Military Review

Cuirassiers in Russia: how it all began

166

Before the revolution, each guards regiment had a regimental museum, where all its regalia, as well as samples of uniforms from different years, were carefully preserved. Then on the anniversary of the regiment it turned out like this historical photos. Well, historians had a lot of freedom: come, look, feel, describe ...


... for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for one hundred and fifty.
2nd book Chronicles 17:1


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. The army has always cost the state dearly. So Peter I, starting up a regular army in Russia, apparently thought a lot of how to make it European and at the same time cheap enough, of course, by his own standards, so that foreigners, God forbid, would not laugh at Peter's troops. And it is clear that he could not do without cavalry, but decided, as far as possible, to make it cheap. Therefore, he did not start any expensive cuirassiers, but limited himself, in general, to the universal dragoon cavalry, which was a "riding infantry", and only gradually, over time, learned to fight not only on foot, but also in horse ranks.

The tax on the maintenance of the dragoon cavalry was paid separately and was called the dragoon tax, and it was introduced in 1701. First, former spearmen, reitars and noble niggards (at least some elite!), Only 10012 people, turned up in the dragoon regiments (with a count of nine). From each court they were supposed to collect: from landowners and estates - 20 kopecks, from church and palace departments - 25, from merchants - a tenth of the income. But the number of regiments was constantly increasing and by 1706 reached 28. The budget of the Russian state spent 420000 rubles a year on their maintenance! And this despite the fact that the Russian dragoons rode on "thin horses", and their uniforms did not differ from the infantry, with the exception of high boots made of hard leather, which are absolutely necessary for action in close formation. Nevertheless, horsemen, partly similar to cuirassiers, nevertheless appeared in Russia under Peter I, albeit in a small number and only for a while.


Cavalry guard of Catherine's times. From the book by Jacob von Lude "Images of the uniforms of the Russian imperial army". Artist and engraver H. G. G. Geisler. SPb., 1793

As already noted here, Peter was a rather thrifty monarch, but having signed the Decree on the coronation of Empress Catherine in 1723, he decided not to stint on the celebrations on this occasion. Peter himself refused the official ceremony, but decided to legally formalize the status of his wife as his heiress. At the coronation, Catherine was to be accompanied by cavalry guards, or trabants (drabants), - knights of the special guard, an honor guard, a live demonstration of the power and glory of the empire. Although it was a "one-time" unit, Peter's closest associates fought for the right to form it. So, Count Tolstoy had already received an order to carry out the final fitting and adjustment of the luxurious uniform and knightly armor, but then he was pushed aside by Menshikov and Yaguzhinsky, who clashed in the last major palace intrigue of the era of Peter's reign. As a result, His Serene Highness Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov was unlucky: he did not even become one of the cavalry guards. And Yaguzhinsky became the main cavalry guard, and this despite the fact that formally the captain of the cavalry guard Peter I appointed himself. However, the happiness of Prosecutor General Yaguzhinsky was also short-lived. After the coronation, which took place in March 1724, the life campaign was disbanded, and the luxurious uniforms and silver trumpets were handed over to the warehouse. On April 30, 1726, the cavalry guard was restored, but Catherine I herself now became its captain. Anna Ioannovna did not trust the cavalry guards, representatives of noble Russian families, and decided to form the Horse Guards in opposition to them, and officers began to be taken into it mainly from foreigners without family tribe. Elizaveta Petrovna did not establish cavalry guards. But Catherine II restored this honorary guard again, and in it, "60 privates served in the ranks of seconds-major, captain and lieutenant." True, it is rather difficult to call this part a military unit. She was very small in number. Well, the Cavalier Regiment in the Imperial Russian Army became a full-fledged combat unit only in 1800.

At the coronation of 1724, the cavalry guards were dressed in caftans of green cloth with gilded buttons and with gold laces, red trousers and camisoles, and over the caftan there was also a red supervest (something like the same cuirass or vest, but made of fabric), trimmed with wide gold galloon. A silver star of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called was embroidered on the chest of the supertests, and on the back was a golden two-headed eagle. They were armed with broadswords with a gilded hilt and a sheath of white leather, with a lanyard of gold threads, as well as a carbine and two pistols, also trimmed with gold. Beautiful, to be sure, and such a guard should have made a strong impression.


Cavalier Guards 1724 From the book by A.P. Sapozhnikov "Drawings from the Brief History of the Cavalier Guards Her Imperial Majesty Regiment from 1724 to 1832"

Well, the honor of creating proper cuirassier regiments in Russia belongs to Burkhard Christopher Munnich, who was one of the chicks of Petrov's nest and who, after Peter's death, already served his niece, Empress Anna Ioannovna. Another war with Turkey was brewing, and Minich, having carefully studied the Austrian experience of fighting the Turkish cavalry, in 1730 proposed to the empress a project to create a heavy cuirassier cavalry in Russia. The Empress thought and on December 31, 1730 issued a decree on the creation of the first Life Guards Cavalry Regiment, in which she herself would be listed as a colonel. For the lower ranks, who continued to be called reiters, it was supposed to buy 1111 German horses abroad. The officers should have bought horses at their own expense. In 1732, the cost of purchasing and shipping 1201 horses from Germany for the Horse Guards reached 80 thousand rubles. So the pleasure of having cuirassiers for Russia was not at all cheap.

“For non-commissioned officers, timpani, trumpeters, corporals and cuirassiers, do not put horses less than 36 and more than 38 vershoks, so that their breasts and butts are wide, from 4 to 6 years old mares and geldings with black or brown and chestnut hair, which are always the mouths are separated by wool in the shelf. For horses bought in Russia, pay from 30 to 50 rubles, and for horses bought in Germany from 60 to 80 with a drive for officers. From the German edge, you can contract to deliver from 100 to 200 rubles for each ",

- indicated by Anna Ioannovna in the document dated November 18, 1731 "On the establishment of the Cuirassier regiment from the cavalry".

The prices for horses, as you can see, were simply exorbitant, the German horses of the famous Holstein breed were especially expensive.


Cavalry guard in full dress during the reign of Empress Catherine II (1764-1796). From the book by A.P. Sapozhnikov "Drawings from a Brief History of Her Imperial Majesty's Cavalry Regiment from 1724 to 1832"

One more subtlety should be noted here: in addition to the "storm for the Turks", the empress conceived the new cuirassier regiments as a "counterweight" to the old Peter's guard: the Semenovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments, whose loyalty she doubted, and not without reason. And so in order to seduce young noblemen with officer service in these cavalry regiments, and not in the old guard, special privileges were invented for them, or, in the then, "avantages". There were several of them, and all of them are very typical for that time:

1. They will never be sent to Persia.
2. Except during wartime, the service will be in the capital and the surrounding area, and they will be accommodated in the best apartments.
3. Salaries are higher than all other regiments.
4. Both privates and corporals - all higher in rank above other regiments.
5. Even ordinary people will not be beaten with sticks for any offenses.

Since in the army at that time they were flogged for any offense, the latter privilege, of course, had a particularly attractive force, although the flogging was looked at differently at that time than it is now. There was even such a saying: "They don't beat, it is so well known - they teach badly!"

However, the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment, where the empress was a colonel, was created so slowly that the first cuirassier regiment was not he, but ... the army regiment of Minich. And then, in 1731, the Vyborg Dragoon Regiment was simply renamed the Cuirassier Regiment. And on November 1, 1732, the Nevsky Dragoon Regiment, which turned into the Leib Cuirassier Regiment, and the Yaroslavl Dragoon Regiment, which became the 3rd Cuirassier Regiment, became cuirassiers.


Cuirassier of the Kazan regiment of the era of Catherine II. From the book by Jacob von Lude "Images of the uniforms of the Russian imperial army". Artist and engraver H. G. G. Geisler. SPb., 1793

By 1740, there were already four cuirassier regiments in the Russian imperial army. According to the states, the regiment should have a strength of 977 people and ... 781 combat horses. And again, it must be emphasized that not only the horses in the regiments were originally German, but their composition was also largely ... German, since Germans were willingly recruited into cuirassiers, who fought well and had no ties with the Russian aristocracy. The Russian cuirassier, in particular, was also Hieronymus Karl Friedrich von Minihausen - the future famous Baron Munchausen. Even with my own uniform, and with that at first there were big problems ...


