Military Review

Earth surface control: space group of the Russian Aerospace Forces in the coming years


Launch of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle with the Cosmos-2518 spacecraft, the second CEN satellite, May 25, 2017

Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

On July 3, the Krasnaya Zvezda newspaper published an interview with Colonel-General Sergei Surovikin, Commander of the Aerospace Forces. He spoke about ongoing work on the development of all components of the videoconferencing system, including space. At the same time, a number of projects of this kind are being implemented, and plans for them are planned for several years in advance.

Development plans

According to S. Surovikin, already in September this year it is planned to complete the tests of the space communications complex based on Blagovest spacecraft. These devices operate in geostationary orbit.

In 2022, it is planned to begin the deployment of the promising Unified satellite communications system of the armed forces of the third stage. In 2023, the launch of satellites of the high-orbit space reconnaissance system will begin.

The construction of the Unified Space Detection and Combat Command System is ongoing. The deployment of its grouping will be completed by 2024. Based on the results of these measures, VKS will be able to carry out global control of the Earth's surface. In addition, the TSA will increase the survivability of combat control systems in difficult situations.

Also, the commander-in-chief of the videoconferencing noted the project of an auxiliary nature. In the interests of the space constellation, a unified command and measurement system "Topaz" is being developed. In the future, it will provide control of spacecraft in all types of orbits.

Earth surface control: space group of the Russian Aerospace Forces in the coming years
The first product 14F149 "Blagovest" at the assembly stage. Photo "ISS named after Reshetnev"

Communication through Blagovest

As follows from a new interview, in the near future all necessary verification activities will be completed, as a result of which full-fledged operation of communication satellites of the 14F149 Blagovest type will begin. Currently, there are four such products in geostationary orbit and they are being tested before commissioning.

Product 14F149 was developed by Information Satellite Systems named. Reshetneva "commissioned by the Ministry of Defense. It is based on a fairly multi-purpose platform "Express 2000". As far as is known, foreign contractors were involved in the development and production of the target equipment, but their share was not disclosed. The Blagovest satellite has a mass of approx. 3,4 tons and is equipped with a set of transponders for operation in the Ka and Q bands. A communication system based on Blagovestov provides voice and video communications, as well as high-speed data transmission.

The first satellite of the series, Blagovest No. 11L or Cosmos-2520, went into orbit on August 17, 2017 from Baikonur. In 2018, spacecraft No. 12L and No. 13L were sent into space. On August 6, 2019, the fourth launch took place. The grouping has reached the required size and can now be used in practice. The designated satellite life is 15 years.

Third Generation

The development of the Third Generation / Third Stage Unified Satellite Communications System (ЕССС-3) was launched in 2012. During that period, development work was launched on a number of components of the future system. As reported later, spacecraft in geostationary and highly elliptical orbits, as well as ground-based complexes for various purposes, were supposed to enter it.

According to well-known data, ESSS-3 should provide satellite communications and command and control at various levels. With its help, noise-immune voice communication, data transmission, troop control, etc. will be supported. ESSC-3 is distinguished from previous systems by its increased data transfer rates for all conditions.

On December 17, 2018, during a briefing by the Chief of the General Staff with representatives of the military-diplomatic corps for the first time, they showed the possible appearance of the Kupol satellite. Photo by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

The exact composition of ECCS-3 and the characteristics of the individual elements are still unknown. The deployment of the space part of this system will begin in 2022, and it is hoped that during this period the Ministry of Defense will publish certain details.

Discovery and combat control

Of particular importance to national security is the Unified Space Detection and Combat Command System, which is planned to be deployed by 2024. CEN Dome is a key component of the missile attack warning and strategic nuclear forces control system. Its appearance and full commissioning will sharply increase the capabilities of the armed forces to identify and repel threats.

Earlier in the Russian SPRN satellites of the Oko and Oko-1 systems were used. By the middle of the tenth years, they had failed and demanded a replacement. To restore the space echelon of the SPRN, the Ministry of Defense instructed RSC Energia and Comet Corporation to develop a new satellite 14F142 Tundra.

