Military Review

Aviation diesel: dead end branch or ...?

Aviation diesel: dead end branch or ...?

During our broadcast on airplanes, a question was asked about aviation diesel engines. The topic is completely non-ethereal, since there is not much to argue about, but there are interesting moments that have been continued in our days.

Because - here it is, an aircraft diesel.

In general, only two countries have reached the sensible use of diesel in aviation. Germany and the Soviet Union. God himself ordered the first, since Diesel was German and all developments after his death remained in Germany, but the USSR is a separate and difficult issue.

In fact, both countries began to develop the diesel theme not from a good life. There were problems with motors, the Germans still had a shortage of oil, and we had a lack of technology for its normal processing. High-octane gasolines were an unfulfilled dream for the USSR; the whole war was fought on imported high-octane fuel.

Actually, the essentially different problems of the oil plan have generated interest in diesel engines. And it was from what.

A huge plus of the diesel engine was the ability to work not on gas, but, as they would say now, on alternative fuels. That is, kerosene and diesel fuel. Yes, kerosene of that time could normally be charged into a diesel engine, and the engine chewed it perfectly. Even modern diesels may well use kerosene as winter fuel at very low temperatures, you only need to add cetane-raising additives.

Kerosene was not as flammable as aviation gasoline, and there have been no problems with its forcing out of oil since 1746.

Minus consider a large mass of a diesel engine compared to a gasoline counterpart.

It turned out a situation in which it was a sin not to try to develop engines for aircraft that would run on that fuel, which is easier to drive out. Logically, isn't it? Especially when there is development. The Germans quite in a friendly manner shared their recipes, and in the USSR work also began to boil.

Each country has gone its own way.

As the work progressed, it became clear that the diesel engine is not for the fighter. He went too leisurely, unable to respond to the demand to quickly increase speed. However, this is still relevant.

Therefore, the Soviet (let's start with us) designers immediately assigned the niche of long-range and heavy bombers to an aviation diesel engine. Firstly, the planes themselves were large and were not afraid of the mass of the engine, and secondly, cost-effectiveness, which means that the range were the determining factors.

Unlike the Germans, our designers were tasked with removing the maximum possible power of 1300-1500 hp from diesel engines, which was a somewhat fantastic figure. In the country at that time they could not create a gasoline engine of such power, but here the diesel ...

But it was precisely on engines of such power that would be able to accelerate a bomber weighing 13-15 tons to an acceptable speed of 400 km / h and provide a range of 2500-3000 km, Soviet designers were oriented.

Andrei Dmitrievich Charomsky should be considered unconditionally the main diesel engine of the country.

Under his leadership, the TsIAM team (P.I. Baranov Central Institute of Aircraft Engine Engineering) developed the AN-1A diesel engine with a capacity of 900 hp, which was completely inferior to gasoline engines at low (up to 2500 m) heights. AN-1A became the basis for further development of these engines, having successfully passed tests on the TB-3D bomber.

Then Charomsky was arrested as a pest, and on the basis of the AN-1A, two engines were developed, the M-40 (the work was carried out at the Kirov plant in Leningrad under the leadership of V. M. Yakovlev) and the M-30 (Sharaga at factory number 82 in Moscow under leadership of S. I. Zhilin and A. G. Takanayev).

The work was carried out in a "top secret" mode, it reached insanity: military representatives, being from another department, could not get access to the motors to control product quality. Tolerances issued personally by the People's Commissar of the aircraft industry A.I. Shakhurin.

The development of both models of engines was carried out in the direction of preserving the working volume, cylinder diameter and piston stroke towards increasing take-off power and altitude of the motor. The height of the engines should have been provided by two-stage turbocompressors, TK-88 on the M-40 and TK-82 on the M-30. Four turbocompressors were installed on each engine.

By 1940, the engines were not finished, but there was no particular need for them either. The diesel engine was considered exclusively as a political engine capable of providing round-the-world flight of a record aircraft under the control of M. M. Gromov. There was such a project.

The flight did not take place, because they could not get the required motor resource of 100 hours from both engines. Factories and designers were instructed to conduct bench tests by August 1940, and by autumn to install motors on the TB-7 and DB-240 aircraft (the future EP-2) for flight tests.

TB-7 with M-30 diesels

Frankly, diesels are overrated. It seems that the Soviet aviation leadership was expecting some kind of miracle from the engines, since in 1941 a commission met at the Air Force Research Institute, which determined the requirements for a new aircraft for M-40F forced diesels as much as 6 kg !!!

The aircraft being developed should, according to the commission (led by Major General Filin), carry one FAB-2000 bomb in the bomb bay, and two (!) On the external sling!

It is difficult to say what was happening in the soul of the designer Eromolaev, but I do not think that everything was radiant with happiness. For only when 8 ASH-1944F engines (4 hp) were installed on the Pe-82 in 1700, only then the Pe-8 was able to take 6 kg of bombs in exceptional cases and over short distances.

And then 1941 ...

In addition, without waiting for the start of testing, the Shakhurin department (NKAP) issued an order to Voronezh Aircraft Plant No. 18 for the construction of 90 Er-2 aircraft with M-40F diesel engines in 1941, and 800 aircraft in 1942.

It is clear that all these plans were destroyed by the war. But it’s better that way, because the engines could be brought to a flying condition just before the start of the war.

Only on July 23, 1941, the head of the NKAP LII, M. M. Gromov, approved the test act of the Yer-2 aircraft with M-40F engines. In tests, an aircraft with diesel engines showed a speed of 448 km / h with a design speed of 480 km / h. After eliminating numerous shortcomings, the cars were given the green light, but a war broke out, bringing with it the end of diesel aircraft.

We are talking about the famous raids on Berlin in August 1941. Eight TB-10 aircraft with M-8 engines were to take part in the operation on August 7. In fact, seven cars took part in the raid, as the eighth crashed during takeoff. Of the remaining seven, ONE (!) Plane returned to its airfield in Pushkin. The rest, alas, were forced to sit in different places precisely because of the failure of the M-30 engines.

