management, a drop in the level of the design school. You will involuntarily remember Beria, who was in charge of the cosmonautics ...
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 17 July 2020 11: 14 New
        +1
        Quote: Edvagan
        Inevitably, you will remember about Beria, who supervised astronautics ...

        Do not compare with Rogozin.
      2. orionvitt
        orionvitt 17 July 2020 12: 06 New
        +1
        Quote: Edvagan
        interferes with the development of our space program.

        They listed everything, but forgot funding, and this is one of the most important conditions. With budgets like the Chinese and NASA, it was already possible to master the moons of Jupiter.
      3. NordUral
        NordUral 17 July 2020 12: 35 New
        0
        Not involuntarily, but with longing, remember the Stalinist socialism.
        1. Doliva63
          Doliva63 17 July 2020 20: 52 New
          0
          Quote: NordUral
          Not involuntarily, but with longing, remember the Stalinist socialism.

          Here's next year wassat vote for a ban on longing for Stalin's socialism - what will you remember?
          1. NordUral
            NordUral 18 July 2020 10: 09 New
            +1
            With our "Ilyami Muromtsy" that everyone is sleeping under the stove, it is quite possible. But can he wake up?
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 18 July 2020 19: 41 New
              +1
              Quote: NordUral
              With our "Ilyami Muromtsy" that everyone is sleeping under the stove, it is quite possible. But can he wake up?

              They will wake up when feats are already needed. Ie, as always. And then we will look for the extreme laughing
              1. NordUral
                NordUral 18 July 2020 19: 48 New
                +1
                Exactly! Look for the extreme and whine that I believed them and him so, and they and he did this to us.
      4. divanka2
        divanka2 18 July 2020 18: 20 New
        0
        capitalism in the courtyard of the old people you wake up to us, there’s not much use in space, you don’t have much or how much money at all, and the costs are huge and risky
        I'm glad, at last, at least the younger generation of the XNUMXs has already learned to shield money
    3. donavi49
      donavi49 17 July 2020 10: 42 New
      +6
      While the starting grid of the route to Mars:
      The first Arab AMS (UAE) - starts July 20-22 on the Japanese H2 missile. The purpose of the study of Martian weather.


      then the Chinese - the landing stage and the rover, the end of the month.

      then at about the same time a new Marisan rover flies, an improved Curiosity, the first Martian UAV of a helicopter type, with a range of up to 400 meters from the carrier, will be based on it (this is a lot). The device is equipped with a high-quality camera, in fact, its main purpose is reconnaissance and photography, both for choosing a route and those places where the rover will not go (rocks, mountains, steep craters, etc.)

      1. orionvitt
        orionvitt 17 July 2020 12: 09 New
        -4
        Quote: donavi49
        the first Martian UAV-helicopter type,

        Hard to believe. How will he fly there, in a rarefied atmosphere.
        The pressure at the surface is on average 0,6 kPa or 6 mbar (1/170 of the Earth’s, or equal to the Earth’s at an altitude of almost 35 km from the Earth’s surface).
        1. donavi49
          donavi49 17 July 2020 12: 14 New
          +2
          Well, they’ll demonstrate it. It’s in fact just a camera with a battery and a light motor flies. It has an earth weight of 1,8 kg, and its blades are 120 cm long and rotate 3000 rpm.
    4. divanka2
      divanka2 18 July 2020 18: 15 New
      0
      sense from Mars, and temples are needed for folk opium
  2. Doccor18
    Doccor18 17 July 2020 10: 05 New
    14
    Well done Chinese! Do not spare money on basic science and research. They will then necessarily "shoot" ..
    1. Nikolai Petrov
      Nikolai Petrov 17 July 2020 10: 10 New
      +2
      But the secret is simple - in China for theft, despite the ranks and ranks shot. A relative and 9 yuan for the cartridge pays. And we’ll soon ride the airships.
      1. zwlad
        zwlad 17 July 2020 10: 35 New
        +5
        We’ll transfer to the airships.

        You are mistaken. To the trampolines!
      2. Roman123567
        Roman123567 17 July 2020 11: 21 New
        +5
        So far, 8 people have noted against being shot for theft.
        And with these people we wanted to build communism ..))
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 17 July 2020 11: 15 New
      +2
      Quote: Doccor18
      They spare no money for basic science and research. Then they will definitely "shoot" ..