Cavalry officers in 1742. From the book of A.P. Sapozhnikov "Drawings from the Brief History of the Cavalier Her Imperial Majesty Regiment from 1724 to 1832"

Russian cuirassiers had dark-colored horses, but traditionally light-colored uniforms. Since the tunic and leggings (tight-fitting leggings) were sewn from dressed elk leather (suede), they initially had a yellowish color and only later began to wear a white uniform made of white cloth. The shelves were distinguished by the color of cuffs and lapels on uniforms, that is, the colors of "applied cloth". For example, the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment, the very one that was established first, but actually appeared second, had cuffs and lining in red.


Cavalier guard in everyday form 1764-1796 From the book by A.P. Sapozhnikov "Drawings from a Brief History of Her Imperial Majesty's Cavalry Regiment from 1724 to 1832"

Cuirassiru, in contrast to the dragoon, in 1732-1742. you had to have two uniforms. One, called every day, consisted of a blue caftan, the same as in the dragoon cavalry, but a red jacket and trousers made of moose leather. The hat had a metal oval crown, called a cassette, with a brim trimmed with gold braid along the edge. Cuirassiers wore high boots with flaps of hard leather and spurs on their feet. The second uniform was a combatant. It included an elk tunic, a boot and trousers. The tunic was a narrow and short caftan with a turn-down collar, with cuffs and wrapped floors, which were trimmed along the edge with a ribbon of red cloth 2,5 cm wide. Both pricks and padding were fastened with hooks. The underwear was a short, collarless and sleeveless vest. The "second uniform" was complemented by a black downy hat (cocked hat), a white tie, gloves and high boots with boot-cuffs, and instead of an overcoat there was an epancha made of red cloth. In the ceremonial formation, as well as during hostilities, a cuirass with a suede lining, with metal spikes along the edges, a red cloth (for officers velvet!) Edging and a copper or gilded plaque with a royal monogram on the chest was worn over a moose tunic. The belts, with the help of which the cuirass was attached to the rider on the chest, were reinforced with metal plates, for officers - gilded. The weight of the cuirass was about 10 kg. So people of strong build had to carry such weapons ...


Chief officer of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment. From the book “Drawings for the history of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment: the uniform of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment. 1731-1848 "

The cuirassier's armament was a straight broadsword with a brass guard and a straight handle, two pistols in saddle holsters (olstrakh) and a carbine. However, such a complete set of weapons could hardly be found in at least one of the regiments. Here are broadswords - yes, all cuirassiers had them. They also tried to arm them with pikes - longer than those that the uhlans had, with an inflow of weighted lead.


Chief Officer and Reiter of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment, 1731-1742. From the book “Drawings for the history of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment: the uniform of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment. 1731-1848 "

The cuirasses were used painted black, with brass fittings. The cavalry guards, which represented a particularly privileged regiment of the same cuirassiers, cuirass at a certain period of their history were scarlet with gold trim.


Private of the Cavalry Corps of Paul I. Only during his time the superstations of the Cavaliers were decorated with the Maltese cross. From the book by A.P. Sapozhnikov "Drawings from a Brief History of Her Imperial Majesty's Cavalry Regiment from 1724 to 1832"

Among the cuirassier units of the Russian army, the regiments of His Majesty and Her Majesty stood out, which had competed with each other since the time of Peter the Great. Over the years, both regiments have changed many names. The emperor's cuirassiers trace their history back to the Dragoon regiment, formed by Prince Gregory Volkonsky in 1702. Only in 1761; during the Seven Years' War, the regiment received its final name, and the guards status was assigned to it by Alexander I in 1813. The barracks were located in Tsarskoe Selo, therefore, in common parlance, they began to call it Tsarskoye Selo. The ancestor of the Empress's cuirassier is the Dragoon Portes regiment, organized by the boyar Tikhon Nikitich Streshnev in 1704. In 1733 the regiment became the Leib cuirassier regiment, in 1762 - the Cuirassier general-in-chief of Korf regiment. In 1796, Empress Maria Feodorovna became the chief of the regiment, and the regiment was renamed in her honor, the name did not change afterwards. True, the Gatchina cuirassiers (they were located in Gatchina) received the right to be called guards much later than the Tsarskoye Selo cuirassiers - in 1856, which increased the rivalry. The poet Athanasius Fet made a choice in favor of the empress's regiment:

“In the meantime, I really wanted to be transformed into a formal cuirassier, and I dreamed of a white sling, a lacquered chest, broadsword, copper cuirass and a helmet with a ponytail crest, towering over the St. George's star.”

Usually His and Her Majesties' cuirassiers were called "yellow cuirassiers" and "blue cuirassiers" - according to their instrument colors. Collars, cuffs, shoulder straps, edging, edging, rims and horse saddles were yellow for some and blue for others. Most contemporaries believed that the empress's blue cuirassiers looked more impressive.

Cuirassiers in Russia: how it all began
Photo for the 200th anniversary of the Tsarskoye Selo cuirassiers. Niva magazine for 1902

On the eve of the Seven Years War in Russia there were already five cuirassier regiments, both guards and army. The regiment was supposed to number 946 people, but usually there were slightly fewer. All regiments fought, and the 3rd cuirassier even took part in the capture of Berlin. But ... the same Rumyantsev assessed their combat work as unsatisfactory and wrote to the Empress-Empress Catherine the following:

“Cuirassier and carabinieri regiments are planted on both expensive and delicate and heavy horses, which are more for the parade than they are capable of doing. Throughout the campaign, they had to store dry fodder, since they are exhausted in the field feed. For this, in the past operations, it was impossible to produce our cavalry, to which it could have had the opportunity ... "

That is, the cuirassier horses required special food and careful care, and for some reason it turned out to be difficult to arrange all this for them in our army. Although Rumyantsev noted that for some reason the Prussian cuirassiers do not experience such difficulties ...


Breastplate officer of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment. Russia, XVIII century. Steel, brass, leather, chasing, engraving Monogram of Catherine I. (State Historical Museum, Moscow)

Peter III decided to increase the number of cuirassier regiments to 12, Catherine II, during whose reign this war was completed, the decision was canceled, and Russia remained with five regiments of heavy cavalry: the Life Cuirassier Regiment, the Cuirassier Regiment of the Heir to the Tsarevich, the Regiment of the Military Order ( former Minich regiment), Yekaterinoslavsky (former Novotroitsky), and Kazan regiment.


Breastplate officer of the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment. Russia, 1730s. Steel, brass, chasing, engraving. On the cuirass is the monogram of Empress Anna Ioannovna. State Historical Museum, Moscow

Subsequently, the number of cuirassier regiments in Russia was constantly changing. New monarch, new whim, new shelves. It was only in 1801 that Alexander I in the cuirassier regiments for some reason canceled the cuirass. And it turned out ... big losses in these regiments in the wars with Napoleon in 1805-1807. But later, either the sovereign himself thought of this, or someone suggested to him, the cuirasses were returned to them in 1811. Literally a year before the start of "thunderstorm 12". However, why be surprised? In the Russian army of that time, such "eccentricities" occurred constantly. For example, when we brought in a regiment of lancers, we exactly borrowed its uniform from the Poles, but ... forgot about the main thing weapon lancers - lances that this regiment again received only on the eve of 1812!


Breastplate of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Museum of Military History. Vein

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Cuirassiers in battles and campaigns
Horse latniks back in service
Cuirassiers in museums
Friends and Enemies of Imperial Cuirassiers
Polish shells, Austrian hussars and Turkish fives
Enemies of the Cuirassiers
With whom the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fought?
“A small discovery in the butt of an arquebus ...”
Horsemen of the Eighty Years War
Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries
“By people and by horses, not by aer”
Ordonance companies
“It's a miracle if someone is killed with a spear”
Mounted Latniks Sunset
166 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 18 July 2020 05: 37 New
    +6
    “And uniforms have differences:
    In uniforms, edging, shoulder straps, buttonholes ”(c).

    The history of the country is interesting in all its manifestations. Especially when there is development.

    Amusing regiments, noble niggards - en guard.
    And with cuirassiers the same parsley.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 18 July 2020 06: 31 New
      -12
      You are right.
      The author laughed at the statement that over time, the RUSSIAN ARMY learned to fight on horseback.
      They fought a lot in Europe, there they recruited peasants and put them * ruzhzho * and into battle. The result was savings on training, uniforms, feeding. They kill these, so again we will recruit both under * gun * * and into battle. To patch up the uniforms and put on new ones. But the nobles there cherished themselves with cuirasses and jack boots with inserts and much more that they came up with for their own savings.
      Peter, like all the Romanovs before him, did not need a professional army. Therefore, they robbed the archers on uniforms-equipment-weapons-grain allowance-payment, and at the same time they introduced soldiers' regiments, which were reduced in allowance and stopped paying. The main expenses in the regiments of soldiers turned out to be expenses for officers.
      In equestrian regiments, warfare is indispensable for professionals, but here the Romanovs saved money, drove on horses and there * cavalry pesh * * ATTACK! *.
      Kill these so new to recruit, it's a pity or something.
      Officers bought cuirasses, and even that wasn’t all. It was only under Paul that they began to outfit including cuirasses.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 July 2020 07: 14 New
        17
        Another "ripping off the covers"?
        In equestrian regiments, warfare is indispensable for professionals, but here the Romanovs saved money, drove on horses and there * cavalry pesh * * ATTACK! *.
        Kill these so new to recruit, it's a pity or something.

