Military Review

Protecting ground combat equipment: take cover and dodge

22
Protecting ground combat equipment: take cover and dodge

Tanks how the quintessence of ground combat vehicles have always been distinguished by their ability to hold a strike. For this, the tanks are equipped with massive armor, maximally reinforced in the front of the hull. In turn, the developers of anti-tank weapons make every effort to break through this armor.


But before striking a tank, it is necessary to detect it, and, having found it, fall into an actively maneuvering target, in connection with which the importance of camouflage systems and ways to increase the maneuverability of tanks and other ground combat equipment increases.

Disguise


The detection of ground-based military equipment is carried out in the acoustic, optical, visible, thermal and radar wavelength ranges. Recently, sensors capable of operating in the ultraviolet range, capable of effectively detecting anti-tank missiles by the exhaust of an engine, have been added to this list.


Yugoslav tank T-72 in the thermal imager of the American tank M1A2 SEPv2 Abrams ...


... and the view in the thermal imager of the American tank M1A2 Abrams


MUSS AN / AAR-60 MILDS missile launch detection system with a sensor operating in the ultraviolet range at a wavelength of 300 nm

The simplest and most widely used way to reduce the visibility of ground-based military equipment in the optical visible, thermal and radar wavelength ranges is the use of special covering materials. In Russia, NII-Steel products with the symbolic name “Cape” are widely used.


The T-90 tank without EPR masking measures in the upper projection, in the wavelength range of 3 and 8 mm, has an EPR of about 29 square meters, with the “Cape” set, the T-90 tank has an EPR of about 6,5 square meters, the T-90 tank with a set of measures to mask the EPR of the tank with a set of materials "Cape", "Ternovnik", "RTP-90" is about 2,1 square meters


Thermal images of the tank without camouflage (a, c) and with camouflage (b, d)

Despite the simplicity and effectiveness of this method of masking, in conditions intensive development of intelligence tools (sensors) and automation of intelligence processing, the use of camouflage wraps alone may not be enough.

In this regard, the industrialized countries of the world are developing embedded and mounted active camouflage systems that can change the optical and thermal signature of ground combat vehicles.

One of these developments is the active Adaptiv camouflage system of the British company BAE Systems. For the first time, the Adaptiv camouflage system was demonstrated at the DSEI 2011 exhibition as part of the Swedish infantry fighting vehicle (BMP) CV-90 (in the form of a light tank).


BMP CV-90 (in the light tank version), equipped with an active Adaptiv camouflage system [/ size
]
The outer part of the Adaptiv active camouflage system is assembled from hexagonal tiles with a side size of 15 cm, capable of controllably changing the surface temperature. Thermal sensors installed on the machine receive a matrix of background temperature from the side behind the masked side. Based on the data obtained, the system changes the temperature of the tiles, "smearing" the signature of the armored vehicle in the background. The dimensions of the tiles are optimized to obtain low visibility in the thermal range at a distance of about 500 meters and a speed of up to 30 kilometers per hour.


The Adaptiv system masks the image of an armored car against the background of the terrain located behind it

The presence of a hot engine and chassis, which can easily be distinguished in the images from the thermal imager shown at the beginning of this article, can interfere with camouflage of armored vehicles against the background of the surrounding surface. Hiding such a powerful heat source as a tank diesel or gas turbine is not easy.

In this case, the Adaptiv system can be used to distort the signature of a ground-based combat vehicle, in order to make it look like, for example, civilian transport (let us leave aside the ethical side of such a “disguise”) or ground equipment of another class. For example, the enemy believes that he found an armored personnel carrier or MRAP, and uses a small-caliber gun to defeat him, unmasking his position, and in fact he attacks a tank to which the small-caliber gun will not cause critical damage, and which will destroy the opened enemy with return fire.


Changing the thermal signature of the armored vehicle of the active camouflage system Adaptiv

It may be possible to temporarily reduce the temperature of the hull in the engine area by using refrigerant, moving heat to the area of ​​the bottom of the combat vehicle. Further, the refrigerant is either gradually gradually cooled again by the refrigeration unit on board the machine, or it is released into the atmosphere and refilled into the tank at the base. This will help to further change the signature of the body of the armored vehicle.

To mask in the visible wavelength range, an Adaptiv active camouflage system must use electrochromic displays with a resolution of 100 pixels per tile. This will reproduce the background image behind the armored vehicle with high reliability.

The power consumption of the Adaptiv active camouflage system in terms of controlling the infrared signature is up to 70 watts per square meter of masked surface, another 7 watts per square meter is needed to control the visual signature. The Adaptiv system weighs about 10-12 kilograms per square meter, which will allow it to be used on almost all types of ground combat vehicles.

In Russia, an active camouflage system is being developed by the companies Roselektronika and TsNIITOCHMASH for use as part of the promising equipment Ratnik-3.
The domestic active camouflage system is based on the use of a special electrically controlled material - electrochrome, capable of changing color depending on the incoming electrical signals, to ensure compliance with the masked surface and its environment. Declared energy consumption is 30-40 watts per square meter.