Well, and as usual with us, all the shortcomings of diesel engines, to which the NKAP leadership eagerly turned a blind eye to the Berlin debacle, “suddenly” came to light and became a sufficient basis for the almost complete curtailment of the diesel program. True, at first it was decided to reject the M-40F, and the M-30 was "banned" a little later.

Ermolaev fought for his plane to the last. On August 5, 1941, he addressed a letter to the narcotics industry drug Shakhurin:

"Given the special needs of our defense in long-range bombers, we consider it necessary to continue the work of our factory to create long-range bombers and we ask you ... to enable the staff of our plant to finish the development of the Er-2 2M-40F aircraft."

However, the fate of the M-40F was almost decided by the unsuccessful raid of the TB-7 on Berlin. In addition, Kharkov was lost, but even before the loss of the city, the Kharkov Tractor Plant was transferred to the production of V-2 diesel engines and tanks T-34. And in the fall of 1941, it became impossible to carry out work on the M-40F in Leningrad, as the Germans began the blockade.

If you turn to historical documents, you can see that the full set of documentation on diesel engines of the Design Bureau of Ermolaev in the first half of 1941 was transferred to Voronezh. However, plant number 18 assembled aircraft, and did not build engines. Therefore, it was simply unrealistic to quickly establish the production of the M-40F in Voronezh. And in 1942, the evacuation of this plant also began.

In general, by the beginning of the war, about 200 aircraft diesel engines of both brands were produced in the USSR. First of all, the engines were installed on the TB-7, in the second - on the EP-2. The results were disappointing: during the tests, only 22% of the M-40 engines and 10% of the M-30 engines were able to run for more than 50 hours, while approximately every third diesel engine failed, without having served even 10 hours.

In fact, the program of aircraft diesel engines was curtailed, the released EP-2s were transferred to AM-35 and AM-37.

But Ermolaev and Charomsky did not give up. They really wanted the Air Force to receive a long-range bomber. And in 1943 they were presented to the court of Er-2 with M-30B motors.

The letter “B” in the name of the engine meant that the supercharging was carried out in a combined way: in addition to the two turbochargers left, Charomsky supplied the diesel with a drive supercharger borrowed from the AM-38 engine. This ensured the stable operation of the motor at high flight altitudes.

The weight of the empty machine increased to 10325 kg (which is almost one and a half tons more than that of the EP-2 2AM-37), and the maximum take-off (estimated) - up to 17650 kg. The crew did not change and included the pilot, navigator, gunner and gunner-radio operator.

The tests were carried out in February 1943 by the forces of the Air Force Research Institute. The plane was tested by engineer-lieutenant colonel N.K. Kokorin and pilots Colonel Alekseev and Major Lisitsin. According to pilots, the plane was easy to pilot in almost all modes. Its maximum speed compared to the version with AM-37 decreased to 429 km / h, but the calculated maximum flight range exceeded the originally set for the EP-2 and reached a fantastic 5500 km.

The bomber became more tenacious, because kerosene caught fire in the cold air extremely reluctantly. The total mass of armor reached 180 kg, while the pilot received a 15-mm armored back. The upper turret was equipped with an electric drive, which facilitated the work of the shooter. Now a 360 ° rotation was carried out in just 6 seconds.

In a letter to the head of the Air Force Research Institute, Lieutenant General P. A. Loskutov, dated June 1, 1943, Ermolaev indicated that the new version of his bomber was twice as large as the number of bombs delivered to the target, IL-4. In addition, Er-2 had an advantage over Ilyushin's aircraft in terms of flight speed - both at the ground and at altitude. In particular, with a flight range of 3 km, the Il-000 could take 4 kg of bombs on board, and the Er-1000 2M-2B - 30 kg.

There were, however, cons. Low rate of climb, long take-off distance, inability to fly without loss of altitude on one engine. The car turned out to be heavy, the engine power was again not enough.

However, there was such a remark:

“Maintenance of M-ZOB engines by ground personnel in winter and summer is easier than servicing gasoline engines due to the lack of an ignition system and carburetors with reliable injection equipment. “The fuel equipment (TN-12 fuel pump and TF-1 nozzles) installed on the M-SCA worked reliably during the entire testing period and had no defects.”

In general, it should be recognized that a normally working aviation diesel engine in the USSR could not be done. Yer-2 did not take its place in the ranks of combat aircraft, since several dozen equipped M-30 Yer-2s during the war did not make so many sorties.

This is not to say that all the work went to waste, since the M-30 (M-400F-50) engine with a capacity of 3 liters became the follower of the M-800. from. and M-401 (turbocharged) with a capacity of 1000 liters. from. These engines moved from heaven to water and were installed on the high-speed vessels Zarya, Rocket, Voskhod and Meteor.

Alas, the diesel engine on Soviet bombers did not play any significant role.

Now let's see what the Germans had.

And the Germans had Junkers. Professor Hugo Junkers.

At the end of the First World War, Junkers switched to work on transport and passenger aircraft. With the expansion of production at Junkers in 1923, the Junkers Motorenbau GmbH was established, where work began on the creation and production of aircraft engines, including diesel engines.

Junkers worked on the development of an aviation diesel engine for 20 years and achieved the best results with the Jumo.205 engine.

But the first real aviation diesel was the Jumo 204, a 740-cylinder diesel engine with 24 hp. This diesel engine was installed on Junkers G1929 aircraft and was successfully operated until XNUMX.

The Jumo 204 diesel proved to be a successful engine that was used on other aircraft as well. The list consists of very famous models: Junkers F.24kay, Junkers Ju.52, Junkers Ju.86, Junkers G.38, Blohm & Voss BV.138.

But the best diesel aircraft engine really can be considered Jumo.205, the development of which began in 1932. It was one of the few successful diesel aircraft engines in the world. Jumo.205 became the basis for creating a whole family of diesel engines.

The engine showed excellent performance at constant load, but reacted to a sharp increase or decrease in speed, like Soviet engines, with a drop in power or even could die out. Plus, the Jumo.205 could not be called a high-altitude motor: over 5000 meters, engine power dropped sharply by 20-22% or even more.

