Military Review

Non-French Zouaves

46

Article “Zouaves. New and unusual military units of France " It was told about the military formations that appeared in the French army after the conquest of Algeria. Unusual, exotic-looking uniforms, and then the military exploits of the Zouaves, who earned a reputation as brave and cutthroats, contributed to the emergence of such units outside of France. The form, drill and combat training were adopted. And now we will talk about other zouaves (not French) and see if the experience of copying them abroad was successful.


Zouaves of the USA


Non-French Zouaves
American Zouaves, 1863 photograph

The Americans also tried to adopt the French experience. The initiator of the creation of the Zuava units was a certain Elmer Ellsworth, a clerk from the Illinois Patent Office, who had nothing to do with the army and service in it, but liked to read books and magazines on military subjects at his leisure. From them he learned about the French Zouaves. It would seem that from interest and desire to the actual realization of what was conceived in life - the distance is enormous, and Ellsworth does not have and cannot have any chance of becoming the founding father of the American Zouave corps. But the young man had an ace up his sleeve - a close acquaintance with Abraham Lincoln, who had not yet been president, but had already gained great fame in the country both as a politician and as a lawyer (one of the most respected in Illinois). Already becoming president (in 1860), Lincoln called Ellsworth “the greatest little man”: he was referring to the growth of his friend, 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm). By the way, during the Senate elections of 1858 (which he lost), Lincoln himself was called by the adversaries “a big dipper” (and his short rival - “a little giant).


Elmer Ellsworth Photo from the Library of Congress


Abraham Lincoln, 1857

The second factor of success was the turbulent time of the Civil War in the United States, when luck sometimes smiled at such amateurs and adventurers. And a few cadre military could even hope for a fantastic career growth. So, Major Irwin MacDowell, who never commanded a single military unit, after the outbreak of the Civil War, was immediately promoted to Brigadier General and appointed Army Commander of Northeast Virginia. This army under his command lost the first major battle of the war - at the Bull Run River.

But back to Ellsworth.

In 1857 (at the age of 20), he became a drill instructor at Gray Rockford, the police station in Rockford, Illinois. In 1859, the father of his betrothed Carrie Spafford demanded that the daughter of the groom stop playing the fool and find a more suitable job. Ellsworth moved to the city of Springfield, where he joined the Lincoln Law Office.

In 1859, with the help of Lincoln, 22-year-old Ellsworth received the post of Colonel of the National Guard in Chicago. The title was loud (they were always loved in the USA), but this “fake” colonel had only 50 subordinates. But the opportunity arose to dress them in uniforms a la zouave and to drill according to the methods read in the French magazine: as they say, whatever the child was amusing, if only he would not cry. Ellsworth’s consultant was former French military doctor Charles de Villiers, who served in one of the Zuava regiments during the Crimean War.

It is hard to say how it would all end if it were not for the far-reaching incident at Fort Sumter.

Fort Sumter was built after the so-called Second War of Independence (the Anglo-American War of 1812-1815) to protect the port city of Charleston (South Carolina). After winning the Lincoln presidential election in November 1860, seven southern states announced their withdrawal from the United States (and in February 1861, the constitutional congress in Montgomery proclaimed the creation of a new state - the Confederate States of America, whose capital was Richmond). Fort Sumter found himself in confederate-controlled territory, but on December 26, federal troops took control of it. On April 26, 1861, the southerners began an operation to seize the fort. The warriors on both sides were still the same: despite the 36-hour artillery “duel”, neither the Confederates nor the federals managed to kill anyone.


Bombardment of Fort Sumter, 1861

Nevertheless, the nerves of Major Robert Anderson, who was in the fort, could not stand it, and on April 13 he passed the fort. So began the American Civil War.

The new president, Lincoln, announced to the nation that the country needed 75 volunteers, and the enthusiastic Ellsworth went to New York, where he created the first (already real, if only in number) regiment of American zouaves, which, in fact, was officially called the 11th New York Infantry. Since it mainly included employees of the New York fire brigade, most of whom were also red-haired Irish, the compound was unofficially called the “First New York Fire Zouaves”. Another, also unofficial, name for this regiment is Ellsworth's Zouaves.


Don Troiani. Fire Zuav

This regiment was included in the American army on May 7, 1861, after which it was transferred to Washington.


Colonel Elmer Ellsworth in 1861

The career of “Colonel” Ellsworth was bright, but short, because, as it turned out, the real war is too much different from “role-playing games”.

On May 23, 1861, a referendum was held in Virginia on the separation of this state from the United States, and already on the 24th the New York zouaves received orders to seize the border city of Alexandria. Ellsworth did not even have time to participate in any battle: the young man was killed by a certain James Jackson, from the roof of the hotel of which he tore the flag of the Confederacy.


