Military Review

Anti-tank self-propelled guns "Object 416": why the project was closed

36
Anti-tank self-propelled guns "Object 416": why the project was closed

Model of self-propelled gun "416", 1950


At the turn of the forties and fifties, the Soviet command took up the issue of replacing obsolete self-propelled artillery systems SU-76M and SU-100. Several new projects were launched, but not all of them gave real results. One of these projects led to the emergence of self-propelled guns "Object 416", built using a number of original solutions of various kinds. However, the excessive complexity and inconvenience of operation did not allow this sample to go beyond the tests.

At the design stage


The development of the new self-propelled guns, which soon received the code "416", was set by a resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers of October 15, 1949. Kharkiv Plant No. 75 was appointed the lead contractor. The customer demanded to create a new combat vehicle with weapons in the form of a 100 mm rifled gun and reinforced armor, capable of fighting tanks and fortifications. The preliminary design and layout of the fighting compartment should have been presented in the first quarter of the next 1950; Until the end of the year, a full-fledged prototype was expected.

The first version of "Object 416" in the form of documentation and a full-size layout was ready in March 1950. Design team led by P.P. Vasiliev proposed an armored vehicle with front-engine layout with the placement of the entire crew in the fighting compartment with a full-swing turret. The main weapon was the D-10T gun. The combat weight, according to calculations, reached 24 tons.

The model was presented to the Scientific and Technical Committee of GBTU, and he issued some recommendations. So, the car was considered overweight. The parameters of the D-10T gun were called insufficient and demanded to replace it with a more effective M-63 from Perm plant No. 172. There were also proposals for the placement of the crew, ammunition and other components.


Experienced Testing Machine

Changing the project took a little more than a month, and in May it was again presented by NTK GBTU. On May 27, the committee approved the outline design and allowed the transition to the stage of technical design. These works continued until the fall; On November 10, the technical project was approved, after which the development of working documentation began. At this stage, the project was finalized again, and its final version was ready in May 1951. In summer, the assembly of individual units for testing before the construction of a full-fledged prototype began.

Brand New Solutions


The promising “Object 416” had specific requirements in terms of combining protection, weapons, mobility and mass. All this made engineers look for and work out fundamentally new solutions. So, for the first time in domestic practice, the entire crew, including the driver, was placed inside the tower. In addition, a diesel engine DG of an unusual configuration for that time was used, which had minimal dimensions.

Significant changes were made during the refinement of the original project. By facilitating unprotected parts, they strengthened the reservation and improved the power plant. Pneumoelectric controls were replaced by hydraulic ones. About a third of the parts and assemblies were already in the series and did not require reorganization of production.


Split model of the engine DG, part of the cylinders missing

For the "Object 416" designed the original armored body, welded from sheets with a thickness of 20 to 75 mm, with maximum protection of the frontal projection. The front of the hull stood out for powertrain assemblies; all feed contained the fighting compartment. A cast turret was installed on it with a maximum armor thickness of 110 mm. The fighting compartment actually "stood" on the bottom of the hull, which allowed to reduce the height of the machine and generally reduce the frontal projection area.

The power plant was built on the basis of a 12-cylinder diesel engine DG with a capacity of 400 hp The transmission included dry friction friction, a two-shaft five-speed gearbox, a reduction gear, two two-stage planetary rotation gears and single-row final drives. Power was taken from the gearbox for the pumps of the hydraulic and pneumatic systems. In the fuel system there were tanks with a total capacity of 420 liters.

The chassis on each side included six single-disc track rollers with external cushioning and torsion bar suspension. Driving wheels of the pinion gear were located in the bow of the housing.

The main weapon of the “Object 416” was the 100-mm rifled gun M-63, made on the basis of the serial D-10T. She had a barrel length of 58 klb with a slotted muzzle brake. The gun mount provided vertical guidance in the range from -3 ° to + 15 °. When firing from a place, turning the turret ensured firing in any direction, while on the move — within the front sector 150 ° wide. Shooting was provided by the telescopic sight TSh2-22 and panoramic S-71.


View of the stern

The gun received a sending mechanism for unitary shots. There were also mechanisms for supplying a shot to the loading line, simplifying the work of the crew. After the shot, the bore was blown through with compressed air. The ammunition consisted of 35 shells of various types. Applied mechanisms allowed one loader to provide a rate of fire of up to 5-6 rds / min.

Subsidiary weapon consisted of one coaxial machine gun SGM with an ammunition load of 1000 rounds. Also, the self-propelled guns carried two large smoke bombs at the rear of the hull with the possibility of discharge.