        The idea of ​​creating dragoons, that is, infantry on horseback, belongs not at all to the Romanovs, but to the French, who thought of this a hundred years earlier.
        And the European dragoons mastered the skills of equestrian combat around the beginning of the Seven Years' War.
        Saving was also not only the prerogative of the Romanovs. Queen of England to reduce the military budget, all cavalry regiments, starting in 1746, demoted to dragoons with a corresponding reduction in pay.
        1. Alekseev
          Alekseev 18 July 2020 09: 24 New
          10
          Quote: Undecim
          Another "ripping off the covers"?

          That's right!
          The Romanovs and Peter the Great personally, they say, improperly built the army and cavalry, including ... They say the archers - yes, but the regular dragoons did not know how, they say, nothing in horse ranks.
          Numerous facts are cited, but they, as they like to say now, are taken out of context.
          But there is a criterion of truth - the result. And he says that it was the regular troops, including the cavalry, that played a decisive role in all the victorious wars of the Russian Empire.
          This means that, in spite of the shortcomings and abuses that took place, he did his job, in particular, Peter resolutely relying on "regularity", not relying on half-wardens, half-soldiers - archers, local cavalry and Cossacks, who, incidentally, also began to serve valid, and then the Cossack troops became the most efficient.
          1. VIP
            VIP 18 July 2020 15: 21 New
            +5
            "manor horse" - not a candle to God, not a damn poker. For one who loves military affairs 2 thanks and, accordingly, the preparation was. Such cavalry was good against highway robbers, runaway serfs, but against regular cavalry, they were not "swindlers"
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 19: 54 New
              +4
              "manor horse" - not a candle to God, not a damn poker.

              let's just say ... she could only fight in a local theater with a well-known opponent. But the battle of Konotop ended with the defeat of the local cavalry.
              She didn’t hold the ram blow of the last spear-bearing men-Polish hussars. Proven by the 17th century. It could be used against the Swedes in the Baltic states - and only because there were few Swedish forces there. Very little.
              They fought a lot in Europe, there they recruited peasants and put them * ruzhzho * and into battle. The result was savings on training, uniforms, feeding. They kill these, so again we will recruit both under * gun * * and into battle. To patch up the uniforms and put on new ones. But the nobles there cherished themselves with cuirasses and jack boots with inserts and much more that they came up with for their own savings.

              When Frederick II, after the Battle of Kunersdorf, was subject to the possibility of capture by cloth factories, it was possible to raise the handles up. For the soldiers there is nothing to row about! request
              A very poor idea of ​​the European armies ... Landsknecht certainly knew their worth! hi
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 07: 36 New
        14
        Vasily, forgive my "French", but in your commentary refuting the Author, then you quote him almost literally twice !!!?
        I understand that you are "boiling", but "mantras" in this case will not help, even "sticking" to the author of the comment above !!!
        Therefore, let's put an end to it. In the theses:
        The local cavalry (professionals), dearly beloved by you, showed themselves poorly in the Azov campaigns and near Narva! Former rethar shelves were corny expensive due to the way they were formed. Horse archers were specific, not combat-ready, and they intrigued so much that such a sore had to be picked up anyway.
        So Peter I, having reformed the cavalry, in fact, cheaply and angrily created a regular cavalry. In the initial idea, the dranunies were "mounted infantry". Local cavalry was enough for horse battles. In addition, do not forget that Russia had the resources of the Cossacks and foreigners behind it, who also performed on horseback! For example, the Kalmyks.
        Further, the formation of heavy cavalry is described by Vyacheslav Olegovich above.
        Well, and the last nail, your "professionals" (local cavalry) fought with lava, combatant cavalry regiments were taught to fight in close formation! Perhaps it is not "ruffles and bows", but precisely the drill and equestrian composition that distinguishes the Regular Cavalry from the irregular landlord cross-country cavalry !!!
      3. Basil50
        Basil50 18 July 2020 08: 15 New
        -3
        Yeah, really. The author has described our soldiers and thanks to him for that. Although he made fun of the cavalry.
        Before the Romanovs, the archers were of different regiments: foot, horse, with cannons. All of them were not only armed and dressed in uniforms, but also protected by armor. For the soldiers, protection was considered unnecessary.
        About the local cavalry: the local cavalry plundered Sweden even under Peter and did not really bother with the opinion of imported * specialists *.
        In the tsarist army, even during WWI, helmets were not introduced. although in Europe they have already realized the need to protect soldiers. By the way, eyewitnesses described officers who, in the attack, carried a shield from a * Maxim * machine gun on their chest.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 09: 36 New
          10
          Before the Romanovs, the archers were of different regiments: foot, horse, with cannons. All of them were not only armed and dressed in uniforms, but also protected by armor.

          Armored Archers? Especially gunners and pests !!! I don’t even know how to react - to roll on the sofa and paw with laughter, or .... okay, let it be or !!!
          Dear Vasily, if one of the archers drove up under a chain mail caftan, then this is an exception that proves the rule! In essence, the infantry and gunners are swept aside by the presence of "armor" in the uniform. In their case, only the heads of the orders and the colonels - who could afford to wear a walk with a mirror and a damask saber for personal use. The rest of the archers received cloth, gunpowder and lead in the form of a salary. So we bought equipment and uniforms at our own expense! The younger ones generally began their service by wearing a caftan and a cap from someone else's shoulder. So the massive armor of ground and cannon troops is an alternative history!
          With horse archers, everything is more interesting! They served in caftans, but they were equal to the local cavalry and boyars! So when the tsars father called to defend the fatherland, they preferred to pry off a yufer or chain mail, but in fact it was a violation of the form! The hussar, dragoon and reitar regiments of the new order had armor, but they bought them at their own expense! However, like the cuirassiers (officer) Mincha, a quarter of a century later!
          The difference was represented by the local cavalry, which, according to the rank books, represented such a combined hodgepodge that at least stop, at least fall! Excerpts survived, read on! But I can't call them professionals, especially considering that most of them tried to evade service !!!
          In other matters, the "armor of the local cavalry" drowned in the Narva River, under the city of the same name in the battle of the same name !!! Professionals outnumbering the Swedes gave a fight by throwing the infantry !!! On this, I put an end! Full-fledged cuirassiers appear only after a quarter of a century, with Minha !!!
          As for the cocked hats, I do not argue, but the hat with earflaps appeared on the eve of the Great Patriotic War and in another army! So groaning about "three" is an afterthought !!!
          Best regards, all good weekend !!! Olegovich thanks for the cuirassiers!
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 10: 33 New
          11
          Quote: Vasily50
          About the local cavalry: the local cavalry plundered Sweden even under Peter and did not really bother with the opinion of imported * specialists *.

          Quote: Vasily50
          About the local cavalry: the local cavalry plundered Sweden even under Peter and did not really bother with the opinion of imported * specialists *.

          Robbed Sweden? Three ha ha four times! Also an achievement for me!
          Peter's cavalry guards attacked Turkey one night and captured the Turkish Sultan. And since it happened in a harem, he, without understanding it, was kicked out in the ass, so as not to interfere, a little sick. The sultan was offended, but out of harm's way, he dumped and did not tell anyone later how the Russian cavalry guards who broke into the harem in the dark caught him and only after a long groping, making sure that he was not a girl, were they released.
          And the cavalry guards robbed Greece, Italy, Spain, France, Britain and Germany, but returning home accidentally slipped into Russia and spent all the loot in Shanghai brothels. And in Sweden, they accidentally met with the local cavalry and, not understanding at first, slapped them on the soup, but then they made up and said: "Since you, lads, Sweden has already been robbed, spoiled, so to speak, we will not touch it. these unconventional ones in blue uniforms will tear their bows, they say we were here too, that's all. " No sooner said than done. Since then, these with bows are called drabants, that is, torn bows.
          So there is no need here la-la, about our "Peter". Sagittarius - atstoy, local cavalry - atstoy, cavalry guards - foreva!
          It was not for nothing that the Russian people came up with the following proverb:
          Peter the First fellow -
          Arctic fox came to all archers!
          Pyo-yo-yotar! (Three claps of your hands)
          Pyo-yo-yotar! (Three claps of your hands)

          Well, who is cooler - the local cavalry or the Peter's cavalry guards?
          laughing wassat laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 July 2020 12: 27 New
            +7
            I hope all the events described took place with the direct participation of "Captain Mikhailov"?
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 13: 46 New
              +5
              He was still a cornet then ... smile
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 July 2020 13: 53 New
                +4
                That is, like, "on the watch" was?
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 20: 02 New
                  +3
                  That is, like, "on the watch" was?