      It looks like they've already started shooting.
  3. Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 17 July 2020 10: 06 New
    +3
    Famously planning. I remember once saying that the flight to Mars will last 4 years. And then 7 months. Yes, and landing, and not just studying from orbit. Let's see what the Chinese do.
    1. Oleg1263
      Oleg1263 17 July 2020 10: 09 New
      +1
      Now the favorable location of the Earth and Mars. The window will not last more than a month. The Americans will also launch their mission "from day to day."
    2. NIKN
      NIKN 17 July 2020 10: 25 New
      0
      In general, I read the headline, something (without waking up) I thought people were sending, with the thought, “But they will fly” smile This kind of faith in China’s ability subconsciously appears. smile Well done, what can I say.
      1. novel66
        novel66 17 July 2020 12: 06 New
        0
        Kolya hi it’s just not clear, but not Mars right away? they would go to the moon, they have a moon hare there, guardian of immortality
        1. NIKN
          NIKN 17 July 2020 12: 11 New
          -1
          Hi Roma! hi Well, the Chinese have some kind of not entirely clear goal. They flew to the moon, made sure that the Americans were there, as it were ..., and assumed that they would prove the opposite. Now they have a hope that on Mars they will not find Curiosity and will "lower" the Americans. smile
          1. NordUral
            NordUral 17 July 2020 12: 38 New
            +4
            Nikolay! And where is such information that they were convinced that there were Americans on the moon?
            1. NIKN
              NIKN 17 July 2020 13: 01 New
              0
              In the media. They provided pictures from the American landing site and what was left of the lander there, it did not take off all the way it landed, but just for takeoff it was needed with a minimum weight.
              The Chinese automatic station "Chang'e-2" surveyed the landing sites of American manned spacecraft under the Apollo program. The images were posted on the scientific data portal of the Chinese Program for the Study of the Moon in 2018, but they were publicly available only in May 2020 in the book by Vitaly Egorov “People on the Moon. The main answers ”.
              The resolution of images reaches 7 meters, i.e. on them you can see surface details of this size or slightly less. For example, the bottom step of the Apollo lunar module is about 9 meters across. The terrain areas most trampled by the astronauts were also large and should be distinguishable in the Chang'e-2 images.

              As something like what I bought. request
              1. novel66
                novel66 17 July 2020 13: 23 New
                +2
                oh, someone is lying here read
                https://topwar.ru/99530-o-proze-zhizni-v-missiyah-apollo.html
                1. NIKN
                  NIKN 17 July 2020 13: 37 New
                  0
                  Roma, this conspiracy theological theme is not exhaustive. she simply will not be allowed to calm down, it will not be interesting. According to the same Chinese "confirmations" there is a thuja hecha options. I touched this only in response to "speculation" smile to your question, what did the Chinese on Mars forget. laughing And so it doesn’t really bother me where anyone was. Here the heat was already sleeping nicely, and even beer did not go down my throat. wink hi
                  1. novel66
                    novel66 17 July 2020 14: 52 New
                    0
                    like this belay in the heat and not drinks climbed ???
                    1. NIKN
                      NIKN 17 July 2020 18: 26 New
                      +1
                      I didn’t even want to follow him. laughing drinks
              2. NordUral
                NordUral 17 July 2020 14: 57 New
                0
                Thank you!
    3. slipped
      slipped 17 July 2020 21: 32 New
      0
      Quote: stock buildbat
      I remember that they once said that the flight to Mars would last 4 years.


      It meant a manned flight along a ballistic trajectory. About a year there, two years there, a year back. With the advent of a transport and power module with a nuclear power plant, this will no longer be relevant.
  4. Alien From
    Alien From 17 July 2020 10: 08 New
    0
    We can’t figure it out on earth ...... now they all want to kill Mars too ......
    1. military_cat
      military_cat 17 July 2020 10: 17 New
      +3
      Gretta Tunberg, log in.
      1. Alien From
        Alien From 17 July 2020 10: 18 New
        0
        Do not joke like that!))))
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. rocket757
    rocket757 17 July 2020 10: 11 New
    +1
    We will go our own way, probably.
    The Chinese go their own, in fact the event.
    Great country, events no less ... for them, at least.
    1. slipped
      slipped 17 July 2020 21: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: rocket757
      We will go our own way, probably.


