Modern trends in the development of special-purpose formations as part of the security forces of the countries of the world are due to a rethinking of their role and place in solving the tasks of ensuring national security. This is not accidental, since the beginning of the 21st century is characterized by a transition to armed confrontation, where the decisive role is played by high-precision arms, other so-called. "Unconventional" means of destruction, as well as elite troops - "special forces", which in an increasing number of countries reformed into the Special Operations Forces (MTR). No less intensively in most countries of the world are also developing special purpose units of law enforcement agencies.
As a rule, the MTR consists of special purpose units and units of central subordination, as well as from types of armed forces (AF) with the relevant government bodies, support and support structures. However, for the solution of a number of tasks, in conjunction with the SSO, various other specially trained units and units of different types of armed forces and combat arms may also be involved. Unlike general-purpose forces, units and subunits in peacetime are purposefully preparing for special operations in certain regions of the world. Western analysts are already considering these troops as a "third force", along with strategic nuclear forces and conventional forces.
The main form of use of special forces of the leading states of the world is a special operation. The term “special warfare”, according to the views of the NATO command, refers to a set of measures for the combat use of units and units of the Special Operations Forces and supporting them in the interests of ensuring the policies of the bloc countries: direct force actions, special reconnaissance, actions using special forces weapons and tactics, psychological operations, anti-terrorist actions, the provision of humanitarian assistance, search and rescue actions in the rear of the enemy and some others.
Moreover, the special forces are not only the "attribute" of the developed states of the world. The countries that are not able to afford expensive and numerous armies to arm them with modern types of weapons, thanks to the development of special forces, were able to largely compensate for the shortcomings of their military potential.
A characteristic feature of the US special forces units is high mobility and technical equipment.
MLS in the United States of America are developing well. In the USA, in every form of the Armed Forces there are units and subunits of the SSO that perform special tasks. History the emergence and development of these units is long and rather painful. Suffice it to say that the US military leadership has long opposed the creation of elite units, considering them useless and destroying the solidity of the Armed Forces. It took a fair amount of military conflicts involving these units, so that the Pentagon would understand and appreciate their role.
Back in 1985, after several years of work, the Senate Committee on Military Issues published a report in which it argued the need to separate the special forces into an independent structure within the framework of the country's Armed Forces. And in the spring of 1987, US President Ronald Reagan approved this decision, and by June 1 of the same year, the Command of the US Special Operations Forces began operations.
Now the Pentagon rightly believes that in the future it will be much more likely to wage not traditional, but so-called non-conventional wars - not with regular armies, but with terrorists, rebel groups, etc. The Pentagon is betting on "precautionary", and not on "reactive" strikes - that is, the US Armed Forces will hit the enemy first. This was announced by Washington ProFile, commenting on excerpts from the regular defense review of the Quadrennial Defense Review, in which the US Department of Defense formulates the strategic goals of the US Armed Forces for the coming years.
Parachute - the traditional way of landing special groups in remote areas.
The review notes the need to significantly improve the quality of intelligence and the ability of the Armed Forces to conduct special operations. In addition, in particular, it is planned to significantly increase the number of special forces, increase the potential of the Armed Forces in the field of psychological warfare, and strengthen combat unmanned Aviation, continue work on the creation of advanced combat systems.
Formations of special purpose of the US Armed Forces are part of the Joint Special Operations Command (OXO, headquarters - McDill military base, Florida). Its main tasks are:
- conducting special operations;
- the fight against terrorism;
- rendering assistance to foreign states in ensuring their internal security;
- combating the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction;
- psychological operations;
- carrying out various power actions;
- conducting so-called. non-traditional hostilities (including sabotage and subversive activities);
- organization of rebel activities;
- informational operations;
- any other activity identified by the president or the secretary of defense of the United States as a special operation.
The total number of USSA troops of the United States is over 50 thousand people.
Interest deserves the fact that within the structure of the OCSO, an important component has been highlighted - the integrated operational connection of the SSO (headquarters - Pope air base, South Carolina). According to a number of sources, the most combat-ready units of the MTR, in particular the 1-e operational unit “Delta” from the MTR of the Ground Forces, 6 team from the MTR Navy (SEAL), 24-I special tactical squadron from the MTR of the Air Force . The main purpose of this formation is about 4000 people - the fight against international terrorism.