The engine was used on the following aircraft models: Blohm & Voss BV.138, Blohm & Voss Ha.139, Blohm & Voss BV.222, Dornier Do.18, Dornier Do.26, Junkers Ju.86.

In fact, Junkers diesels were installed on those aircraft that were guaranteed from meetings with enemy fighters. Patrol ocean and sea flying boats, scouts and so on. That is, aircraft that did not require vigorous maneuvering, but required a maximum flight range.

However, despite the excellent efficiency and, accordingly, excellent range, Jumo.205 diesels did not live up to expectations. They worked well under constant and continuous load, but poorly tolerated the change in speed, which was required during combat maneuvering. This drawback was never fully overcome.

Plus, Jumo.205 engines required extremely qualified service by specially trained personnel. And if this could still be solved in the Luftwaffe, then the attempts to “land” the Jumo.205 and make the tank engine failed completely. Precisely because the engine was unnecessarily demanding in terms of maintenance.

Despite a decent list of aircraft, several dozens of the total were equipped with diesels. Although the interest in the Luftwaffe in the diesels eventually waned, the Junkers continued to work on improving the Jumo.205 aircraft diesel engine and in 1939 released a high-altitude version - the Jumo.207 with two centrifugal superchargers: the first with an exhaust drive, the second with a mechanical drive and with an intercooler.

The peak of the development of aviation diesel engines from Junkers was a truly monstrous thing called Jumo. 224. This engine, in fact, was a rhombus of four Jumo.207 engines. 24-cylinder 48-piston two-stroke liquid-cooled diesel engine with counter-piston movement.

This nightmare weighed 2 kg and was supposed to produce 600 hp. on takeoff and 4 hp at an altitude of 400 km. The engine was not assembled even for testing, did not have time. Photos that have come down to us are mock-ups.

This, so to speak, construction was very interesting for our engineers after the end of the war. Research and tests have been carried out, but Jumo.224 is the subject of a separate article, here I can only say that a report was filed in the name of the Deputy Minister of Aviation Industry of the Major Aviation IAS M. Lukin, in which, after describing the engine and analyzing the capabilities, the following conclusions are made:

1. The YuMO-224 aviation diesel engine, built in the form of a rhombus according to the Junkers scheme, has major major defects, such as: a large specific forehead, exceptional design complexity, requiring many years of refinement work.

For several years of construction and refinement of YuMO-224, its data will sharply lag behind all developing gasoline engines.

2. The design flaws of the YuMO-224 project stem from the adopted power circuit concept. Such bottlenecks as landing and sealing sleeves, the operation of one piston only for exhaust, lack of access to 48 nozzles, crankcase complexity, etc. cannot be eliminated without radical breaking the selected concept.

3. Industrial and technological engine is extremely complex. A 4-fold increase in the number of cylinders leads to manufacturing defects in production, creates a multi-part machine, making it unreliable in operation.

4. According to the conclusions of paragraphs. 1, 2, 3 YuMO-224 diesel engine cannot be introduced into mass production in the conditions of the USSR.

5. To resolve the issue of the construction of YuMO-224 aircraft diesel engines, we consider it necessary to attract highly authoritative specialists to work, such as Ch. Designer of the plant No. 500 A.D. Charomsky, ch. Designer z-da N 45 V.M. Yakovleva and the beginning. diesel department TsIAM A.I. Tolstoy.

The beginning OKO z-da N 45 Malikov I.N
The beginning Design Bureau of the diesel department TsIAM Yakovlev I.V.
Leading designer of design bureau z-da N 45 Grishin B.M.

Soviet engineers were familiar with the forerunners of Jumo.224, since Jumo.4 and Jumo.205 were purchased and studied in the 30s in the USSR, so our experts perfectly understood and soberly evaluated their forces in the production of such engines.

It so happened that the diesel still migrated from heaven to earth. But the reason was the elementary technical progress that spawned turbojet engines, which eventually replaced both gasoline and diesel engines.

Two countries were able to build aviation diesel engines, each has something to be proud of. The diesel engine was an interesting engine for long-range aircraft, it could well carry transport and passenger aircraft. Perhaps this was the initial mistake - to install diesel engines on military aircraft, but there is nothing to be done.

It is impossible to say that we have achieved the same success as the Germans. The designers of the two countries went on different routes, the German engineers, perhaps, achieved great success, but: Diesel left them all. Our engineers went their own way, and Charomsky with his students passed it more than worthily.

The editorial board of Voenniy Obozreniye urgently needs a proofreader. Requirements: impeccable knowledge of the Russian language, diligence, discipline. Contact: [email protected]