                  No, I felt the girls. I mean, no longer girls ...repeat Together with the lieutenant Sea Cat! wink
                  and only after a long feeling, making sure that he is still not a girl, was released.

                  this bearded travesty in the lampshade on the head was felt by others. Hired officers - Colonels Michaud Borrel and Antoine di Bajini. drinks I didn’t wash my hands after that! About nothing! stop
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 20: 12 New
                    +3
                    Come on, grimace, captain! "To feel" does not mean "to have"!
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 21: 14 New
                      +2
                      Come on, grimace, captain! "To feel" does not mean "to have"!

                      did you hold a candle while feeling the sultan himself for the primary signs, Mr. Colonel? wink drinks
                      Deuce to you! laughing If the captain is in the cavalry, then the captain! "Captain Mikhailov" - that's right. drinks
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 25 New
                        +2
                        Mr. Captain, is this a challenge ?!
                        Please! Tomorrow, at seven in the morning, on the Black River!
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 21: 42 New
                        +2
                        Please! Tomorrow, at seven in the morning, on the Black River!

                        it's hard to get up at seven in the morning ...
                        I shoot better than you! wink
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 57 New
                        +1
                        I shoot better than you!
                        Oppanki !!! But this is a real challenge !!! Let's chat!
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 19 July 2020 17: 58 New
                        +1
                        Oppanki !!! This is a real challenge !!!

                        Yeah, like Bernard Shaw in Tin Soldier.
                        - I'll take a saber!
                        “Okay, I'll just come with a machine gun.

                        This is so, from memory, from the play .... Surely, it sounded differently. Anton, when will the theaters open? And then I'm ready to rewrite "Ball of the Vampires", and again dump it on VO! laughing
                        Let's be happy!

                        you and I, dear friend, are not "bulls", but "tattered teleagents". And we have no horns! drinks
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 19 July 2020 18: 02 New
                        +1
                        I am waiting for you at the Baltic Shooting Center, in August!
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 21: 14 New
            0
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            I felt the girls.

            Personally, I see this picture like this.
            The cavalry guards broke into the forest ... in the sense, in the harem of the Sultan. The captain or colonel, who manages the event, flips a switch, but it turns out that electricity has not yet been delivered to the Ottoman Port. And all night and darkness. Those who have been - know. Any educated person knows that men are not allowed in the harem, therefore, from the point of view of the cavalry guard, everything that is there is ... how to say this ... well, in general, a consumer product without additional related obligations. But the cavalry guards are a military people, and therefore disciplined. All those present were gathered in one room and the captain began the distribution.
            He takes a draped figure from the darkness, feels it.
            - To whom?
            As the youngest, Mikhailov's cornet, not seeing anything and not having the opportunity to evaluate the subject, gropingly answers:
            - To Lieutenant Golitsin!
            Captain, taking the following figure:
            - To whom?
            - Cornet Obolensky! By the way, cornet, pour some wine ...
            - To whom?
            - Lieutenant Trubetskoy!
            - To whom? Oh yeah, ressemble un homme!
            “Captain, you are confusing something!”
            - Please make sure!
            - Gentlemen, indeed, a man!
            “Kam can be, gentlemen, here in the harem of the Sultan!”
            - Ah, to what morals among these Asians fell!
            - No, gentlemen, are you sure?
            - Check, lieutenant! Make sure?
            - Yes gentlemen, man!
            “Get him out!” Outside!
            - Down with!
            “Can you imagine, gentlemen, what will happen if the Sultan finds out that there was an outsider in his harem?”
            - Enough, gentlemen! It’s time to return to our studies. Cornet Mikhailov!
            - I!
            - To whom?
            - To captain Prince Yusupov! ..
            laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 29 New
              +2
              Jokes away! Michael, are you ready to become my second?
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 21: 32 New
                +2
                Dismiss, gracious sovereign. My peasant background does not allow me to participate in this noble event. No.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 47 New
                +2
                It's a pity of course! One could even drink beer, expecting an opponent.
          3. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 21: 38 New
            +1
            - Enough, gentlemen! It’s time to return to our studies. Cornet Mikhailov!
            - I!
            - To whom?
            - To captain Prince Yusupov! ..

            Do you want, Colonel Michaud Borrel, that I stood on the distribution? bully
            I will add:
            - This one, from Kabarda!
            - No such
            !
            (and left to myself) wink
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 21: 58 New
              0
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              Colonel Michaud Borrell

              At most - the provincial registrar. smile
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 July 2020 18: 07 New
              +2
              At most - the provincial registrar.

              Why? stop Michaud Borrell then promoted to actual Privy Councilor! He supported Elizabeth during the coup ... He changed his activities to civil ... And away we go! fellow
  • Undecim
    Undecim 18 July 2020 10: 41 New
    10
    All of them were not only armed and dressed in uniforms, but also protected by armor.
    Could you provide a link to the source with a description of the "streltsy armor"?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 11: 50 New
      +8
      Quote: Undecim
      All of them were not only armed and dressed in uniforms, but also protected by armor.
      Could you provide a link to the source with a description of the "streltsy armor"?

      The only VikNick that comes to mind is a city walk !!! So what are we waiting for about tanks - Ivan the Terrible !!! laughing
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 12: 19 New
        +8
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        So what are we waiting for about tanks - Ivan the Terrible !!!

        In the time of Ivan the Terrible, tanks were not even the last century - hoary antiquity. It is reliably known that at the Battle of Molodiv governor, Stepan Vorotynsky commanded the Separate Special Air Force Strategic Archery Winged Corps (OVVSSKK), which threw unchristians with pig carcasses directly from the sky, demoralizing them and causing mass suicides among the top commanding staff.
        The Romanovs destroyed this corps, because they received an order from the Masters of the West. Some researchers believe that it was specifically for the sake of destroying the OVVSSKK, and only for this, did the Vatican introduce the Romanovs to Russia.
        smile
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 19 July 2020 19: 32 New
          +1
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          The Romanovs destroyed this corps, since they received an order for this from the Masters of the West.

          Come on, they destroyed it. They pretended to have destroyed it, but in fact, playing their own game, "just renamed it - and the corps continued to live. The secrecy lasted until 1804, when Denis Davydov" burned down the office ", revealing to the public the existence of" flying hussars ":
          For God's sake, give me the phone!
          Put the bottles in front of us
          Call all riders
          With a twisted mustache!
          To rattle here in chorus
          Hussar squadron volatile,
          So that I flew to heaven
          I am in their mighty arms;

          A well-known precendent, even reflected in the cinema. ©
  • Basil50
    Basil50 18 July 2020 14: 26 New
    -1
    For the distrustful, there is a painting required by the rifle regiment. There's a lot there. It is worth reading all the same, and not considering the pictures that were painted for beauty.
    For very much ........., Sweden under Peter was slightly larger than the present, if you believe the maps drawn in Europe.
    The closest analogue of the * local cavalry * is the Polish hussars, whose descendants in their grandfather's armor participated in the war of 1812.
    For fans of the Romanovs. It is worth reading the documents, including about how exactly Peter fought. It is especially interesting with what kind of blood Christianity was introduced.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 15: 13 New
      +6
      ... For fans of the Romanovs. It is worth reading the documents, including about how exactly Peter fought. It is especially interesting with what kind of blood Christianity was introduced.

      I am far from being a fan of the Romanovs, but I single out Peter the Great, Paul I and Alexander III from them. I am in awe of Catherine the Great.
      I know how Peter fought, but what kind of Christianity he introduced in Orthodox Russia is a mystery to me !!!
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 20: 06 New
        +3
        Paul I

        the most mysterious .. And the most noble! yes
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 21: 09 New
          +1
          Quote: Pan Kohanku
          Paul I

          the most mysterious .. And the most noble! yes

          Here Nikolai is not so simple.
          Abundance Pavel at one time Suvorov. So Paul was a man of the era, a man of mood.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 21: 20 New
            +2
            Abundance Pavel at one time Suvorov. So Paul was a man of the era, a man of mood.