The resulting product has all the necessary features, and surpasses its predecessors in its characteristics. So, the torch of a launching rocket is detected not only against the background of the atmosphere or space, but also above the ground. It provides tracking of the detected missile with the calculation of the possible target area. On-board equipment allows the use of the Tundra in communication and combat control systems for data exchange and issuing orders.

It was originally planned to launch launches of vehicles in 2014 and put up to 10 units into orbit by the end of the decade. In fact, the first launch of the Tundra (Cosmos-2510) took place in November 2015. The last at the moment is in May 2020. Based on their results, four vehicles operate in highly elliptical orbits. This is the minimum staffing to solve the tasks - to track missile launches in the Northern Hemisphere and participate in data exchange. For the full functioning of the CEN “Dome” should include nine active satellites. The remaining five will be put into orbit by 2024.

Today and tomorrow

According to open data, now the Russian satellite constellation includes more than 150 military and dual-use items. According to various estimates, approx. two-thirds of this equipment belongs to the armed forces and is operated by VKS specialists.

General principles of the satellite communication system with spacecraft of various types.

In recent years, there have been positive trends in the field of renewal and development of the group. A year ago, the Russian leadership revealed interesting information on this subject. So, over six years (2013-19), the number of military and dual-purpose satellites increased by 50%, and the share of new products was brought up to almost 80%.

The development of the space videoconferencing group does not stop. Some projects are still at the stage of development work, in others spacecraft launches have begun, and others have reached operational status. At the same time, work continues on promising programs in all main areas, from communication and control to reconnaissance and tracking a likely enemy.

It should be borne in mind that several existing satellite systems for various purposes remain in operation, but their future has already been determined. Due to the limited service life of the equipment, these systems will be gradually decommissioned, both as modern replacements appear and in connection with the failure of their satellites. However, the share of modern devices with a large supply of resources is constantly growing, which positively affects the overall potential of the entire group.

In general, in recent years, much has been done to create and restore the necessary capabilities in space. However, work does not stop, and the videoconferencing system is to implement a number of new projects. Both the combat readiness of the armed forces and the strategic security of the country depend on their successful completion.
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  1. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 7 July 2020 07: 21
    A good trend ... especially pleased with the appearance of new products with a large operational resource ...
    1. Civil
      Civil 7 July 2020 08: 17
      So, for six years (2013-19), the number of military and dual-purpose satellites increased by 50%, and the share of new products was brought up to almost 80%.

      What about civilian satellites?
      1. Nastia makarova
        Nastia makarova 7 July 2020 09: 00
        this is not our niche
        1. Civil
          Civil 7 July 2020 09: 17
          Quote: Nastia Makarova
          this is not our niche

          And what is it, our niche? Research? Is that Phobos soil?
        2. Zaurbek
          Zaurbek 7 July 2020 11: 53
          These are always byproducts from military programs. There are military technologies of this level, and there will be civilian ones. The Hubble telescope, without achievements and ready-made satellites of optical and infrared intelligence, no one would do.
      2. dzvero
        dzvero 7 July 2020 09: 39
        The market is special. Mostly communications and surveillance. Satellites are ordered from "their own home" - it is unlikely that an American company will order it from China or the Russian Federation and give control to "alien" MCCs. The resource is strategic.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 7 July 2020 08: 07
    INTELLIGENCE, CONTROL OF VP ... whoever is warned is armed!
  3. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 7 July 2020 08: 51
    Well, how do you like it, Elon Musk? Chew don't choke laughing
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 7 July 2020 10: 00
      He has 538 communications satellites of his own design and production on orith. Launched by his own rockets. He looks at a group of 150 satellites with a smile laughing
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 7 July 2020 14: 29
        Roscosmos also has a plan for 600 satellites of the Sphere program, which may be launched by 2027.
      2. Grading
        Grading 7 July 2020 16: 18
        The next 57 SpaceX satellites are planned to be launched into orbit for the Starlink constellation. They will be deployed in a circular orbit, as was done from the first to the fourth mission.

