Military Review

Rockets of our childhood

92
Rockets of our childhood

The only photograph of his father during the rocket launch


I did good with love in my heart!

Dedicated to our father


In my childhood, which fell on the 1980s, almost all the boys in our yard built rockets. We lived in the "Khrushchevka" of the working area of ​​the ZIP, almost on the outskirts of Krasnodar. Many guys at that time were fond of the chemistry of explosives precisely because of its practical application. Everything that burned or exploded well was used. I remember how rockets were stuffed with film that burned like gunpowder. They tried to use for these purposes and pieces of spent carbide, which the welders threw away after work. Various compositions have been invented based on magnesium or aluminum with the addition of manganese or potassium nitrate. File sharpened magnesium parts aviation wheels. Each student could accurately identify magnesium by attaching a copper coin to the metal and at the junction taste the acidity of the "galvanic couple" with his tongue. Used yellow sulfur, and instead of coal, sometimes ordinary granulated sugar was used. If someone managed to get hunting gunpowder, then it was a "holiday" for the whole yard. Today it may seem terrible, but in my childhood we made all the New Year's pyrotechnics ourselves, and it exploded no worse than the Chinese brought in today. I remember these bags with 100-300 explosive packets prepared for the New Year, rolled from cardboard punched cards, with matches strapped head to head. A fly-by is when an explosion occurs in the air after 2-3 seconds, while the explosion pack flies to the ground. Yes, there were burns and injuries, even mild concussions, but this is the only way the boyish character is tempered.

Most of our rockets simply burned up right at the launch site. Some exploded into small pieces, but some managed to get off the ground and under our enthusiastic cries, describing an arc, fall dangerously close to car garages. And then we had to have time to run away or hide from the men who were constantly dismantling and assembling something there. Some "yard" missile developers managed to achieve some results, but me and my older brothers Alexander and Boris were much more fortunate. We had a father, and our childhood dreams came true in his rocket science club.

When I was ten years old, my parents took me with them for the whole shift to the pioneer camp "Divnomorsk-Energetik". This is in the village of Divnomorsk, which is nestled among a forest near Gelendzhik on the Black Sea coast.

I remember how the smell of the sun-warmed resin from the surrounding pines mixed with the aromas of the sea, how restless cicadas sang in the crowns of trees.

Mom worked as a nurse in the camp's medical unit, and his father, Viktor Ivanovich Kantemirov, led the rocket science club. There, I was also lucky enough to make my first "combat" rocket, which soared high into the azure blue sky.

My father already had the technology of making and launching homemade solid fuel rockets, honed by many years of experience. More than once before that he had gone to pioneer camps for a season with his "rocket case" and taught the boys the basics of rocketry.

First, we collected the charcoal left over from a large pioneer bonfire lit at the opening of the camp shift. Then we carefully grinded the coals in a porcelain mortar to a state of dust. In the proportions verified by my father, we mixed coal, sulfur, saltpeter, adding a little black powder to the composition. A composition unthinkable today for use in modern realities! The boys worked in their father's circle with enthusiasm and passion. They laughed at each other when someone rubbed their nose or touched their face with their hands accidentally stained with coal. The guys already knew that coal burns in the rocket charge, sulfur only slows down combustion, and nitrate, when heated, gives the much needed oxygen. This mixture was poured into cardboard sleeves of hunting cartridges of 12-16 caliber and compacted with a hammer and mortar of the appropriate shape. But instead of a primer for the time of tamping the combustible mixture, the sleeve was mounted on a tapered rod, which formed inside not only an opening for inserting a fuse-cord, but also a future combustion chamber with effective thrust.

We also made the Bickford cord ourselves, soaking a hemp rope in saltpeter. After drying, it was coated with a pasty mixture of black powder with PVA glue. Then it was hung from the ceiling in the workshop and dried for a long time. When all the moisture had evaporated, the cord was ready.

Paper "technology"


We made rocket bodies, fairings and stabilizers out of paper, gluing it with silicate glue. On a polished metal blank, previously greased with Vaseline (to make it easier to remove from the workpiece), paper coated with glue was wound in several layers. For the head parts - fairings used conical blanks. Then the cardboard blanks were dried, they were removed from the blanks and everything unnecessary was cut off. The tail fins were also glued to the hull according to a template marked into 3 sectors with equal angles. There were cases when the boys managed to screw up the installation of stabilizers, and then the rocket was thrown to the side during takeoff.

The assembled rocket consisted of a body with stabilizers and a removable conical fairing tied to the body with a stern thread to fix it after "shooting".

Sliding rings were attached to the hulls that held the rocket in an upright position at the start and at the stage of the starting acceleration during launch. We painted the finished rockets with lacquer with "silver" like metal, decorated with red stars and inscriptions.

An equipped "solid-state" rocket engine was tightly inserted inside the hull, an auxiliary charge of pure gunpowder was filled over it, then a wad and a rolled silk parachute went. In multistage rockets, a small charge of gunpowder was also used to separate the used stage, which fired off the first stage and set fire to the second.

The principle of operation of the "rescue system" of the rocket was ingeniously simple. When the propellant burned out to the end, a powder charge exploded above it, which pushed the parachute with a wad, it dropped the fairing and flew out. Upon successful firing of the warhead, the rocket with a tied fairing descended on a parachute. But if something went wrong, then she fell down the fairing, crushing it into an accordion.

The launch pad itself was a long pin with a diameter of up to 8 mm, stuck in the ground. Depending on the size of the rocket, its length was from 1,0 to 2,5 meters. When the rocket was launched, the launch pad ensured the vertical direction of flight at the acceleration stage, and after the rocket left the launch pad - the pin, the rectilinear movement was provided by aerodynamic stabilizers.

Firework


How many starts, so many enthusiastic, breathtaking emotions! Almost all solemn lines and celebrations were accompanied by massive missile launches. Of the three missiles, at a simultaneous launch, at least one accurately fulfilled the entire "flight program". But unsuccessful starts lifted everyone's spirits and were a reason for jokes.

I remember how our circle was instructed to fire rockets at the Neptune Day celebration. The pebble beach is very narrow there, and there will be a lot of people on it. So it was decided for safety to launch rockets from a concrete breakwater that goes into the sea. To do this, we drove the shortened starting rods into the scraps of the found boards. The idea was not bad, but ... During the launch, some of the "launch sites" were overturned by the missiles taking off, and the missiles flew in different directions. One rocket fell to the foot of the throne of Neptune, the other flew towards the audience, who screamed and screamed to the sides. And the rocket, raising its charge, finally fired, throwing out its rescue parachute. Everyone but my father was having fun, but he was aware of the full scale of the disaster. Fortunately, no one was hurt then, and my father escaped with an oral reprimand from the head of the camp, whose son also made rockets with us.