The Marshall House in Alexandria: a hotel from whose roof the flag of Elmer Ellsworth tore

In this engraving of 1861, we see Jackson shooting at Ellsworth, and the Zouave, Francis Browell, in turn, kills Jackson (for which he was awarded the Order of Honor):


And this scene is depicted on a mail envelope:


Francis Brownell. The photo is stored in the library of the US Congress:


So 24-year-old Elmer Ellsworth entered history as the first Union Army officer to die in the Civil War. Some of his Zouavas embroidered an inscription on their faces: “We will avenge the death of Ellsworth!”


Elmer Ellsworth Monument, City of Mechanicville, Ellsworth's Tomb

In 2017, the Marshall House building was acquired by the transnational company Marriott International, which rebuilt it by opening the Monaco Hotel in it:


Hotel Monaco

The flag captured at this hotel was initially kept by Lincoln: according to contemporaries, his son often played with him. After the assassination of the president, Brownell took the flag, whose widow sold two fragments of the cloth in 1894 at a price of $ 10 and $ 15. The remaining canvas is also divided into two parts, the first of which is stored in the New York War Museum, the second in the National Museum of American History.

Fate, perhaps, was even merciful to Ellsworth: he did not have to see the shame of his Zouaves in the battle of the Bull Run River, which took place on July 21, 1861.

Colonel Heinzelman reported on the participation of the “fire zuavs” in the battle:

"At the first volley, they were upset in the ranks, and most of them rushed to run back, from time to time shooting through the heads of their comrades, who stood in front."

During their escape, the recruits of the deceased Ellsworth stumbled upon two companies of the 1st Virgin Cavalry Regiment, led by its commander, Lt. Col. Jab (James) Stuart (who, incidentally, was also very young - only 28 years old).


This is how we see Jab Stewart in the picture of the American artist Don Troiani: with a French saber, on a bay horse named Virginia

Stewart knew that the Southerners' army also included a Zuava battalion (the “Louisiana Tigers,” which we are talking about), and therefore decided to encourage the panicked "comrades-in-arms" - confidently addressed them:

“Don't run, guys, we're already here!”

The guys stopped and perked up, but in vain: Stuart already saw their flag and gave the cavalry a signal to attack.

The Virgin Regiment lieutenant William Blackford recalled:

"The horses crashed into their lines at full gallop and scattered them like straw."

The already quoted Colonel Heinzelman dryly states:

"The regiment of the Zouaves as a regiment no longer appeared on the battlefield."

It is estimated that in the 20 minutes spent on the battlefield, the “fire zuavs” lost 177 people: 2 officers and 34 privates were killed, 73 people were injured, 68 were captured or missing. They suffered the most damage from the attack of the Stewart cavalrymen.

On June 2, 1862, this compound was disbanded.

However, then in the army of the northerners more than 70 volunteer regiments of zouaves were created, but the reason for their formation was already quite prosaic: the fact is that, lacking military uniforms, the US government purchased a military uniform in France. And this should have happened - the cheapest sets turned out to be Zouavian. Well, since the recruits were given the form of zouaves, then why should they not be called zouaves?


5th New York Zouaves


A letter with drawings written by one of the Zouaves of Colonel Rash Hawkins


Zuav Hawkins, 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment

These new zouaves fought no worse than other combat units of the northerners.


Irish Zouaves, 1861, Hawkins' Zouaves, 1862, National Zouaves, 1862


Corporal Zuav with a Sharps rifle at the earthen rampart of Fort Federal Hill, Baltimore

The Confederates formed 25 mouths of Zouaves, and here was a completely different story. The romantically-minded young southerners were very impressed with the play “The Bloody Drama of the Crimean War”, which was just at that time that the popular theater troupe, touring in their states, gave. And they followed in the footsteps of the unfortunate Ellsworth and his "fiery zuavs."

The most famous in this war was the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion, whose servicemen were called the "Louisiana Tigers" (sometimes the "Tiger Rifles" - tiger rifles).


Tiger Rifles Battalion Soldier

This battalion, commanded by Cheath Robordo Whit, consisted of 5 companies and was formed on the principle of the French Foreign Legion: soldiers were recruited from foreigners and criminals of various kinds. So they were zouaves only because they wore the appropriate form, and it would be more correct to call them legionaries. And again, among the "Louisiana Tigers" there were many Irish immigrants.


Louisiana Tigers on the battlefield

The "Louisiana Tigers" fought well: in the Shenandoah Valley, at the battles of Fort Royal, Winchester and Port Republic. But they also “had a good rest”: they ravaged the saloons, smashed the brothels. Besides the fact that, in their opinion, “it is bad”, they also, as a rule, did not pass. One of the Confederate soldiers later recalled:

“They were all Irish and all dressed in the form of zouaves, and were known as Louisiana tigers, and they really were tigers in human form. I was really afraid of them. ”


One of the "Louisiana Tigers"

During one of these "outrages" in the town of Montgomery, several "tigers" were even shot.