In addition to the fact that in 2006, all the special forces of the US Armed Forces were finally united under one aegis, the SSO leadership announced that the command would increase the number of SSOs, which once again underlines the role of special forces in the war on terrorism.
Modern special forces equipment adapted for action in any geographic conditions.
As a result, the US Department of Defense will have at its disposal a powerful and extremely efficient structure. Although all the special forces of the US Armed Forces have similar capabilities, each of them has a certain specialization. The combination of various special-purpose formations and the coordination of their actions will allow the Pentagon to expand the sphere of application of these forces.
Interestingly, at the end of 2005, the US military-political leadership for the Joint Special Operations Command for the first time developed a separate “Operational plan for the combat use of special operations forces and means in the“ global war on terrorism ”(OPLAN-71). This document actually gives OXSO US forces the authority to conduct independent global operations against terrorist networks.
The plan has been prepared on the basis of the National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism (National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terorist (NMST-WOT)), which defines six main military strategic tasks of combating terrorism:
- creation of conditions for countering ideological support for terrorism;
- fight against terrorist organizations;
- destruction of the infrastructure of terrorist organizations;
- assisting partner countries in the fight against terrorism;
- informing, deterring, and, if necessary, forcing countries (organizations, individuals) to stop supporting terrorists;
- Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the removal and elimination of materials that can be used for the production of weapons of mass destruction;
- Assistance in the aftermath of emergencies.
Also, OXO of the US Armed Forces is determined to be responsible for the coordination of anti-terrorist operations, which are conducted by regional joint commands (QA) of the US Armed Forces. To this end, as part of the USSO, the United States Armed Forces launched 1 in November with the Center for Special Operations. The tasks of the Center are to coordinate the conduct of global anti-terrorist and reconnaissance-search operations of the US Armed Forces SSO, which can simultaneously be conducted in the areas of responsibility of several US Army Enforcement Corps.
At the end of 2005, it was also decided that the United States Marine Corps would create and make available its special operations forces to the SSO. As the head of the operational planning division of the US Marine Command Headquarters, Lieutenant-General Jen Khali, stated, “we have finally come to understand that we must become a full member of the Special Operations Command in order to fully realize the full potential of the marines.”
The US Marine Corps has put its special operations forces at the disposal of the MTR.
Also, the US military-political leadership in the framework of a global war on terrorism plans to significantly increase funding and the number of personnel of the SSO. In addition, $ 2007 billion is planned to be allocated for the needs of OXO for the US military over 2011-7,4 (the OXO budget for 2006 was $ 6,6 billion). The number of personnel of the SSO is also planned to increase by 12 thousand people.
Do not lag behind the Americans in the Federal Republic of Germany. As early as the beginning of 1996, in Germany, the command of special operations forces Kommando Spezialkraefte (KSK) was created, designed to conduct special operations (both within NATO and national plans) in crisis situations, local conflicts and during peacekeeping operations.
Now KSK is charged with the following tasks:
- the fight against terrorism;
- evacuation of German citizens from areas of threat;
- protection of their own representatives of the Armed Forces, especially important state and political figures;
- collection of information in areas of crises and conflicts;
- intelligence in the rear of the enemy;
- violation of lines and communication centers, control systems of the armed forces of the enemy;
- conducting sabotage and subversive actions in its rear.
Kommando Spezialkraefte is included in the division of special operations - DSO (Division Spezielle Operationen) with headquarters in Regensburg. The division in practice embodies the idea of "core and shell." Kommando Spezialkraefte is the core and is complemented by a “shell” consisting of 8000 DSO soldiers, each of whom is a trained paratrooper.
In the first half of 2004, as part of the special operations forces of the British Armed Forces, the creation of an anti-terrorism unit began - a special intelligence regiment (Sressual Reconnaissance Regiment - SRR). The goal of this step was the constant need to increase the capabilities of the special forces of the British Armed Forces in the fight against terrorism, mainly in Arab countries. The location of the regiment is the military base of Herford (also is the location of the headquarters of the elite special forces units Sresial Aig Servіce - SAS). According to the statement of the Minister of Defense of Great Britain, at this time the regiment is already ready to fulfill the assigned tasks.