By this time, both of my older brothers who went with their parents to pioneer camps on the Black Sea coast of Anapa also passed through my father's rocketry club. The eldest of us, Boris, fondly recalls the time when they lived in the village of Dinskaya in the Krasnodar Territory, my father worked at school and led several circles in which he loved to tinker.


In those years, thousands of future engineers and technicians attended the circles.

Lessons of skill


I remember well the events that preceded Gagarin's first flight on April 12, 1961, the first flight of an artificial Earth satellite and the flight with dogs on board - Belka and Strelka. And the point, of course, is not about propaganda and information campaign, it was our Victory, it made us HIGHER, BIGGER and BETTER than those who were in the West, and all of us. We then felt that we were a part of the people more than the current generation. These events raised the appreciation of our national identity. And I felt it already then. Then everyone raved about space.

This state of society has left its mark on the sphere of public education. In schools, and without that, in contrast to modern trends, a huge extracurricular circle work was carried out. The children were eagerly drawn to sports, to music, to all kinds of technical circles.

During this period, my father taught physics, astronomy and mathematics at school number 3, which is closer to the center of the village of Dinskaya. Mother, Margarita Andreevna, taught at the same school history, Russian language and literature. And the "circle" work for school teachers was an integral part of their teaching and educational function. Although it was charged at a lower rate.

My father received a load of conducting several circles at once: rocket, aircraft modeling and ship modeling. I, in the status of the son of a teacher, have often been to his classes since the 1st grade. I enjoyed the patronage of the participants, I was given tools, allowed to plan, glue, cut, in general, to create.

Classes were held not at the school, but in the old building of the House of Culture. The room was cramped, the building was old, although large by the standards of the village. On the right side there was a cinema, and on the left side there were two or three rooms used as workshops. There were wooden tool cabinets around the perimeter, some with glazing. They exhibited models of ships: sailing ships, military, submarines. Even then, the quality of their workmanship, detailing, and plausibility were striking.

I liked sailing ships the most. Subsequently, I built their models, and the first cases were carved with a knife even then.

The workshops had large windows, it was light, it smelled like glue, ether and something else that touches the soul of any boy whose dreams soar in the sky, sea or space.

In my recollections, they went to the circles from the 4th to the 8th grade of the school. After the 8th grade, the guys were already engaged in more serious matters, for example, driving courses, studying to be tractor drivers and combine operators. Grown up early. There was also an 8-year education. But this experience left its mark on the personalities of the children, raising their general culture, knowledge of history, technology, design, cultivating perseverance, and most importantly, it took them away from the street.

In the middle of the room were large work tables, cut and lined with tools, stained with glue and paint. There were also a couple of joinery workbenches.

Various aircraft models were suspended from the ceiling: airframes, rubber-engined, controlled, cable-controlled, with various engines. Were already completed and in varying degrees of readiness.

And - rockets! They were beautifully painted: bronze, silver, colored paints, inscriptions and symbols typical of that socialist era.

And Victor Ivanovich taught the guys all this. Where did he get these skills, I do not know, but he enjoyed great authority among the guys. In general, he possessed wide knowledge and skills, which made it possible, for example, to build a house, repair everything and everything, from the radio to the furniture. These qualities were generally characteristic of people of that generation. Survival, well-being and success in life depended on their presence.

Drawings and modeling manuals were then published, were available for use and distributed through a subscription to Soyuzpechat. The manuals were accompanied by "patterns" for the models. How and from what funds were the work of the circles provided by schools, houses of culture and creativity? Of course, then I could not be interested in this. But everything was needed. There were glue, paints, solvents, specialty paper, wood, bamboo chips, and even cartridges and gunpowder. My father was engaged in this, he had acquaintances from among the fishermen and hunters in the village.

The most memorable events were the days when models of gliders, airplanes were tested and when missiles were launched. Near the House of Culture there was a village bazaar with a couple of shops and several trading wooden rows-sheds. And behind it was a large vacant lot. A lot of people gathered.

Gliders were launched "from hand" as far as they could. But it was necessary to measure the push so that during launch the wing planes did not fall off. They flew as far as the aerodynamics were well calculated and as far as the wind allowed. The wings and tail unit were flimsy, translucent, spars and ribs - elements of the longitudinal and transverse set - were visible through and through. Instead of the fuselage, there is a thin wooden plank, and instead of the cockpit, there is a round plywood plate for counterweight to the center of gravity.

The rubber-engine models were the same gliders, the design of which included a drive from a harness of so-called aviation rubber of white color and a round cross-section with an aircraft propeller - a wooden propeller. The propeller is the most complex element, handcrafted from drawings with the utmost care. It was polished, weight balanced and varnished.

Before launching the model, the rubber band was twisted manually, with fingers or with a hand drill attached to the propeller shaft. Electric drills were then a huge rarity and value. After "winding up" the drive, the propeller was released, the rubber began to unwind, rotate the propeller, and the model began flying. It lasted until the end of the "tightness" of the rubber drive and planning from the inertia of acceleration.

A longitudinal and transverse set of glider models was made of bamboo chips with fixing bends and heating chips over an alcohol burner. Then the parts were joined with threads, fixed in the right position and soaked in bone glue. Bone glue stored in brown tiles half a centimeter thick was crushed and softened to a liquid state in a steam bath. He stank terribly. But after drying, he kept the structure well. The design dried for several days until the new meeting of the circle. Then it was glued over with sheets of tissue paper soaked in casein glue or flour paste, and again it was dried for a long time on a suspension bracket under the ceiling. After drying, the paper was pulled onto the frame like a drum, and the structure became a wing.

The senior schoolchildren who went through the glider and gum stages constructed cordless controlled models with real aviation micromotors. They were imperfect, badly launched, especially in the wind, when the ether used for the initial launch quickly disappeared. The big problem was getting aviation gas. But the father organized the business so that all this was at the disposal of the guys. But in the end, these flights became very spectacular. Modellers were on top of happiness.


The USSR won the space race for a school desk.

John Kennedy


The construction of existing rocket models, and they were all operational and, moreover, were launched several times into the sky, began with a cylindrical body. The missiles were different in size and design: single-stage and multi-stage, thick and thin, for beginner modelers simpler and for experienced - more complicated.

