Military Review

Warships. On the road to excellence

32

Today we will talk about the continuation of a series of Italian light cruisers of the Kondotieri type, D series, which consisted of two ships. The first was “Eugenio di Savoy” (in the text - “Savoy”) and “Emanuelo Filiberto Duca D'Aosta” (in the text - “Aosta”).


Forgive me such a liberty with names, but the names are not very short, and I will have to mention often.

So, "Condottieri" of the fourth series, "D". We will not begin to analyze their filling thoroughly, it’s easier to say how they differed from the ships of the previous series - “C”, “Raimondo Montecuccoli”. In fact, the D series was notable for some improvements that can be considered as such.


The shapes of add-ons, chimneys were changed, the installation of universal guns was moved to the nose. Increased the thickness of the armored belt and armored deck, but slightly.

However, the changes affected the displacement. So, to maintain the set speed, it was necessary to increase the power of the power plants. This has been done quite efficiently.

Moreover, it was successful propulsion systems that made the D-series cruisers with the Soviet fleet. The first power plant of the cruiser “Eugenio Savoy” was not installed on the ship, but sent to the USSR and became the power plant of the new cruiser of project 26 “Kirov”. And for the "Savoy" made a duplicate. And the second ship of the series, "Aosta", became a part of the Red Banner Black Sea Fleet after the war.

The standard displacement of Aosta was 8 450 tons, Savoy - 8748 tons, displacement in full load 10 840 and 10 540 tons, respectively. The cruisers had the greatest length of 186 m, 180,4 m along the constructive waterline and 171,75 m between perpendiculars, 17,53 m wide, and draft with a standard displacement of 4,98 m.

Reservations have changed a bit. The citadel was formed from a 70 mm main armor belt, which was the same thickness along the entire length, and a 20 mm upper belt. The thickness of the mine bulkhead was increased to 35 mm in the middle and 40 mm in the cellar area.

A citadel was closed by bulkheads 50 mm thick. The main deck was 35 mm thick, the upper deck was 15 mm. They covered 30-mm armor of the department of diesel generators and drainage pumps.

The protection of the upper part of the barbets was increased to 70 mm, the frontal plates of the towers to 90 mm, the walls and roof to 30 mm.

In general, despite the fact that the armor was increased, it still did not protect theoretically from 203 mm shells, and nominally and with reservations from 152 mm classmates.

The thickness of the reservation increased, but only slightly, so the situation with free maneuvering zones remained at the same level: under the fire of 203 mm guns it was absent, and under the fire of 152 mm guns it was too small.

The situation with the power plant was as follows: boilers from Yarrow were installed on the Savoy, and Tornicroft on the Aosta. Turbines also differed: “Savoy” had turbines from “Beluzzo”, and “Aosta” from “Parsons”.

The ships were required to develop according to the project a speed of 36,5 knots with a capacity of mechanisms 110000 hp.

However, during the tests of Aost, with a displacement of 7 tons, it developed a speed of 671 knots with a power of mechanisms of 37,35 hp. "Savoy" with a displacement of 127 tons and a capacity of mechanisms of 929 hp has developed a speed of 8 knots.


Under normal operating conditions, the cruiser standardly developed a full speed of 34 knots, a cruising range of 3 miles at a speed of 400 knots.

The artillery weapons were identical to the cruisers of the early types, except that the cruisers of the “D” type immediately received 37-mm machine guns from the “Breda” as air defense. 8 machines in four paired installations. 13,2 mm machine guns were present in the amount of 12 units, in six twin installations.



The fire control system completely repeated the one installed on Montecucoli cruisers.


The anti-submarine weapons included two bomb spreaders and two bomb-guns, mine weapons consisted of two mine rails, and the number of mines taken on board varied depending on their type, anti-mine weapons included 2 paravanes.

Aviation armament consisted of a catapult and a reconnaissance seaplane "RO.43". There should have been two seaplanes according to the plan, but they took one on board and placed it immediately on the catapult.


The upgrades that were carried out on cruisers were significant, although from the moment they entered service in 1935 and until 1943, the ships served in the initial configuration.

In 1943, torpedo weapons were dismantled on cruisers, catapults were removed, 13,2 mm machine guns were removed. Instead of all this, each ship received 12 single-barreled 20-mm anti-aircraft guns. This pretty well strengthened the air defense of the cruisers.

