Military Review

Guerrilla missiles: Grad-P light reactive system

50

Launcher 9P132 in one of the Vietnamese museums. Wikimedia Commons Photos


The USSR actively supported North Vietnam with the supply of material parts. Among the other samples supplied to the ally was the Grad-P light reactive system, created at his request. This product combined small dimensions, ease of use and the power of shells of the Grad full-size multiple launch rocket system.

Help ally


In 1965, the leadership of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam addressed the USSR with an unusual request. The Vietnamese army needed a new artillery system with increased projectile power, but easy to handle and suitable for transportation over complex landscapes. Preference was given to reactive systems that have already shown their potential.

The Soviet leadership went towards a friendly country and launched a new project. A group of domestic enterprises headed by NII-147 (now the NPO “Splav”) was instructed to create a lightweight weapons complex, unified with the 9K51 Grad MLRS. The new product received the code "Grad-P" ("Partizan").

Already in July 1965, an experimental launcher and shells for it were presented for joint tests. According to their results, Grad-P was recommended for production in a series. In addition, the command considered it possible not only to send such a system abroad, but also to take into service the domestic special forces.


Trophy "Grad-P" in Israel. Wikimedia Commons Photos

At the end of that year, mass production began. The first 20 reactive systems and ammunition for them were completed by the beginning of 1966. In the following months, another 180 items were assembled. By the end of spring 1966 they were sent to a foreign customer. During the second half of the year, another order was executed for 200 complexes. The plan for 1967 provided for the manufacture of 300 Grad-P products with storage - if necessary, they were planned to be delivered to one or another customer. They were mainly shipped by the DRV, and further mass production continued.

Simplest design


The basis of the Grad-P system was the 9P132 launcher. When it was created, the need to reduce dimensions and mass was taken into account when obtaining sufficient combat characteristics. In addition, the product was made collapsible, which simplified transportation over difficult terrain.

The main component of the installation is a tubular guide-barrel of 122 mm caliber with a U-shaped spiral groove. In fact, this part is a “Grad” trunk, shortened to 2,5 m. On the rail there were means of an electric launch control system.

The barrel was fixed on the cradle of a simple design, mounted on the machine. The lightweight machine had three folding legs; the front was equipped with a coulter. There were manual horizontal guidance mechanisms. Horizontal movement of the trunk was carried out within a sector with a width of 14 °. Vertical interference - from + 10 ° to + 40 °. For aiming, the PBO-2 sight and the compass were used.

The shooting was carried out using a sealed remote control with a cable 20 m long. When the start button was pressed, the remote control generated an electrical impulse responsible for igniting the projectile engine. During the launch, the crew was at a safe distance from the installation.


The design of the projectile 9M22M. Figure Missilery.info

The barrel-guide had a mass of 25 kg, the machine - 28 kg. They were transported separately in two packs; a few more packs were given for ammunition. It took no more than 2-2,5 minutes to assemble or disassemble the launcher at the firing position. Calculation system - 5 people. In the stowed position, the calculation numbers separately carried the barrel, machine tool and several rockets.

Compatible ammunition


The first ammunition for Grada-P was the 9M22M missile, developed on the basis of the M-21OF product for the basic Grada. The new shell had a length of 1,95 m and was distinguished by a collapsible body. The warhead with the warhead was borrowed unchanged from the M-21OF; the engine compartment was a shortened version of the existing one. In the tail were stabilizers deployed in flight. The projectile weighing 46 kg carried 6,4 kg of explosive and could show a range of up to 10,8 km.

In 1968, NII-147 and other enterprises modernized Grada-P, during which a 9M22MD long-range projectile was created. In general, he retained the basic design, but received an increased engine charge with the replacement of the brand of gunpowder; nozzles also changed. The firing range was brought up to 15 km. However, the use of 9M22MD required additional preparations. A weight of at least 50 kg had to be placed on the front leg of the machine - otherwise the installation could roll over due to the greater energy of the projectile.

Also, specifically for the "partisan" system, a 9M22MS projectile with incendiary equipment was developed. The missile part of the projectile was taken unchanged from 9M22M, the combat part was borrowed from the full-sized 9M22C for Grad. According to flight characteristics, an incendiary shell corresponded to a high-explosive fragmentation.

Guerrilla missiles: Grad-P light reactive system
Iranian copy of the Soviet Grad-P. Photo Missilery.info

If necessary, the 9P132 installation could launch standard projectiles of Grad MLRS, which was confirmed by testing. However, the specifics of the launcher did not allow to realize all the advantages of such ammunition. Similar methods of using Grada-P turned out to be inappropriate.