The main event - model tests and missile launches. There are many children, and it was necessary to ensure control over everything that was happening. But security measures were indifferent to me in those years, I did not notice this. Nevertheless, I have not heard of any injuries or emergency.

Missiles were alternately, and sometimes several, installed at the starts, Bikford cords were inserted, all departed several meters, and the cords were set on fire. These were tremulous moments when fire and smoke ran across the field toward the rocket, the engine was ignited and the rocket took off. Small models - quickly, large ones - more slowly and more effectively. How high, I don’t know, but in the sky they were almost indistinguishable. Only when the parachute was opened did they become noticeable. And then they were carried downwind, and all the crowd rushed to pick them up. Sometimes it was carried quite far, sometimes they sank into the yards of the village. Then they were asked to be allowed into the courtyard and removed from the tree or from the chicken coop.

Subsequently, on large models, in the head parts in special containers they began to place passengers - frogs. This caused particular interest and, probably, gave rise to youthful fantasies. Then the flight into space was already becoming a real dream. Surprisingly, there were no “victims” among the “astronauts”!

My father was very warm about this type of teaching, and the guys paid him in return. This was felt by me during the classes that I sometimes attended. I always really liked to plan, saw, cut, draw, organize, in general, do something. And this period of life was remembered in details precisely for these moments. At least, it’s better than just studying at school or at a music school. It was just an adventure!
Author:
Photos used:
from the author’s family archive, fishki.net, twimg.com
Articles from this series:
Crimea. Hot August 1991 of the year
Why would a man need a sword
Krasnodar, 1942. Occupation through eyewitnesses
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  1. avia12005
    avia12005 18 July 2020 04: 52 New
    28
    Thanks for the great memories! In the USSR, they created new missiles, because they learned this from childhood. Designers and engineers, and not a dumb and thieving bohemian, were the elite of society.
    1. Thunderbringer
      Thunderbringer 19 July 2020 18: 02 New
      -5
      Ничего подобного.
      The elite was just that very bohemian, stupid and thieving. And also impudent from impunity.
      All party leaders and their children.
      1. avia12005
        avia12005 19 July 2020 18: 22 New
        +3
        Thieves cannot be the elite, even if they are party members.
        1. Aleksandre
          Aleksandre 19 July 2020 23: 11 New
          -2
          Quote: avia12005
          Thieves cannot be the elite, even if they are party members.

          And yet they are, and they will still be.
          1. avia12005
            avia12005 20 July 2020 06: 05 New
            +1
            There are thieves, no elite.
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 18 July 2020 05: 41 New
    26
    were young. Everything was interesting. They loved to blow up, shoot, launch something. Now, for many circles, or even for chemistry lessons, he will shine for 5 years to the leader. Preparing a terrorist attack, making explosives. Actually, like us, guys, for explosives, for self-propelled guns, for smoke pipes ... And in our school, there was a karting section, here. And this is in the village, there were 5 cars. An enthusiastic uncle was found, the headmaster supported me, and somehow they begged the regional committee. There was a carpentry locksmith's circle, radio engineering, historical. In the labors from the 6th grade, machine tool training began, screw-cutting lathes, milling machines, electric welding, they began to work on everything. Probably it was in the memory of everyone that during the war, children got up to the machines, Well, so that after school a person would not be lost, but could work and ate a specialty. According to the current laws, the current Ministry of Emergency Situations or checking in the then school will be provided with about 10 criminal cases against the director. After school, a person could have the profession of a driver, a tractor driver, a machinist, a seamstress-minder, a cook, a milling turner, a gas welder. Some professions were trained at school, for example, drivers, tractor drivers. In some towns there were educational complexes, after lessons it was possible to study there in many specialties. Well and so to ponder, bone glue, he is carpentry, went in granules and tiles, just poured boiling water and insisted, I did not hear about water baths, the smell is very pleasant, why the author was disgusted with it, I don't know. The smell of rosin, hot shavings ........ Have a great weekend everyone drinks
    1. BAI
      BAI 18 July 2020 19: 40 New
      +1
      After school, a person could have the profession of a driver, a tractor driver, a machinist, a seamstress-minder, a cook, a turner-mill operator, a gas welder.

      Yes, I had a repairman of 2 categories, classmates also received a fitter, toolmaker, turner, milling machine operator, all 2 categories. The training was received at the enterprise that sponsored the school.
  3. Van 16
    Van 16 18 July 2020 06: 19 New
    11
    After school, along with the certificate, they issued a certificate of a detailed draftsman. In addition, they taught me how to work on a lathe (not that everyone knew how to do it, but they gave the basics for sure). Motorcycle club, radio engineering, model aircraft - these are only those that I went to, and this is only at school.
  4. bald
    bald 18 July 2020 06: 32 New
    11
    Thank you for the memory and nostalgia. A small amendment, nitrate to magnesium alloys, added not potash (it did not work), but ammonia. Everything was one to one, and I had it in the early 70s.
    1. AUL
      AUL 18 July 2020 07: 40 New
      +7
      Still potash! Activated carbon, sulfur color and potassium nitrate are the standard composition published in the literature. I was engaged in this business in the 60s ... My youth!
      1. dauria
        dauria 18 July 2020 11: 56 New
        +4
        Still potash! Activated carbon, sulfur color and potassium nitrate


        Oh you darkness .... laughing Yes, any. But sodium was the best, and most importantly, the most accessible. Fertilizer 60 kopecks per 3 kg. By the way, it contains more oxygen per kg. And it was done like this - an old basin, pour water, dissolve saltpeter while mixing. By eye. Then you put a stack of old newspapers in a basin - and after a couple of days (this is the highlight - the newspaper gets wet "through and through") you dry it on a clothesline. wink
        But to store the finished is scary. Just that - do not put out.
        A mandrel is made from a stick, then - foil from milk bottles - any old woman had stocks of an icon to wrap. wink And the usual thread, or nichrome cobweb (but this is already bold). The twig is like a stabilizer, but if you are not lazy you can also cross.
    2. Katran
      18 July 2020 11: 29 New
      +1
      Yes, potash, everything is correct - it looks like fine salt. And the ammonia one seemed like small balls, but it did not fit and burned badly.
      1. bald
        bald 19 July 2020 04: 35 New
        0
        The opposite is true - potash balls in those years, and ammonia crystals and more - paper impregnated with potash will not burn as with ammonia. But what can I say try and don’t have to stand there - I drenched the newspaper and in a frying pan over low heat - it takes 10 minutes. .
        1. Thunderbringer
          Thunderbringer 19 July 2020 18: 08 New
          0
          It will not burn even with ammonia.
          Only sodium, saturated solution.
          First we soaked the newspapers, then dried them and rolled them into a tight tube.
          Then they doped it, began to use a mixer, turning the paper first into fine dust, then poured it into a hot saturated solution of SODIUM nitrate, and then dried it for a long time, having previously filled this mixture into the required form.
          Such an engine is more efficient than a gunpowder engine, less lead, and the size and shape can be anything. (Our largest project was a hull from a standard fire extinguisher. And it took off.)
          1. bald
            bald 19 July 2020 22: 27 New
            0
            Andrei, it is all ammonia, and it included varieties (potassium, calcium, sodium, how else lithium was not allowed into use lol ), I repeat, one of the components of the reaction (catalyst) is nitrogen, and in ammonia it is twice as much. I was not a practitioner by age.
        2. Aleksandre
          Aleksandre 19 July 2020 23: 12 New
          0
          Quote: bald
          Quite the opposite - potash balls in those years, and ammonia crystals.