And on the “Aost”, in addition, the Italian Gufo radar was installed. The radar, frankly, did not shine, because after the ceasefire it was replaced by an American radar type "SG".

The Eugenio di Savoy, by the way, is the namesake of the German heavy cruiser Prince Eugen. The ships were named after the same person, the Germans were more generous.


In fairness, we note that Eugene, Prince of Savoy (1663-1736), became one of the greatest Austrian military leaders in all history.

By tradition, the large ships of the Italian fleet had their own mottos. To the cruiser, he sounded like “Ubi Sabaudia ibi victoria” (“Where Savoy is, there is victory”). The motto was inscribed on the elevated barbette of tower number 3.

With the beginning of the supply of German mines in March-April 1941, two additional mine rails were installed on the cruiser in parallel with the existing ones. After that, the ship could take on board 146 minutes of type EMC or 186 type UMA (anti-submarine). In addition, it was possible to receive mines of types GB1 and GB2 - 380 or 280 pieces respectively. To compensate for the weight, anchor anchors were removed.

Service



After commissioning, the ship was engaged in the usual training of the crew, taking part in parades, campaigns and exercises. The fighting began when the Spanish Civil War broke out.

In January-February 1937, the Savoy participated in two missions for the delivery of personnel and equipment to General Franco.

February 13, 1937 the cruiser left La Maddalena heading for Barcelona. Before leaving, the commander of the formation ordered to paint the name of the ship with gray paint and remove all lifebuoys on which it was written so that they would not give out nationality if they accidentally fell into the water.

9 kilometers from Barcelona, ​​the cruiser went into a drift and, having specified the coordinates, opened fire on the city with the main caliber. In less than 5 minutes, seventy-two 152-mm shells were fired. The aim was an aircraft factory, but the Italians didn’t get into the factory, but they destroyed several residential buildings in the city. Killed 17 people. The coastal batteries returned fire, but the shells went off with a large shortage.


It should be noted that the names of the ships that participated in the bombing of peaceful cities were kept secret for quite some time. In Spanish literature, shelling has long been attributed to the Italian cruiser Armando Diaz, or even the Franco Canaria.

However, the officers of the British battleships “Royal Oak” and “Ramillies,” that night anchored near Valencia, accurately identified the attacker.

Soon there was an incident with the submarine "Irida" under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Valerio Borghese. The future commander of the Italian underwater special forces mistakenly fired a torpedo at the British destroyer, mistaking it for a republican one. After that, the Italians refused the active participation of the surface fleet in hostilities.

Instead of the war, “Savoy” and “Aosta”, it was decided to send on a populist round-the-world trip. It was to show the whole world the achievements of Italy in shipbuilding. Around the world did not work, because a general pre-war tension had already begun throughout the world, and war was already in full swing in China.


However, the cruisers were visited by Dakar, Tenerife, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Valparaiso and Lima. But instead of crossing the Pacific Ocean and traveling to Asian countries, ships through the Panama Canal returned to Italy.

The visit to South America brought some results. The ships were visited by the presidents of four countries, the governors general of the colonies (five), the ministers of all countries in bulk and about half a million ordinary citizens who were interested.


On the afternoon of June 10, 1940, the cruiser’s crew was introduced to the declaration of war on Great Britain and France, and in the evening, the cruiser, along with three other ships of the 7th Division and the heavy cruisers “Paula”, “Bolzano” and “Trento”, went to cover mines in Tunisia the strait.

Fight with the French, the eternal rivals, failed. France quickly ended on land.

During 1940-41, the cruiser took part in the cover of Libyan convoys. Participated in the battle of Punta Stillo. To no avail, as, however, are all Italian cruisers.

"Savoy" along with other ships took part in operations against Greece at the end of 1940, firing the main caliber of the positions of the Greek troops.

In April-June 1941, "Savoy" took part in the largest production of mines off the coast of Tripoli. Italian ships put up barriers of over two thousand mines of various types.


This production turned out to be the most successful operation of the Italian fleet in the entire war: on December 19, 1941, the British cruiser Neptune and the destroyer Kandahar were killed, and the cruiser Aurora was very badly damaged.

Inspired by such success, the Italians decided to put up another fence - code-named "B". However, the actions of the British squadron disrupted the laying of mines, and the "B" barrage was never put up.


Placement of mines in the Gulf of Tunisia


During 1941, the cruiser was first under repair, then escorted convoys to Africa.

