Military Review

US Special Forces. US Army Special Operations Command

16

Training jumps of soldiers of the 1st group of special forces "Green Berets"


The US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) is the highest command authority for all special forces that are part of the US Army. This command body carries out immediate operational planning and directs the conduct of military operations of army special forces. It is the troops of special units of the Ground Forces of the American Army that are by far the most numerous. The approximate number of special forces subordinate to the US Army Special Operations Command is estimated at 33, of which 800 are civilian specialists.

The 75th Rangers Regiment, or simply Rangers


The 75th Rangers Regiment is a unique unit of special forces consisting of specially trained and well-trained soldiers. In fact, it is a special parachute reconnaissance regiment of the US Army. This is a specialized light infantry with a limited composition of heavy weapons and armored vehicles. The soldiers of the regiment are prepared for landing by all available means: parachuting, helicopter, sea. The motto of the regiment: "Rangers go ahead."

The regiment includes three parachute airborne battalions and one separate special-purpose battalion (detachment). The staff number of each airborne battalion in the composition of three airborne assault companies and one staff company - 660 people. The total number of personnel of the regiment is estimated at about 3500 people. One of the parachute airborne battalions of the 75th ranger regiment is always on high alert and can be sent to perform tasks in any part of the world within 18 hours.

It is believed that the first units of the mobile field reconnaissance of the Ground Forces for operations behind enemy lines ("rangers") appeared on the territory of the USA at the end of the 1969th century. At the same time, a whole army of reconnaissance corps took part in the war for US independence a century later. At the same time, the formation of units and subunits for conducting deep reconnaissance in the American army occurred only during the Second World War. Since then, the Rangers have been involved in all the major wars and local conflicts waged by the United States around the world. For example, during the Vietnam War in 75, the name “Rangers” passed to the 13th paratrooper regiment, which, in 75 separate companies, participated in raids on enemy rear lines and was involved in reconnaissance. Finally, all the individual units of the "rangers" were brought together as part of the 1986th Parachute Regiment in February XNUMX.


Afghanistan Rangers Division 2012

Today, the Rangers are the most trained light infantry of the US Army. In addition to reconnaissance, sabotage, and sabotage behind enemy lines and carrying out reconnaissance in the interests of the advancing units of the Ground Forces, regiment units can be used for direct operations: capturing and holding airfields, capturing or destroying strategically important enemy targets, and capturing or eliminating senior officials from numbers of the military-political leadership of the enemy. Each ranger goes through a long training process, which includes individual training (physical and tactical) and the development of team actions as part of a battalion in any conditions, situation and climate: from urban development to the snow of the Arctic or impassable jungle. Additionally, each unit of the 75th regiment has a team dedicated to cleaning buildings, which is specially prepared to solve such problems.

Green Berets


US Army Special Forces are widely known as the "green berets." It is a selection of well-trained units of the US Army. History "Green berets" originates in 1952. The first fighters of the special forces were members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), created back in the years of World War II. In many ways, the organization and training of fighters in those years was based on the experience of the English Special Military Service (SAS). A serious increase in the number of "berets" occurred already in 1961 against the backdrop of an aggravation of the situation around Cuba. Then President John Fitzgerald Kennedy increased the number of these units from 1 thousand to 2,5 thousand people with the formation of the concept of preparing special forces for guerrilla and anti-partisan warfare.

In many ways, it was Kennedy who put a lot of effort into the formation of modern American special forces. It is no coincidence that the US special forces training center bears his name today. It was this American president who contributed to the Green Berets becoming the elite of the army in every sense. In addition to the high level of physical and combat training, much attention was paid to the training of fighters in reconnaissance, the study of tactics, foreign languages ​​and cultural characteristics of the countries in which the special forces were trained. It is no coincidence that it was in the units of the "green berets" that the first units of the psychological war appeared in the US Army, who understood and used traditions and cultural-psychological features of various peoples of the world to achieve their goals.

Currently, the US Army has 5 active groups of “green berets” (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th), two more groups (19th and 20th) are deployed as part of the troops of the National Guard. Organizational groups are light parachute landing regiments of a four-battalion composition. The motto of the "green berets": "Liberation of the oppressed." Special forces groups are prepared for operations in various regions of the planet. At the same time, some of them are deployed outside the United States, for example, one of the battalions of the 1st Parachute Airborne Regiment of the U.S. Army is stationed on the island of Okinawa, and one of the battalions of the 10th Parachute Regiment is located in Germany in the city of Boeblingen. Battalions from the 3rd, 5th and 7th regiments were regularly recruited to conduct operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.