This battalion suffered heavy losses during the North Virginia and Maryland fighting campaigns, and during the battle of Entityam was almost destroyed. But the name remains - it was transferred to the Louisiana brigade of General Harry Hayes.

After the end of the Civil War, one Zouave battalion became part of the National Guard, performing mainly ceremonial functions. But in 1880, the uniform of the national guards was unified, along with it the name also left the history.

Polish "zouaves of death"


On January 10 (22), 1863, another anti-Russian uprising began in Poland. On January 11, the Provisional National Government was formed, Ludvek Meroslovsky, who arrived from Paris on 19th, became the “dictator of the rebellion. Around this time, a certain French officer named Francois Roshanbrun appeared here, the owner of a fencing school in Krakow, which belonged to Austria-Hungary. In the city of Oytsovo, he formed a detachment, which he gave the loud name “Zuava of Death” (in fact, the Poles pronounce the word “zuav” as “zuav”) - because he forced the recruits to swear never to back down and not give up. In this detachment there were quite a lot of students of the Jagiellonian University.

By the way, on the basis of the march of these “Zhuavs” a revolutionary song was later written “Varshavyanka 1905” (“Hostile whirlwinds blow over us”). There is also the Varshavyanka of 1831. And then this “Varshavyanka” was transformed into the song of the Spanish anarchists “A las Barricadas!” (“To the barricades”):

Negras tormentas agitan los aires,
nubes oscuras nos impiden ver;
aunque nos espere el dolor y la muerte
contra el enemigo nos llama el deber.
..........................................
¡A las barricadas, a las barricadas
por el triunfo de la confederación!
¡A las barricadas, a las barricadas
por el triunfo de la confederación!

Try translating yourself (in an online translator) if you wish.

In Poland, it is often said that the only phrase de Rochebrune could say in the language of his subordinates was “psiakrew ktra godzina ?!”: something like “damn it, what time is it ?!” Allegedly, it was she who became his battle cry.

From the French and American zouaves, “in fashion” which had bright saturated colors, the Polish were distinguished by the black color of the form and the white cross painted on their chest.


Portrait of Francois (Franceschek) de Rochebrune in the form of the Zuava of Death, 1863, engraving of the XNUMXth century

The first battle of Roshbrune’s fighters against the Russian troops ended as expected: on February 17, near Mekhov’s 150 “zuavs of death” went to the cemetery (the real cemetery), where the Russian positions were. Less than 20 of them returned back. Killed and Lieutenant Wojciech Komarovsky, who led this attack.

Roshbrun was not sorry for the Polish youths, and therefore, reaching Krakow, he announced the creation of an entire regiment of suicides. But only a battalion was recruited - about 400 people. On March 17, the new “death zuaves” successfully fought with the Russian dragoons, but the very next day they were surrounded by the people they left, suffering heavy losses. Frustrated, Rochebrune went to France, and the last “Juoes” of his battalion were killed in early May 1863. Rochebrune later also died: as part of the French army during the Franco-Prussian War. In general, everyone died, as promised.

Brazilian Zouaves


In distant Brazil, in 1864, their zouaves also appeared - the so-called battalion of Zuavs-Baiyans (from the name of the province). During the military operations against Paraguay, it was formed from captured runaway slaves who were offered a simple and gloomy alternative: to die on the gallows immediately or in battle, but a little later. Like Comrade Sukhov from The White Sun of the Desert, they chose to "suffer a little." They say that among them there were many “masters” of the now popular, but forbidden at that time capoeira (the word was invented by the Portuguese colonialists, the slaves themselves called their art “Congo”, “Angola”, “Manjing” or “Sau-bento”, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century - wadiiasau).


Brazilian Zuav Bahian

Among the achievements of the Brazilian zouaves is the capture of the Paraguayan fort of Kuruzu.

Papal zuavas



For 10 years, the papal region and pontiff Pius IX was guarded by a regiment of zouaves, which the French general Louis de Lamorisiere formed from Orthodox Catholics from different countries (at first as a tyraller, that is, a rifleman).

On November 3, 1867, near the village of Mentany, this regiment, among other detachments of the papal region in alliance with the French military units, fought against volunteers Giuseppe Garibaldi, who were forced to withdraw with heavy losses.

It is curious that in 1860 Garibaldi himself had a battalion of volunteers, which they called the "Calabrian Zouaves."

In 1868, 4 people were in the regiment of papal zouaves. Among them were 592 immigrants from Holland, 1910 from France, 1301 Belgians, 686 Italians from the papal proper and 157 immigrants from other regions, 32 Canadians, 135 Irish, 101 Prussians and 87 Germans from other regions of Germany, 22 English, 50 Spanish , 32 Swiss, 19 Americans, 14 Poles, 12 Scots, 10 Austrians, 7 Portuguese, 6 Maltese, 3 subjects of the Russian Empire, one each from India, Mexico, Peru, some islands of the South Seas, and even one African and a Circassian . That is, again, this regiment, although it was called Zuava, was a typical legionnaire.