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  1. military_cat
    military_cat 15 July 2020 05: 33 New
    In general, only two countries have reached the sensible use of diesel in aviation. Germany and the Soviet Union.
    The USA had a special way, they made a plane with a steam engine there.))) (Airspeed 2000)
    1. mark1
      mark1 15 July 2020 07: 17 New
      They also developed a diesel engine, only without our enthusiasm. Aviation diesel Deshay Lambert 1936 1350/1200 l / s
    2. Civil
      Civil 15 July 2020 11: 22 New
      We are waiting for an article about gas-powered airplanes. To directly relevant.
      1. Serg koma
        Serg koma 15 July 2020 17: 55 New
        Nikolay Shpanov, "First strike" (1939 year)
        - The world is still barbarously handling fuel. Internal combustion engines, exactly the same like our steam engines, this is only a distant hint at what they will use in ten years. Soviet technology will show the way ... Here my little brother says that the engineers will have to put the pilot in such conditions so that flying at the speed of sound was physically possible.
        Techno-political science fiction.
        Only WE KNOW now, and THEY could only PREDICT, calculating the most complicated constructions with a slide rule (many of the NEXT generation do not even imagine what kind of gadget this is) and move technical progress by trial, victory and error.
    3. Taoist
      Taoist 16 July 2020 21: 30 New
      Steam turbines were also created in the USSR ...
  2. mmaxx
    mmaxx 15 July 2020 05: 37 New
    The conclusion at the end of the article after reading is unexpected. Somehow the great successes of the Germans are not traced. The author of the German praised. They worked at a higher level, but the result is the same as ours.
    Our engines have found application in the future. And the Germans were at a complete standstill.
    1. military_cat
      military_cat 15 July 2020 05: 56 New
      Quote: mmaxx
      but the result is the same as ours
      Jumo 204/205 still flew not only in experimental aircraft.
      1. mmaxx
        mmaxx 15 July 2020 06: 08 New
        Ours also flew. And they fought. Now I don’t remember how much Yer-2 was. But in the region of 1000 easily
        1. military_cat
          military_cat 15 July 2020 06: 15 New
          Quote: mmaxx
          Now I don’t remember how much Yer-2 was. But in the region of 1000 easily
          So they flew on gasoline engines (M-105 / VK-105).
          1. mmaxx
            mmaxx 15 July 2020 06: 17 New
            Until I argue. There will be an opportunity, I can clarify up to units. Fortunately, there is an opportunity.
        2. Potter
          Potter 15 July 2020 08: 25 New
          462 cars. But with diesels about 300. The first cars produced in 1940-41 were with M-105 engines, since 1941 diesel engines were installed, then AM gas engines were installed. By the way, EP-2 became the first carrier of cruise missiles, since 1945 Chelomey's cruise missile was tested on it. And, the plane is also interesting by the number of "parents" - initially the development of the car was carried out by Bartini, then Ermolaev converted it into a bomber, and after his death in 1944 the KB employees were transferred to Sukhoi, and the last modifications (including the long-range passenger ER-2ON) were already released him.
          And the most numerous version of the descendants of these diesels, as I understand it, was the M-50 diesel engine, built for the fleet in the amount of several thousand pieces.
      2. Train
        Train 15 July 2020 22: 05 New
        Yu-86-high-altitude scout on UMO 205 diesels. Miggs couldn’t get it. Three of them drove into a corkscrew, the pilots died and the third fell out, could not keep the car at a height
    2. svp67
      svp67 15 July 2020 06: 03 New
      Quote: mmaxx
      And the Germans were at a complete standstill.

      ????? Well, not really, on our Yak-152 they install a RED A03 diesel engine and arrange its production with us
      1. mmaxx
        mmaxx 15 July 2020 06: 06 New
        Well, gone ... This engine is by no means the German successor from the Junkers.
        Russian German organized the production of his engine in Germany.
    3. mark1
      mark1 15 July 2020 06: 55 New
      Quote: mmaxx
      And the Germans were at a complete standstill.

      Tank diesels 5 (6) -TD (F)
      1. svp67
        svp67 15 July 2020 11: 09 New
        Quote: mark1
        Tank diesels 5 (6) -TD (F)

        Well, if so, then our development of aviation diesel engines helped to bring the light of the tank engine V-2
  3. Sahalinets
    Sahalinets 15 July 2020 05: 40 New
    Well, there are examples of modern successful aviation diesels. RED A03, Graflight V-8, offhand.
  4. Tugarin
    Tugarin 15 July 2020 06: 15 New
    Thanks to the author for the work drinks Subject interesting.
  5. Reviews
    Reviews 15 July 2020 06: 55 New
    Quote: mmaxx
    Well, gone ... This engine is by no means the German successor from the Junkers.
    Russian German organized the production of his engine in Germany.

    Plus Thielert Centurion on the massive Diamond-42.
    So, the question in the title of the article is dumb.
  6. Free wind
    Free wind 15 July 2020 07: 11 New
    Rudolph Diesel interested the Germans in that his engine could run on coal dust, but did not grow together. It seems to have gone on kerosene. Oil seems to diesel fuel and is not distilled. Used crude oil, torches, grease. and as a medicine, for the treatment of abscesses. Gasoline is the same as the medicine used. Kerosene, for lighting and as a medicine wink , moreover, as an external agent and can now be used. and inside, from a cough, really. External use, from head lice. And then oil was not distilled from kerosene. Well, with direct atmospheric distillation of oil, diesel fuel is more expensive than gasoline, more energy is needed for distillation. Diesel engines were installed on the IL-2, several dozen were produced. Installing engines of an outdated design, extremely voracious and unreliable, on the handsome Meteora, is not the smartest decision. Diesels will probably not appear in large aircraft, but in small ones, they flourish and displace lighters in all directions. For some reason, some aircraft of the 60s were less powerful than the current ones, and slow-moving, but they were very economical.
    1. mark1
      mark1 15 July 2020 07: 36 New
      Quote: Free Wind
      Diesels were put on the IL-2, several dozen were released.

      Not in terms of power, but in terms of size and mass of the diesel engine did not fit into the IL-2. Share the source ..
      Quote: Free Wind
      Installing engines of an outdated design, extremely voracious and unreliable, on the handsome Meteora, is not the smartest decision.