Upgrade Suggestions


The first Grad-P products were sent to the DRV at the end of 1966. In just a few months, the Vietnamese gained experience in their operation, and by the end of the summer of 1967 made proposals for modernization and further development of the design.

A request was made for an additional reduction in the mass and dimensions of the complex. They also asked to increase the firing range - this was done in the 9M22MD project. There were complaints about the reliability of the firing controls. They suggested making a new launcher with three or four rails to reduce the intervals between launches and, accordingly, the risks for the calculation.

Some of the proposals were implemented, while others did not advance beyond the tests. So, at the test site, the modification of the 9P132 product with a trunk shortened to 2 m was checked (weight decreased by 2,8 kg). Such a reduction in barrel length did not impair the accuracy and accuracy of the fire. They also collected a double-barreled version with shortened guides. Tests have shown that such an installation is more complicated and heavier, has limitations on the aiming angles and requires an increase in calculation. All this was considered unacceptable, and the installation was left single-barrel.

Operation and use


The first serial "Grad-P" went to the DRV and immediately found application in various operations. Supplies of such weapons lasted until the early seventies. It was transferred more than 950 complexes and thousands of shells for them. Depending on the need, Vietnamese artillerymen used both standard and extended range projectiles and Grad rockets.


"Fantasy on the theme" performed by gunmen of the DPR. Photo by Ru-artillery.livejournal.com

Light launchers and shortened missiles were regularly used in firing raids on enemy targets with some success. Such weapons showed the best results when massed against large targets, such as airfields. The ability to disassemble and the relatively small mass allowed the system to be delivered to the firing position along mountain and forest paths, and then strike from an unexpected direction.

Subsequently, Grad-P was actively supplied to other friendly countries, and some of them used it in battle. In particular, the Cuban army became one of the operators - its gunners worked quite actively during the African conflicts. In the Middle East, the Palestinian Liberation Organization has become the main user. In addition, 9P132 were supplied to Iran and produced by them independently.

Partisan reactive systems are still used in local conflicts. So, since 2014, the use of such weapons in the Donbass conflict has been regularly reported. In the same period, the first cases of the use of "Grad-P" in Yemen are noted.

According to various sources, Grad-P also entered service with some special forces of the Soviet army, but it was not widely used. For their own needs, the USSR could use more advanced models.

Special tool


The product "Grad-P" occupies a special place in stories Soviet missile weapons. It was created at the specific request of a foreign customer and therefore received a special look. At the same time, the system showed rather high operational and combat characteristics - although it could not be compared with full-fledged MLRS using standardized ammunition. However, practice has confirmed that such “partisan” weapons can be very useful in local conflicts.

The Grad-P system has long been discontinued, but still remains in service with a number of countries and armed groups. In addition, in current conflicts, reactive systems based on the Grada-P concept have become widespread. It is unlikely that the DRV military could imagine that their request for help would lead to the formation of ideas that are so tenacious and useful in certain conditions.
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  1. Bashkirkhan
    Bashkirkhan 1 July 2020 18: 13
    +8
    Single-barreled "Smerch" on the ML-20 artillery board. Unlike the Grad-P 800-kg rocket, it will not be possible to manually load the rocket, and this pipe will not be able to move along the mountain paths.
    1. Lontus
      Lontus 1 July 2020 20: 10
      0
      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      Single-barreled "Smerch" on the ML-20 artillery board. Unlike the Grad-P 800-kg rocket, it will not be possible to manually load the rocket, and this pipe will not be able to move along the mountain paths.

      In a controlled way, a very useful solution would be.
      Much more effective clowning with guided projectiles for the receiver of artifacts ...
      And also more mobile and secretive.
      UR based on the Hurricane 220 mm. (280 kg) would also go on the basis of a pickup or passenger van. Yes, and along the mountain paths this shaitan pipe will already be able to move.
      1. Bashkirkhan
        Bashkirkhan 1 July 2020 21: 38
        +3
        By the way, there was a version of the ersatz "Smerch" based on KAMAZ.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 1 July 2020 22: 35
          0
          Quote: Bashkirkhan
          By the way, there was a version of the ersatz "Smerch" based on KAMAZ.

          This is not "ersatz", this is an imitation of HIMARS
          22 tons against 34, 4 launchers in the battery against two.
          Apparently, they decided that it was expensive.
          1. Lontus
            Lontus 2 July 2020 08: 05
            +1
            Quote: Bashkirkhan
            By the way, there was a version of the ersatz "Smerch" based on KAMAZ.