            Pavel - the 18th century ended on him! This was the last knight of that century. Twenty years later the Napoleonic began. New era.... soldier
            I will write about it later. Anton is a witness! drinks
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 21: 22 New
              +1
              Abundance, one must read offended!
              The paws are crooked.
              As for the last knight, many people call Nicholas I!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 21: 52 New
                +2
                As for the last knight, many people call Nicholas I!

                I will not say anything .... There must be a spirit in the knight. In the second he was not! soldier
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 04 New
        +2
        You should not discuss with the obsessed.
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 18 July 2020 18: 35 New
      -4
      So that's it. The book about Peter replaces real knowledge about that time. And the film based on this novel has consolidated this * fundamental * knowledge, now you can aim for an advanced degree?
      Laughed with a reverent attitude towards Catherine. You hardly know the internal state decrees of this empress.
      And Christians are also interesting, do you really believe the scriptures?
    3. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 July 2020 18: 40 New
      +6
      Vasily, what does the Christianization of Russia have to do with cuirassiers?
      I am not particularly interested in the history of Christianity, but in my opinion, by the period of Peter 1, Christianity in Russia existed for at least 450 years, and this is already a noticeable period
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 19: 03 New
        +3
        Faith, this is just Pyzhikov, I mean what Basil broadcasts to us here50. He, prada, the repeater is not quite high-quality, sometimes it carries a gag, but so, on the whole, the late professor would be, I think, pleased. smile
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 18 July 2020 20: 41 New
          +1
          In this case, he as a historian is questionable. Perhaps a colleague Vasily mixed up the Christianization of Russi and the church schism, but he, too, was before Peter 1?
          PS
          I respect the accomplishments of Peter 1, but his admirer was a despot, and Russia would have come to the accomplishments of Peter the Great. Perhaps later, but it would have happened. It would have been cheaper anyway.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 10 New
        +2
        My Beautiful Stranger! This character is "sick in the head". Discussion with him is fruitless.
  • VIP
    VIP 18 July 2020 15: 08 New
    +6
    “Peter, like all the Romanovs before him, did not need a professional army,” but the archers were not professionals, they could engage in trade in their free time. Which professional would trade.?
    Moscow archers, he was on duty in the Kremlin or on patrol and home, archers were naturally inferior to soldiers in professional training.
    I remember, in "Peter 1", when the archers rebelled and went to Moscow. They were opposed by regular units, and both began with a prayer service, but while the archers were waving, the soldiers were already ready and the archers were rolled out.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 20: 58 New
      0
      Sagittarius, the local cavalry is essentially a tracing-paper of the Roman legions of the republic. Only the second and third fought for the land, the first for benefits and shops!
      The problems were the same, you are sitting near Azov, but in Moscow "business" is losing! In the time of the middle and late Roman Republic there were similar troubles, the legionary is sitting in Near Spain, and the land in Rome is not deified !!!
      1. bk0010
        bk0010 18 July 2020 23: 43 New
        0
        No, it’s Sophia Paleolog from Byzantium. Ivan 3 began to use this idea, but the trouble is that the concept of a local army was 500 years old (in Russia there was already a more progressive army, and indeed, the Middle Ages had already ended). As a result, he received a large army, which degraded very quickly in quality, and it was not before the war: it was necessary to manage. And Ivan 4 had to start a hassle with the troops of the new system and with the oprichnina. But in order to preserve this army, serfdom had to be introduced, because the peasants massively felled from those lands that were allocated for premises. That did not improve either the economic or social situation in the country.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 18 July 2020 07: 19 New
    +8
    Thanks for the article, have a nice day. I did not know much and was not interested. Cuirasses, one monogram to be minted for a week, really what kind of warriors they are, with such tsatski. These cocked hats, that's why they had to copy them, so as not to freeze the ears, probably only the wig protected from the cold. It's better what a shabby three-piece. About Munchausen-Minihausen I read out of my ears that he had been to Russia too, but that he was a cuirassier, no. Minijhausen, to translate into Russian, this is a small house, perhaps, that is, "hut". laughing According to Rumyantsev's report, it is a little unclear what is meant by heavy breeds. If the trucks are heavy, then they probably eat a lot, and of course they need a lot of food, they won't go far on the grazing stern, but for a parade they are not very good, there the back is like a dining table, all leggings-leggings will burst. True, the breeds were just being formed, maybe there were heavy ones that could still go to the parade. And so probably correctly They paid for the "German" brand and not for the functionality. Just like now they pay for a Mersovskaya star. The Holstein breed has been altered several times, a lot of blood is mixed in it. The breed is demanding to the zhrachk, to the content. The Germans probably chose which is simpler and more reliable. There are aboriginal breeds that have remained from the days of the Goths that can survive both in the forest and in the field. But a good show-off, more expensive than money. Great weekend to everyone. drinks
  • Kuroneko
    Kuroneko 18 July 2020 08: 28 New
    +3
    From each court they were supposed to collect: from landlords and estates - 20 kopecks, from church and palace departments - 25, from merchants - a tenth of the income.

    Fair progressive tax. And even in the time of Peter, I note!
    Then the oligarchy knew its place.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 08: 37 New
      +3
      Well, how fair ... Winter is more luxurious than the Louvre, the French peasant lived many times better than the Russian.
      1. Kuroneko
        Kuroneko 18 July 2020 08: 40 New
        +1
        Quote: Krasnodar
        Winter is more luxurious than the Louvre, the French peasant lived many times better than the Russian.

        But our kings and emperors did not suffer from garbage like the French. They did not order dishes from nightingale tongues for tens of thousands of louis. Still, the power was not forgotten.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 08: 55 New
          +5
          laughing
          That's why their people lived better, and there were enough colonies. As for show-off - the Romanovs had no less of them. But by the beginning of the 20th century, 44% of the income of the richest Russians was spent on traveling abroad, shopping abroad, studying children abroad and medical treatment abroad))
          1. Kuroneko
            Kuroneko 18 July 2020 10: 02 New
            +2
            Quote: Krasnodar
            That's why their people lived better, and there were enough colonies.

            That is why they lived better than the COLONIES had. Where it was possible to plunder the population without hindrance, siphon strategic resources and practice the slaveholding system with might and main.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 10: 09 New
              +6
              That is not why they lived better - their serfdom was abolished in 1315-1318. It made sense to plow and recycle.
              1. Kuroneko
                Kuroneko 18 July 2020 10: 17 New
                +2
                Serfdom -! = (not equal, operator from C +) slavery, if anything. = _ =
                And why not cancel at home, if they had enough slaves in the colonies?
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 18 July 2020 10: 27 New
                  +4
                  In 1315, what colonies did they have? )))
                  First appeared in 1534 hi
                  1. Kuroneko
                    Kuroneko 18 July 2020 10: 52 New
                    +2
                    Don't we remember the Crusades? There, in the conquered lands, they essentially practiced the same thing.
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 11: 16 New
                      +3
                      laughing
                      The participation of the French knights in the Crusades, if they brought the loot, the order in which they consisted, not the French peasants or, in sensitive proportions, the treasury. Yes, and the lands they conquered - Palestine and the southern coast of modern Lebanon - with tear resources)). The only thing is some kind of money from the ports.
                      1. Kuroneko
                        Kuroneko 18 July 2020 13: 00 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        The participation of the French knights in the Crusades, if they brought the loot, then the order in which they were

                        But you are in vain. This robbery under the guise of protecting Christian values ​​enriched the royal treasury very well. So much so that France was able to live comfortably for several more centuries, despite the wars with the British, until she was finished by the squandering of the last Louis. So the peasants, although indirectly, got their profit - they simply did not need to be kept in a black body when such grandmothers were mined on the side. And here is how it is pinned - so immediately "Maidan" and burst out. For the French peasants were enslaved by the moment even worse than the Russian serfs.
                        And compare, for example, our conquest of Siberia. There was no merciless exploitation of the natives, although the times were also severe then. The expansion was carried out on completely different principles.
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 18 July 2020 13: 07 New
                        +2
                        What are the values ​​and what have the French involved in it? )))
                      3. Kuroneko
                        Kuroneko 18 July 2020 13: 09 New
                        +2
                        Christian.
                        Or are you not aware of the "official" cartoon of these robber raids? The fourth campaign generally turned into a sad oxymoron - we are going on the infidels, but we are capturing brotherly Byzantium ... = _ =
                        And all the rest I said above.
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 18 July 2020 13: 12 New
                        +6
                        What are Christian values? )) There was no money from these campaigns - even the looting of Constantinople occurred after the escaping king seized the treasury
                      5. Kuroneko
                        Kuroneko 18 July 2020 13: 15 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        There was no money from these trips

                        There were, and what other bucks! It’s tangible enough that about a quarter of European robbers have settled in the captured areas for centuries, even taking Muslim names as landlords. Unfastening part of the profit to whom it is supposed, essno.
                      6. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 05 New
                        +3
                        Where ?? laughing The only rich city there was Damascus, which the Crusaders could not take
                        Everything else was small, wealthy little towns - such as Jerusalem. When one of the noble crusaders was captured, they were redeemed ... by Armenians or the order. No European state has received any monetary preferences from this, from the word at all. List of cities captured by the crusaders:
                        Acre, Beirut, Sidon, Caesarea, Ascalon, Tire, Tripoli, Antioch, Jerusalem, Jaffa - where are the grandmas? )))
                      7. Sertorius
                        Sertorius 18 July 2020 14: 40 New
                        +6
                        Perceptible enough that about a quarter of European robbers settled in the occupied areas for centuries, even adopting Muslim names - like landlords.