In May 1942, the position of the British troops in Malta became completely sad. All was missing, and the British command decided to send two convoys at the same time: from Gibraltar (Operation Harpoon) and Alexandria (Operation Vigores). According to the British plan, this would force the Italian fleet to divide their forces, respectively, one of the convoys could slip through with impunity.

What happened was called the Battle of Pantelleria, or “The Battle of Mid-June”.


The main forces of the Italian fleet tried to find the Vigores convoy, but did not succeed much. But with the second convoy, “Harpoon,” the story turned out to be very instructive.

5 convoy transports directly covered the Cairo air defense cruiser, 5 destroyers, 4 destroyers, 3 minesweepers and 6 patrol boats.

Distant cover was provided by the Gibraltar squadron from the battleship Malaya, aircraft carriers Eagle and Argus, 3 cruisers and 8 destroyers.

The Italian torpedo bombers sunk one transport and damaged the Liverpool cruiser, which went into repair accompanied by two destroyers.

In the area of ​​the island of Pantelleria, long-range cover fell on the reverse course, and the convoy had to go to Malta only with the forces of the main cover.

4 cruisers and 4 destroyers went to intercept: everything that they could scrape together in a supermarine. And the detachment was able to detect the ships of the convoy. A reconnaissance was launched from Savoy, which, however, did not manage to convey anything; he was shot down by the Bofayters. But even so, the Italians were able to find the convoy.

The gunners of the Italian cruisers have shown that they can. A second salvo covered “Cairo”, the fourth - one of the transports. The British could not answer, because their 120-mm and 105-mm guns simply could not compete with the Italian, decently working at a distance of 20 km.

And the British destroyers launched an attack on the Italian cruisers. What else could they do? In general, in this regard, the British sailors were still thugs in the good sense of the word. In the same way, Arden and Acasta went on the attack on Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, destroying Glories, although it was clear that the destroyers did not shine except for the heroic death.

Five British destroyers against four cruisers and four destroyers of Italy. The Savoy and Montecuccoli focused their fire on them.


The battle very quickly moved into the category of landfill. The shooting was actually point blank by military standards, that is, at a distance of 4-5 km, when it is possible to miss, but difficult. Both sides even went anti-aircraft guns.

"Savoy" very seriously damaged the flagship destroyer Bedouin. 11 hits of 152-mm shells deprived the ship of its course, turned the superstructure, it was necessary to flood the bow cellar, in which the fire started, and to top it all, Italians disabled both turbines. The Bedouin shells smashed the cruiser’s medical compartment and killed two doctors.


"Savoy" is firing in the area of. Pantelleria

Montecuccoli successfully shot at EM Partridge, which also lost track.

In general, the Italians made their debut.


Further, the British were able to well damage one of the destroyers, but the battle began to run out of steam. The fault was a very skillfully set smoke curtains, which, due to the lack of wind, actually closed the targets from the Italians. The British took advantage of this and began an urgent withdrawal to the north, while the Italians did not immediately unravel the essence of the enemy’s maneuvers and went a little wrong.

And then the brave guys from the Luftwaffe flew in and sank the Chant transport to begin with. Three direct hits, and the ship sank quickly. The tanker "Kentucky" also did not ignore, and he lost track. I had to take him in tow to one of the minesweepers.

Considering that only minesweepers and boats remained in the security of transports, we can safely say that the pilots of the Ju-87 were engaged in training bombing.

Then the opponents temporarily lost each other, and the British made a very original move: intact ships and ships rushed to Malta, and the damaged ones ... And the damaged ones were discovered by Italians.

The British cruiser "Cairo" and the three remaining destroyers at full speed went to meet the Italians, but while they were in a hurry to help, the Italian ships calmly shot two damaged vehicles and damaged the minesweeper. And then, having caught up with Partridge and Bedouin, they sent the second to the bottom with the participation of Italian torpedo bombers.


Sinking EM "Bedouin"

Partridge managed to break away and leave for Gibraltar. "Cairo" with the destroyers also turned around, because there was no one to help.


British ships put a smoke screen near about. Pantelleria

The Italians with a sense of accomplishment went to the base. This was normal, since the ammunition consumption on cruisers reached 90%.

It is worth saying that the convoy, although it reached La Valletta, lost an escort destroyer on Italian mines, two destroyers, a minesweeper and vehicles were damaged.

In general, the battlefield remained behind the Supermarine.



