Military Review

Rocket on a leash. IDAS anti-aircraft system for submarines

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Rocket on a leash. IDAS anti-aircraft system for submarines

Rocket complex IDAS. Source: globalsecurity.org


Attention air!


There is nothing new in the concept of destroying an air enemy from a submarine: artillery guns were able to do this even on submarines of World War II. However, for obvious reasons, it is easier for a submarine not to get involved with enemy aircraft at all and to go to the depths. The appearance of anti-submarine aviation It seriously complicated the situation, especially for helicopters with their ubiquitous sonar buoys. The most obvious countermeasure is a preemptive missile strike. One of the first air defense systems on the submarines put the British.


Blowpipe SLAM (Submarine-Launched Air Missiles). Source: thedrive.com

In 1972, four submarine-launched air missiles (SLMs) mounted on a retractable mast appeared on the HMS Aeneas submarine. The Israelis later installed the same air defense system on one of their submarines. The effectiveness of such systems for underwater fleet somewhat controversial: after all, a submarine has to surface for an attack, exposing itself to attack by both aircraft and surface ships. But in any case, it is better than artillery guns.


Source: thedrive.com

An interesting idea is proposed by the French with the A3SM system (Mica SAM) from DCNS. The system is based on a fairly widespread MICA air-to-air missile in NATO countries with a range of up to 20 km and a mass of 112 kilograms. MICA is mounted inside the torpedo hull and, accordingly, does not require special rearrangement of the interior of the submarine. Operators from underwater position (depth of more than 100 meters) track the appearance of sonar buoys of hunting helicopters and launch a torpedo-anti-aircraft missile nesting doll in the direction of the threat. Approaching the zone of the alleged hovering of the helicopter, a torpedo jumps out, and a rocket is already starting from it. According to a similar scheme of the submarine, the Exocet SM39 anti-ship missiles are launched, so there are no fundamental difficulties. Guidance anti-aircraft MICA - automatic thermal imaging. The French from DCNS, in addition to an expensive missile launched from an underwater position, offer the installation of an Mistral air defense system for the submarine’s cabin. The system is similar to the British Blowpipe SLAM and works only from the surface.


Air defense for submarines A3SM (Mica SAM) from the French DCNS. Source: naval-group.com


Retractable submarine module for recoilless guns Mauser RMK 30. Source: en.wikipedia.org

Conventionally, to combat air targets, you can use the German recoilless remote-controlled gun Mauser RMK 30 with a caliber of 30 mm. The effective firing range reaches 3 km, which allows in particularly successful situations to attack enemy helicopters that hang. Ammunition included high-explosive fragmentation, high-explosive fragmentation incendiary and armor-piercing ammunition. Target designation is carried out using a periscope and a radar station. In 2008, the installation was demonstrated as part of a MURAENA retractable mast with a height of 3 meters and a diameter of 0,8 meters. Later, the Mauser RMK 30 was mounted inside the TRIPLE-M multi-function container, which can also store underwater drones. Initially, the Germans planned to deploy guns on submarines of projects 212A and 212B to combat asymmetric threats (pirates, martyrs' boats and small-sized missile boats). For the same series of submarines, the German industry supplies perhaps the most modern serial system for combating an air enemy - the IDAS missile system.