            Quote: Spade

            This is not "ersatz", this is an imitation of HIMARS
            22 tons against 34, 4 launchers in the battery against two.
            Apparently, they decided that it was expensive.


            ; 4 KAMAZ trucks will be much cheaper than 2 MAZ trucks.
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 2 July 2020 08: 59
              0
              Quote: Lontus
              4 KAMAZ trucks will be much cheaper than 2 MAZ trucks.

              Are two sets of equipment cheaper than one? Well and other things ...
              1. Lontus
                Lontus 2 July 2020 09: 21
                +1
                Quote: Spade
                Quote: Lontus
                4 KAMAZ trucks will be much cheaper than 2 MAZ trucks.

                Are two sets of equipment cheaper than one? Well and other things ...

                It is not a fact that the cost of producing additional sets of equipment is high - the cost of development is high and its share in the presented price tag for a predetermined amount. In subsequent production, the cost grows very little.
                Plus, when using the Kamaz chassis, mobility, stealth, and also much lower operating and maintenance costs are much higher.
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov 2 July 2020 09: 24
                  -2
                  Quote: Lontus
                  Not the fact that the cost of production

                  "Production" is only a small fraction of the total life cycle costs of a weapon model.

                  Quote: Lontus
                  Plus, when using the Kamaz chassis, mobility is much higher

                  laughing
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                  2. Lontus
                    Lontus 2 July 2020 09: 41
                    +3
                    Quote: Spade


                    Quote: Lontus
                    Plus, when using the Kamaz chassis, mobility is much higher

                    laughing

                    I did not expect from you such inappropriate buffoonery.
                    If someone brings a photo of an inverted motorcycle,
                    Will this disprove the thesis "a motorcycle has more mobility and stealth than a car"?
                    But in the photo of Nise, it’s not the fact that the Jews didn’t get nasty with the center of gravity chasing PR modularity
                    1. Lopatov
                      Lopatov 4 July 2020 19: 45
                      0
                      Quote: Lontus

                      I did not expect from you such inappropriate buffoonery.

                      How did you decide that this is "buffoonery"?
                      Cars based on KamAZ-63501 are prone to tipping over. What has been confirmed more than once.
                      Therefore, such machines cannot be called "more mobile"
                      1. Lontus
                        Lontus 5 July 2020 18: 06
                        +2
                        Quote: Spade
                        Quote: Lontus

                        I did not expect from you such inappropriate buffoonery.

                        How did you decide that this is "buffoonery"?
                        Cars based on KamAZ-63501 are prone to tipping over. What has been confirmed more than once.
                        Therefore, such machines cannot be called "more mobile"

                        Do you fully read before replying?
                        Quote: Lontus
                        If someone brings a photo of an inverted motorcycle,
                        Will this disprove the thesis "a motorcycle has more mobility and stealth than a car"?
                      2. Lopatov
                        Lopatov 6 July 2020 12: 46
                        0
                        Quote: Lontus
                        Do you fully read before replying?

                        Конечно.
                        Your argument did not seem convincing to me.
                        We have a machine with a high center of gravity and a tendency to tip over. Calling this "more mobile" is strange.

                        For it is not a motorcyclist.

                        Such a rollover is definitely 10-14 million rubles. Right away. Even if the technique did not sympathize at all, which is unlikely. Because these missiles cannot be used.
                        This rollover is a lot of time. On wheels, on repairs, on checks, that is, the car is in fact withdrawn from combat
                        And so forth ...

                        Here it is not necessary to cite a motorcyclist as an example, but a grandmother, who has a tray of eggs in each hand. Like "she weighs less than an athlete with weights and therefore is more mobile. And a photo of a fallen grandmother and a pile of broken eggs does not prove otherwise."
  • polpot
    polpot 1 July 2020 18: 19
    +9
    Thank you, an interesting article, I would like to know more about the combat use.
  • Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 1 July 2020 18: 21
    0
    And after that, will the banderlogs tell us that the militia does not have its own weapons?
    Well, of course, we supply this

    "Fantasy on a Theme" performed by DNR gunsmiths.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 1 July 2020 18: 39
      +1
      Quote: Lipchanin
      "Fantasy on a Theme" performed by DNR gunsmiths.