Then for the Italian fleet, hard times came. Ships are actually stuck in bases due to lack of fuel. Exits to the sea were extremely rare, military operations were practically not carried out.

After the armistice, the Savoy was unlucky. The cruiser was transferred to Suez and there he served as a target for British torpedo boats and aircraft. Since January 1, 1945, the ship was officially put into reserve.


Then the flag changed, as the Savoy fell under the section. The Italian fleet divided the victorious parties among themselves. So the cruiser was in the Navy of Greece.

By the way, this is not a bad option, because in the Greek service Elli, which became Savoy, served until 1965. At the insistence of the Italian side, it was specifically stipulated that the ship was not a military trophy, but transferred as compensation for the Greek cruiser Elli sunk by an Italian submarine long before the declaration of war between the two countries.


For eight years, the Ellie was the flagship of the commander of the Greek fleet. The king of Greece Paul repeatedly made sea voyages on it. Active service ended in 1965, Ellie was expelled from the fleet. But it was disassembled only in 1973, and until that moment the ship managed to serve as a floating prison after the successful uprising of the "black colonels".

Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta



The cruiser was named in honor of the famous Italian military leader - Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Savoy, Duke of Aosta (1869-1931). The Duke commanded the 3rd Italian Army during the First World War. Marshal of Italy.

The ship's motto - “Victoria nobis vita” (“Victory is our life”), was applied to the sublime barbet of tower number 3.

The cruiser began military service during the Civil War in Spain, first acting as a hospital, then taking citizens home, and then it came to real combat.

On February 14, 1936, Aosta walked 6 miles to Valencia and opened fire on the train station. Within eight minutes, the cruiser fired 125 shells at 32 volleys. Railroad tracks, station buildings were destroyed, several shells accidentally fell into the territory of the city hospital and destroyed the dining room of the Red Cross Children's Hospital.

Among the civilian population there were victims: 18 killed, 47 wounded. After the fourth volley, the Republican coastal batteries and warships on the roadstead began firing back. The shooting was inaccurate, but several shells fell near the Aosta. The fragments easily damaged one of the stern towers, and one small caliber shell hit the stern, breaking a davit.

Aosta put down a smoke screen and retreated.

Together with the "Savoy" was supposed to participate in circumnavigation, but the matter was limited to travel to South America. Although the goal (demonstration to regular customers Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina), in principle, was achieved.

With the outbreak of World War II, he took part in all operations of the 7th Cruiser Division. The participant of the battle at Punta Stilo, although he did not make a single shot.


In 1941, together with the Savoy and the rest of the cruisers of the Aosta division, he took part in the largest and most effective mine setting for the Italian fleet near Tripoli.

Warships. On the road to excellence

During the escort confrontation in the Mediterranean, Aosta took part in the first battle in Sirte Bay. With about the same success as Punta Steel.

In 1942, the cruiser was still involved in escort operations. The extreme point was the operation against the convoy "Vigores", marching from Alexandria to Malta.


In principle, all the services to neutralize the convoy belonged to aviation and torpedo boats, the participation of cruisers was minimal. The British lost two sunken ships and the destroyer Heisty, and the cruiser Newcastle suffered very severe injuries. The Italians lost the heavy cruiser Trento, which was hit by torpedo bombers and finished off by a submarine.

We can say that the German-Italian forces coped with the task, since the Vigores convoy rejected the idea of ​​a breakthrough to Malta and turned back on the course. Before returning to Alexandria, the British lost the Nestor and Airedale destroyers from air strikes, and the U-205 submarine sank the cruiser Hermionei.

After the armistice, Aosta went to Malta with the rest of the Italian fleet. The ship was lucky, and he was assigned to the resistance group to the German breakthrough forces in the Atlantic. A squad of Italian ships was composed of the cruisers Aosta and Abruzzi and the destroyers Legionnaire and Alfredo Oriani. The ships were based at Freetown and patrolled in these areas.

“Aosta” made seven patrols, after which he was returned to Italy.


Here you can tell that the Aosta team earned a reputation as a very riotous and unstable crew, and so much so that sailors were forbidden to go ashore in foreign ports. Fights of the Aosta crew with sailors of other nationalities became a kind of visiting card of the cruiser.

After patrolling, “Aosta” was used as a transport for the delivery of military personnel and civilians to Europe.