      Also an unexpected statement - justify.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 15 July 2020 09: 46 New
        With M-400 diesels, the average fuel consumption is 220-230 liters per hour. With Manov engines, which have been installed since 98, the consumption is 50 liters. It seems to me there is a difference.
        1. mark1
          mark1 15 July 2020 10: 39 New
          Do not exaggerate so. Turbodiesel MAN
          D2842LE410 with Common-Rail system - passport fuel consumption of 210 g / hp per hour versus 223-230 g / hp per hour with the M-400. Another thing is that the resource has grown many times (but this is not surprising, yet the difference in years is 70-75)
          1. Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
            Dmitry Nikolaevich 69 15 July 2020 19: 46 New
            Even offhand, the m400 seriously lost (several times) in the consumption of engine oil for waste
    2. Potter
      Potter 15 July 2020 09: 17 New
      M-400 diesels were installed on Meteora. This is a modification of the M-50 boat diesel engine. Reliable and economical diesel for its time. The number of boats, ships and vessels of the Navy and the KGB border troops, which were powered by diesel engines of this family, is more than 1500 units. So, ТК pr. 183 Bolshevik - more than 620 units, each 4 diesel engines M-50F 1200 hp each, a missile boat on its hull - 110 units, SKA pr.199 in the same hull - 60 units, in addition, several KGB passenger boats for the country's top officials. And besides, ТК pr.123 Komsomolets - 350 boats, 2 motors, pr. TD-200bis - 167 units, 3 motors each, SKA OD-200 bis - 63 units - 2 motors each. Later times, 60-80-ies - PSKA pr. 1400 for the KGB - 85 units, 2 motors each, river armored boats pr. 1204 - 120 boats, 2 motors each. On the submarine of Project 615 with a single engine, the so-called "lighters" - 2 motors each, built 31 pieces. And also - an experienced IS-7 tank, about 20 units were built, only this diesel engine gave it the necessary mobility. That is, according to the most rough estimates, the Zvezda plant in Leningrad has produced 50 to 5000 engines of this family of various modifications for more than 6000 years.
  7. Momotomba
    Momotomba 15 July 2020 07: 23 New
    Thanks to the author. Great review article.
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 15 July 2020 07: 34 New
    It is a pity that no one mentioned S.S. Balandin! There was a time when engines with a capacity of up to 14000 hp were designed ... .... Of course, many of Balandin's engines were conceived as gasoline ones, but, as I recall, there were also "diesel" engines!
    1. A1845
      A1845 15 July 2020 13: 58 New
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      It is a pity that no one mentioned about S.S. rodless engines Balandina!
      all songs have been sung about the Balandin motor, especially about 14 hp
  9. Bad_gr
    Bad_gr 15 July 2020 08: 44 New
    ... Even modern diesel engines may well use kerosene as winter fuel at very low temperatures, you only need to add cetane-raising additives ......
    Not everything depends on the design of fuel equipment. If it is designed for lubrication with diesel fuel and does not have a separate lubrication system, then it will fail on kerosene.
    The engine was not assembled even for testing, did not have time. Photos that have come down to us are mock-ups.

    There were still ships according to this scheme (Napier_Deltic_Engine):
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 15 July 2020 13: 34 New
      Sorry, I was mistaken about the engine in the top photo. This is not from Junkers, as I thought, but the British N-24-cylinder engine PD Napier Saber IIA, was placed on the fastest British Tempest fighters.
    2. irontom
      irontom 16 July 2020 18: 39 New
      The British Deltas worked on diesel locomotives.
      Plus, Napier produced a licensed version of the opaque Yumo and a triangular Delta was built on its basis.
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 16 July 2020 20: 33 New
        Quote: irontom
        The British Deltas worked on diesel locomotives.

        On diesel locomotives and boats.
        "... the S212, a captured German E-Boat powered by Mercedes-Benz diesel engines, was selected for testing because the powerplant was roughly the same power as the new 18-cylinder delta engine. The two Mercedes-Benz engines were replaced with delta engines. Engines The compactness of delta engines can be clearly demonstrated: they were half the size of Mercedes-Benz "native" engines. The weight of delta engines was about a fifth of the weight of other modern engines of similar power. [1]
        After successful testing, delta engines have become a versatile propulsion system for small and fast naval vessels. For the first time, the British Navy used them as power units for the Dark-class fast patrol boats. [2] Subsequently, they were installed on many other types of speed boats and small displacement ships. .... "
        1. irontom
          irontom 17 July 2020 21: 12 New
          Somewhere slipped information about the project of the aviation version of the Delta, which did not take off due to the appearance of a theater of operations.
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 15 July 2020 08: 49 New
    In general, only two countries have reached the sensible use of diesel in aviation. Germany and the Soviet Union. God himself ordered the first, since Diesel was German and all developments after his death remained in Germany, but the USSR is a separate and difficult issue.
    The author will be very surprised, but Diesel left the main developments in Russia.
    Presenting his completely raw engine at the 1898 steam engine exhibition in Munich, Diesel seized the moment and made a fortune by selling patents, went into business, bought and sold various companies, founded an enterprise for creating electric trains, and financed Catholic lotteries. He generally forgot about engines, because a serious scandal broke out, because Diesel engines due to a huge number of design defects. refused to work. Diesel was especially criticized in Germany. And if in 1898 Emanuel Nobel had not become interested in him, perhaps today we would not have recalled Diesel.
    For a set of drawings and the right to exclusive use of R. Diesel's patents in Russia and Finland, E. Nobel, without bargaining, paid 50 thousand pounds. In February 1898, drawings were received and the construction of the first Russian R. Diesel engine with a capacity of 20 hp, having one cylinder with a diameter of 260 mm, a piston stroke of 410 mm and a rotational speed of 180 rpm, began. From this moment, in fact, all the development of the Diesel began, providing the engine of his name with a great future.
    And one moment. The first diesel engine in its modern sense was also created in Russia - the Trinkler engine.
    1. Pashhenko Nikolay
      Pashhenko Nikolay 15 July 2020 12: 48 New
      In addition, Nobel remade it for working on crude oil. For that he received a grand prix at the exhibition in France. And on the diesel submarines the first were. And the reverse ships were his first.
  11. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 15 July 2020 09: 45 New
    In fact, seven cars took part in the raid, as the eighth crashed during takeoff. Of the remaining seven, ONE (!) Plane returned to its airfield in Pushkin. The rest, alas, were forced to sit in different places precisely because of the failure of the M-30 engines.

    Not just because of the engines.
    Ship No. 42045 of Major Tyagunin took off at 20.40. At the northern tip of the eastern cape of Luga Bay, the ship was twice attacked by fighters and at 21.15 it was fired by anti-aircraft artillery fire from our coast and Navy ships. The shells falling into the left plane and the engine caused a fire, the ship began to collapse, the commander ordered the bombs to be dropped into the sea, turned to the shore and ordered the crew to parachute. A fleet of parachutes escaping was fired by fighter fire and from the ground. Four people were killed, one was missing.

    Other ships also have questions.
    Ship No. 42025 Peregudova took off at 20.50. In the area of ​​Lake Lubenskoye, was fired by our fighter I-153. Despite the fact that the ship gave the password “I am my plane”, on the way to Tallinn was fired by anti-aircraft artillery fire. At 21.30, engine No. 1 failed. The crew dropped bombs into the sea, received an order to return by radio, and landed in Pushkin at 0.30, having 11 bullet holes and 2 shell holes.