From the depths of the sea


The IDAS (Interactive Defense and Attack System for Submarines) anti-aircraft missile was developed by the German Diehl Defense and Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH with the participation of the Norwegian Kongsberg. The rocket was tested for the first time in 2008 on a Norwegian Ula-class submarine. Weapon It belongs to the class of conditionally multi-purpose and, if necessary, can be used not only against hunting helicopters, but also on surface ships of small displacement, boats, and even on small coastal targets. The Germans suggest using IDAS as a weapon of support for special operations units. The system is not developed from scratch and is a deep modernization of the IRIS-T air-to-air missile in subsonic design. The length of the rocket is 2,5 meters, the diameter of the hull is 0,8 meters, the launch weight is 120 kilograms, the maximum launch depth is 20 meters, the maximum firing range is 20 kilometers and the maximum speed is 240 m / s. Each IDAS is equipped with a 20 kilogram warhead and is used for targets from a transport and launch container weighing 1700 kilograms (each with four missiles), mounted in a 533-mm submarine torpedo tube. The start is carried out by ejection from the container using a hydraulically controlled piston. Missiles start from a water-flooded container, and there is no air discharge from the torpedo tube, that is, there is no unmasking sign by which the helicopter can detect and attack the submarine. Then, after the rocket leaves the torpedo tube, the steering wheels and wings are opened, the control system is turned on and the starting engine is started. A three-mode solid-fuel engine is used as a power plant. The IDAS rocket, according to the developers, takes about a minute to reach the surface, launch the marching power plant and gain the necessary height. Then, search and recognition of the target occurs if the missile is guided in automatic mode by a predetermined target, or if it is turned onto the target by the command of the submarine operator via fiber optic cable. At the end of the flight path, the rocket is put into planning mode. Preliminary preparation of the IDAS inertial guidance system is carried out by the submarine navigation equipment. In the early stages of system development, there were plans to install a cooled thermal imager on a rocket (from the original IRIS-T), but the high cost of the unit did not allow this. Still, the weapons are positioned as multi-purpose, and the expenditure of expensive equipment on some drone or a fortified coastal point would be inappropriate.








Air defense complex IDAS. Source: globalsecurity.org

A fiber-optic guidance line, paired with sonar submarines, allows you to confidently intercept anti-submarine helicopters. In addition, the fiber-optic communication and control channel provides higher reliability and accuracy of firing, allows you to identify the target and evaluate the tactical situation by transmitting a digital image from the missile finder to the weapon control panel. Four coils with fiber optic cable are used for each rocket to transmit control commands and receive data from the rocket chamber. One coil is located in the launch container, two are on a special compensation float that remains on the water surface when the rocket leaves the water, another coil is located in the tail of the rocket. The probable circular deflection of a rocket controlled by an operator through an optical communication channel is about 0,5-1 meters. There is the possibility of simultaneously launching two IDAS missiles, which increases the likelihood of hitting a hovering helicopter to 0,85-0,9. In the future, engineers plan to detect an enemy helicopter before it drops a buoy into the water. To do this, they will adapt the hydroacoustic system of the submarine to search on the water surface for the wave effect from the rotor of the helicopter. The launch of anti-aircraft missiles is carried out from a horizontal position, which creates difficulties when attacking objects directly above the submarine. Future-generation German submarines (projects 214 and 216) will be equipped with IDAS vertical launch units.


Source: thedrive.com

IDAS is currently a serial installation, but not unique. In the mid-2000s, the U.S. tested the launch from the underwater position of the AIM-9X Sidewinder anti-aircraft missile, developed by Raytheon. At the moment, there is no exact information about the development of such American air defense for submarines, but it is possible that missiles are mounted on nuclear missile carriers.
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 20 June 2020 05: 40 New
    0
    It is interesting, but the launch of a missile from a mine seemed to be. Shorter time to hit the target. Longer life submarine. repeat
    1. mark1
      mark1 20 June 2020 06: 12 New
      +6
      A pop-up autonomous module (it is possible in the torpedo hull), while it is fighting, the submarine gives a fight ... I like it.
    2. Kalmar
      Kalmar 20 June 2020 09: 53 New
      +2
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Interestingly, the launch of a missile launcher from the mine seemed to be.