The military uniform of the papal soldiers copied the French, differing only in color: gray uniforms with red trim. Caps were initially used as a headgear, but they were soon replaced by traditional zuavas fez.


Papal zuav

In 1870, when Rome was occupied by the troops of Victor Emanuel II (the first king of united Italy), this regiment of zouaves moved to France, and after the unsuccessful Franco-Prussian war was disbanded.

Other zouaves


During the Third Carlist War (1872-1876, in some sources it is called the Second), a Zouave company was also created in Spain, which was used as an honor guard for the candidate for the throne of Don Carlos the Younger.

Between 1880 and 1908 two regiments of zouaves were created in the Ottoman Empire: they were included in the Sultan Guard. There were no military exploits behind them, after the coup organized by the Young Turks in 1908, these regiments were disbanded.

In 1856, the British West Indies Regiment also received the form of zouaves. Currently, this uniform is worn by musicians from the military band of Barbados and Jamaica.


Musicians of the military band of Barbados and Jamaica in Zuava uniform

But in France, soldiers in the form of zouaves can no longer be seen: cadets of the commando military school used to dress like this, but they also changed uniforms in 2006.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. Zuava. New and unusual military units in France
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  1. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 8 July 2020 07: 19 New
    +7
    It would be interesting to watch the battle of the Zuavs of the North and South))
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 8 July 2020 08: 45 New
      -11 qualifying.
      since the WHOLE world has recognized the effectiveness of these so-called zouaves. Do you need to first find out why these troops were so effective? Clothing alone is not enough, although spacious harem pants that are very similar to the Cossack harem pants of the time of Bogdan Khmelnitsky can be seen very clearly.
      Maybe these zouaves had not only a very comfortable uniform, which is why both the Yankees and Dixies so willingly dressed in it, but also weapons and tactical prims on the battlefield, which the author certainly does not know.
      The state of Barbaria and Barca, which existed on the northern and eastern coasts of Africa, was a powerful state about which we do not know anything, and the OI is silent like a fish on flight. On old maps, even from the 19th century, these states, together with Tartaria, are quite present.
      Instead of barbarians, historians speak of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Ethiopia. These names appeared later in the 19th century, the scale of the names was much smaller than Barbaria and Barca.

      1841 Lerber map of the State of Barbaria and Barca large all over northern Africa

      the name itself
      -Africa -a / anti _fr / br / bar_ika is a distorted Barika, that is, the state of Bars, and no foamy shore.
      The geography of northern Africa is very remarkable. The Niger River flowed until the middle of the 19th century not as it is now, but from west to east into a kind of large lake. Does the Sahara desert already appeared later than half of the 19th century? Historians do not want to investigate this question.
      1. gsev
        gsev 20 July 2020 12: 45 New
        0
        Quote: Bar1
        Historians do not want to investigate this question.

        The Arab chronicles describe travels to the south. In the entire history of the Arabs, they not very long ago managed to cross the Sahara and reach Niger. At the end of the 18th century, the African Society was organized in England, the main goal of which was to establish the direction of the flow of the Niger River. For some time, either the Niger and the Nile, then the Niger and Senegal were considered one river and did not know where the Niger flows to the east or west. The first European saw the Niger flowing eastward and reported this alive in Europe only in the 19th century. Tumbuktu city was one of the centers of Islam. There are descriptions of the travels of Ibn Batutta. It's just that few people in Russia are interested in his books. The inhabitants of Northwest Africa sent their troops against Catholics to Spain during the Reconquista. It's just that all sources on the history and geography of the Sahara and Sub-Saharan Africa before the 18th century are written in Moroccan, or Algerian dialects of obsolete Arabic. Therefore, until the end of the 19th century, maps with an unreliable image of Niger could be published.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 20 July 2020 14: 16 New
          -1
          Quote: gsev
          Therefore, until the end of the 19th century, maps with an unreliable image of Niger could be published.

          it cannot be so, the Niger river is the third in Africa in terms of flow and the river delta is huge and visible from afar, and ships from Europe have long sailed along the western shores of Africa and COULD NOT fail to see the drain and the delta of a huge river, so the myth that ancient cartographers counted three rivers united into one - just a stupid fairy tale for meager graduates of his. It does not look true
          especially considering the capabilities of the ancients, the pyramids of the temples of Jupiter, the Pantheon, aqueducts that are inaccessible to modern civilization.
          It is necessary to move to another level of understanding not OI.
          1. gsev
            gsev 20 July 2020 15: 41 New
            0
            Quote: Bar1
            visible from afar, and ships from Europe have long sailed along the western shores of Africa and