    Failure due to technical reasons or due to damage?
    Ship No. 42026, so Panfilova, was fired at FOR, received damage - and only then two engines failed.
  12. Undecim
    Undecim 15 July 2020 09: 52 New
    In general, only two countries have reached the sensible use of diesel in aviation. Germany and the Soviet Union.
    The sensible use of diesel engines for aircraft has reached the United States, France, Czechoslovakia, and Britain.
    The first successful aircraft diesel engine was designed in the USA in 1928 - the Packard DR-980.

    On May 28, 1931, the Bellanca SN-300 aircraft with the DR-980 engine set a record of continuous airborne stay without refueling - 84 hours and 32 minutes. It was possible to break this record after 55 years.
    In France, aircraft diesel engines were developed by Clerget, Coatlain, Deschamps, in Czechoslovakia - by Brono, in Britain - by Bristol.
    As a result of these developments, both positive and negative qualities of using a diesel engine as an aircraft engine were evaluated. Negative at that time outweighed.
    At present, at least a dozen companies from different countries produce aviation diesel engines. The modern trend is diesel on aviation kerosene, for the unification of the fuel of diesel and jet engines. And taking into account the modern struggle for the environment, manufacturers of aviation diesel engines look to the future with optimism.
  13. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 15 July 2020 09: 59 New
    I have never been particularly interested in this topic, but I read about Soviet diesel engines, but I learned about German for the first time. Thanks to the author, informative.
  14. 2112vda
    2112vda 15 July 2020 10: 14 New
    Quote: Sahalinets
    Well, there are examples of modern successful aviation diesels. RED A03, Graflight V-8, offhand.

    In this case, it is better not "offhand", but a good aim. Modern auto-conversion diesel engines for light aircraft are still a "gift". Any aircraft piston aircraft engine operates at modes close to the maximum, automobile diesel operates mainly in partial modes. By itself, a diesel engine is a wonderful engine, applied to land and water transport. All modern so-called aircraft diesels have a liquid cooling system. Cylinder blocks are made with cast or pressed liners. For the countries of Western Europe and North America, this feature is not critical. Logistics is very well developed in Europe and America. Do not forget that Europe and most of the USA and Canada are located in a zone of a comfortable temperate climate. In Russia, with its vast territories located in zones of continental and sharply continental climates, logistics leaves much to be desired. For example, in the event of a cylinder seizure or fuel failure, delivery of a new engine in Europe or the USA will not take long. Well, if something like this happens anywhere in Siberia or the Far East. How long will you have to wait for a new engine? Have you ever tried to change the engine in the Far North in winter outdoors in winter? Historical reference. Liquid-cooled engines in civil aviation were abandoned immediately after the end of World War II. All our civil aviation operated on "aircrafts", and these are the engines Ash-2, Ash-82, M-62 and M-14. Abroad a similar picture, all "ate" dropsy. Liquid-cooled engines perform well in both land and sea transport due to the specific speed and cooling conditions. Why step on the "old rake" now, the experience of previous generations does not seem to teach anything. For modern light-engine aviation, an engine is needed that runs on aviation kerosene and has a positive ignition. In the future, it is possible to use alcohols and ethers as motor fuel. The use of an "iron", that is, a diesel engine in aviation, is advisable only for long-range UAVs or any record-breaking aircraft. Aviadiesel, another wish for our executives.
    1. Captain Nemo
      Captain Nemo 15 July 2020 23: 51 New
      Very interesting comment. Could you describe in more detail a promising aircraft engine suitable for drones and An-2 class aircraft taking into account Russian conditions. Your vision for the type of fuel, lubricant, basic structural solutions, the level of autonomous service and maintainability.
    2. Rusfaner
      Rusfaner 16 July 2020 21: 00 New
      "All modern so-called aircraft diesels have a liquid cooling system." (C)

      What about this:
      I touched it with my hands - air cooling.
  15. deddem
    deddem 15 July 2020 10: 30 New
    Strange as it may seem, France mastered the small-scale production of aircraft diesel engines - single-row "stars" Clerget 9A / 9C (from 100 to 320 hp), and by the time of the war the old man Clerget had grown to a 2000-horsepower turbocharged diesel 16H.
    After the surrender, he fled with all the documentation to Vichy, where he worked in the "shadow" military program of the Vichy SDM, until he accidentally drowned in the river.
  16. mz
    mz 15 July 2020 12: 36 New
    Mr. Skomorokhov could not help but get into the topic of engines (no matter which ones - here he is consistent). Jumo 204; 205 are not twelve-cylinder, but six-cylinder twelve-piston. And not to mention in the article that the diesel engine with the counter-movement of the pistons with two crankshafts was developed by the Russian engineer R.A.Koreyvo somehow very badly. But for Mr. Skomorokhov this is normal ... ((
  17. Pavel57
    Pavel57 15 July 2020 13: 32 New
    The author missed the following historical fact -
    Plant No. 500 NKAP (from 1963 - Plant "Red October" MAP, from 1983 - MMP named after V. V. Chernyshev) during the Great Patriotic War produced aircraft diesels designed by Charomsky-Tulupov-Yakovlev: AN-1, M-30, ACh-30B for night bombers Pe-8, Ep-2, as well as torpedo boats and tanks. From July 1941 to March 1942, the plant was evacuated to Kazan.
    In addition, it was Plant No. 500 that was responsible for the diesel engine for the IS-7 tanks.
  18. Fitter65
    Fitter65 15 July 2020 14: 19 New
    we have a lack of technology for its normal processing. High-octane gasolines were an unfulfilled dream for the USSR; the whole war was fought on imported high-octane fuel.

    And nowadays in Russia they take less gasoline from a ton of oil than in the West ...
    1. Aag
      Aag 16 July 2020 10: 35 New
      Quote: Fitter65
      we have a lack of technology for its normal processing. High-octane gasolines were an unfulfilled dream for the USSR; the whole war was fought on imported high-octane fuel.

      And nowadays in Russia they take less gasoline from a ton of oil than in the West ...

      Doesn’t it depend on oil itself? I mean heavy, light ...
  19. Dormidontych
    Dormidontych 15 July 2020 17: 03 New
    Minus consider a large mass of a diesel engine compared to a gasoline counterpart.