          I still remember packages of about 3-5 kg ​​with balls and the inscription "ammonia".
          1. bald
            bald 20 July 2020 00: 51 New
            +1
            Laughter - laughter, but don’t do it like that, we proceed to the manufacturing process winked - this is a ban on our publication. And then what they talked about, the public has nothing to do. There are all kinds of individuals.
            1. Aleksandre
              Aleksandre 20 July 2020 14: 16 New
              +1
              Quote: bald
              Laughter - laughter, but don’t do it like that, we proceed to the manufacturing process winked - this is a ban on our publication. And then what they talked about, the public has nothing to do. There are all kinds of individuals.

              Yes, in fact, whoever needs it can find a description of the simple process of obtaining acetone peroxide, and you can also melt it, getting at the exit if not plastic explosives, but quite convenient briquettes for use.
              1. bald
                bald 20 July 2020 17: 22 New
                0
                There is one.
    3. dauria
      dauria 18 July 2020 12: 40 New
      +2
      A small amendment, nitrate to magnesium alloys ...,

      Sawdust of magnesium (you take a ingot, you shuffle in a vice and a file) was mixed with dry potassium permanganate from a pharmacy. A "classic" gunpowder has never been done. It is easier and "more technologically advanced" to dissolve nitrate in water and soak the newspaper, dry it, roll it up with a tube and a thin wick from the same newspaper protruding through the nozzle. The criterion was simple. Little saltpeter - it burns poorly and a lot of large flakes. A lot is bad too. high temperature and the remains of saltpeter are sintered into droplets, and the foil burns out. By sight, two handfuls of sodium on a linen basin and a stack of the newspaper "Pravda". laughing
      1. bald
        bald 19 July 2020 04: 38 New
        0
        Yes, the reaction with manganese (explosion) is stronger than with nitrate. And ammonium nitrate contains twice as much nitrogen as other varieties.
      2. Aleksandre
        Aleksandre 19 July 2020 23: 15 New
        +1
        Quote: dauria
        A small amendment, nitrate to magnesium alloys ...,

        Sawdust of magnesium (you take a ingot, you shuffle in a vice and a file) was mixed with dry potassium permanganate from a pharmacy.

        Yes, the classic mixture was (+ some more sulfur heads from matches to the fuse), and only a file. Even on a low speed emery, magnesium burned out (
      3. bald
        bald 20 July 2020 00: 58 New
        0
        I did classic - n .... I received from a coal-grinded coffee grinder. At first, the same did not work, it has its own characteristics.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 18 July 2020 06: 55 New
    +9
    In my childhood, which fell on the 1980s, almost all the boys in our yard built rockets. We lived in the "Khrushchevka" of the working area of ​​the ZIP, almost on the outskirts of Krasnodar. Many guys were fond of explosive chemistry precisely because of its practical application. Everything that burned or exploded well was used. I remember how rockets were stuffed with film that burned like gunpowder. They also tried to use pieces of spent carbide for this purpose, which the welders threw out after work. Various compositions have been invented based on magnesium or aluminum with the addition of manganese or potassium nitrate. A file was used to sharpen the magnesium parts of aircraft wheels. Each student could accurately identify magnesium by attaching a copper coin to the metal and at the junction taste the acidity of the "galvanic couple" with his tongue. Used yellow sulfur, and instead of coal, sometimes ordinary granulated sugar was used. If someone managed to get hunting gunpowder, then it was a "holiday" for the whole yard. Today it may seem terrible, but in my childhood we made all the New Year's pyrotechnics ourselves, and it exploded no worse than the Chinese brought in today.
    In my childhood, which occurred in the sixties and seventies, they also engaged in similar "alchemy", but these were "stubborn individualists", and those for the most part, after one of the "alchemists" was left without two fingers, joined our rocket modeling circle in the House of Pioneers.
    In the USSR, a lot of literature was published on rocket modeling.

    The “recipes” listed by the author for rocket models, frankly, are not very suitable. Even if the model does fly, it is unpredictable.
    The most common in rocketry "pioneer level" fuel was a mixture of potassium nitrate and zinc. The Dosaaf rocket modelers, who are grown-up guys, also used caramel fuel from a mixture of potassium nitrate and powdered sugar. but there one could seriously suffer in the manufacture, overheating of the mixture.
    However, rockets with factory engines that were manufactured by industry flew best. The Czechoslovak people were especially appreciated.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 18 July 2020 09: 26 New
      +6
      Combustible film, it is also celuloid, was banned for production back in the sixties. It is very combustible and explosive, as they say, it is almost nitroglycerin. Roughly from this garbage, toy tumblers were made, but even these crumbs gave us many pleasant moments. Carbide, it's a song. There was a man at work, he said that they had a club in the school where the Trudovik taught how to make Mongolian compound combat bows, and shooting from them. I don’t know the truth or not. So the ancients knew a lot of interesting things, any child could make a fire without matches. If I don’t have a couple of boxes of matches and a liter of diesel, I’ll freeze in the woods in summer.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 18 July 2020 12: 57 New
        +6
        Combustible film, it is also celuloid, was banned for production back in the sixties. It is very flammable and explosive, as they say, it is almost nitroglycerin. Roughly from this garbage, toy tumblers were made, but even these crumbs gave us many pleasant moments. Carbide, it's a song.
        For small rockets, there were very finely chopped ping-pong balls. Small missiles: On a pencil you wind a piece of gold (foil) from a chocolate bar. You wrinkle the nose of the rocket around the tip of the pencil. Remove the resulting sleeve (case). Then you stuff it with a finely chopped ping-pong ball. You shape the nozzle by crushing the last centimeter and a half. All. You put the resulting rocket on any rail with the front end hanging out. Launch: Use 1-2 matches to warm the front tip until the rocket flies away. We competed with friends who will fly next.
        The smallest rockets, so to speak, for kids: take a match and wrap the head of the match + 0,5-1 cm as tightly as possible with a strip of foil (chocolate, insert in a pack of cigarettes). You lie on the guide with the head hung out (everything wrapped in foil). You heat the second burning match. The launch range depends on the size of the match head (they have a slightly different amount of composition), the amount of foil spent (the less, the easier the rocket will fly further), the density of wrapping (you will slightly crimp it, it may not fly at all), the uniformity of the wrapping (you will wrap unevenly asymmetrically - will fly crooked and wagging). Flies 1-6 meters.