            There is no reliable evidence that any ships from Europe or North Africa from the Moroccan side were able to reach the mouth of the Niger before the time of Henry the Navigator. There is a current in the Cape Verde area that prevents ships from going south. It took more modern astronomical instruments so that travelers could stray far to the west and bypass this current. And after that, the Europeans for a long time could not penetrate deep into Africa and refute the hypothesis of Herodotus that Niger is a tributary of the Nile. The Africans had a fairly high military culture and before the advent of magazine rifles and machine guns, Africans were relatively successful in resisting the colonialists.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 8 July 2020 07: 35 New
    +6
    "The day of fun is over, shoot my little zouave ..." (c)
    Here I am reading an excellent and interesting article and, although it describes battles, death and blood, I cannot help feeling that we are talking about some kind of operetta, which was played by quite adults in the real world. And, it was even pleasant to note that our Russia, this "Zuavskaya" epidemic bypassed. smile

    On January 10 (22), 1863, another anti-Russian uprising began in Poland.

    No, but here everything is just and understandable: where is unhappy Poland, but without Russia. And the name of the buffoons is appropriate - "Zouaves of Death", they knew that in any case they would be slammed, it happened ...
    In general, everyone died, as promised.


    Valery, thanks. good hi
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 8 July 2020 09: 36 New
      +7
      I fully join Konstantin! I read it in one go - thanks! good
      Interesting and well-developed material that gives hitherto unknown to many (if not all!) Information. Easy syllable, flavored with very subtle humor in some places. yes
      Frustrated, Rochebrune went to France, and the last “Juoes” of his battalion were killed in early May 1863. Rochebrune later also died: as part of the French army during the Franco-Prussian War. In general, everyone died, as promised.

      The analogies with Dumurier are asking for! He arrived, tried to command the Poles, got an ass from Suvorov, wound him back. laughing
  3. raki-uzo
    raki-uzo 8 July 2020 08: 00 New
    +3
    Thank you, I read it with pleasure and remembered the old joke -

    The thinnest books in the world:
    - "British cuisine"
    - "Heroes of France"
    - "Democracy in Turkey"
    - "Russia - from dating to bed"
    - "Human Rights in China"
    - "Arab flying schools"
    - "Why I love the USA"
    1. raki-uzo
      raki-uzo 8 July 2020 08: 34 New
      +3
      In those days, there were 2 regiments of Zouaves at the padishah Abdulhamit II - the Regiment with a turban (Sarıklı Zuhaf Alayı) and a regiment with fez (Fesli Zuhaf Alayı). They were not from the Turks but from the Albanians, from the Balkan peoples and from the peoples of North Africa. Abdulhamit appreciated them and was proud. But according to others, the people hated them, because they introduced themselves to a very "uncultured" one. Fights, drinking, threats ... Once, in 1886, during the Ramadan holiday, the Zouaves with fez (Balkan soldiers) hired an orchestra and sang and danced with them. And the zouavis with fezs came to the hum and lured the orchestra to themselves, promising to pay more. Because of this, a fight broke out between the two regiments. It lasted quite a long time, there were shootings. Ismail Pasha from the Second Division barely had time with his soldiers and calmed them down. Seven were killed, more than 50 were injured. At the trial, the commanders of two regiments and even Ismail Pasha were punished.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 8 July 2020 09: 40 New
        -9
        there are images of Zouaves from the Crimean War, and there these "Arabs" look like white people.



        or the times of the First World War, the same zuaves are not Arabs, but white.


        Zuavs of the 19th century, Zuav in a turban
        turban is a brow

        1. VLR
          8 July 2020 09: 50 New
          11
          Since 1841, only Europeans have been serving in the Zouave regiments. The Arabs and Berbers, who began serving in them in 1830, were first "diluted" with Algerian Jews and French, and then - transferred to separate units: this is how tyrallers appeared. And the Zouaves became the elite units of the French army stationed in Algeria, and retained their exotic form. This is described in the article "Zouaves. New and unusual military units of France".
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 8 July 2020 10: 21 New
            -15 qualifying.
            speak, say, only there is no evidence. This is just a declaration. As you are silent, the form of the Zouaves is similar to the Cossack.
            1. Legionista
              Legionista 8 July 2020 11: 13 New
              +4
              speak, say, but there is no evidence. This is just a declaration

              Please read the previous articles of the Author, there is a lot and everything is written in detail.
              Like the fact that you are silent that the form of the zouaves is similar to the Cossack.

              What exactly? Chalmoy-brow? wassat If you mean trousers, then this kind of pants were worn by Scythians, Persians, and Turks.
              1. Bar1
                Bar1 8 July 2020 12: 53 New
                -12 qualifying.
                Quote: Legionista
                Please read the previous articles of the Author, there is a lot and everything is written in detail.

                you yourself read the articles of the author, then you will not argue for no reason.