The regiment is subordinate to the director of the Special Operations Forces of the UK Armed Forces. According to unofficial data, the regiment will consist of about 200 military personnel; it will consist of technical intelligence units (SІGINT), intelligence agents (HUMINT) and units that specialize in direct operations. The main task of the regiment is to provide the forces that take part in anti-terrorist operations with complete information, including from intelligence sources, regarding the composition of the enemy forces, its location, the possible nature of the actions and weapons. In carrying out the tasks, the regiment must act in close cooperation with other formations of the special operations forces of Great Britain, in particular, with SAS units.
Not necessarily well-developed Special Operations Forces are an attribute of a strong country. There are also examples of another kind, when limited resources forced the military-political leadership of one or another state by the development of the SSO to compensate for some gaps in the field of national security.
Examples include Jordan, in which over the past few years a significant step forward has been made in the development of the Special Operations Forces. Nowadays, the Special Operations Command of the Armed Forces of this country is a reserve of high command and is intended for conducting special operations in the interests of the Armed Forces, counterinsurgency actions, solving the tasks of ensuring the internal security of the state, combating terrorism, sabotage and suppressing riots.
Jordan’s MTRs are assigned strategic-level tasks, and there is a tendency to have a coherent hierarchy of tasks for which purpose appropriate forces are created and prepared to enable the top military and political leadership of Jordan to have an effective tool for action in various crisis situations.
Currently, the Special Operations Command of the National Armed Forces includes:
- 30-I airborne brigade;
- 37-I brigade of special forces (in the terminology adopted by the Armed Forces of the country, in fact, a special-purpose brigade);
- 28-I brigade of "Rangers";
- school of special operations;
- 71 th anti-terrorist battalion;
- part of special air operations;
- 31-th special artillery division;
- 14-th special air defense division;
- 14 th squadron of special operations;
- support units.
The story about Jordan’s special forces will be incomplete, if one does not mention one important factor that positively reflected on the present and the future of the Jordanian SSO. The current King of Jordan, Abdal the Second, is most directly related to the Special Operations Forces of his country. After serving in various parts of the Jordanian army, he took the post of deputy commander of the MTR, and eventually led them. The Jordanian MTR under his leadership received a new impetus in their development, they were reformed and today the Special Operations Command has been created in the country. Therefore, it is not surprising that the officials of the country take a serious attitude towards the Armed Forces in general and, especially, towards the Special Operations Forces. And not at the level of emotions, but at the level of understanding their essence, place and role today and prospects for tomorrow, ways to achieve this.
The example of a small and poor country in the Middle East is quite instructive. Jordan's special forces were lucky, because the king came out of their midst. But do the first persons of the country and the army necessarily have to repeat the life path of King Abdullah II in order to find time and opportunities for "their" units and special forces? Apparently, no, it is enough to penetrate into the existing problems and work out the right ways to solve them.
Special forces units are equipped with satellite communications.
CONCLUSIONS, WORTH ATTENTIONS
Summing up, it can be noted that in the world there is an expansion of the list of tasks assigned to the Special Operations Forces, which in some cases can be attributed to the strategic level tasks. There is an increase in the number of structures MTR. Improving the regulatory framework of their actions. The so-called army special forces have ceased to be such in its pure form. Its structures have become complex organisms in which subdivisions of various orientations are presented, mutually complementing their capabilities in solving problems. Specialization of special forces units is practiced, even within individual departments.
There is a creation of the SSO as an interspecific functional structure, which includes components from various types of the Armed Forces, as well as governing bodies, structures for providing and supporting their actions. The special forces command and control system is being improved, primarily in matters of centralizing its management, excluding intermediate structures, and subordinating it to the highest military-political leadership of the country.
In the world there is an awareness that the creation, development and use of SSO is an expensive project, but without which it cannot be dispensed with in solving the tasks of ensuring national security. Enormous resources are invested in its preparation and unique samples of weapons, equipment, equipment, as well as facilities for training and material resources are being created for it.
Thus, in the SSC, there is a tendency to move from the tasks of ensuring the conduct of military operations by groups of the Armed Forces to shifting to the "edge" of forceful provision of national security.
Therefore, the formation of special operations in its development today should receive priority. Mobile, mobile, not burdened with heavy weapons, resilient and highly effective, they can in a matter of hours be anywhere in the country or the world, do the necessary “jewelry work” in the interests of the security of their state.