                        Thank! They made fun ...
                        If anything - about 1200 knights of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (with orders), plus the same number in Antioch, and 200 in Tripoli, this is far from a quarter of all "European robbers". The barons of the Holy Land did not have any Muslim names, nor did they have any money ... and chronically.
                        Settled forever !? After Hattin, only a few families saved the land.
                        Write utter nonsense, sir.
          2. Sertorius
            Sertorius 18 July 2020 14: 22 New
            +4
            Do you think the crusader states are a colony? What kind of colony, which only exhausts resources from the mother country? Even for Italian merchants, this was not a colony. After the fall of Acre, they traded very well with the Middle East.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 15: 24 New
              +5
              I climbed the remains of the Crusader fortress in the Golan Heights, by European standards - nothing))
            2. Sertorius
              Sertorius 18 July 2020 15: 46 New
              +3
              In the Golan Heights area like Subeyba only survived. Were there? It seems like the Israelis are closed for visits .... Or have you been captured there? good
            3. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 16: 24 New
              +4
              Nimrod City wink
              No, like, 4 years ago, the guide took me and his wife calmly there request And we were not alone there.
            4. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 20: 19 New
              +4
              No, it seems, 4 years ago, the guide took me and my wife there quietly request And we were not alone there.

              Albert, and our main fortress in the Northwest, which held the border, with several unsuccessful assaults, is absolutely accessible for visiting! fellow You just need to know its history. drinks
              https://topwar.ru/119690-krepost-yam-gorod-kingisepp.html
            5. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 20: 33 New
              +3
              I will definitely read drinks Maybe I'll pay a visit when the baby grows up. I read about the city of Nimrod on the internet. Open - record in advance due to coronavirus. ))

              https://www.parks.org.il/reserve-park/גן-לאומי-מבצר-נמרוד-קלעת-נמרוד/

              Here in Hebrew, but there are pictures))
            6. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 July 2020 18: 04 New
              +3
              Here in Hebrew, but there are pictures))

              Looked through. good Very beautiful! drinks
            7. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 19 July 2020 19: 57 New
              +2
              But compared to European fortresses - nothing)).
          3. Sertorius
            Sertorius 20 July 2020 06: 07 New
            +1
            https://www.parks.org.il/reserve-park/גן-לאומי-מבצר-נמרוד-קלעת-נמרוד/

            Yes. This is As Subeyba. yes The fortress of the Crusaders, of course, can hardly be called. She became powerful already under the Ayyubids. There should be an underground passage (just like in "White Sun of the Desert). lol
          4. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 20 July 2020 11: 27 New
            0
            The Israelis think differently (some) - that it was created originally by the Arabs, and the crusaders brought it into a human form. ))
  • kalibr
    21 July 2020 11: 41 New
    0
    Quote: Kuroneko
    Don't we remember the Crusades? There, in the conquered lands, they essentially practiced the same thing.

    It is not true, just there the attitude towards the locals was very tolerant! There are documents!
  • Operator
    Operator 18 July 2020 17: 16 New
    -9
    African Americans now need to be fully reminded that the main culprits of slavery in America are the Jews who financed the supply of blacks from Africa (the so-called third flight).

    Jews need to kiss African Americans' feet and repent, and not rant about serfdom in Russia, introduced only at the beginning of the 16th century - five to six centuries later than in Western Europe. Those. the duration of the existence of serfdom in our country was less than in Western Europe.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 18: 37 New
      +3
      You are right, as always! hi
      The Black Sea arias from the Levites and Coens, who later led 50 SS-saboteurs recruited from German Jews, financed after WWII the supply of African Americans to Truman, as Eisenhower's servants.
      And I repent before you - on the sale of 13-year-old serf girls from master to master, who do you think was welded? crying
      1. Operator
        Operator 18 July 2020 19: 34 New
        -4
        Learn Materiel - Third Flight bully
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 19: 37 New
          +4
          And I also want to apologize for the victims of drunken conception - after all, who gave the people a drink? repeat
        2. Operator
          Operator 18 July 2020 21: 39 New
          -2
          We are you laughing
        3. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 19 July 2020 07: 54 New
          0
          If you write wine and beer, you are Tel Aviv's helper! negative
        4. Operator
          Operator 19 July 2020 12: 34 New
          -1
          "Albert, don't speak beautifully" (C)
        5. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 19 July 2020 12: 37 New
          +1
          ??
          WHO DRINKED THE WATER FROM THE TAP, KILLED THE Tsar, AND WATCHED THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE? (FROM) laughing
        6. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 19 July 2020 19: 36 New
          +1
          Forgotten the main thing!
        7. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 19 July 2020 20: 03 New
          +1
          That's it! negative
          I confess to the family of David repeat
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 12: 52 New
    +4
    Here in this place in more detail, please!
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 12: 53 New
      +3
      In which? Grandmas from the ports?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 13: 25 New
        +4
        In the abolition of serfdom in France
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 09 New
          +5
          It was between 1315 and 1318 A.D.
          It was canceled fellow This was done by Philip the Fifth, undermining the power of his barons - feudal lords))
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 July 2020 14: 23 New
            +5
            Philip Long tried to follow the path of papa, but here's an ambush (!), There was not enough charisma! Or his "Nogare". As he was the "king of Paris", he died.
          2. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 53 New
            +2
            But he freed the serfs))
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 12: 48 New
    +5
    "Everything returned" to square one ",
    And the crucified one hung over the circle "(C)
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 09: 42 New
    +6
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Well, how fair ... Winter is more luxurious than the Louvre, the French peasant lived many times better than the Russian.

    The winter real is the brainchild of Peter's descendants!
    Peter's houses were notable for their small size and moderate modesty. Citizens of St. Petersburg members of the forum, please - post a photo of the residences of the first emperor! If I'm not mistaken, all of Peter's houses were one-story! This is especially evident in Peterhof !!!
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 09: 57 New
      +6
      Versailles is resting next to Peterhof - and Peter did lead a relatively modest lifestyle. Well studied in Holland zhezh)))
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 11: 57 New
        +7
        Quote: Krasnodar
        Versailles is resting next to Peterhof - and Peter did lead a relatively modest lifestyle. Well studied in Holland zhezh)))

        If you are talking about the great embassy, ​​then the "refresher courses" were valid !!! I even find it difficult to answer that in the behavior of Tsar Peter I genuinely respect and that I am deeply indignant, but I pulled him out - this trip is not enough, however, as well as specialists !!!
        However, some negative to Sweden !!!
        Peter called Lefort the teacher, the Swedes after Poltava!
        Peterhof - if I am not mistaken, the brainchild of Elizabeth Petrovna, in a word - is impressive !!!
        Now compare it with the Peter and Paul Fortress that appeared from the outline of Peter!
        Peter the First was functional! Tell me at least one other of the Romanov dynasty, who could draw, work as a planer and on a lathe? Get up at the bellows and the bugle. Shoot a cannon, calculate a mine gallery and personally go to the abardance !!!
        Twist it does not twist Peter cause respect !!!
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 12: 35 New
          +2
          Peter certainly! )))
    2. ANB
      ANB 18 July 2020 13: 03 New
      +3
      House of Peter 1 on Petrovskaya Embankment. Wooden. Modest. To save, a brick pavilion was erected around. In front of the house is a bust of Peter, whose nose is polished by Nakhimov’s graduates. In February it was closed for repairs, so it did not work. So the photo will have to be watched on the Internet.
    3. ANB
      ANB 18 July 2020 13: 08 New
      +4
      Peterhof is generally a fairy tale. And it is not limited to the Lower Park. You can write an article about the structure and history of Peterhof. And not just one, but a cycle.
      But the palace of Peter 1, Monplaisir, is not only very elegant and beautiful, but also very small.
      Grace and modesty.
    4. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 19 July 2020 19: 42 New
      +1
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Peter's houses were notable for their small size and moderate modesty. Citizens of St. Petersburg members of the forum, please - post a photo of the residences of the first emperor! If I'm not mistaken, all of Peter's houses were one-story!