The landing of the fighters of the 7th group of "green berets" aboard a submarine

Green Berets are being prepared for participation in peacetime operations, during local conflicts of varying degrees of intensity, and during a full-scale war. The soldiers of these special forces can take a direct part in the hostilities, participate in the fight against terrorism and drug trafficking, conduct special reconnaissance, clear the ground and participate in humanitarian operations. At the same time, the peculiarity of the units is the preparation for an unconventional war (supporting a foreign rebel movement or a resistance movement in the occupied territories), and the fight against rebel movements and partisans.

Green Berets have left a big mark in popular culture. The first film of the same name was released during the Vietnam War, the main role in the film was played by the star of American Westerns - John Wayne. But the most famous “green beret” from the world of cinema can be called John Rambo performed by Sylvester Stallone, whose hero did not find himself in the world without war and battles. Also the “green beret” was Colonel Kurtz, who had to be found in the jungle of Cambodia to Captain Willard in the cult film Francis Ford Coppola's “Apocalypse Today”.

Detachment "Delta"


The first operational unit of special forces "Delta" is sometimes also called the first operational unit or the first separate operational special forces regiment. A more common name, especially penetrated into popular culture, is an abbreviated version: the Delta squad. It is under this name that the unit often flashes in Hollywood films, one of which was the action movie "Delta Squad" with the modern meme hero Chuck Norris in the title role. Another famous film, in which there are fighters of the special forces "Delta", is the picture "The fall of the black hawk."

The plot of the painting "Delta Squad" is based on the release of hostages by members of the special forces. In reality, “Delta”, of course, can be involved in a similar task, but in fact in the United States the FBI special forces and the American police usually do this. The tasks of special forces themselves are not limited to saving civilians. The main profile of the Delta squad is the fight against terrorism, the counter-guerrilla war, the fight against rebellion, and secret operations around the world. The unit can also participate in hostilities by organizing direct operations: raids, ambushes, sabotage. Also, unit fighters can be involved in actions against highly valued goals: people or resources needed by the enemy command to successfully solve their problems.

US Special Forces. US Army Special Operations Command

Fighter of the Delta squad behind the front line in Iraq in 1991

The Delta division is elite and is usually staffed with military personnel with experience in other special units of the Ground Forces, as well as the 75th Rangers Regiment. The total number of units is estimated by specialists at 800-1000 people, while the exact composition of the unit is not disclosed. It is estimated that approximately 300 of them are trained to conduct combat operations and rescue hostages, while the rest are highly qualified support staff, the best of the best in their fields.

Army Special Forces Support Units


In addition to these units, the US Army Special Forces also includes the 160th Separate Army Regiment aviation special forces and a number of parts support. The 160th regiment also has a battalion of special forces air gunners and a training battalion of aircraft gunners. In addition, a separate 528th Special Forces Logistics Support Brigade is allocated, as well as a special military center and the John F. Kennedy School of the US Army. This center is engaged in the training and education of personnel for special forces.

As part of the US Army special forces, three interesting units can be distinguished. The first of these is the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (airborne). The soldiers of this brigade are able to speak at least one of the 20 foreign languages. Their main task is to assist the US military command and work with civilian authorities and the population in areas of operations in peacetime, during emergency situations, and also in war conditions. Their important task is to work with the civilian population and ensure its loyalty, including by identifying and subsequently solving problems critical for the civilian population (during emergencies or military operations).


Soldiers of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade

The United States Army Special Forces also includes the 4th and 8th groups of psychological operations, each consisting of several battalions. The 4th group was formed in 1967 at the height of the Vietnam War.

Both units of psychological operations provide information support for ongoing military operations, providing support to civilian and military authorities. The division produces and distributes information materials aimed at delivering information to a foreign audience in a favorable light for the United States. In addition to various types of propaganda, the unit is engaged in providing combat units with specialists with knowledge of foreign languages, customs and customs of the local population, as well as the preparation of analytical, reference and informational materials of an intelligence nature.
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  1. Ros 56
    Ros 56 26 June 2020 12: 12 New
    -8
    In movies they look famously, but as a matter of fact, this is a big question.
    1. Sobol
      Sobol 26 June 2020 12: 56 New
      15
      Quote: Ros 56
      In movies they look famously, but as a matter of fact, this is a big question.