The car was driven by a crew of four. To the left of the gun, one after the other, the gunner and commander, to the right, the driver and loader. The roof of the tower provided hatches. The crew had a TPU-47 intercom and a 10-RT-26 radio station.

The driver, stationed in the fighting compartment, had to follow the road at any angle of rotation of the tower. For this, complex but effective solutions were used. The driver’s workplace was made as a separate unit rotating around a vertical axis. Automation tracked the position of the tower and with the help of a hydraulic drive held the driver parallel to the longitudinal axis of the hull. Observation of the road was carried out through periscopes on the hatch, synchronized with the workplace. The transfer of effort from the controls was carried out hydraulically.


Mobile workplace of the driver

The length of the resulting self-propelled guns in the hull reached 6,3 m, with the gun forward - up to 8,5 m. Width - 3,24 m, height - only 1,82 m. Weight remained at 24 t. Estimated speed - 50 km / h , power reserve - up to 260 km.

Prototype on trials


At the end of the summer of 1951, the assembly of individual units for testing began in Kharkov, after which it was planned to use them on an experimental self-propelled guns. The assembly of the prototype was supposed to be carried out during November, and in early December it was supposed to go for testing. However, problems began at this stage. The subcontractors did not have time to provide the tower and the engine in time, which is why the assembly of the experimental "Object 416" began only on March 29, 1952.

At the end of May, the finished car was shown to the customer, after which it was sent to the Chuguevsky training ground for factory tests. From June 19 to November 12, self-propelled gun demonstrated its characteristics and capabilities. In parallel, the power unit and chassis were improved. The next stage of testing lasted until the summer of 1953 and pursued similar goals.

In August 1953, the 416 self-propelled guns were sent to the Leningrad artillery range for weapons testing. After the completion of these activities, in December of that year, they conducted a control run over rugged terrain. In total, during the factory tests, the prototype machine passed almost 3 thousand km in different areas and made several dozen shots. All this made it possible to gather enough information to analyze and determine its prospects.

Advantages and disadvantages


"Object 416" successfully combined a low weight and a high level of protection. In addition, the M-63 gun provided very high firepower for its time. One of the main differences of the 416 was the original layout of the engine compartment and the inhabited compartment, which made it possible to sharply reduce the diameter of the hull and turret, and therefore increase survivability on the battlefield. The DG engine, despite the novelty of the design, showed itself well both in independent tests and in an armored car.


"Object 416" in the Patriot Park

The novelty of the design and original solutions as a whole were not a problem, but they led to significant difficulties. First of all, the inconvenience of the crew was noted: the driver’s rotating workplace was held parallel to the axis of the hull, but when the tower rotated, it moved perpendicular to it. For driving such a car required special skills. The back of the fighting compartment was low and cramped, which caused the loader to work while sitting or kneeling (this impaired his capabilities and affected the rate of fire). Finally, there were difficulties when shooting on the go.

Final: 100 mm caliber


Having considered the strengths and weaknesses, the project "416" decided to close. We also temporarily suspended the development of boxer diesel engines of the DG type. The only built self-propelled gun of a new type was sent for storage. Later she got to the museum (Kubinka), from where she recently moved to the open exposition of the Patriot park.

It should be noted that “Object 416” was not the last of its kind. In parallel with it was created self-propelled guns "105" / SU-100P with similar combat capabilities. After a long refinement, she even reached a small series and exploitation in the army. However, it soon became clear that promising anti-tank self-propelled guns needed more powerful weapons. The development of the 100 mm direction was stopped in favor of larger caliber systems.
Author:
Photos used:
Vitalykuzmin.net; Solyankin A. G., Pavlov M. V., Pavlov I. V., Zheltov I. G. "Domestic armored vehicles. XX century", Vol.3
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 23 June 2020 18: 15 New
    -5
    An interesting development for its time. But, as I remember, we practically all self-propelled guns rested in the Bose thanks to rocket maneuvers until the 60s? ...
    Yes, the author, the engines of this layout are not opposed. This is the erroneous name of engines with a cylinder collapse of 180 degrees ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 23 June 2020 20: 02 New
      +3
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      An interesting development for its time.

      Which appeared a little later SAU "Uralmash-1"


      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Yes, the author, the engines of this layout are not opposed. This is the erroneous name of engines with a cylinder collapse of 180 degrees ...
      Here are those times, yesterday I still belonged, but today I’m not. Why's that? The engines of Subaru cars are created according to the same scheme and everywhere they are considered to be "opposed"
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 23 June 2020 20: 28 New
        -9
        The school explained that the opposite is when the pistons go towards each other. But these and our motorcycle as I mentioned. But I do not pretend to the last resort.
        Opposite at us 5TDF, 6TD.
        1. svp67
          svp67 23 June 2020 20: 55 New
          +4
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          The school explained that the opposite is when the pistons go towards each other.