        As a secondary payload, it is planned to launch 2 LeoStella small BlackSky Global 5 and 6 small satellites for Earth observation as part of the SpaceX program to jointly launch small vehicles into the SmallSat Rideshare Program.

        The first two LeoStella BlackSky satellites, allegedly weigh 55 kg each, are capable of capturing the Earth’s surface with a resolution of ~ 1 m per pixel from 500 km orbit. The camera can create 1000 images per day, work in four ranges and in panorama mode, shoot video.
        BlackSky satellites will assist in monitoring economic activity on Earth,

        Features of the mission:
        - 10th mass launch of Starlink satellites
        - 5th flight of the 1st stage B1051
        - All Starlink satellites will have special "sun umbrellas" to prevent strong reflection of sunlight from the surface of the satellites. This is necessary to prevent undesirable consequences for astronomers in the observation of outer space.

        This will be the 12th launch of this year for SpaceX (including IFA), the 89th launch of Falcon 9 and the 97th launch of the company.
  4. Diviz
    Diviz 7 July 2020 10: 49
    All this is due to the arms race. Quality must exceed quantity. And then there is so much garbage in Earth orbit that it keeps flying!
  5. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 7 July 2020 11: 52
    It is more skeptical about planning for the future in this area - the pandemic has made adjustments, and our economy is not in the best shape. It is likely that a number of these initiatives will remain at the level of the minimum necessary satellite constellation (first of all, we should expect this from SPRN satellites)
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 7 July 2020 14: 30
      All expenditures were as they were and no programs, including defense ones, were cut.
      1. Knell wardenheart
        Knell wardenheart 7 July 2020 15: 08
        This is the main thing - when the expenses are the same (from the planned ones in advance), but there is a certain event or chain of events affecting the economy - the ruble conditionally sags for a while, the whole harmonious chain of such plans begins to slip on each element of this plan, taking money a little more than calculated. We definitely faced a big economic problem - this problem is worse than the virus itself, because our economy was not very healthy before all these events - now oil is cheap, and the main credit consumers burned out during inaction and self-isolation. All this is only the beginning of history, unfortunately .. and it will also affect the defense industry, by the way, in space. Just can not tell.
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 7 July 2020 21: 09
          The only thing that can skid is in time - and for the rest there is 8 trillion in the NWF and the gold and foreign exchange reserves of 550 billion dollars if NWF does not have enough funds from there will be attracted. By the way, good news came for Roscosmos: “The British government and the Indian telecommunications company Bharti Global Ltd. will invest $ 1 billion in the purchase of the satellite operator OneWeb and financing the resumption of the company's operations.

          UK authorities are investing $ 500 million and will receive a stake in the company in conjunction with Bharti Global, which is part of Bharti Airtel Ltd., said British business minister Alok Sharma.

          The deal will enable OneWeb, which is developing satellite technology in the UK and the US, to implement plans to create a global satellite constellation, British authorities said.

          OneWeb said the consortium made a good offer that would allow companies to get out of bankruptcy with a large amount of funding. OneWeb intends to resume operations as soon as possible.

          It is expected that the deal will be closed by the end of 2020, it should be approved by the US bankruptcy court, as well as regulators, OneWeb reported.

          The British authorities will have a decisive voice in matters concerning the potential future sale of OneWeb and other countries' access to its technologies. ”So the launches of these satellites will continue in the future.
      2. Aag
        Aag 7 July 2020 20: 13
        I look at the presented diagram and ask a question there, they are aware that there is an opinion that the Earth is not flat?)))
        1. Aag
          Aag 7 July 2020 20: 15
          "Journalist" Safronov, bastard, probably knew ...)))
  6. kris_67
    kris_67 7 July 2020 13: 00
    "Development plans" - this is where you can start and end with the same.