        It was also possible to launch an ersatz rocket on glycerin. But it's dangerous. Although it is simply impossible. And flies up to 50 meters or more.

        Bickford cord: empty paste from a ballpoint pen, tightly packed with a mixture of crushed match heads and BF-6 glue. The more glue, the slower it burns. It does not detonate or extinguish even under water. The burning rate is about 4-6 seconds per cm.

        For serious rockets, he made special plug-in engines with other compounds. And licked at the factory standard, about which I only read in books about rocket modeling, like the one given in the comments. There was nowhere to take them in our region.
        Hunting gunpowder is generally unsuitable for the engine. No matter how you press it, it does not burn, but detonates. And the rocket made with such difficulty by children's hands does not fly, but is carried into the dust like a bomb. Of the available in our city, the best was: "silver" - aluminum powder from paint from a hardware store (two-component: an impressive package with precious powder and bottles of plasticizer / hardener); slightly worse is the same bronze powder (bronze paint). Both were mixed with either nitrate (fertilizer from the same store), or with potassium permanganate from the pharmacy (potassium permanganate is much better, but very expensive and in sooo small packaging for such use).

        Eh ... happy SOVIET childhood ...
      2. at84432384
        at84432384 18 July 2020 13: 35 New
        +2
        We bought celluloid film in a discount store. It was this year, in 68 ...
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 July 2020 15: 19 New
        +1
        If I don't have a couple of boxes of matches and a liter of diesel fuel, I will freeze in the forest in the summer.
        Hmmm ... It's somehow difficult to imagine a person frozen in the summer in the forest. For example, even naked, in the tundra, in the summer, I will not freeze.
        Meanwhile, solarium is not the best way to start a fire.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 18 July 2020 18: 33 New
          +1
          If aged, then maybe.
          Alzheimer's, for example, helps a lot.

          Unfortunately, there are many examples even in the near Moscow region.
          It's good in the forest, but they don't joke with him.
      4. BAI
        BAI 18 July 2020 19: 47 New
        0
        About this garbage toys were made tumblers

        Brown plastic combs. Check - burn very vigorously, without soot. You break off a couple of cloves, wrap it in foil from a candy or chocolate bar, heat it (don't light it) with a match. There is such smoke, and the design flies like a rocket all over the room or on the street.
      5. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 July 2020 19: 50 New
        0
        Combustible film was produced until 1968, later - that's it, the film was just melting. We plodded the charging ends of old photographic films into smoke exhausters and primitive foil rockets.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 18 July 2020 10: 11 New
      10
      Good morning, Vik Nikolaitch! hi
      I did not build rockets, but one day one of the guys dragged an old Raketa vacuum cleaner (already without filling), filled it with old film and gunpowder, and set it on fire. Of course, he did not take off, but he flooded the sand really with "rocket speed." True, the fun did not last long, he collapsed on the go. smile
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 18 July 2020 10: 38 New
        +4
        Good morning, Constantine! I don’t know how old you were to appreciate such an experience with dignity, but it shows how not to do it.
        My father, knowing that in any case, we will deal with "pyrotechnics" and "explosives", and prohibitive measures only stir up interest, followed the path of the well-known saying - "if the process cannot be prevented, it must be led." Among other things, we could dig up and serious things. I will say right away that a practical demonstration of the consequences of an artillery shell explosion is much more effective than a hundred conversations. Because no one from our company has ever been hurt. But there were also tragic cases, including group ones.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 18 July 2020 11: 27 New
          +5
          We had a people from seven to ten years, approximately. And my father, unfortunately, was not at all interested in how I spend my "free time". We launched the "rocket" on the outskirts of Vilnius and, yes, there were a couple of cases with a shell and a grenade, fortunately I was not there at that time.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 July 2020 15: 28 New
            +5
            "The older guys sent me to see how the mine was in the fire. The mine was lying well." (FROM)
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 July 2020 15: 25 New
          +3
          But there were also tragic cases, including group ones.
          In my childhood - all the time. Once every six months, the radio announced that the children had been blown up in the Valley of Glory. In those years, Murmansk residents called it "the valley of death".
  6. Liam
    Liam 18 July 2020 07: 17 New
    0
    The USSR won the space race for a school desk.

    John Kennedy

    The quote is naturally fake. You could do without
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 08: 28 New
      14
      Greetings! hi Not necessarily - in the States of the early 60s published books for teachers "why Ivan is smarter than John." It was believed that the foundation was fundamental mathematics and physics, which Soviet children were duly taught in school.
      Two examples from Israel:
      1) Natanyahu sounded the alarm when the repatriate teachers from the USSR began to retire mathematicians. He said that we can lose the "quality race to Iran" - Persian children today consistently take prizes in mathematical Olympiads
      2) Emigrants from the USSR opened the Shevakh Mofet school with an in-depth study of Phenicia mathematics according to the Soviet system. Local teachers turned to the Ministry of Education with a protest - what the hell, they’re not teaching according to the program. A commission was appointed, which, after three months of observation and testing of students, issued a verdict:
      This is exactly how one should teach - in the Soviet way! hi
      1. Liam
        Liam 18 July 2020 11: 24 New
        +2
        Quote: Krasnodar
        in the States of the early 60s, books were published for teachers "why Ivan is smarter than John"