          You must have forgotten ...

          The engines of the TD series have a single cylinder liner for two pistons located horizontally and TWO crankshafts, the engine of this self-propelled gun, like the Subaru, each piston has its own cylinder, which are located at an angle of 180 degrees to each other and ONE crankshaft, but that what is this OPPOSITION ...
        2. 113262a
          113262a 23 June 2020 21: 38 New
          +3
          Believe me, the former YuMO minder, Herr Junkers -5TDF, 6TD two-stroke engines with MEET pistons, two crankshafts and a valveless design. They are opposite!))) And here are the motors of Herr Porsche-Volkswagen Beetle, my Transporter, Subaru, Alpha Romeo, here they are-JA-Ja-positive still!
          1. ProkletyiPirat
            ProkletyiPirat 24 June 2020 01: 22 New
            +2
            there are three engines, if in purely "engineering Russian" they sound like this:
            1)180 degree camber engine, with crankshaft, without mutual compensation of the cylinders
            2)180 degree camber engine, with a crankshaft, with mutual compensation of the cylinders (opposite cylinders simultaneously reach the limit points)
            3)180 degree camber engine, without crankshaft (two “shafts” with rigid coupling instead)
            So, all three are Oppositebut, as always, when translated into local languages ​​in different regions of the planet, this term begins to mean something other than the first part (the one before the first comma).
  2. igordok
    igordok 23 June 2020 18: 26 New
    0
    Thank. Recently, many articles on technology from World of Tanks have appeared on VO. At WOT, Object 416 passes as a Soviet eighth-level medium tank.
    1. tima_ga
      tima_ga 28 June 2020 23: 30 New
      0
      And a very mediocre ... A pity
  3. Alf
    Alf 23 June 2020 19: 24 New
    +4
    "Object 416" successfully combined a low weight and a high level of protection.

    Personally, I did not notice a high level of protection. The 75-mm forehead, like the SU-100, the 110-mm turret, is already in the yard already in the 1950s, in the T-54 series with a forearm of 200 mm.
    But the gun was clearly weak. The difference between the self-propelled guns and tanks was that on the self-propelled guns put guns of a larger caliber. And equipping self-propelled guns and tanks with one gun is the story of the T-34 and KV. In if they put an 85-mm gun of high power, then yes.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 24 June 2020 09: 28 New
      0
      On the T-62A, a 100 mm cannon, and on just the T-62 115 mm cannon was obtained by shortening the projectile 100 mm, apparently, while maintaining the mass of the projectile and charge. That is, at the beginning of the 50s it was quite an armament.
      1. Alf
        Alf 24 June 2020 13: 05 New
        +1
        Quote: EvilLion
        On the T-62A 100 mm gun,
        never stood.
        Quote: EvilLion
        T-62 115 mm gun received a shortening of the projectile 100 mm,

        Why shorten the shell?
        1. Flamberg
          Flamberg 25 June 2020 05: 45 New
          -1
          never stood.

          Even as it stood. Only such T-62As were produced from 7 to 28 pieces.
          1. Alf
            Alf 25 June 2020 18: 14 New
            0
            Quote: Flamberg
            never stood.

            Even as it stood. Only such T-62As were produced from 7 to 28 pieces.

            Proof of ?
            1. Flamberg
              Flamberg 26 June 2020 06: 58 New
              +1
              Googles for two times ...
              1. Alf
                Alf 26 June 2020 18: 50 New
                0
                Quote: Flamberg
                Googles for two times ...

                Thank you, I didn’t. +.
      2. Flamberg
        Flamberg 25 June 2020 05: 42 New
        0
        What are you writing about ??? The 115 mm gun is the U-5TS (2A20) obtained by removing rifling from a hundred millimeter D-54.
    2. goblin xnumx
      goblin xnumx 9 August 2020 16: 13 New
      0
      the name indicates an anti-tank gun ... and what is the caliber of the rapier? and what is the protection of a rapier for calculation?
  4. chenia
    chenia 23 June 2020 19: 31 New
    +1
    : It’s a pity we almost thought of it. It was necessary for the march to move forward with the stern (i.e., trunk back). There, for the driver, a place should be equipped (i.e., partly in combat, partly in control), from there a review is better and made it concurrently charging (crew of 3 people). Fri res.work out of ambush, Movement only when changing position. and shooting on the go is not for the Tank Fighter. And at the stern (i.e. forehead on the march) add a dump for self-digging. And if also a variable clearance.
    Super IT would work. It is still relevant. Octopus - A mockery of common sense.
    1. Alf
      Alf 23 June 2020 20: 11 New
      +2
      Quote: chenia
      It was necessary for the march to move forward with the stern (i.e., trunk back). There, for the driver, a place should be equipped (i.e., partly in combat, partly in control), from there a review is better and made it concurrently charging (crew of 3 people).