      "Fantasy on the theme" performed by gunmen of the DPR. Photo by Ru-artillery.livejournal.com

      "Vague doubts torment" repeat

      What is it that flew through us from the airport along the "Zenith" military center, occupied by dill, in February 2017?what

      Volleys are just 4 pieces, but those "products", on approaching the target, were also "snorted" fellow

      And then ... wink
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 1 July 2020 20: 57
      +5
      Quote: Lipchanin

      [Center]
      "Fantasy on a Theme" performed by DNR gunsmiths.

      Duc, faq there!? It's a pity that I, in a sense, in ,, field-field ,, conditions! Otherwise I would have posted pictures of the DNR-vskih "grads-P" ... ,, single-barreled, ,, double-barreled, even, ,, tr-barreled, on ,, tripod ,, machines. ! And so ... by and large, 2-4 barrels. ,, grads-n ,, on tripod-four-legged machines exist in Egyptian, Yemeni, Iranian and some other ,, Arab ,, samples! By the way, there was a mention of a 4-barrel. ,, home-made ,, installation ,, hurricane ,, (LDNR production ...), collected from the broken "Hurricane" APU ...., but there were claims that this is ,, fake ,,! Therefore, for a long time I didn’t ,, mention ,, this old ... decided only now ...!
      1. Lipchanin
        Lipchanin 1 July 2020 21: 18
        +1
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        Therefore, for a long time I didn’t, mention, this info ... decided only now ...!

        So am I about that. Here, banderlogs have been screaming for about 5 years now that LDNR has nothing of its own
        1. Insurgent
          Insurgent 2 July 2020 08: 36
          +5
          Quote: Lipchanin
          Here, banderlogs have been screaming for about 5 years now that LDNR has nothing of its own

          Of course of course yes
          Only adjusted - once was yours,and then became ours lol
          1. Lipchanin
            Lipchanin 2 July 2020 10: 17
            -1
            Quote: Insurgent
            Only amended - once it was yours, and then it became ours

            I hope you're not talking about "Hammer" lol
            1. Insurgent
              Insurgent 2 July 2020 10: 22
              +2
              Quote: Lipchanin
              I hope you're not talking about "Hammer"

              In fact, in the militia (NM), briefings are periodically conducted about trophies, in particular weapons and ammunition, which can conceal "surprises" such as "zeroed" (spirit of the times wassat laughing ) grenade fuses, or ammunition loaded with plastid ...
              1. Lipchanin
                Lipchanin 2 July 2020 10: 24
                -1
                Quote: Insurgent
                "surprises" such as "zeroed" (spirit of the times) grenade fuses, or cartridges loaded with plastid ...

                Well, I think that there is no shortage of ammunition and grenades
                1. Insurgent
                  Insurgent 2 July 2020 10: 35
                  +3
                  Quote: Lipchanin
                  Well, I think that there is no shortage of ammunition and grenades

                  Pomegranates - on recount (fortunately, there are "their own unaccounted for"), cartridges are also under the limit, but whoever needs it will "build up leftists" ...
                  A platoon like that Tsar Kaschey , pauses over the BC in the "weapon", so as not to be dragged away by parasites laughing wassat

                  Butif you really needthen nobody and nothingwon't stop the damned seperate wassat wink

                  In general, at the end of 2019, it became completely different with the ammunition tank as it was in the militia, when handfuls of loose powder were taken from 2-hundred liter barrels cut in half ...
                  1. Lipchanin
                    Lipchanin 2 July 2020 10: 37
                    +1
                    Why? Stopped supplying?
                    1. Insurgent
                      Insurgent 2 July 2020 10: 40
                      +3
                      Quote: Lipchanin
                      Why? Stopped supplying?

                      In warehouses - HAVE USE yes

                      "minski", their children recourse ... The ban on shooting ... "There is no war" - it means that the BC "a lot" is not needed ...
                      1. Lipchanin
                        Lipchanin 2 July 2020 10: 44
                        0
                        Clear.
                        But at least when the mess starts on a starvation diet you will not find yourself.
                        And "" There is no war "- that means that the BC" does not need much "..." the typical ensign bureaucratic nature is reflected. "Better to rot, but in my warehouse" laughing
        2. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 2 July 2020 10: 15
          +1
          Quote: Lipchanin

          So am I about that. Here, banderlogs have been screaming for about 5 years now that LDNR has nothing of its own