                Quote: Legionista
                What exactly? Chalmoy-brow?


                turban from the Russian man
                here is a picture of Rembrandt 17th century portrait of the famous Slav, as we see it is a turban, on the chest a crescent.



                and show the Scythians in bloomers?
                however, the Scythians are the ancestors of the Slavs, as the historian Lyzlov, Mavro Orbini and other authors wrote.
                What language is written The Journey over the Three Seas, Athanasius Nikitin? In Persian or Arabic with Russian sentences and just words. Persians and Mongols and Russians spoke Russian and Persian.
                There is such an essay of the 18th century. Priest Lukyanov’s journey to the holy land, and so he says there that TURKISH ALL understand Russian, and many speak Russian.
                In addition, the trousers were worn by Janissaries, and these are the Slavs, what's so surprising?
                It is surprising that Caucasians dressed in bloomers, say, Turkish clothing is dressed in the form of enemies, the Poles always fought with the Cossacks and also suddenly wear Cossack bloomers, as it is historically contradictory.
                1. Legionista
                  Legionista 8 July 2020 15: 18 New
                  +3
                  here is a picture of Rembrandt 17th century portrait of the famous Slav, as we see it is a turban, on the chest a crescent.

                  A painting by Rembrandt (not Rembrandt), painted in 1632, is currently housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The official name is "Man in Oriental Costume (The Noble Slav)" i.e. "A man in an oriental costume (Noble Slav). The painting was first named so in 1897 for the catalog of sale in Paris, before that it had the following names:
                  -1729- "The first Turkish Vizier"
                  1755 - "Turkish Pasha"
                  1761 - "Portrait of a Turk"
                  1836 - "Jewish Rabbi"
                  Of course, Rembrandt painted a sitter dressed in an oriental costume, just as Vasnetsov also painted sitters, not heroes (painting "Heroes") laughing laughing
                  If you are interested in everything! picture title - go to www.metmuseum.org. Or see for yourself in New York)))
                  turban from the Russian man
                  wassat in the word "Russian" they write 2 letters "c".
                  1. Bar1
                    Bar1 8 July 2020 19: 39 New
                    -14 qualifying.
                    Quote: Legionista
                    Official name - "Man in Oriental Costume (The Noble Slav)


                    Rembrandt’s painting couldn’t be called like that because Rembrandt was Dutch, and in English it was called for illiterate Americans, therefore the painting is called Portrait of a noble Slav.



                    Quote: Legionista
                    For the first time, the painting was named so in 1897 for the catalog of sales in Paris, before that it had the following names:

                    Do you have to prove it or are you talking like that?

                    Quote: Legionista
                    Of course, Rembrandt painted a sitter dressed in an oriental costume, just as Vasnetsov also painted sitters, not heroes (the painting "Heroes"


                    the same evidence in the studio, but I think that you can’t prove anything, like Ryzhov and his European zuavs.

                    The word Russian is written with one _s_

                    Scythians in trousers, as they usually forgot to show, well, of course, all these words are worth it.
                    1. Bar1
                      Bar1 8 July 2020 19: 55 New
                      -12 qualifying.
                      By the way, here is a portrait of the great German Leibniz, who in fact turns out to be a great Slav.



                      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Лейбниц,_Готфрид_Вильгельм
                      1. Hantengri
                        Hantengri 8 July 2020 21: 56 New
                        +5
                        Quote: Bar1

                        By the way, here is a portrait of the great German Leibniz, who in fact turns out to be a great Slav.

                        Gottfried Wilhelm was born July 1, 1646 [15] [31] in the family of the professor of philosophy of morality (ethics) of the University of Leipzig Friedrich Leibnütz (German: Friedrich Leibnütz or Leibniz; 1597-1652) and Katerina Schmuck (German Catherina Schmuck), who was a daughter prominent professor of law.
                        Attention to the question: Which of the parents of the great scientist was more Slavic? Friedrich Leibnütz? Or Catherina Schmuck? Both surnames are so Slavic that I, frankly, get lost ... lol
                    2. Legionista
                      Legionista 8 July 2020 20: 31 New
                      +3
                      "Quidquid in buccam venerit, stultus loquitur" request
                      Timur, you will now be severely "minus")))), firstly - for not knowing the Russian language, and secondly -
                      in English
                      laughing laughing laughing
                      for not knowing english.
                      Do you have to prove it or are you talking like that?

                      not "have," but "you can." I gave a link to the museum's website, check if you can read and understand English. However, I doubt it. For this I stop the discussion, for I am tired of ignorance. Sic!
                      1. Bar1
                        Bar1 8 July 2020 22: 10 New
                        -10 qualifying.
                        about zaminusut, on this site it is an honor to get such estimates, because this is the site of Russophobia.
                        I know that I know Russian. And I know it better than you, of course.
                        So you can’t confirm anything, again only declarations, well, then, yet another talker is irresponsible. There are many of them.
                        tired no problem
                        try the rabbit droppings
                        he is vigorous, he will pass
                        and kudy healing honey
                        hosh to taste and not honey ...
                      2. Hantengri
                        Hantengri 8 July 2020 22: 34 New
                        +3
                        Quote: Bar1
                        tired no problem
                        try the rabbit droppings
                        he is vigorous, he will pass
                        and kudy healing honey
                        hosh to taste and not honey ...