On February 10, 1947, a naval commission of the four powers began its work in Paris, which dealt with the division of the ships of the losing powers.

According to the draw, the Aosta went to the Soviet Union. February 12, 1949 the cruiser was expelled from the Italian fleet and received the number Z-15. In the documents of the Soviet side, the cruiser was initially listed under the name "Admiral Ushakov", later - "Odessa" and only on the eve of acceptance received the name "Kerch". But from the moment of signing the agreements and until the raising of the Soviet flag on the ship, a whole year and a half passed.

Not only were the Italians in no hurry, they had not yet fulfilled all the conditions for completing the ship. In addition, the cruiser demanded a major overhaul of the power plant and general repair of a medium order.


The command of the Black Sea Fleet for a very long time thought what to do with the cruiser. Investments of money and resources promised to be simply huge. The plans were very extensive, but they were adjusted several times. The result is the following:
- Italian air defense systems were replaced with 14 domestic 37 mm machine guns (4x2 V-11 and 6x1 70-K units);
- torpedo tubes installed domestic, 533 mm;
- almost completely replaced the auxiliary mechanisms with domestic ones;
- overhaul TZA.

Next, work was done to maximize the unification of the ship with the cruisers of Project 26 and 26 bis. They decided to keep the main caliber, and decided to replace the rest of the armament. However, the forced cost savings led to the fact that the "Kerch" was assigned to the category of ships that are to be maintained in service only by current repairs without modernization.

As a result, the ship completed repairs in May 1955 with the same armament, which significantly reduced its combat value. Suffice it to say that it remained the only American SG-1 radar, only later the Fakel-M recognition equipment and the Neptune navigation radar were installed.

After the repair, "Kerch" was part of the brigade, and then - the division of the cruisers of the Black Sea Fleet.


Kerch parked in Sevastopol

But the disaster of the battleship Novorossiysk put an end to the further use of the cruiser. There was no trust in the ship, and therefore in 1956 it was transferred to the training ship, and in 1958 to the OS-32 experimental ship.

It’s a pity, because the cruiser could really serve for quite some time and without any problems. But in 1959 he was finally disarmed and surrendered to metal.

What can be said about cruisers of the “D” type? They became veterans. The word "veteran" is of Latin origin and means "survivor". The ships really went through the whole war, took part in all the significant operations of the Supermarine, and, as they say, died their deaths.

This indicates that the project still brought to mind.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 9 July 2020 18: 05
    +4
    Thanks for the interesting series of articles. We look forward to continuing about others, including domestic cruisers.
  2. yuliatreb
    yuliatreb 9 July 2020 18: 18
    -1
    First, who looked at the author, only then read and as always interesting and informative, thanks.
  3. Revolver
    Revolver 9 July 2020 18: 33
    0
    70mm armor? The early KV tanks had 75, and they did not meet anything like the main calibers, not even cruisers, but even destroyers. These 70mm even anti-aircraft guns, even the German 88mm, even the Soviet 85mm will reliably pierce. And the Anglo-Saxons probably had such anti-aircraft guns. Somewhere I read that the reservation of ships was chosen so that it had a chance to withstand its own main caliber. And here is no chance.
    1. Rurikovich
      Rurikovich 9 July 2020 19: 04
      +5
      belay . laughing !
      You do not equal the duel of tanks with the battle of ships at sea No. At sea, the stability of armor is affected not only by the caliber of the shells used on it, but also by the distance of the battle, the angle of the projectile with the armor. Therefore, purely theoretically, even 70mm armor is capable of holding a 152mm projectile at long distances. yes hi
    2. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 9 July 2020 19: 04
      +8
      Quote: Nagan
      These 70mm even anti-aircraft guns, even the German 88mm, even the Soviet 85mm will reliably pierce.

      With 10 km breaks? :)

      Quote: Nagan
      And here is no chance.

      It was believed that the main opponents will be EMs firing HE HEs.
      And, for example, the homogeneous Wh armor 60 mm thick did not penetrate the 150 mm landmine at distances of more than 4500 m.
    3. NF68
      NF68 9 July 2020 19: 13
      +5
      Quote: Nagan
      70mm armor? The early KV tanks had 75, and they did not meet anything like the main calibers, not even cruisers, but even destroyers. .


      Do not confuse warm with soft, and then it becomes clear that for their displacement and maximum speed, these ships had an acceptable reservation.