      Mines are usually occupied by the Kyrgyz Republic, and reloading them on the go will not work. Although there has now been a movement towards modularity (with us at 885M and with them at Virginia) - we may indeed see special launchers for missiles.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 20 June 2020 06: 19 New
    0
    Funny, interesting and unusual! As for a person far from the fleet, I’ll add and informatively!)))
  3. knn54
    knn54 20 June 2020 07: 19 New
    +4
    As I understand it, IDAS air defense systems are designed to combat anti-submarine helicopters operating when searching for submarines with a deployed sonar at a low altitude and low speed.
    At the same time, the Germans and the Norwegians solved two main problems:
    - SUSTAINABLE operation of the propulsion system / rocket engine in different environments.
    - Preservation of the fiber-optic control channel during the rocket's exit from the water.
    As an alternative, a PASSIVE submarine sonar that can detect a helicopter by localizing the wave effect of a helicopter propeller.
    1. SHURUM -BURUM
      SHURUM -BURUM 20 June 2020 09: 01 New
      +4
      I believe that using a missile with a thermal imaging seeker to attack a helicopter from under water (the idea itself is excellent) will not always be able to ensure guaranteed destruction of the helicopter (for this there are effective optical counteraction stations for ESRD, laser blinding, etc.). This should be taken into account when talking about the fact that we are talking about protecting the boat with the crew, because of this, it has no price. Above the ocean surface when helicopters can fly, absolute silence and you need to use the head with acoustic guidance. The noise spectrum of a powerful engine and helicopter propellers, and even the only source of noise in this place cannot be confused with anything, and is not so compact, small-sized and acoustically powerful that it can fit in or shoot back from a helicopter to simulate this noise, can not be placed. By the way, the patent is received.
    2. Kalmar
      Kalmar 20 June 2020 09: 54 New
      0
      Quote: knn54
      As an alternative, a PASSIVE submarine sonar that can detect a helicopter by localizing the wave effect of a helicopter propeller.

      And with strong excitement at sea will work?
      1. Boa kaa
        Boa kaa 21 June 2020 00: 21 New
        +1
        Quote: Kalmar
        And with strong excitement at sea will work?

        RџSЂRё high seas helicopters will not fly ... yes
    3. psiho117
      psiho117 20 June 2020 18: 22 New
      0
      Quote: knn54
      SUSTAINABLE operation of the propulsion system / rocket engine in different environments

      In my opinion, it just slowly pops up, and the dviglo starts already on the surface
  4. V.I.P.
    V.I.P. 20 June 2020 10: 11 New
    +3
    About French and German systems you need to write "has no analogues in the world!" wink And certainly, that in the Russian Federation there is nothing of the kind. Our boats do not have protection against torpedoes))
    1. Phoenix
      Phoenix 20 June 2020 11: 01 New
      +1
      Read about the Russian M-15 torpedo torpedo.
      And about "definitely not available .. co-co-co":

      “In Russia, work is also underway to create such missile systems. In particular, one of the projects uses a retractable type complex, which is located in the double-hull space and does not have penetrating parts in a strong hull. The complex is prepared for operation at a depth of 80 m, and then The submarine reaches the periscope depth already with the deployed complex, which allows for aiming and firing in less than 60 seconds. The mass of the container along with MANPADS is 40 kg. "

      It was possible to google, but you could immediately crow. But as always. And the author is well done that he completely copied the article from another site, but he diligently cut out the part about the development of an analogue in Russia. Well done, I worked.
      1. Evgeny Fedorov
        20 June 2020 11: 10 New
        +1
        From which site is copy-paste? Can I link, if not difficult?
        1. Phoenix
          Phoenix 20 June 2020 11: 11 New
          -3
          Not difficult of course. Copy my text and paste it into the search engine))
          https://www.top-technologies.ru/ru/article/view?id=34968
          1. Evgeny Fedorov
            20 June 2020 11: 18 New
            +4
            I suggest that you read the texts more carefully before blaming them. And thanks for the link, entertaining.
      2. V.I.P.
        V.I.P. 22 June 2020 17: 15 New
        0
        The "package" is installed on only a few ships of the Navy. Which boats does it have?
        And when they write about dagdiesel crafts, they want to laugh. They old torpedoes that were supposed to be disposed of, flew back to the fleet like new. The criminal case was. What can they blind ??? .............. Read for yourself))
  5. Avior
    Avior 20 June 2020 11: 52 New
    -1
    Well-known but controversial idea
    Unmasks the boat
    1. Kalmar
      Kalmar 20 June 2020 23: 48 New
      0
      Quote: Avior
      Unmasks the boat

      The rocket has a very short launch range. If within this range an anti-submarine helicopter throws buoys, then, most likely, the chances of remaining undetected in the submarines are already very small.
      1. Avior
        Avior 20 June 2020 23: 50 New
        -1
        To start the boat must be at a shallow depth.
        It is visible to the naked eye.
        The unmasking is obvious.
        1. Kalmar
          Kalmar 20 June 2020 23: 54 New
          +1
          Quote: Avior
          To start the boat must be at a shallow depth.
          It is visible to the naked eye.
          The unmasking is obvious.