      Do not underestimate the enemy.
      1. Sergey Averchenkov
        Sergey Averchenkov 26 June 2020 15: 31 New
        +3
        They also should not underestimate the enemy.
        1. Vicontas
          Vicontas 26 June 2020 20: 47 New
          -2
          Such a complimentary article that you read the current, and the heart is beating and the tail is shaking! And Isho and Hollywood are putting their weighty "five kopecks" into the face of the American "brave tailor" Rambo, who destroys all the toilets in the district and wipes out various adversaries who prevent America from promoting its democracy! But as the Scripture says - "Judge them not by their words, but by their deeds!" How many times have both the US Special Forces and the Special Operations Command been spoken about - you can draw an article longer than the American flag! And the failure with hostages at the US Embassy in Iran and Somalia and Afghanistan in 2016. In general, it is advisable for the author to dilute the advertisement with real facts about the effectiveness in performing his tasks!
        2. bk0010
          bk0010 27 June 2020 21: 56 New
          0
          Quote: Sergey Averchenkov
          They also should not underestimate the enemy.
          There was: https://topwar.ru/31321-specnaz-ne-znayuschiy-pobed-amerikanskie-delta-fors.html
        3. heir
          heir 3 August 2020 21: 51 New
          0
          ... that you have to be ready to destroy it in any way, without reservations.
    2. Threaded screw
      Threaded screw 26 June 2020 13: 29 New
      +8
      but as a matter of fact, this is a big question.
      In fact, these are top-level professionals; bearded men in Afghanistan do not get bad from them.
      1. Tank jacket
        Tank jacket 26 June 2020 13: 35 New
        +3
        Part of the bearded men in Afghanistan, Syria and Iraq is the US special forces.
  2. rosomaha
    rosomaha 26 June 2020 12: 49 New
    +3
    and on special forces of the Russian Federation you can organize articles - also the number of the unit ... where it is based, what it does ... the most famous special operations. Note how long has been a series of articles on Israeli special forces. And you are considering other countries, but your specialists are not known to the general public.
    1. Nemo
      Nemo 28 June 2020 23: 11 New
      0
      many operations have a signature stamp of SS or in general OB. For example, the capture of the Slatina airport in Kosovo, which was then led by Major Yunus-bek Yevkurov.
  3. Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 26 June 2020 13: 33 New
    0
    In my opinion the list is not complete ... Correct if I am mistaken.
  4. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 26 June 2020 13: 34 New
    +4
    During WWII, before landing in Tunisia, the Americans organized a ship equipped with a powerful radio station, which was supposed to broadcast programs in the Berber language. Those who speak this language, who were hardly found in the States, Great Britain and Canada, were called up for good grandmothers into the army. The station was broadcasting and broadcasting during the landing of American troops in the right direction for the Allies, but as the units advanced, it turned out that the local Berbers did not have radios laughing
  5. kind
    kind 26 June 2020 14: 37 New
    0
    This special forces is good against the natives who have no relation to the army. They are unlikely to pull against army specialists from North Korea or China.
    1. NIKN
      NIKN 26 June 2020 16: 18 New
      +4
      I will correct it. smile They don’t need to participate in clashes between any of you. Their task is to fulfill the task assigned to them. And if they achieved this, then they performed perfectly. Suppose guys who specialize in working with the population do not have to hammer 10 tons of someone else’s special forces in a melee.
      PS: distract from Rimbaud, I set you upfront + set. hi
  6. riwas
    riwas 27 June 2020 06: 34 New
    +3
    The special forces group (the staff number is 1643 people, in reality it is about 30% less) consists of: headquarters, headquarters company, four battalions of special forces and three separate companies - reconnaissance and electronic warfare, communications, support. The battalion consists of three companies, and each company consists of A-type operational units (Alpha, Acbat). The detachment consists of 12 people (according to the staffing table) and is designed to conduct independent special operations. "Alpha" is not divided into subgroups and always operates in a permanent composition. The detachment's staffing table: commander with the rank of captain; deputy commander - warrant officer and ten sergeants - specialists of various branches of the military and services. The main military specialties of this operational detachment are as follows: a sergeant-specialist in weapons and military equipment, a communications sergeant, a medical sergeant, an engineering support sergeant. In addition to the "A" teams, there are also "B" teams (Batcat, otherwise OBSN is the operational base of the special forces), which carry out: personnel issues, coordination of actions, supply, etc.
    75th Ranger Regiment - approximately 3300. It is designed to conduct reconnaissance, raids, sabotage, capture enemy airfields for the transfer of their troops to the rear of the enemy by aircraft. The regiment consists of a headquarters, a headquarters company (reconnaissance platoon, communications platoon, command section, medical section, fire control group), three infantry battalions. The Ranger Infantry Battalion consists of a headquarters, a headquarters company (mortar platoon, sniper platoon, rear support platoon, command and communications section, fire control group) and three companies. The Ranger company consists of a control platoon (anti-tank section, control section, medical section, fire control group) and three platoons. The Ranger platoon consists of a platoon control, a machine gun squad and three squads. The battalion is armed with: twelve light unarmored RSOV vehicles, ten motorcycles, anti-tank grenade launchers "Karl Gustav", PU ATGM "Jewelin", MANPADS "Stinger", 40-mm automatic grenade launchers, 12,7-mm machine guns, 60-mm mortars, 5,56, 2006-mm machine guns In XNUMX, the fourth battalion was added to the regiment - a battalion of special purpose: to provide communications, material and technical supplies, processing intelligence, etc.