                        Yes, really ... Alternatively gifted brain - alternative in everything! Well, you have to get lost in a simple quotation!
                        Ill-gotten - no problem!
                        Eat the frog from the pond!
                        There is no safer medicine
                        Than the natural environment.
      2. raki-uzo
        raki-uzo 8 July 2020 11: 00 New
        0
        Very interesting! And to think ... The French or Europeans could initially dress their special soldiers in such clothes? This is clearly an oriental style, or, say, Arabic or North African ... and not French in my opinion. In the photo - the Ottoman Zouaves with a turban (Sarıklı Zuhaf Alayı) - the year is marked 1875, although the article gives the year the regiment was created in 1880 in the Ottoman Empire. And Turkish sources "not confidently" speak of the date of the creation of the regiment as 1876.
        1. Legionista
          Legionista 8 July 2020 11: 39 New
          +2
          This is clearly an oriental style or, say, Arabic or North African ... but not French in my opinion

          You are absolutely right. The French in general, in terms of military uniforms, the venturers are still those), however, they appreciate the convenience and practicality. Not quite in the context of the topic under discussion, but somewhere in 2006-2007 they showed the IDF / s with baggy, in shape, helmets, in 2REI it was immediately adopted and used for a long time.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 8 July 2020 14: 00 New
            +4
            The French in general, in terms of military uniforms, the venturers are still those), however, they appreciate the convenience and practicality.

            Hello! drinks about the form. A few months ago Valery gave a good cycle according to Peter III, and there was such an engraving in it (it seems that this one, if necessary, Valery will correct me). yes

            This is how the assassination of Peter looked in the view of the then French artist. Distinctive - on the shoulders of the present epaulettes. We didn’t have them in the army then, but the author of the engraving, apparently, drew a form by analogy with the French army! wink
      3. Hantengri
        Hantengri 8 July 2020 21: 22 New
        +7
        Quote: Bar1
        turban is a brow

        I'm afraid to even imagine from what Russian words you will make the words: "Pisa" and "mandolin"! laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 9 July 2020 12: 05 New
          +5
          I'm afraid to even imagine from what Russian words you will make the words: "Pisa" and "mandolin"!

          For the whole Russian language descended from the ancient Etruscans-Russians! laughing The word "stibrit" is from the Tiber River. And in Pisa someone was obviously beaten. wassat drinks
  • Legionista
    Legionista 8 July 2020 09: 17 New
    +4
    Interesting and informative. Thanks to the author! After reading, I thought about the fact that not always, having a “form”, one can find a decent “content” winked (Polish gentry in this case).
    ... and for some reason I thought of a new “well-forgotten old” - the so-called “Shock" parts of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. What for??
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 8 July 2020 16: 55 New
      +1
      As I understand it, we are talking about standards. Plus in preparation. And motivation - such as a different color of berets in units of the IDF at almost the same infantry units))).
      1. Legionista
        Legionista 8 July 2020 17: 05 New
        +1
        As I understand it, we are talking about standards.

        hi It's like that. I mean, there were “shock” units in the Russian army in 1917-1918. . As with the “zuavas,” it seems that the name (form) is the same, but the content is different. Well these are my "deeply subjective" thoughts. Perhaps from the heat)))
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 8 July 2020 17: 07 New
          +2
          That was window dressing. In Krasnodar, the heat was interrupted by rain)) I apologize for getting into my personal space - are you now in the south of Europe or in Africa?
          1. Legionista
            Legionista 8 July 2020 17: 31 New
            0
            I will answer in a "personal")
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 8 July 2020 18: 04 New
      +4
      Quote: Legionista
      ... and for some reason I thought of a new “well-forgotten old” - the so-called “Shock" parts of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. What for??