          But there were also demonstrations in the DPR of their own production of weapons, including missile ... For example, the 324-mm Snowflake missile launchers; 64-barreled MLRS ,, Cheburashka ,, ... And by the way! ,, Single-shot ,, missile ,, machine tools ,, "Chinese" (300-mm warhead ... 122-mm rocket engine ...)! I had to see some pictures from the DNR missile ranges ... there were captured some MLRS, which later did not appear anywhere!
    3. Zementbomber
      Zementbomber 16 September 2020 17: 05
      0
      Who says ?? Our guys know very well that cattle have "homemade products on their knees up to factory crafts" (like our guys, however). Incl. and even quite successful. And our "openly-voiced" admit it since the summer campaign in 2014.
  • skobars
    skobars 1 July 2020 18: 29
    10
    In Donbass, they used it for counter-battery warfare, and it seems to be successful. They are in our direction at night from the "Hurricane", and we at them 2-3 shots from the gray zone from the "Partizan" and quickly dumped. On the fourth night, the Banderlog began to hit from a distance, which was no longer available. Apparently we were lucky - either someone was hooked or scared well. A great thing for partisans, you can really quickly deploy and collapse. And you can transport it in a car.
  • Lopatov
    Lopatov 1 July 2020 18: 34
    +7
    And then on its basis they created "Illumination" 9K510
    For the light supply of anti-tankers.
    With an even shorter guide.
  • Anatole Klim
    Anatole Klim 1 July 2020 18: 47
    +8
    I just remembered, being a cadet, they fired from the "Grad" at the Totsk training ground, before that they loaded the installation, so they took the RS together and stuffed it into a bag, the weight of the RS seemed to be about 70 kg. Nearby, the Vietnamese were loading, loading the projectile in five, all short and frail. Our leader asked their mentor - he could help, but he said; no! let them charge them, we helped them, but they fought mostly on their own, let them learn.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 1 July 2020 19: 06
      +7
      Quote: Anatol Klim
      Nearby, the Vietnamese loaded, loaded the shell with five, all undersized and feeble.

      The teacher at the school said that they drove the installation between two bicycles fastened to each other.
      That initially it was a Vietnamese "amateur performance" with a disassembled package and self-made tripods. And only after that, this positive experience was noticed, and not by our military, but most likely by GBs. Because the order for the development came from the Central Committee, and not from the GRAU

      So maybe they are weak and stunted, but persistent. And artillery since the days of Dienbienfu was actively dragged along with ammunition.
      1. Anatole Klim
        Anatole Klim 1 July 2020 19: 26
        +4
        Quote: Spade
        So maybe they are weak and stunted, but persistent. And artillery since the days of Dienbienfu was actively dragged along with ammunition.

        I do not belittle the fighting efficiency of the Vietnamese soldiers in any way, I just remembered this fact, and thanks for the original reason for creating this model. hi
      2. Insurgent
        Insurgent 1 July 2020 19: 47
        +8
        Quote: Spade
        The teacher at the school said that they drove the installation between two bicycles fastened to each other.

        And it was not uncommon to "heat up" a machine, a pipe and rockets on rice paddies.
        This "product" allowed yes , and endured such "storage conditions" quite tolerably, without prejudice to combat effectiveness ...

        Made in USSR yes
  • Undecim
    Undecim 1 July 2020 19: 15
    +7

    The Chinese "partisan" version of the 107 mm MLRS Type 63 - the Type 85 launcher (pictured - Iranian clone). It was very popular with the Afghan mujahideen, who used the tactics of use worked out by the Vietnamese partisans.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 1 July 2020 19: 18
      +5

      Yugoslavian M71 "Partizan" - variant of the 128 mm MLRS M63 "Plamen-A".
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 2 July 2020 09: 51
      +1
      Quote: Undecim

      The Chinese "partisan" version of the 107 mm MLRS Type 63 - the Type 85 launcher (pictured - Iranian clone).

      There is also a paired version ....
  • Lopatov
    Lopatov 1 July 2020 19: 19
    +7
    By the way, about Dienbienfu:
  • 013Azer
    013Azer 1 July 2020 19: 27
    +1
    Looking at this, I recalled one of Ilyas Bogatyrev’s interviews with Shamil Basayev, who showed a home-made pipe for firing NURS from the shoulder ..

    (video sound mono and quiet)
    1. garri-lin
      garri-lin 1 July 2020 20: 13
      +2
      In Karabakh and Abkhazia, such home-made products were used. Sometimes from ordinary water pipes. Or from disassembled helicopter cassettes.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 2 July 2020 09: 58
        +1
        Quote: garri-lin
        In Karabakh and Abkhazia, such home-made products were used. Sometimes from ordinary water pipes. Or from disassembled helicopter cassettes.