      These 70mm even anti-aircraft guns, even the German 88mm, even the Soviet 85mm will reliably pierce.


      It will strike if it shoots from a distance of 1-1,5 km. Only light cruisers are not tanks, and with an acceptable visibility they can shoot at each other at a distance of not 1-1,5 km. and much more than 10 km. where 88 mm. penetrates not 10 mm., but it is good if 20-25 mm.

      And the Anglo-Saxons probably had such anti-aircraft guns. Somewhere I read that the reservation of ships was chosen so that it had a chance to withstand its own main caliber. And here is no chance


      I read somewhere and forgot about what I was reading. Next time, read carefully and try to understand what it is about. Light cruiser is not a battleship.
    4. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 9 July 2020 19: 57
      +4
      Quote: Nagan
      Somewhere I read that the reservation of ships was chosen so that it had a chance to withstand its own main caliber. And here is no chance.

      Take, for example, the British gun 6 "/ 50 BL Mark XXIII, estimated penetration 76mm at a distance of 11400m. Belt 70mm + 35mm fragmentation bulkhead behind it + shells do not always come into the armor at an angle of 90 °, and often from sharper course angles - so the chances there are chances of not breaking through the belt, and of a relatively "harmless" explosion of a BR-projectile in the space between the belt and the anti-fragmentation bulkhead.
    5. Avior
      Avior 9 July 2020 21: 08
      +3
      It will pierce with armor-piercing from a short distance, it has a not-so-large armor effect. For a small tank, this is generally enough, but not much for a warship.
      In addition, the external premises are usually auxiliary, not greatly affecting the combat effectiveness of the ship. So it was indicated about the killed doctors in the medical unit.
    6. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 9 July 2020 22: 05
      0
      Quote: Nagan
      Somewhere I read that the reservation of ships was chosen so that it had a chance to withstand its own main caliber. And here is no chance.

      This is approximately the case. And the minimum armor capable of withstanding a land mine of 6 "was considered to be 76 mm. So the armor was really insufficient, except perhaps against the destroyers of that time with their 100-120 mm guns.
  4. Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig 9 July 2020 18: 57
    +3
    The Eugenio di Savoy, by the way, is the namesake of the German heavy cruiser Prince Eugen. The ships were named after the same person, the Germans were more generous.

    The Germans turned out to be politicians: initially, the Kreuzer J was supposed to be called Tegetthoff, but in order not to offend the newfound ally, they named the ship after the Austro-Italian prince Eugin von Savoyen.

    With the beginning of the supply of German mines in March-April 1941, two additional mine rails were installed on the cruiser in parallel with the existing ones.

    Again the same mistake as last time. :)
    On Italian cruisers mine rails were removable.
  5. hostel
    hostel 9 July 2020 19: 47
    0
    Isn't it Regimarin?
  6. VIP
    VIP 9 July 2020 19: 54
    0
    However, the Republican coastal artillery was mediocre: "After the fourth salvo, Republican coastal batteries began firing in return." I read somewhere that there were many anarchists among the artillerymen, but what kind of coherence can there be between the anarchists?
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 9 July 2020 21: 09
      +2
      Quote: V I P
      and what kind of coherence of actions can anarchists have?

      How deeply ingrained stereotypes ... :)
  7. Astra wild
    Astra wild 9 July 2020 20: 32
    +1
    Accidentally "wandered" into the "weapons" section, and here is Roman with cruisers. I'm used to him talking about Lend-Lease from the museum in Verkhnyaya Pyshma, when he interrupted Verkhnyaya Pyshma's story and I almost forgot this section
    "for the Greek cruiser Ellie, sunk by an Italian submarine long before the declaration of war." This means the Italians were engaged in piracy?
    The Greeks drowned the cruiser, the British still without declaring war.
    However, pasta greyhounds are not childish
    1. Avior
      Avior 9 July 2020 21: 20
      0
      August 15, 1940. On this day, Orthodox Greece celebrates the Assumption of the Virgin and the main celebration takes place on the island of Tinos, in the Church of the Annunciation. By tradition, the Navy sent a ship to the island, the crew of which was an honor guard when carrying out the miraculous icon of the Virgin. In 1940, this honor was granted to the old cruiser Ellie, who anchored in the Tinos raid.