      We have the closest launch of the AMS - Luna-25 on October 1, 2021. The launch of the second joint AMC "Exomars" with our landing module "Cossack" and a long-lived planetary station, at the request of the expedition partners, was postponed to the year 2022.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 17 July 2020 21: 42 New
        0
        Plans are planned and ..... if everything is fulfilled, as it should, I will be happy with everyone.
        We, then, and in space affairs ... worked. It was interesting, even magnificent.
        Usually there is when things went wrong ah.
  7. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 17 July 2020 10: 25 New
    +1
    Good luck to the Chinese in their mission ... and we have another call ...
    "Camo Griadeshi" Roskosmos ?! ... when there will be a clear understanding of the meanings of space exploration from which a new program will follow ... you can design equipment for the program / tasks ...
    1. Grazdanin
      Grazdanin 17 July 2020 10: 35 New
      -1
      Here I also expect from Roskosmos a clear understanding of goals and objectives. So far, everything looks like in a rhyme:

      Hedgehog - a proud bird, if you don’t kick, it won’t fly,
      And if you kick, then fly, raven knocking ...
      So fate kicks us forward,
      After humming a mocking motive ...
      1. slipped
        slipped 17 July 2020 21: 39 New
        0
        Quote: Grazdanin
        Here I also expect from Roskosmos a clear understanding of goals and objectives. So far, everything looks like in a rhyme:


        Poet? lol Have you appointed yourself to the audit at Roskosmos? laughing
  8. PN
    PN 17 July 2020 10: 32 New
    0
    Some have a return trampoline, others fly to Mars. Oh, I envy. And we are proud of little in this direction ...
  9. Gloomy skeptic
    Gloomy skeptic 17 July 2020 10: 41 New
    -4
    Well, you are all just like children !!! The Chinese have already visited the moon, who did not see the cartoon, look. And the astronaut in the duplicate suit of Gagarin bought for $ 1 from the museum was launched. And now they’ll fly to Mars. As one smart man said: In conversation, the rich cannot be distinguished from the boastful. So here - the Chinese can not build their own NOTHING, absolutely NOTHING. All Chinese production is still alive because the hands of large American, European, Japanese, and Russian corporations have not yet reached their hands to transfer their plants, which are very polluting the planet, to other places. But in China, the word "ecology" is not known in principle. My phrase "Chinese advanced production" is only perplexing, but what is it ??? If anyone calls me at least one PURE Chinese product, I will be grateful for the science.
    1. Angelo Provolone
      Angelo Provolone 17 July 2020 10: 51 New
      -2
      the Chinese can’t build anything NOTHING, absolutely NOTHING

      You remind Bunshu, who also did not recognize the “dead” as an opportunity to hit him with an arrow:
      We saw how the dead shoot! (... from the movie Ivan Vasilievich changes his profession)


      1. Gloomy skeptic
        Gloomy skeptic 17 July 2020 14: 05 New
        -3
        And you, senor pasta, had a bite? Take care of the body, because the brain does not work from excess flour.
  10. Klingon
    Klingon 17 July 2020 11: 05 New
    -7
    Quote: Nikolai Petrov
    But the secret is simple - in China for theft, despite the ranks and ranks shot. A relative and 9 yuan for the cartridge pays. And we’ll soon ride the airships.

    but we have governors who are trying to do something for the people and not for their own pocket and their own kind
    1. ZAV69
      ZAV69 17 July 2020 13: 56 New
      +1
      Quote: Klingon
      but we have governors who are trying to do something for the people and not for their own pocket and their own kind

      In fact, we have already planted twelve governors who dabbled on what they did not for the people but for their own pockets.
      And the question about Furgal is still open - the investigation is ongoing.
    2. Gloomy skeptic
      Gloomy skeptic 17 July 2020 14: 07 New
      0
      What kind of airship are you? You should learn to get from the toilet to the sofa without losses! Train more thoroughly and the toilet-sofa route will definitely obey you !!!
  11. Klingon
    Klingon 17 July 2020 11: 08 New
    -4
    Quote: PN
    Some have a return trampoline, others fly to Mars. Oh, I envy. And we are proud of little in this direction ...

    there is something - a space skyscraper, you called a trampoline, a temple of the sun and loud statements ... Uryaklam, by the way, both the skyscraper and the temple of the sun are very much to their liking, instead of fundamental science wassat
  12. Klingon
    Klingon 17 July 2020 11: 11 New
    -4
    Quote: Klingon
    here, and we have long been catching up .. we’re not rockets but space skyscrapers and air temples

    Hey Uryakly! Am I wrong? What are we launching into space? AND ? we just work as taxi drivers in the old Soviet Union! (for the time being) what kind of scientific missions are we talking about ...
    1. slipped
      slipped 17 July 2020 19: 27 New
      -1
      Quote: Klingon
      Am I wrong?