        Health hi
        I hope you are not serious)
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 July 2020 11: 29 New
          +5
          Absolutely serious)) Because of the USSR's leadership in space (up to the American landing on the moon). And this does not say anything bad about the Americans - on the contrary. )) Pragmatism and the lack of megalomania
          https://www.google.ru/amp/s/inosmi.ru/amp/social/20200214/246852283.html
          1. Liam
            Liam 18 July 2020 11: 40 New
            +1
            )))
            Can you throw off the link ha such a book?
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 11: 40 New
              +2
              Didn't find it - I saw it in the documentary.
              Found a link to an article from Time
              https://www.google.ru/amp/s/inosmi.ru/amp/social/20200214/246852283.html
            2. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 18 July 2020 12: 29 New
              +3
              Sorry, the wrong translation was in the docfilm - What Ivan Knows That Johnny Doesn '
              Further - according to the link
              1. Liam
                Liam 18 July 2020 19: 45 New
                0
                There is nothing smarter / dumber. One American comrade tried to compare approaches to primary education in the states and the USSR. Life has shown that he was wrong.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 18 July 2020 20: 03 New
                  +3
                  Once again - in the movie I saw, What Ivan Knows That Johnny Doesn't translated in that way hi
                  Why is it wrong? In educated US families, the lack of a school curriculum was achieved by home reading and tutors, while in less educated families, they did not get it. Soviet SCHOOLeducation is one of, if not the best, in the world. How they used it further is another matter.
                  1. Liam
                    Liam 18 July 2020 20: 17 New
                    0
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Soviet SCHOOL education is one of, if not the best, in the world. How they used it further is another matter.

                    I do not know by what criteria you calculated this. It's like saying that this cake is the most delicious in the world)
                    The only criterion of truth is practice (reality) And truth is always specific. But in reality, the fruits of its school system (including) of the early 60s, the union saw in the 80s, a destroyed economy and millions of graduates of this best system charging water in front of the TV.
                    As for the space miracle of the early 60s, the people who provided it due to their age were by no means products of the Soviet education system.
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 18 July 2020 20: 28 New
                      +2
                      Ok
                      Fair and logical.
                      Objective criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the education system - the amount of knowledge gained. The USSR was out of competition here. Problems were already beginning with the higher one - physics and mathematics were at the highest world level, chemistry and medicine (except for the knowledge of anatomy, etc.) were already so, the rest, basically, sucks. Plus, the economic failure of a planned economy, for the effectiveness of which requires a harsh tyrant, not Brezhnev (a good guy, by the way), etc. School education was excellent, most of the rest was not.
                      1. Liam
                        Liam 18 July 2020 20: 42 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        the amount of knowledge gained. The USSR was out of competition here.

                        This is just a statement). How do you measure this same volume? By what criteria do you determine. With such an approach like you, it is exclusively a matter of faith. This volume was supposed to give some kind of exhaust in real life. And it was not particularly visible.
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        physics and mathematics were at the highest world level

                        From the same opera as with the volume of school knowledge.By any objective criteria, from Nobel Prizes, original patents, inventions, trends in science and technology, their embodiment in a technological sense in goods, technologies, etc., nothing particularly outstanding was observed and observed
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 18 July 2020 20: 52 New
                        +2
                        1) Read the article, pliz, the number of new words learned by the child in a year, for example hi
                        2) Exhaust in real life - I know one Stanford graduate. Now he works for 70 thousand rubles a month (850 euros) as a manager of a medium-sized Russian company. Growth prospects - up to 5 thousand euros per month maximum, in the States he would start from this amount. Once again - the question is, what are you doing with this. You can develop science in the country and produce competitive household appliances in addition to the military-industrial complex and outer space, develop new crops, etc. And you can throw everything into the development of oil production in the Far North - and oil for food.
                        3) Because everything was rushed to the military-industrial complex and space
                      3. Liam
                        Liam 18 July 2020 21: 10 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        learned by a child in a year, for example

                        Oh oh)
                        In the standard Soviet school of the 70-80s, there were 4-5 classes of one year. On average, there were 30 people each. In any of these classes, there were 4-5 students who not only read this volume of words, but also comprehended it. And 7-8 people "good" who coped with this worse. The remaining half (at best) could not cope with the volume in any way. By the 2nd-3rd grade, this selection took already quite definitive forms and in the middle of the class teachers put a bold pedagogical cross, paying attention to them to the extent insofar as.
                        So from 50% to 70% of school graduates did not master this wonderful volume of words and knowledge, even conditionally. And there is a fairly reasonable opinion that there were too many words for an average 7-8 year old child and most of them he did not comprehend, and at best he crammed )
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 19 July 2020 07: 50 New
                        +2
                        I agree. )))
                        But - cramming develops memory, an average C grade out of 2000 thousand words, say, is learned in the worst case 500, an American excellent student will learn, with a load at home - 300, tk. there were 183 in the program - for the lower grades for 1961.
                        But - problems arise at the university. The Americans taught in depth, i.e. in the second semester of the first year, 80% of the disciplines concerned the main subject, in the USSR they taught a bunch of accompanying crap, i.e. in breadth - Marxism-Leninism, etc.
                      5. Liam
                        Liam 19 July 2020 08: 29 New
                        +1
                        In your article, this is written — there are fewer words and a lot of repetitions in the Amer’s school. That is, primary school students are taught not materials, but taught to learn. They are preparing for the assimilation of knowledge. Children at that age are very different, they are still plasticine. grabs quickly, but most need more time and an individual approach. Therefore, under the Soviet system, when this big shaft of words and information fell upon them at once, the majority simply could not cope with the development. Geeks sat on this train of knowledge, and the bulk were late hopelessly and forever.
                        When children from the post-Soviet space moved to permanent residence in the West, this was very clear. Primary school students on average were ahead of Western peers in their knowledge. Middle classes were already comparable, and the lyceum or technical school ahead were already Western children. Moreover, by a serious margin. University graduate ahead catastrophically.
                        To simplify, the Soviet system yielded a small percentage of very strong geniuses of geeks and a very weak bulk of the “average” level. Western — few geeks but a much better prepared bulk. For society, the second option is much “more profitable”
                      6. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 19 July 2020 08: 46 New
                        +1
                        After the Soviet school he studied in an Israeli, and an "elite" one. The indicators for the 90s in the certificate of maturity in the "Russian" class corresponded to the general Israeli - for this school it is, but we need to make allowances for the fact that we studied Hebrew in parallel with our studies (in the second year we knew quite well). In mathematics, they grabbed everything quickly, according to the literature of Sophocles’s tragedy about Oedipus and his complex plunged us a little in shock laughing But, by and large - no lag.
                      7. Katran
                        19 July 2020 09: 49 New
                        +1
                        There was already an article where they compared education, read. "Soviet School for British Education" https://topwar.ru/153368-britanskoe-obrazovanie-amp-sovetskaja-shkola.html
                      8. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 19 July 2020 09: 50 New
                        0
                        I will read it with pleasure - thanks!
  • Evgeniy-111
    Evgeniy-111 21 July 2020 19: 22 New
    0
    What's the fake? Kennedy didn’t say that or wasn’t it taught at school?
  • parusnik
    parusnik 18 July 2020 07: 36 New
    12
    Hmm, it was ... Thanks for the memories ... Now they fly on virtual rockets, virtual planes .. and dream of being youtuber ...
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 18 July 2020 07: 40 New
    11
    My passion for rocket modeling was in the mid-60s. The author described the atmosphere of the circles in a very similar way. Here are just a few differences. My circle was in the city Palace of Pioneers in the capital of one of the union republics. Engines were used exclusively standard industrial production. All initiative was strictly prohibited. The fact is that in 1965 there were two tragic cases during the independent stuffing of cartridges. Children remained disabled. The missiles were launched remotely using an electric igniter made of nichrome wire, 10 meters of wire and two Krona batteries.
    I was engaged in a circle until the 8th grade, then I completely switched to radio electronics.
    1. Sklendarka
      Sklendarka 18 July 2020 09: 09 New
      +8
      And I really liked the rockets that flew on the water - they were sold and such. A rocket plus a pump - you pour water into the rocket and with the help of the pump you raise the pressure in the body of the aircraft and ... Let's go.
      I could be wrong (when it was), but it flew 50 meters away for sure ...
      1. Coward
        Coward 18 July 2020 10: 40 New
        +4
        The most difficult thing was to keep the pump with the rocket in an upright position while releasing the stopper during launch.
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 July 2020 19: 56 New
        0
        These were GDR rockets. They had a rubber tip, which saved them when returning from a height of about 15 m (the height of the five-story Khrushchev building).
      3. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 July 2020 20: 23 New
        +1