          So she and the main missile weapons are not used from any depth. Then, it’s not a matter of specifically hunting for helicopters: the missile will be used when the submarine crew has reason to believe that the helicopter will detect them anyway. Well, visibility with the naked eye at a depth of 20m depends a lot on various factors such as sea waves.
  6. iouris
    iouris 20 June 2020 13: 28 New
    -2
    Submarine: release once all missiles at the aggressor. After that, she is not needed. In order for her to fulfill this task, "general forces", admirals, generals ... If she is not capable of this task, then all is in vain. I liked the idea.
  7. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 20 June 2020 13: 39 New
    -1
    And how will it work with excitement? Will a helicopter radar see a pop-up container? And he will try to destroy it in order to interrupt the communication channel ... Everything is somehow complicated ... I would make the containers stand-alone, pop-up, with my own search engine. Which you can set the location of the target (to reduce the search time) and that's it. The boat launches one, two or several such containers ... and they start at a certain interval according to the detected target. Helicopters or seaplanes immediately become not up to the boat ... But the boat gives a tear ... as an option ... wassat
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat 20 June 2020 18: 39 New
      +1
      the mode of operation voiced by you will only help against helicopters, but there is little use there either. But in a bunch of telecontrol + GOS it is possible to direct SP-you on PLO aircraft, while they will shoot down them, and not "whatever" ..
      1. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 20 June 2020 19: 42 New
        -2
        Quote: ProkletyiPirat
        your mode of operation

        This mode of operation is only for one thing ... so that the boat ASAPs as soon as possible OUT of the danger area. Having created maximum problems for the air rival.
  8. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 20 June 2020 21: 02 New
    +1
    Interesting article, thanks to the author!

    As far as I understand, the problem is not to fire a rocket, the problem is target designation. GOS missiles, due to their small size, are usually very poor in terms of performance characteristics, for a good rocket you need to tell what point to fly to, and already there, near the target, she will be able to find something with her tiny head.

    I really liked the idea with a slowly pop-up anti-aircraft torpedo missile. Perhaps such a system should be supplemented with a buoy towed from a submarine with a passive (necessarily passive!) Preliminary detection and guidance system. Perhaps such a system will help to shake the aircraft off the tail.
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat 20 June 2020 21: 18 New
      -1
      Quote: Saxahorse
      Perhaps such a system will help to shake the aircraft off the tail.

      it won’t help, the radio horizon is small, in fact, the SP begins to search for the aircraft already in the air. i.e. 1) launch from a submarine 2) ascent and launch into the air 3) ring \ spiral movement with active aircraft search. An exception may be only one - high-altitude PLO aircraft, but there are problems with resolution.

      In general, as for me, this is not the right way to solve problems ...
      1. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 20 June 2020 21: 29 New
        0
        Quote: ProkletyiPirat
        it won’t help, the radio horizon is small, in fact, the SP begins to search for the aircraft already in the air.

        This is what I am writing about! Therefore, in this scheme, an additional guidance system fueled with submarines is extremely important. Modern passive systems are beginning to show quite serious results. If a towed buoy with such a system can qualitatively scan the sky, the PLO aviation will have big problems. Well, pre-dropped launchers with missile defense will cut down the most arrogant and qualitatively scare away other enemy aircraft.
        1. ProkletyiPirat
          ProkletyiPirat 20 June 2020 21: 51 New
          +1
          Once again, it’s not a matter of passivity / activity; scanning is a matter of a radio horizon, especially during a sea / ocean wave ...
  9. Boratsagdiev
    Boratsagdiev 21 June 2020 12: 10 New
    0
    Wires something to start.
    Then it will not be like in the film "72 meters" with the Janissary, when he spoke into the "microphone"? laughing
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Niko
    Niko 21 June 2020 16: 41 New
    0
    "The diameter of the hull is 0,8 meters" is cool ..... how does it fit in a torpedo tube with a diameter of 533 mm? Four more things. I think a typo because in other sources, a diameter of 0,18 is more like the truth