      It was on this day, in peacetime, that the Italian submarine Delphino attacked Elli in the Tinos raid. Three torpedoes were fired at the Ellie, one of which hit a cruiser in the vicinity of the boiler room, causing a fire and sinking of the ship. Killed nine junior officers and sailors, 24 were injured. The Italian submarine also tried to torpedo the Elsie and Esperos passenger ships, but the torpedoes launched on them only damaged part of the berth.

      Torpedoing and drowning at the pier, in peacetime, the "unidentified" submarine of the old cruiser, was, in the expression (after the war) of the Italian ambassador in Athens, Emmannuel Grazzi, a "heinous action" against a non-military ship [6]: 136 .

      Greece was neutral, but Mussolini, frightened by rumors about the appearance of British ships there, ordered torpedoed ships and ships to scare the Greeks.
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 9 July 2020 20: 33
    +6
    The situation with the power plant was as follows: boilers from Yarrow were installed on the Savoy, and Tornicroft on the Aosta. Turbines also differed: Savoy had turbines from Beluzzo, and Aosta from Parsons. -
    For the umpteenth time, the author, when it comes to technical details, writes nonsense.
    On Italian ships, the power plants (both boilers and turbines) were made in Italy, on the Eugenio di Savoia "from Ansaldo", and on the Duca d'Aosta - "from OTO Livorno".
    On the Eugenio di Savoia, the traditional for the Italian Navy boilers of the Yarrow system, Duca d'Aosta, were installed, the only Italian light cruiser of interwar construction had Tornicroft boilers.
    The turbines on both cruisers were multistage, jet. On the Eugenio di Savoia - like Parsons, on the Duca d'Aosta - Belluzzo / Parsons.
    The difference is that in the Belluzzo / Parsons turbines, the reverse stages were integrated in the medium and low pressure stages, while in the Parsons turbines they were only integrated.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 9 July 2020 20: 44
      +4
      Viktor Nikolaevich, thank you for correcting the author. Your add-on comments are very much needed. Some authors are forgotten, and some hackers and you are always out of place
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 9 July 2020 21: 31
      +2
      In N .. As always with a sensible addition.
      By God, the authors need to comb off 1% of the fee to you. You complement perfectly
  9. unknown
    unknown 9 July 2020 20: 38
    +2
    I will partially repeat my comment from the previous article in the series.
    As they say in my favorite post-Soviet film: "I am ready to share the grief Above, but point by point."
    Point one. The Savoy is redundant.
    It is enough to compare the type "Monteccucoli" and the type "La Galissonière". The Frenchman is perfect.
    Displacement: French - 7600 tons, Italian -7431 tons.
    Armor weight: French - 1460,25 t., Italian -1368 and 1376 t.
    KTU mass: French - 1369,5 tons, Italian - 1426-1415 tons.
    At the same time, the Frenchman is better armed and better armored.
    That is, even in this standard displacement, Italians have much to improve.
    For example, abandon the second vertical armored barrier and increase the thickness of the deck. At least to the thickness of the Frenchman’s deck. And a little loading, increase the thickness of the belt.
    There is no need to increase the standard displacement by 900 tons.
    Second point. "Garibaldi" is a difficult case.
    Unique light cruisers, there was nothing like this in any other fleet.
    Whether the author will be able to understand what is unique, and whether he can tell about it.
    1. VIP
      VIP 11 July 2020 06: 18
      0
      To do this, you need to have knowledge, but does the author have the appropriate knowledge? You doubt it
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 9 July 2020 21: 27
    +2
    Quote: Macsen_Wledig
    Quote: V I P
    and what kind of coherence of actions can anarchists have?

    How deeply ingrained stereotypes ... :)

    Steriotypes or ideological stamps are very tenacious.
    But in fact he is right: the Republican artillery was weak. However, the pasta also turned out to be "liquidish": to scratch the tower with fragments, and they immediately move. Probably thought it was a direct hit?
  11. Victor Leningradets
    Victor Leningradets 10 July 2020 10: 44
    0
    Thanks for the article, Roman!
    I repeat, everything related to Condottieri C flows smoothly to Condottieri D.
    Displacement is a function of combat qualities, and not an end in itself.
    If the number of pledged ships is less than that of the enemy, it is necessary that their fighting qualities be individually higher.
    So C and D were supposed to be a pale likeness of "Chapaev" - if you like - his forerunner.
    Twelve six-inches in four towers, eight "hundred parts" in four installations, the number of torpedo tubes - to taste. Reservation and power plant - quite up to par.
    The load assessment shows an increase in displacement of 1000 T and a decrease in speed of 1 knot.
    But the main thing: such cruisers had to be built not four, but eight to correct the situation with the series A (yes, perhaps, with B).
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 10 July 2020 12: 12
      +1
      Quote: Victor Leningradets
      So C and D were supposed to be a pale likeness of "Chapaev" - if you like - his forerunner.