      With the "striking parts", everything is very simple.
      After 25 years of various reforms in the RF Armed Forces, there were practically no non-guards units and formations left. Rumor has it that there is even a guard storage base. smile
      Moreover, the mechanisms for obtaining a guard rank were the most intricate. Some units received the title of "guard" for real successes. Others - became guards "inherited" from the formations, which included and which were disbanded (brigades and regiments transferred titles to the remaining divisions and squadrons).
      Still others received titles from the guards units included in their composition (in the course of the eternal process of "reduction - merger").
      To take away a guards rank - you understand, is not good. And in order to make it possible to somehow highlight the successes of the polls of the guards units, it was necessary to introduce a new rank - "shock".
      1. Legionista
        Legionista 8 July 2020 18: 43 New
        +1
        Good afternoon. A clear and well-reasoned explanation. For me now the "puzzle" has developed). thanks good
  • Marine engineer
    Marine engineer 8 July 2020 20: 10 New
    +1
    “One of the Louisiana Tigers”

    Zouav, you woman?
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 8 July 2020 21: 28 New
    +3
    Valery, it was very interesting. Especially about the "fiery zouaves", the fact is that I actually know about this war from Mitchell and some other feature film, I cried when I watched. Sympathized with the painting's guerina, she risked her life to help the southerners
  • Victorio
    Victorio 8 July 2020 23: 44 New
    +1
    Thank you for the article. in the army of the Russian Empire, their zouaves cannot be counted.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 10 July 2020 00: 23 New
      0
      Direct analogue - just one is remembered right away.

      Nagaibaki.

      Roughly speaking, the South Urals Tatar cosplay of the Cossacks, and not even the near Yaitsky, but not the near Kuban at all.

      Who else?
      1. Victorio
        Victorio 10 July 2020 08: 21 New
        0
        Quote: AllBiBek
        A direct analogue - just one is remembered right away. Nagaibaki.

        Roughly speaking, the South Urals Tatar cosplay of the Cossacks, and not even the near Yaitsky, but not the near Kuban at all.

        Who else?

        ===
        Bashkirs and Kalmyks in the first patriotic, later Caucasian regiments

        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 10 July 2020 10: 59 New
          +1
          I would not call them an analogue of the zouaves; this is an ethnic irregular cavalry without a standard uniform and with national weapons.

          By the way, Peter the Great used the same Kalmyks against the Swedes.
          1. Victorio
            Victorio 10 July 2020 21: 47 New
            0
            Quote: AllBiBek
            I would not call them an analogue of the zouaves, this is ethnic irregular cavalry without a standard uniform and with national weapons.

            By the way, Peter the Great used the same Kalmyks against the Swedes.

            ===
            then became regular in the form of light cavalry
            1. gsev
              gsev 20 July 2020 12: 59 New
              0
              Quote: Victorio
              then became regular in the form of light cavalry

              Unfortunately, Russia could not equip the Bashkirs with modern firearms and melee weapons at that time. They often went to Murat's cavalry with only bows and lassos, and this was their main difference.
              1. Victorio
                Victorio 20 July 2020 13: 29 New
                0
                Quote: gsev
                Quote: Victorio
                then became regular in the form of light cavalry

                Unfortunately, Russia could not equip the Bashkirs with modern firearms and melee weapons at that time. They walked on Murat's cavalry often with only bows and lasso. This was their main difference.

                ===
                I remember that the cavalry of that time had only pistols, they did not differ much from the bow in their action, and even taking into account the skill of owning the latter. and so sabers against sabers. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/uchastie-narodov-bashkirii-v-otechestvennoy-voyne-v-1812-g
                1. gsev
                  gsev 20 July 2020 15: 47 New
                  0
                  Quote: Victorio
                  and so sabers against sabers.

                  I recommend the most authoritative source on the Napoleonic wars: "Memoirs of General Baron de Marbeau". Written by a professional officer whose work was approved by Napoleon. I trust his assessment.
                  1. Victorio
                    Victorio 20 July 2020 23: 14 New
                    0
                    Quote: gsev
                    Quote: Victorio
                    and so sabers against sabers.

                    I recommend the most authoritative source on the Napoleonic wars: "Memoirs of General Baron de Marbeau". Written by a professional officer whose work was approved by Napoleon. I trust his assessment.

                    ===
                    thanks, maybe. and I have great doubts about the objectivity of Westerners, I immediately recall the publication by Napoleon of the false testament of Peter, and the printing of false Russian rubles
                    1. gsev
                      gsev 21 July 2020 14: 13 New
                      0
                      Quote: Victorio
                      but to the objectivity of Westerners

                      It's just that the history of the Bashkir cavalry is waiting for its frank and honest historian. In fact, the military history of the Crimean, Kazan and Siberian Tatars, Kalmyks and Chukchi is no less interesting. According to the Napoleonic wars, historians know the report of the beginning. Berthier's headquarters to Napoleon on the losses of the French during the Battle of Borodino. The historian Nechkina wrote in a history textbook for Soviet schoolchildren that Berthier deceived Napoleon and underestimated the losses of the French almost 2 times.
                2. saygon66
                  saygon66 4 October 2020 23: 13 New
                  0
                  - At various times, in addition to pistols, the "standard" weapon of the cavalrymen were pikes (lancers, hussars, Cossacks, cuirassiers), as well as long-barreled weapons ...