      You are wrong. Only the very first residence, the summer house of Peter the Great, was one-story.
      View of the house itself:


      View of the protective "case" around the house:
    5. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 19 July 2020 20: 02 New
      +1
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      If I'm not mistaken, all of Peter's houses were one-story!

      After the first one-story summer house of Peter the Great, subsequent palaces were already multi-story:
      Summer Palace:

      Winter Palace:

      Until the 70s of the last century, the Winter Palace of Peter was considered completely lost, but when examining the Hermitage Theater, it turned out that Quarenghi had included some of the old structures in the building.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 July 2020 20: 36 New
        0
        Alexey thanks for the addition and photos!
        Regards, Vlad!
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 19 July 2020 20: 48 New
          +1
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Alexey thanks for the addition and photos!
          Regards, Vlad!

          Yes, not at all! As a Leningrader, I could not help but respond to a polite request. hi
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 12: 45 New
    +3
    So much better that at first he beheaded a couple of his own "anointed ones of God", and then arranged the "Vendee".
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 13: 03 New
      +3
      But should they have bloodsuckers on their neck by right of royal origin? laughing In addition, do not forget the influence of the Protestants - they do not believe that power is from Gd)).
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 13: 26 New
        +4
        Well, I, so about the standard of living of the peasantry ... laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 10 New
          +4
          Above the Russian - plowed upon themselves hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 July 2020 14: 36 New
            +3
            A little confused ... What century are we talking about?
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 54 New
              +1
              Let's say the 18th)))
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 July 2020 15: 44 New
                +5
                With this - to "Captain Mikhailov", but about the Middle Ages, I will compete!
                Decree, order, edict, resolution (underline as necessary) please? And then we'll see what Long-landed canceled there.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 18 July 2020 15: 52 New
                  +2
                  And yes! Desirable links are not in Old French. I don’t read it (I don’t read it yet), alas ...
                2. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 18 July 2020 15: 59 New
                  +1
                  Louis X issues a decree abolishing slavery and proclaiming that "France means freedom", that any slave who sets foot on French soil must be released. However, some limited cases of slavery continued until the 17th century in some of France's Mediterranean ports in Provence, and also until the 18th century in some overseas territories of France. Most aspects of serfdom are also eliminated de facto between 1315 and 1318.
                  ---
                  https://ru.qwe.wiki/wiki/Timeline_of_abolition_of_slavery_and_serfdom

                  Decree - verdict too lazy to look hi
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 16: 09 New
                    +2
                    De facto in the second half of the 14th century. serfdom in Europe only intensified, caused by global geophysical and biological catastrophes. The answer to the strengthening of serfdom was Lutheranism.
                  2. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 16: 17 New
                    +1
                    1) We are talking about France
                    2) Lutheranism is the religion of cities and artisans (therefore, in fact, Protestant countries or with a significant proportion of Protestants in the population are the most successful, the first religion in which work is a blessing of heaven, frugality = virtue).
                    3) In which countries has it increased?
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 16: 30 New
                    +2
                    In which countries has it intensified?
                    Directly, you will be forced to write material about the economy of the Middle Ages! I do know a bit about this topic, but not strong for an article. Not strong yet ...
                  4. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 16: 31 New
                    +1
                    Anton ... in which specific countries serfdom has increased? Short list.
                  5. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 16: 36 New
                    +2
                    Let's start from the beginning, what do you mean by the term "serfdom"?
                  6. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 16: 41 New
                    +3
                    Variant of the Russian Empire until 1861
                  7. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 19: 06 New
                    +3
                    What does Correlation of France, a sample of the beginning of the 14th century, have to do with this?
                  8. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 19: 17 New
                    +3
                    We write about something else - the possibility of selling a person, limiting the movement of a person - i.e. serfdom. Where did this intensify in medieval Europe in the second half of the 14th century? Country?
                  9. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 19: 31 New
                    +2
                    Yes everywhere !!! In my opinion, the Middle Ages in Europe ended in 1314. And until that moment in Europe, white Christians were not traded, since the time of the Vikings.
                  10. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 19: 35 New
                    +2
                    And when did Serfdom end there?
                  11. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 18 July 2020 20: 27 New
                    +3
                    With this - to "Captain Mikhailov"

                    I'm talking about Paul! And that’s all! stop
                3. bk0010
                  bk0010 18 July 2020 23: 46 New
                  +2
                  There are two points of view on the end of the Middle Ages: 1492 - the discovery of America and 1453 - the fall of Byzantium. I hear about 1314 for the first time.
                4. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 July 2020 18: 01 New
                  +2
                  There are two points of view on the end of the Middle Ages: 1492 - the discovery of America and 1453 - the fall of Byzantium. I hear about 1314 for the first time.

                  If you take a history textbook, then the New time begins in 1640. English Revolution. drinks
              2. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 19 July 2020 18: 03 New
                +2
                And until that moment in Europe, white Christians were not traded, since the time of the Vikings.

                Joke. 16th century, slave market:
                - I, please, two white and half black. hi
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 22 New
    +3
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Well, I, so about the standard of living of the peasantry ... laughing

    The dissatisfaction of the peasants was caused by the permission given to the nobility to hunt on their lands, tripling the crops and raising taxes three times hi
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 July 2020 21: 19 New
    +3
    My poet, what pair of "God's anointed" did Peter execute? He executed Maria Hamelton, they give various reasons, executed V. Mons, brother of Anna Mons. Tsarevich Alexei died under mysterious circumstances. I sent my sister Sophia to the monastery, but I don't remember anymore
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 July 2020 21: 37 New
      +3
      My Beautiful Stranger! In this case, my comrade and I are engaged in a qualitative comparative analysis of the history of Russia and France.
  • bk0010
    bk0010 18 July 2020 13: 39 New
    +2
    Quote: Krasnodar
    the French peasant lived many times better than the Russian.
    Why do you think so?
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 14: 19 New
      +3
      From the fact that in 1814-16, from 10 to 40 thousand soldiers deserted from the Russian troops in France, many of whom settled there. Engaged mainly in agricultural. )))
      1. Sertorius
        Sertorius 18 July 2020 14: 56 New
        +1
        Quote: Krasnodar
        From the fact that in 1814-16, from 10 to 40 thousand soldiers deserted from the Russian troops in France, many of whom settled there. Engaged mainly in agricultural. )))

        Source - in the studio!
        I do not know how many Russian soldiers remained in Europe after the Foreign campaigns, but I know the number of soldiers of Napoleon's Great Army who took Russian citizenship by 1814 - about 60 thousand (V. Sirotkin "Napoleon and Russia", Moscow, 2000)
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 15: 03 New
          +3
          Yes please:
          http://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/46863/1/iurg-2017-160-14.pdf
          Here they question the figure of 40 thousand
          https://www.google.ru/amp/s/inosmi.ru/amp/social/20180405/241908021.html

          Another one

          http://www.museum.ru/museum/1812/Library/Borodino_conf/2012/Nazaryan.pdf

          Here's another

          As for the French, they:
          1) Were in the country to the winner
          2) As losers
          3) Not as serfs
          4) I am sure that most of them owned a craft, most were in demand as artisans in Russian cities

          About Russian soldiers who deserted to the vanquished - the motives are clearer
          1. Sertorius
            Sertorius 18 July 2020 15: 40 New
            0
            In both articles (I do not consider the article in the foreign affairs agency as a source) it is precisely the question that the figure of 40 thousand deserters is clearly overestimated. Here is literally from the first article: "Unfortunately, reliable sources containing information about the general
            the number of those who fled from the Russian army during 1814 has not yet been discovered.
            However, it is obvious that the number of 40 thousand deserters cited in the above-mentioned historical literature for 1814-1818. looks very doubtful. ”In the same article, there is an official figure, from the reports of Count Vorontsov - 319 deserters from the entire occupation corps, which Vorontsov commanded. And this is for the entire period of the presence of Russian troops in France.
            40 thousand - this is the testimony of only one eyewitness officer who could not have access to the required volume of documents, i.e. took the figure from the "ceiling", or projected the situation in his part on the entire body.
            On the other hand - the official report of the corps commander. For me, such evidence is much more reliable.
            About Russian soldiers who deserted to the vanquished - the motives are clearer