      Do not confuse warm with soft ... :)
      "Condottieri" are cruisers generated by the Pact of Rome (in fact, personal 1st London for France and Italy), KRL pr. 68 are non-contractual ships, some of which can be considered an American "Cleveland" or unbuilt British "Neptune"
      1. Victor Leningradets
        Victor Leningradets 10 July 2020 13: 10
        0
        All real ships are non-contractual, everyone is cheating. So, that length is +7 m, width + 0,7 m, draft +0,3 m is quite a ride.
        Well, again, you are inattentively reading me - WITHOUT SIMILARITY - this is a concept, and not following exactly the exact specifications.
        By the way, "Chapaev" - grew out of a completely negotiated ship within the framework of the Soviet-British naval agreement of 1937.
        As for the "Clevelands" - despite the formal correspondence of the displacement and main caliber of pr.68 to the American one - these are two completely different ships. As, by the way, and the British pre-war counterparts.
        1. Macsen_wledig
          Macsen_wledig 10 July 2020 13: 46
          +1
          Quote: Victor Leningradets
          Well, again, you are inattentively reading me - WITHOUT SIMILARITY - this is a concept, and not following exactly the exact specifications.

          Ship concepts are completely different if that ...
          The destroyer and the destroyer ...

          Quote: Victor Leningradets
          By the way, "Chapaev" - grew out of a completely negotiated ship within the framework of the Soviet-British naval agreement of 1937.

          Grew up, I do not argue ...
          But the project appeared only when contractual restrictions ceased to apply.
          Like the Cleveland, it grew out of an 8000 tonne KRL project ...

          Quote: Victor Leningradets
          As for the Clevelands - despite the formal correspondence of the displacement and main caliber of pr.68 to the American one - these are two completely different ships.

          And what do you think Cleveland should have been doing if not a squadron service?
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 10 July 2020 17: 37
            0
            Quote: Macsen_Wledig
            Like the Cleveland, it grew out of an 8000 tonne KRL project ...

            EMNIP did not grow, but was forced to do. When the Americans were unable to bring the 152-mm universal gun to the war, they "divided the TK in half": the CD with the 152-mm main battery - separately, the 8000-ton CD with the universal guns - separately.
            But after all what was the elephant... paper KRL in 8 kt and with a 152 mm universal GK. smile
            1. Macsen_wledig
              Macsen_wledig 10 July 2020 18: 22
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              But what was the elephant ... paper KRL in 8 kt and with a 152-mm universal GK.

              Was ...

              Just suddenly the WWII began and the restrictions fell off ...
  12. xomaNN
    xomaNN 10 July 2020 13: 37
    0
    Before the WWII, Italian shipbuilders worked very productively for the good of the Soviet Navy. Huge influence and experience was passed on to domestic specialists. At the Black Sea Fleet, several ships had Italian roots.

    These are not the Franks with their "mistral" kid. hi
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 10 July 2020 13: 48
      +1
      Quote: xomaNN
      These are not the Franks with their "mistral" kid.

      The roots could be French, just the Italians asked for less money for services ...
      And so, if everything went a little differently, instead of the well-known "Tashkent" at the Black Sea Fleet appeared some "Le Fantask" ...
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 10 July 2020 18: 06
        0
        Quote: Macsen_Wledig
        Roots could be french

        Or the American ones, if some did not accept the restriction on the export of weapons systems "at least 10 years old," and then a moral embargo.
  13. Usher
    Usher 14 July 2020 16: 21
    0
    What can be said about cruisers of the “D” type? They became veterans. The word "veteran" is of Latin origin and means "survivor". The ships really went through the whole war, took part in all the significant operations of the Supermarine, and, as they say, died their deaths.

    This indicates that the project still brought to mind.

    Yeah, I agree. I didn’t even know what was so hot in the Mediterranean.
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. Licanat
    Licanat 25 September 2020 10: 57
    0
    Magazine from the series "Ships and Battles": S.B. Trubitsyn "Light cruisers of Italy" part 2, "Eastflot" 2008.