      Wrong.

      Quote: Klingon
      What are we launching into space? AND ?


      Many things.

      Quote: Klingon
      we just work as taxi drivers in the old Soviet Union! (for the time being)


      Yah? laughing

      Quote: Klingon
      what scientific missions are we talking about ...


      Recently it was found out that on open exoplanets, in other star systems, the radioactive background is normal. Not bad? laughing
  13. Dimy4
    Dimy4 17 July 2020 11: 37 New
    +2
    You can be happy for the Chinese, but for us ... For some reason, it becomes sad when you read such news.
    1. Gloomy skeptic
      Gloomy skeptic 17 July 2020 14: 09 New
      -3
      After the Chinese freeze-dried noodles, you were drawn to such degenerative thoughts? Do not eat this muck and your brain will definitely clear up !!!
  14. Mikhalych
    Mikhalych 17 July 2020 11: 51 New
    +1
    As stated, the main goal of the mission is to search for possible signs of life on Mars.

    Signs of the idiocy of scientists, not life. Lushe would have extracted light from cucumbers, cheaper, at least. Mars does not have a magnetic field, it exists only at the Earth. This means that there can be no life, or even its signs, from the word at all. Radiation, however.
    hi
    1. Klingon
      Klingon 17 July 2020 16: 03 New
      0
      there are magnetic fields, but they are heterogeneous. such as the earth does not, because the core of Mars has long cooled
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. Ros 56
    Ros 56 17 July 2020 12: 47 New
    0
    Come on, now Trump is definitely enough kondrashka, and why not exclusive Mars will be mastered.
  17. dvnbgn
    dvnbgn 17 July 2020 18: 49 New
    +6
    Judging by the comments on VO, there are many fans of Chinese junk.
    1. slipped
      slipped 17 July 2020 19: 33 New
      -2
      Quote: dvnbgn
      Judging by the comments on VO, there are many fans of Chinese junk.


      Yeah laughing meanwhile, in our country casually, without noise and dust, the fairing was rolled on the Progress MS-15:

      1. iarilovfv
        iarilovfv 17 July 2020 20: 56 New
        +4
        Progress, this is great, the main thing is not to regresshi
        1. slipped
          slipped 17 July 2020 21: 23 New
          +3
          Quote: iarilovfv
          Progress, this is great, the main thing is not to regresshi


          well, loading of the Angara-A5 carrier rocket blocks for sending it to the Plesetsk cosmodrome also began there



          And also in Severodvinsk they loaded a 9-meter pressure chamber, designed for pre-flight training of the PTK NP Orel, for its delivery to Vostochny.



          and then I look at the "sleeping" entrenched in VO quietly minus laughing
  18. Klingon
    Klingon 17 July 2020 19: 34 New
    0
    Quote: slipped
    Quote: Klingon
    Am I wrong?


    Wrong.

    Quote: Klingon
    What are we launching into space? AND ?


    Many things.

    Quote: Klingon
    we just work as taxi drivers in the old Soviet Union! (for the time being)


    Yah? laughing

    Quote: Klingon
    what scientific missions are we talking about ...


    Recently it was found out that on open exoplanets, in other star systems, the radioactive background is normal. Not bad? laughing

    dude, made laugh)). How many AMS have they launched since 1992? can we list? wassat
    1. slipped
      slipped 17 July 2020 21: 07 New
      +1
      Quote: Klingon
      How many AMCs have launched since 1992? can we list? wassat


      Come on laughing

      November 16, 1996 - Proton-K / D-2, AMS "Mars-96" - unsuccessful, failure of the upper stage D-2
      June 2, 2003 - Soyuz-FG / Frigate, Mars Express (ESA) - successfully
      November 9, 2005 - Soyuz-FG / Fregat, AMS "Venera-Express" (ESA) - successfully
      November 9, 2011 - Zenit-3SLBF, AMS "Phobos-Grunt" - unsuccessful, refusal of the remote control of the RB AMS.
      March 14, 2016 - Proton-M / Breeze-M, AMS "Exomars-2016" (ESA / Roscosmos) - successfully

      Did you miss anything from AMC? lol
  19. georggy
    georggy 18 July 2020 13: 40 New
    0
    Let them go along with their leader