        Here is the launch of a water GDR rocket in 1966
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 18 July 2020 13: 06 New
      0
      The motors were used exclusively of standard industrial production. Any amateur activity was strictly prohibited.
      With us, I would be happy to use only them. But there was nowhere to take. It was impossible even to write it out. I did not find them in the catalog. He lived in a district center in Northern Kazakhstan.
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 18 July 2020 14: 37 New
        +5
        Quote: abrakadabre
        The motors were used exclusively of standard industrial production. Any amateur activity was strictly prohibited.
        With us, I would be happy to use only them. But there was nowhere to take. It was impossible even to write it out. I did not find them in the catalog. He lived in a district center in Northern Kazakhstan.

        Everything is correct. It was impossible to buy them on your own, only through the organization. Our head of the circle was checked by the authorities, special courses, gave a subscription. Boxes with engines were stored in a powerful safe, the sleeves were numbered and the required number for starts was taken out according to the act, then at the end, the act of decommissioning again. I learned this years later, when I myself taught classes in applied electroplating at the Palace of Pioneers. There, too, I had to work with relatively dangerous substances, which were obtained and written off in fact by special acts.
  • Alien From
    Alien From 18 July 2020 09: 15 New
    +4
    Thanks to the authors, it's great to remember childhood !!!!!
  • Reader 2013
    Reader 2013 18 July 2020 10: 17 New
    +4
    You would be more careful, at present, can pick up a article for terrorism and manufacturing allowance laughing For five years they have already written
    1. Sklendarka
      Sklendarka 18 July 2020 10: 44 New
      +5
      Quote: Citelle 2013
      You would be more careful, at present, can pick up a article for terrorism and manufacturing allowance laughing For five years they have already written

      Yes, we live in an interesting time ... And I had a cool chemosis (a chemistry teacher), nothing like that aunt, she allowed me to play around in all such jars. Well, there are phosphors with all kinds of salts, different sodium, but somehow it flew ...
    2. Dmitriy Zadorozhniy
      Dmitriy Zadorozhniy 18 July 2020 11: 12 New
      10
      Any Soviet schoolchild could do a lot of things, and if you read Soviet books, you can learn a priest. For schoolchildren 50-60 years old. There is an en masse call for ter .... And now a pancake friend decided to put out a burning frying pan with water. Miraculously knocked the mug out of his hands. And what? He says they extinguish with water! Damn, and so gray, and then she added.
  • garri-lin
    garri-lin 18 July 2020 10: 33 New
    +3
    There were no factory engines. Only homemade. Blotter soaked with Selita plus gunpowder stolen from his father. Housing from anything. From whatman to dozens of newspaper layers. Foil, rare in those days, was welcomed. They started up in pairs. For the flight range in the wasteland.
    1. New
      New Year day 18 July 2020 15: 48 New
      +7
      Quote: garri-lin
      There were no factory engines.

      were. We were in a circle. It was a hunting cartridge without a primer. A wick was inserted into the hole and after it was ignited, the rocket took off. Not any self-made
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 18 July 2020 18: 34 New
        0
        I'm talking about my childhood. Honestly, we did not bother buying. Maybe it was on sale. Either it was difficult to get it or it was far to go. I do not remember. We did it ourselves. Under the guidance of senior comrades.
      2. igordok
        igordok 18 July 2020 19: 43 New
        +2
        Quote: Silvestr
        It was a hunting cartridge without a primer.

        We somehow "filled" such an engine with smokeless powder. The roar was chic, but the “engine” remained intact. Eh childhood ...
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 18 July 2020 20: 00 New
      +1
      Since the mid-60s, only factory ones. It seems that after the accidents, homemade was really banned. And until 1965, UT magazine regularly published recipes for improvised rocket engines using improvised smoke powder.
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 18 July 2020 20: 15 New
        0
        We dabbled in the mid-late 80s. The mugs no longer worked normally. It was easier to do it yourself. Under your own responsibility.
      2. NordUral
        NordUral 20 July 2020 19: 49 New
        0
        And we in the air mug in Siverskaya gave out engines in cardboard cartridges. I have launched more than a dozen, the largest with five charges in 63-64.
  • Irina M
    Irina M 18 July 2020 10: 51 New
    +6
    Wonderful article.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 July 2020 14: 59 New
    10
    "In an old candy box
    Once upon a time there were cartoon characters.
    The wolf, for example, from "Well, wait a minute",
    He shouted to me "Don't go!"
    On the TV in the attic
    Once upon a time there were unchildish passions.
    Hedgehog in the fog on the verge of spring,
    Seventeen moments of espionage trouble ...