    And that's it ?! What about a complicated design that requires higher precision in machining parts? You try to get an injector or injection pump of acceptable quality from yesterday's "fabzayets". Not all of the craftsmen can handle the processing of such details ... Well, actually, our ancestors at that moment did not cope.
    Plus, at the height of the fuel, fuel leaked a little. With the accuracy of manufacturing then, it was a completely common thing. But if gasoline smudges evaporated by themselves, without any harmful consequences, then diesel fuel does not completely evaporate, it always leaves dirty oil traces, to which dust and dirt adhere so well. In general, the diesels were clogged up and created additional cleaning chores for their mechanics ...
  20. NF68
    NF68 15 July 2020 17: 26 New
    Now let's see what the Germans had.
  21. lelik613
    lelik613 15 July 2020 18: 52 New
    To summarize: A senseless transfer of time and money in the hope of a "miracle" that does not rely on competence, which hiccupped loudly during the war.
  22. Elturisto
    Elturisto 15 July 2020 21: 50 New
    It is a pity that Charomsky was not shot at 37 ... how many resources he processed into shit, you bastard in a word ..
  23. prohogij60
    prohogij60 16 July 2020 07: 36 New
    I read to this phrase:
    "Kerosene was not as flammable as aviation gasoline, and there had been no problem with distilling it from oil since 1746."
    And then it’s not interesting anymore
  24. 2112vda
    2112vda 16 July 2020 08: 01 New
    Quote: lelik613
    To summarize: A senseless transfer of time and money in the hope of a "miracle" that does not rely on competence, which hiccupped loudly during the war.

    An even greater hope for the "miracle" was Balandin's rodless engines, especially double-acting ones. Super projectors of 14000 horsepower engines can be called the top of the "flight of engineering". The Americans had 4-row sprockets and 6-block engines. Similar motors of 6, coupled with additional gas turbine engines, were on the B-36. They made a bunch of "Peacekeepers" and quickly sent them to the metal. It was a pleasure to maintain these engines. American aircraft technicians recall that there were constantly puddles of oil under the engines in the parking lot. In flight on motors, several cylinders of different motors always did not work. Regular inspection of the spark plugs, two per cylinder, is generally the most exciting experience. And imagine all this action on double-acting engines, and even in the cold. A.N. Tupolev was right when he made a bet on the theater of operations NK-12. The Balandin engine of 14000 forces was only in the form of drawings, it was liquid-cooled. Imagine what size the radiator should be. All this happened at the end of the 40s, when, according to the experience of the Second World War, dropsy in military aviation was abandoned. The reason is simple, very large losses of aircraft with liquid-cooled engines. The most massive aircraft of the Second World War, the Il-2 over 36000 and the Me-109 over 33000, had such circulations "thanks to" dropsy. Aircraft with air-cooled engines were more likely to return to their airfield. NN Polikarpov preferred air-cooled engines. Unlike all other aircraft designers, he had a diploma as a mechanic engineer and was well versed in the advantages and disadvantages of all types of aircraft engines. If Balandin had gone about his business, that is, with ship engines, maybe he would have succeeded, after all, he is a ship mechanic by his diploma. I wanted fame, went to aviation. Well, Charomsky was later engaged in tank diesel engines, moreover, very successfully. He was tasked with developing an aircraft diesel from the government, which he did.
  25. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 16 July 2020 11: 25 New
    Eshcho bil motor "Kodzhu" (Koba Dzhugashvili). :)
  26. the same doctor
    the same doctor 16 July 2020 12: 17 New
    Reading the history of Soviet diesel engineering, one is amazed at the wretchedness of the technical thought of our designers. Rare bursts of activity after an injection of Western developments and again decades of dull copying. And I can’t call some decisions besides wrecking. Is it the result of figs in your pocket, which became especially noticeable after 1955, or the clamping of young people by their bosses who were afraid for their places ...
    Today, the theory of engine building allows any competent graduate of the university to design an engine for any task and size. In a period of 3 months. Try to give an order! But only the engine will be based on the materials and technologies available.
    the determining factors are metalworking capabilities, the presence of steels and alloys. For efficiency, electronics are needed. Modern greases for durability. Charomsky did not have all this. He designed, designed. But what's the use of shuffling the same cubes of nodes and parts! Without a breakthrough in technology, there is no new engine. For the success of the pre-war Charomsky it was necessary to build a plant for each of its engines, not to spare money for new machines and for the development of technologies. And to the inconspicuous people who come up with these technologies. But Charomsky and other designers raked everything for themselves and therefore floundered on the basis of a flawed and impoverished technological base.
  27. 2112vda
    2112vda 16 July 2020 13: 44 New
    Quote: also a doctor
    But what's the use of shuffling the same cubes of nodes and parts!

    The company "Katarpillar" has been doing this since the 20s of the last century. Modern tractor diesel engines, they have the development of more samples of the mid-30s of the last century. There is a basic model, and it is being developed. Diesels of this company, at the present time, are among the best in the world. The same can be said about the GTE. A basic model is made, which then develops evolutionarily over several decades. In the West, they understood us earlier in the futility of "model racing". This leapfrog does not lead to anything good. You can quickly "draw" anything, but it will take a long and tedious process to finish.
  28. Kukuruzka
    Kukuruzka 16 July 2020 14: 19 New
    Honestly, I’m shocked to acknowledge Mikoyan’s anti-people’s activities in terms of the lack of a gas processing industry in the article. Really expensive! Thus, we will soon get to the real problems of modern Russia, the dominance of the Armenian diaspora in the government’s offices and start with Mishustin!
    1. irontom
      irontom 16 July 2020 18: 47 New
      This is how it poked you, if you want to know and understand something in petrochemistry, read about catalytic cracking in the pre-war years, and then you will find out that it was "High-tech" of this time that was mastered in the USA, ours worked, but alas, did not have time. Due to this technology, the Americans allowed themselves to dramatically increase the yield of gasoline and high benzene fractions, which did not experience problems in high-octane fuel.
  29. Taoist
    Taoist 16 July 2020 21: 32 New
    The diesel efficiency is higher, the specific fuel consumption is lower, a greater range can be provided ... First of all, diesel engines were considered from this point of view.
  30. Andrewgross
    Andrewgross 17 July 2020 15: 43 New
    TCB Yak-152 is being built with a RED A03 V12 diesel engine (500 hp) manufactured by the German RED Aircraft.
  31. Alexey T
    Alexey T 18 July 2020 13: 03 New
    Great article, thanks to the author!
    However, you know, some are trying not only to argue with the "dead end" of the use of diesel engines in aviation, but also to prove in practice that this may not be so. moment, moreover, also built according to the Balandin scheme. Dry sump, hydraulic valves, zero vibrations and virtually no gyroscopic torque. On its basis, a whole line of aircraft engines of various capacities has been designed.
    In the photo his piston and crankshaft