      Something similar was blinded by the British, Archer called.
      1. chenia
        chenia 23 June 2020 20: 54 New
        +1
        Quote: Alf
        Something similar was blinded by the British, Archer called.


        Yes, the scheme is correct, but we have more elegant (but did not think of). And in the modern version, with the AZ, in general, have two crew members (commander and gunner) with the ability for everyone to control the machine (but have two crews for one IT) ..
  5. Potter
    Potter 23 June 2020 19: 36 New
    +1
    Design Bureau Morozov began to design this car as a tank. The car fell into self-propelled guns for bureaucratic reasons - financing for OCD was only in the self-propelled guns section. As for security, the SU-100P had it even lower, it was a classic self-propelled guns, generally not intended for tank attacks. But she shot better and was much simpler and more reliable. The SU-100P chassis then lived a long life at other facilities, and now it works.
  6. mvg
    mvg 23 June 2020 22: 38 New
    -3
    I don’t recognize you in makeup, Billy. Read article! Probably stole somewhere ready.
  7. trahterist
    trahterist 23 June 2020 22: 49 New
    +1
    An interesting way to control the tank in motion.
    Later, the Americans and the Germans introduced something similar on the MBT-70 (a mechanical drive in an independent "capsule cradle").
  8. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 23 June 2020 23: 11 New
    0
    You can put a 115mm smoothbore.
  9. evgen1221
    evgen1221 24 June 2020 04: 26 New
    0
    It’s just that, with the development of birds, the car became irrelevant, plus ergonomics (in terms of the general plan of the blitzkrieg to the English Channel, I’m going to go there on my knees however). Yes, other cars switched.
  10. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 24 June 2020 11: 51 New
    0
    ATGM and TOUR defeated the "narrow-minded large guns" - everything is simple.
    1. Alf
      Alf 24 June 2020 19: 35 New
      0
      Quote: Bersaglieri
      ATGM and TOUR defeated the "narrow-minded large guns" - everything is simple.

      That's just OFS they could not win.
      1. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 29 June 2020 17: 28 New
        0
        OFS? Hmm ... DZ and KAZ. OFS - slow and "soft", for modern TVET - absolutely not applicable. Here for the fight against LBT yes. But here, it’s better to cassette, with a breakaway oddity, which immediately hit many goals.
        1. Alf
          Alf 29 June 2020 18: 31 New
          0
          Quote: Bersaglieri
          But here, it’s better to cassette, with a breakaway oddity, which immediately hit many goals.

          It is about the 50-60s.
  11. fider
    fider 24 June 2020 12: 30 New
    0
    Boxer engine - a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which the angle between the rows of cylinders is 180 degrees, and the opposing pistons move mirror-image with respect to each other (at the same time reach the top dead center). It should be distinguished from a V-shaped engine with a 180 degree camber in which the pistons move synchronously (when one piston is at the top dead center, the opposing one is at the bottom).
    The difference between the opposed (top) and V-shaped engines with a camber angle of 180 degrees (bottom) engines
    1. AlexVas44
      AlexVas44 24 June 2020 14: 19 New
      +2
      Nevertheless, both engines are opposed, but of two types.
      1. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 29 June 2020 17: 37 New
        0
        This is a simplified consideration. In the canonical, no: One is the opposite, the other is horizontal, V-shaped.
        1. AlexVas44
          AlexVas44 30 June 2020 15: 31 New
          0
          True, this is how to treat it. But in a canonical definition, a V-shaped engine has a camber of up to 120 degrees. (?). I won’t argue, I studied a long time ago, the definitions have probably changed.
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 29 June 2020 17: 32 New
      0
      All right. As well as the confused X and W-shaped schemes. And even funnier is the turbo-piston scheme, with oncoming traffic and two HF, mechanically connected (as on engines for the T-64 and its descendants)
  12. Pancer_Hrek
    Pancer_Hrek 27 June 2020 17: 56 New
    +1
    Nicholas Moran has a video about this car.

  13. Mikhail Zakharov
    Mikhail Zakharov 9 August 2020 03: 15 New
    0
    in the game World of Tanks for some reason it goes like a medium tank