    I'd love to go to the Soviet Union!
    I really want it again and again.
    I'd love to go to the Soviet Union!
    To whisper two words in Cheburashka’s ear,
    Again and again.
    I'd like to ... Hell!
    Fly to MIG-25 ... "(c)

    In an old candy box
    Once upon a time there were milk teeth.
    The gloomy days of the cold war
    And the blue skirt of the girl Luba.
    And friends came to my father -
    San Sanych and the shop manager Kutsenko
    They started the reel "Lighthouse"
    And the imperishable thundered under the vodka.

    I'd love to go to the Soviet Union!
    I really want it again and again.
    I'd love to go to the Soviet Union!
    To whisper two words in Cheburashka’s ear,
    Again and again.
    I'd like to ... Hell!
    Fly to MIG-25 ...
  • New
    New Year day 18 July 2020 15: 47 New
    +6
    I was also ... a rocket scientist. The rockets were really glued from whatman paper, the nose cone was carved out of wood and there was a parachute chip. After shooting off the nose cone, the parachute was thrown and the rocket descended to the ground. Production was set up in the House of Pioneers, there were even competitions.
    Childhood. Happy and bright.
  • BAI
    BAI 18 July 2020 19: 28 New
    +4
    In schools, and in contrast to modern trends, a huge circle extracurricular work was conducted.

    But there were also Houses (Palaces) of pioneers and stations of young technicians. In the house of pioneers, I was engaged in photography, and in the school radio circle - radio amateurism. He had the badges "Young radio amateur" and "Young radio designer" (the result of participation in regional exhibitions). Absolutely everything - for free, if only there was a desire (one's own, conscious, and not parents). After school - MEPhI, Faculty of Cybernetics. Everything was laid down from childhood.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 18 July 2020 20: 03 New
      +1
      And after the YT magazine I had a correspondence school of physics and technology, which greatly helped to enter the MIPT at the Faculty of Aeromechanics and Flight Engineering.
    2. Thunderbringer
      Thunderbringer 19 July 2020 18: 24 New
      +1
      I went to such a circle myself. Due to the fact that the teacher was friends in the nearest HF, there were radio parts!
      So it was impossible to buy them in the regional center during the day with fire, only stolen from enterprises, high frequency, and the like.
      Personally, we little ones loved to go to the dump of the local radio factory and TV studio. Yes, and just to landfill.
      There it was possible to pull something out of the crumpled chassis.
  • Al_lexx
    Al_lexx 19 July 2020 11: 53 New
    +2
    Thanks for the great article. Itself went through all this in the late 70s. The first category in the class F2A (high-speed). He also performed a lot in F2C (dogfight) and F2D (racing) classes.
    The only remark is that aviation gasoline was not used in aircraft modeling for its intended purpose. And you could wash the engines with anyone. We often bought refined lighters. Convenient packaging, for one-time use in F2D competitions, if it dug the earth with a motor, if it falls.
    In general, the amount of equipment for participating in competitions would probably amaze the imagination now. From beautifully painted plywood wardrobe trunks to starters for F2A and fuel supply systems for F2C
  • Yurahip
    Yurahip 19 July 2020 15: 15 New
    +1
    And now this / creativity / is article UK223ch, 1 production of explosives
    ... Until six, it seems. Here's such a rocket-made-delism ?!
    30 years in the subject, teacher of additional education. Plus all childhood in the pioneer house.
    1. Thunderbringer
      Thunderbringer 19 July 2020 18: 26 New
      0
      Then it was also, and more abruptly.
      Comrade writes how everything was kept in a safe, with a bunch of responsible people, magazines, acts and other things.
      Now it is also possible.
  • Old26
    Old26 19 July 2020 16: 13 New
    +2
    Quote: BAI
    Yes, I had a repairman of 2 categories, classmates also received a fitter, toolmaker, turner, milling machine operator, all 2 categories. The training was received at the enterprise that sponsored the school.

    Quote: Van 16
    After school, along with the certificate, they issued a certificate of a detailed draftsman. In addition, they taught me how to work on a lathe (not that everyone knew how to do it, but they gave the basics for sure). Motorcycle club, radio engineering, model aircraft - these are only those that I went to, and this is only at school.

    Yes, at the YUT station I went to the radio engineering circle. Taught to work on the key. I even got some kind of discharge. For some time I went to an aircraft model. In the 9-10th grade, the school had a car business. At the end of the 10th grade, they received the rights of the 3rd grade.
    Later, at the institute, I graduated from the courses of tractor drivers, because often sent to sowing / harvesting. At the same time, they taught welding in the "labor" class. Well, at school, in labor lessons, they were taught to work on machines (turning, milling, drilling).

    He launched rockets, like everyone else. The advantage was that he lived in a military town and therefore gunpowder was most often used for fuel.
  • NordUral
    NordUral 20 July 2020 19: 38 New
    0
    The pictures reminded me of my childhood and the aircraft modeling circle of the 60s. He himself was fond of such missiles.
  • shoroh
    shoroh 21 July 2020 08: 19 New
    +1
    I was also born and live in Krasnodar, my childhood was the same pyrotechnic, homemade. Alas, the current generation has lost the skill of working with BB
  • Reader 2013
    Reader 2013 22 July 2020 19: 49 New
    0
    now they don't sell potassium permanganate either
    1. Katran
      23 July 2020 07: 59 New
      0
      Recently I just saw a woman walking around the fair and offering potassium permanganate in small vials. wink
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 23 July 2020 08: 44 New
    +1
    Good article. Has brought back memories from childhood. Rockets on film, homemade and black powder. Unique.
  • Aleksandr123
    Aleksandr123 23 July 2020 20: 38 New
    0
    Yes, there was something to do! There were no circles at the station of young technicians. Rocket - the very first. Sports sections - similarly, for every taste - rowing alone is worth something. Shooting from a small-bore rifle. Etc. No payments. The only thing that spoiled the young man's nervous system was the requirement to periodically show the diary to the head of the club or sports section. However, this is a system of upbringing a person who needs the country and himself. And who she needs now, something is not clear in places.
    1. Katran
      24 July 2020 12: 25 New
      0
      My coach, it's good that the diary didn't force me to show wink I studied from 3 to 4 by jumping. tongue Five were for labors, physical education, NVP and astronomy good
      But who is now being brought up is already clear - consumer... They impose what he should buy, what to wear and how to “burn through life” by giving loans ... But there will be no brilliant and creative personalities among such people, and no intelligent engineers. That generation of Specialists of all industries and Creators is leaving irrevocably, and they are being replaced by "kekers". There is also incompetence and breakdowns and accidents ... The state began to pursue a certain policy, but "Sirius", etc. units in the country. There is no such interest and colossal mass character as in the USSR. And all classes in the circles are only for money! negative