    1. 2112vda
      2112vda 19 July 2020 06: 20 New
      Another attempt to achieve a "miracle" with the help of mechanics. The piston engine is, first of all, an impulse heat engine. What is his kinematic scheme, the fourth case. All this reminds of a "bearded" anecdote when several drunkards are looking for lost keys at night under a lamp on a pole. When asked why they are looking here and not where they have lost, they answer, it is brighter here. As for the gyroscopic moment, of course it's "cool".
      1. Alexey T
        Alexey T 19 July 2020 11: 18 New
        Quote: 2112vda
        Another attempt to achieve a "miracle" with the help of mechanics.

        Your irony is not very clear. A piston engine is a heat engine and kinematics inside, it’s definitely not a “fourth” thing, the second one can be right after burning and affects everything else - materials, manufacturing (and repair) technologies, lubricants, cooling system, resource, price.
        And this is not an abstract fantasy, but, as you can see, a working sample. There is nothing from serial engines, including fuel equipment. So jokes about the lantern are definitely out of place here.
        And yes, ignoring such a phenomenon as a gyroscopic moment in aviation is at least short-sighted. Including because of him, an attempt to install RED on an aerobatic airplane looks doubtful
  32. Serpet
    Serpet 19 July 2020 15: 41 New
    All the same, a diesel engine must have a service life higher than a gasoline one.
    1. Alexey T
      Alexey T 19 July 2020 20: 04 New
      Quote: Serpet
      All the same, a diesel engine must have a service life higher than a gasoline one.

      In the generally accepted view - no, diesel is a more loaded structure and more expensive! There are attempts at omnivorousness; this is work on all types of kerosene (not just aviation). For example, hogweed is an excellent raw material for fuel, with which Vorobiev fights .. There are a million developments, it is a pity that many of them have no chance to get out of the garage! The engine in the video is built in a garage, I filmed it myself, and it's the coolest thing you've ever seen in your life.
  33. 2112vda
    2112vda 20 July 2020 06: 56 New
    Quote: Alexey T
    he is the coolest

    This is your personal opinion! Pay attention, on your video, how the "miracle engine" reacts to a sudden gas injection. He just chokes. To gain momentum, you need to pull the "snorkel" several times. This happens in 2 cases:
    1. The fuel system, namely the low pressure system, took in air. Well, it happens. Pull all connections.
    2. Judging by the fact that the Balandin engine is opposed with a gear synchronization system, we are dealing with a large inertia of the rotating parts. In a conventional diesel engine, the reaction to gas supply looks different, the engine picks up immediately, unlike some carburetor gasoline.
    With the Balandin engine, everything looks great as long as it does not concern such a parameter as cost-effectiveness. Ask at your leisure what it will cost to manufacture the gear pairs of synchronizing gears during serial production. After all, it will be necessary to make pairs not lower than the 6th accuracy class.
    1. Alexey T
      Alexey T 20 July 2020 10: 57 New
      Quote: 2112vda
      low pressure system, trapped air. Well, it happens

      Here you are right, in the video the engine is not fully functional, it was started after a long standing in the corner and yes, the broach helped
      As for the gear pairs, I can imagine what it cost in its entirety. Well, the next thing - this sample should be considered exactly as a sample. The implemented Balandin scheme is also an experiment, he proved that it works and it has its advantages with its disadvantages. If something ever goes into series, not the fact that it will be her. Rather, it will be "stars"
  34. 2112vda
    2112vda 20 July 2020 06: 57 New
    Quote: Alexey T
    In the common view - no

    Where did you get this information?
  35. mikael
    mikael 24 August 2020 14: 24 New
    the diesel engine did not give any significant advantages, but it did not differ from the word "completely" in its unreliability, and they were able to bring the aviation branch of the diesel engine to the 80s on the T-64, and even then relatively
  36. Dark merlin
    Dark merlin 31 August 2020 13: 36 New
    Aviation diesel is an interesting thing. First of all - using cheaper fuel. Moreover, he "eats" both ordinary automobile diesel fuel and aviation kerosene. It is really convenient and, most importantly, the most affordable for small aircraft.
    But there is also a problem ... a serious one. This is the weight .. Not even so WEIGHT !!! It is very heavy. If the aircraft has a takeoff weight reserve, then it is not so critical, but often the installation of a diesel engine seriously limits the aircraft's carrying capacity. In the best case, you can get out with fuel, reducing the flight range; in the worst case, you have to sacrifice even the available number of seats. Alternatively, you can, of course, reduce power, but this will also reduce flight performance.
    As a result ... it is used on airplanes where there is a margin of safety, and the option is usually set to a minimum sufficient in terms of power. It turns out a sort of rather slow-moving option, but with a high flight range. Is it worth it? The version of Tsesna 172 on a diesel engine is quite good, but considering the option of creating an experimental board based on one of the Pipers, we came to the conclusion that it turns out well, it’s not interesting at all ... It was because of the weight of the unit itself that it was about the loss of seats due to for exceeding the maximum take-off weight, which could not be compensated for with less fuel.
  37. Basarev
    Basarev 12 October 2020 12: 05 New
    And after that you call the USSR a technically developed country? Neither the engine was mastered by gasoline, nor gasoline for it. Shame and shame.