    The 160th Army Aviation Regiment of Special Operations is designed for the covert delivery and evacuation of ground militia formations, their air supply, fire support, aerial reconnaissance, command and control, and radio relay for communication.
    The regiment, numbering 1920 people, organizationally consists of a headquarters with a staff company, four helicopter battalions, a rear support battalion and a separate company.
    The helicopter battalion includes organizational headquarters, staff, three helicopter (A, B and C) and repair companies.
    In total, the helicopter fleet of the 160th Army Aviation Regiment includes 161 helicopters, of which 15 AN-6 Apache attack helicopters, 15 MH-6 light combat support, 70 MH-60K / L SO combat support and 61 MH-47D / SO transport helicopter E.

    The goal of the 4th group of psychological operations is to discredit the government of the target country, its policies, state leaders and the armed forces of the enemy, the decomposition of its troops, the prevention of guerrilla warfare, etc. The methods are usually traditional: leaflets, spreading rumors from person to person, the Internet, television, mobile communications, radio broadcasts (distribution or scattering of cheap radios tuned to the same frequency), broadcasting using loud-speaking communications. Organizationally, it consists of: a headquarters and a staff company and six battalions of psychological operations: 1, 5, 6 and 8 - regional, 3 - the preparation and distribution of print, audio and video information, 9 - broadcast installations. The group has 1200 military personnel (133 officers, two warrant officers, 1000 sergeants and soldiers) and 57 civilian specialists.
    The 95th Civil Administration Liaison Brigade is designed to ensure the "interaction" of the command of the US armed forces with the authorities and population of the host country in order to attract them and available local resources for the fullest possible support of the US military operations.
    The number of brigades is about 900 military personnel and civilian specialists. Organizationally, it consists of a headquarters and a staff company and four battalions for relations with the civil administration. Each battalion has up to 200 people.
    The 528th Special Operations Support Brigade is designed to organize communications and rear support of ground MTRs. The number of employees is 1500. Consists of: headquarters, staff battalion, 112th communications battalion, 528th logistics support battalion.

    Combat use of the US Army MTR.
    Afghanistan, Operation Enduring Freedom. Reconnaissance and sabotage groups (RDG) of 6-12 people were formed from the 5th group of the MTR of the ground forces. Each RDG had an aircraft pilot. The reconnaissance tasks were to clarify the location and condition of the objects of the planned missile and bomb strikes: state and military infrastructure, areas of concentration of personnel and military equipment of the armed formations of the Islamic movement "Taliban", training camps for militants of the Al-Qaeda organization, shelters of their leaders, etc. etc. As well as aiming strike aircraft at them and reconnaissance of the results of strikes to determine the need for repeated attacks. When detected by the enemy RDG, the latter was immediately evacuated by MTR helicopters. Subsequently, at the operational bases of the MTR in the cities of Kandahar and Bagram, from the usual units of the ground forces and the marines of the rapid response group (RRT) on helicopters were created. They were in 30-60 minute readiness for departure at the command of the RDG. The GBR were used to destroy small groups of the Taliban. Fire support for the RDG was carried out by CO AC-130H / U aircraft and F-18 fighter-bombers (flight time did not exceed 30 minutes).
    The first and only operation with the airborne landing from low altitude from the 75th Ranger Regiment (about 100 people) in the region of Kadagar on the night of October 20, 2001 was carried out to capture a field airfield and one of the protected shelters of the Taliban spiritual leader Mullahs M. Omar. The operation was not successful and lasted only a few hours. But the Americans, true to the principle of making a show of everything, organized a live broadcast of this landing on television.
  7. Samara_63
    Samara_63 28 June 2020 17: 16 New
    0
    About the Rangers regiment, the author cited data 10 years ago, where they already have new additional battalions.