            Here it is generally unclear for me. Nazaryan lists these motives: "the disorder in the army, hopelessness at home, as a result - the search for a better life, a very strong motive was fear for one's life (escape as a way to save life), fear of punishment, as well as national and religious motives."
            All deserters of all armies of the world have such motives.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 15: 53 New
              0
              Certainly overpriced - but were massive. Moreover, mass desertion in the country of losers is very atypical. Therefore, the first motive - the search for a better life, I consider as one of the proofs of my statement about the higher standard of living of French peasants
              1. Sertorius
                Sertorius 18 July 2020 16: 00 New
                +2
                There is no doubt. The French revolution destroyed the landownership and endowed the peasants with land. Therefore, this could not but attract the Russian soldier - yesterday's peasant. But before the WFR, the French peasant lived no better than the Russian - rather worse. The level of seizure of surplus product from the population in France was the highest in Europe of the 18th century.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 18 July 2020 16: 04 New
                  +1
                  From there, including the revolution - however, the French peasants, who taught liberation from serfdom in the 14th century, plowed for themselves, therefore, they lived better, started farms, etc.
                  1. Sertorius
                    Sertorius 18 July 2020 16: 14 New
                    +5
                    No no. This is mistake. The French peasants, having gotten rid of the servage, did not become any free plowmen. The land was with the feudal lords, they ordered the music. Bartlett's "The Making of Europe" states that in Picardy, weaning in taxes and church tithes accounted for just under 50% of all profits. You won't get fat.
                    And at that moment when serfdom was abolished in France, it was not yet introduced in Russia.
                  2. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 18 July 2020 17: 02 New
                    +3
                    In the 14th it is possible, but, in any case, even with a 50% tax, half a whole is more than nothing. And under serfdom in Russia, when you and your child could be sold, there are generally different things.
    2. bk0010
      bk0010 18 July 2020 18: 24 New
      0
      This is already the 19th century, after the French Revolution. From school I remember that peasants of the time of Louis 14 were described as hungry, dirty, slaughtered animals. And by the way, if the peasants were liberated in the 14th century, why did Voltaire prepare a program for the elimination of serfdom, which provided for the liberation of serfs?
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 18 July 2020 18: 27 New
        +1
        In Provence and elsewhere preserved
    3. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 July 2020 21: 21 New
      0
      You have a large spread in numbers, but in doubt
  • Catfish
    Catfish 18 July 2020 08: 31 New
    +5
    Good morning friends! hi

    "Lancers with variegated badges,
    Dragoons with ponytails,
    All flashed before us,
    Everyone has been here. "

    Immediately I remembered, but somehow I heard nothing about cuirassiers.
    Yes, there was also about the cavalry guards:

    "The cavalry guard is short-lived
    And because he is so sweet.
    The trumpet sings, the canopy is thrown back
    And somewhere the ringing of sabers is heard. "

    Interestingly, has anyone heard anything "cuirassier"?
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 18 July 2020 08: 41 New
      +6
      Lermontov. "Peterhof holiday". But this is Barkov's style.

      “(I will not describe his uniform,
      But just for clarity and in parentheses
      I will say that he was a cuirassier) ".
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 11: 14 New
      +7
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Has anyone heard anything "cuirassier"?

      How do you like that? smile
      At dawn he will go into battle
      At the gate I will stand up without strength
      And saying goodbye to me
      All so harsh
      Only the cuirassier nods ...
      Separates from the beloved war
      Our brief happiness is deception.
      But not for long alone
      I will wait by the window
      A gentle lancer is waiting for me.

      smile
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 July 2020 11: 29 New
        +6
        Charming! smile So much for the quivering female nature ... request
        Whose is it?
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 12: 06 New
          +7
          My impromptu. repeat
          I didn't remember anything about the cuirassiers, it became somehow offensive for them ... smile
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 18 July 2020 12: 18 New
            +6
            Awesome! good It's nice to know that somehow contributed to the creation of good poems. And cuirassiers are not offended now ... smile
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 13: 38 New
        +5
        Michael! hi
        You are "in shock" today !!! good
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 July 2020 13: 45 New
          +5
          Good mood in the morning, Anton. smile
          Hopefully nobody messes up by tonight. smile
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 July 2020 13: 48 New
            +4
            It would be great!
    3. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 18 July 2020 11: 23 New
      +7
      Crane :))) there all cuirassiers and not only got it :)))
      Why not sing to us, friends.
      The Friendship Crane Choir?
      Chorus:
      Jura-jura-jura my,
      The crane is young.
      Let's start with the first we regiments -
      From the fool guards.
      Cavalier guards are fools
      Prop up the ceilings.
      Of the regiments, the most subtle -
      That is the Life Guards Regiment Equestrian.
      And who knows about women?
      This is the glorious Horse Regiment!
      And who is slim, really nice?
      This is a yellow cuirassier.
      Who is the cashier at the station?
      This is a yellow cuirassier.
      Kohl seduce the old woman
      I must ask the Gatchina resident.
      Who knows a lot about old women?
      Cuirassier Blue Regiment.

      I do not quote further, they will be banned :)))
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 July 2020 11: 31 New
        +7
        Tasty, but who wrote it, or is it folk art? smile
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 18 July 2020 12: 07 New
          +4
          folklore.
          https://www.liveinternet.ru/users/bawd/post66643660/
          https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%96%D1%83%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C_(%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BD%D1%8F)
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 18 July 2020 12: 22 New
            +8
            Thanks, read and enjoyed. drinks
  • Undecim
    Undecim 18 July 2020 10: 53 New
    +7
    So Peter I, starting a regular army in Russia, apparently thought a lot of how to make it European and at the same time cheap enough, of course, by his standards, so that foreigners, God forbid, would not laugh at Peter's troops. And it is clear that he could not do without cavalry, but decided, as far as possible, to make it cheap. Therefore, he did not start any expensive cuirassiers, but limited himself, in general, to the universal dragoon cavalry, which was the "riding infantry", and only gradually, over time, learned to fight not only on foot, but also in horse ranks.
    The first dragoon company as part of the Reitarsky regiment was formed in 1632, under Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 July 2020 13: 18 New
      +4
      However, the Reuters - the Forerunner of the cavalry guards and cuirassiers appeared earlier !!!
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 July 2020 19: 42 New
      +1
      Viktor Nikolaevich, I know less than you, but the so-called "regiments of the new order", regular infantry regiments appeared later. With the daughter of Alexei Mikhailovich-Sophia, or a little earlier, but in any case after the "reiters". I read about it in a magazine
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 July 2020 22: 10 New
        0
        Did I write something about reiters?
        I have given the date of the formation of the first company of dragoons.
  • ivamoss
    ivamoss 18 July 2020 13: 59 New
    +4
    Many thanks to the author!
    It was interesting to plunge into the past era. I liked it very much.
  • VIP
    VIP 18 July 2020 18: 02 New
    +1
    The "cavalier-garde of Catherine's times" has something like a woman's face ..
    It turns out that before Alexander 1, the cavalry guards were actually mummers "inseminators". What else were they suitable for.
    Vyacheslav, and other tsars, after Anna Ivanovna, did not create such favorites as cuirassiers for themselves? I know about the "label company". - These are not soldiers, and in case of a zavorushki they would have helped Lizaveta Petrovna, and the cuirassiers were a serious trump card.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 July 2020 18: 51 New
    +2
    Quote: Sertorius
    Do you think the crusader states are a colony? What kind of colony, which only exhausts resources from the mother country? Even for Italian merchants, this was not a colony. After the fall of Acre, they traded very well with the Middle East.

    Traders are traders for trading, but patriotism and so on does not bring profit. So I do not consider Italian merchants an argument
  • lshka
    lshka 19 July 2020 03: 04 New
    +1
    At one time I remembered the book "Sabers are sharp, horses are fast ... From the history of Russian cavalry. Cuirassiers, hussars, grenadiers" by A. Begunova I loved somewhere sad
  • Operator
    Operator 19 July 2020 12: 42 New
    -1
    Quote: Krasnodar
    ??

    Learn materiel - Russian classical literature bully
  • VIP
    VIP 19 July 2020 18: 18 New
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Jokes away! Michael, are you ready to become my second?

    I am ready, but I did not come out in rank.