        Yes ... I met a similar infa! But all this, concerned, 57 mm NURS ... About 80 mm. ... I don’t remember anything!
        1. garri-lin
          garri-lin 2 July 2020 10: 04
          +1
          80 mm from the shoulder is not allowed. Heavy and huge torch. C-5 in this sense is better.
  • Bashkirkhan
    Bashkirkhan 1 July 2020 20: 20
    +1
    Nebelwerfer Wehrmacht in the back of a truck. The original thing.
    1. Jager
      Jager 1 July 2020 21: 24
      +6
      Did not help)
  • a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 1 July 2020 20: 48
    +3
    Conscripts, performing an international duty, launched the S-8 through a rusty pipe using a piece of vole and a TA-57. Have fun however.
  • Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 2 July 2020 02: 45
    +2
    Why did the Vietnamese need an increase in range? With its compactness and mobility, the Grada-P is enough for fire raids from the jungle and 3-4 km behind the eyes. Perhaps for the sake of improving conditions for massive volleys. After all, it is one thing to secretly bring several launchers to the amers' base and, quite another thing, to bring several dozen. It will be much more difficult to ensure the secrecy of the approach. A massive salvo will be much more effective. Or is it something else?
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 2 July 2020 15: 39
      +2
      Quote: Sergey Mikhailovich Karasev
      Why did the Vietnamese need an increase in range? With its compactness and mobility, the Grada-P is enough for fire raids from the jungle and 3-4 km behind the eyes.

      PMSM, the fact is that someone has started building "security zones" outside the bases. Because 3-4 km around the base is the effective range of fire, even from mortars.
      And they bombarded American bases in Vietnam often.
      The issue of protecting air bases from attacks and shelling from the ground was an acute issue for the American armed forces throughout the entire period of the Vietnam War. It is clear that this problem was solved comprehensively, starting with the creation of more or less extensive "security zones" around airfields, large-scale patrolling and reconnaissance, and so on. Nevertheless, the experience of Vietnam has shown that no measures guarantee the possibility for a skillful and resolute adversary to launch a surprise attack on an airbase - either by assault or sabotage forces, or with the use of rocket and artillery means. Therefore, it was mandatory for American air bases in Vietnam to introduce a system of measures for passive protection of personnel and aviation equipment, including the creation of shelters, shelters, caponiers, protected fuel and ammunition storage facilities, and the adoption of measures to disperse, and, if possible, camouflage aircraft.

      According to US official data, only the US armed forces (excluding the armed forces of South Vietnam) from 1962 to 1973 lost their lives in Vietnam on earth only from mortar, artillery and rocket attacks (without taking into account sabotage), the 393 of the aircraft and helicopter, and also 1185, were damaged . The armed forces of South Vietnam, according to one source, from 1964 to 1973, lost 25 planes and helicopters on the ground destroyed and 305 damaged.

      These losses were suffered, despite all the measures taken to protect the air bases, and, without such measures, the loss figure would have been possible at times. It is significant that the greatest damage occurred in 1968, when about 500 American planes and helicopters were lost or damaged on the ground, despite the massive use of caponiers and the dispersal of equipment at airbases by that time.

      In total, during the war in Vietnam, American front-line air bases were attacked 475 times (only Danang was subjected to 95 attacks), while mortar, artillery and rocket fire were fired in 457 cases. In total, 6163 units of mortar, artillery and missile ammunition were released.
      © bmpd
  • sen
    sen 2 July 2020 04: 56
    +3
    For their own needs, the USSR could use more advanced models.

    The airborne forces were armed with a 140-mm RPU-14 (8U38) with a firing range of 10 km and 16 guides.

  • ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 10 July 2020 11: 37
    0
    A weight of at least 50 kg had to be placed on the front leg of the machine - otherwise the installation could roll over due to the greater energy of the projectile.


    Could we take a more thoughtful approach to the matter and use the peculiarities of local nature, climate - we would displace the pipe asymmetrically and turn our two hind legs into adjustable mechanical vice with spikes, so that the partisans could fix the installations directly to the trees with them; would add to the set of rigging fixtures of non-combustible fiberglass fabrics, chains and cables for unfastening. However, even now such modernization and manufacture of new models are possible.
  • VicktorVR
    VicktorVR 12 August 2020 15: 08
    0
    Most likely "P" is not a partisan, but a portable one.
  • combat192
    combat192 3 September 2020 20: 44
    0
    The same in the Ichkerian version. Trophy.