The concept of the Russian protective helmet with electrochromic camouflage plates

The use of active camouflage systems will require providing them with power, which can provide platforms with electric movement, the application of which we examined in the article: Electric tank: prospects for the use of electric propulsion in ground combat equipment.

In addition to providing power to active camouflage systems, ground-based combat vehicles with electric propulsion will have less noise, as well as the ability to temporarily turn off a diesel / gas turbine integrated with an electric generator, ensuring the operation of the combat vehicle due to buffer batteries, which will greatly simplify the work of an active camouflage camouflage system in the thermal range.

Maneuverability


The continuous confrontation of shell and armor led to the fact that the mass of modern main battle tanks (MBT) was one and a half to two times the mass of MBTs that were in service half a century ago. It is not surprising that periodically there are concepts on refusing to build up armor in favor of increasing the maneuverability of individual combat units and the mobility of units.

One of the largest projects of this type can be considered the American program "Combat Systems of the Future" (Future Combat Systems - FCS). The program planned to create a series of unified machines based on a single chassis. In principle, the idea is not new, given that in Russia something similar is planned to be done on the Armata platform. The difference between the FCS program can be considered the requirement to limit the maximum mass of military vehicles at the level of 20 tons. This would allow the units equipped with machines developed under the FCS program, the highest mobility, due to the possibility of rapid transfer of Lockheed C-130 transport aircraft closer to the front line, and not just the heavy Boeing C-17 and Lockheed C-5, which can be used far from every aerodrome.


The concept of a universal platform for armored vehicles created under the FCS program

In addition to ground combat vehicles implemented on a single platform, unmanned vehicles were to be created as part of the FCS program aviation and ground-based systems, sensors and weapons, capable of functioning within the framework of the "system of systems" of a single network-centric battlefield.


Planned components of the FCS program

The main striking force was to be a light tank with a 120 mm Mounted Combat System (MCS) XM1202 cannon. Moreover, its mass should also be about 20 tons, which is three times less than the mass of the existing MBT M1A2 Abrams of the latest modifications.

Of course, even taking into account the use of the latest composite materials, it was impossible to create armor for a light tank equivalent to that installed on the MBT M1A2 Abrams, so the developers considered other ways to increase the survival of the XM1202. In particular, it was supposed to reduce the likelihood of a tank defeat due to multi-level protection, including the following levels:
- avoid encounter - avoidance of a collision with superior enemy forces;
- avoid detection - avoid detection by reducing visibility in the optical thermal, visible, radar and acoustic spectra;
- avoid acquisition - avoid capture by escort by counteracting enemy guidance systems;
- avoid hit - avoid hit with the help of active protection complexes;
- avoid penetration - avoid penetration using promising composite armor, as well as perspective electric armor, the principle of which is based on the effect of a powerful electric charge when breaking through spaced contact plates;
- avoid kill - to avoid the death of a combat vehicle during a defeat due to increased survivability by optimizing the layout of the compartments and equipment.


XM1202 light tank concept

In theory, all of the above can work, but in practice, almost all of the items listed can be implemented on any modern MBT, including during the modernization process. At the same time, the promising XM1202 would still be inferior even to the existing MBTs in terms of the “avoid penetration” item, approaching in this parameter more likely to infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) or light tanks.


Conceptually, the MBT XM1202 is closer to the Russian light tank of the 2C25 Sprut-SD series than to the MBT M1A2 Abrams, which he was supposed to replace

Ultimately, the high cost, complexity of implementing individual components, and the inevitability of compromise solutions led to the closure of the FCS program in May 2009.

Is it even possible to implement an essentially light tank capable of competing on equal terms with MBTs with full armor protection? Indeed, reducing the weight, for example, to 20 tons, while maintaining engine power at the level of 1500-2000 horsepower will allow the light tank to have a specific power of 75-100 horsepower per ton and, as a result, outstanding dynamic characteristics.

The answer will likely be negative. The maneuverability and high dynamic characteristics alone will not provide the ground combat equipment with sufficient protection, otherwise everyone would have fought on the Buggy.

At the same time, as an addition to armor protection, high dynamic characteristics and the possibility of intensive maneuvering can increase the survival rate of armored vehicles on the battlefield. This can be especially effective when introducing advanced automatic traffic control systems (autopilots) in combination with electric propulsion of ground combat equipment.

The autopilot of a promising combat vehicle should provide continuous orientation on the ground, taking into account the analysis of elevations of the terrain, data on surrounding artificial objects and natural obstacles obtained from a high-precision map of the terrain, as well as on-board sensors - radar, lidars, thermal imagers and video cameras.
Based on the data obtained, the autopilot can form several routes on the overview screen that are most protected from enemy attacks from threatened directions, similar to how navigation programs for cars now do when driving around the city along routes constructed with traffic jams in mind.

In addition, if a launch of a rocket / grenade is detected, the automation should, based on data on the surrounding area, determine possible positions that provide shelter from a missile / grenade. Further, depending on the activated mode, the combat vehicle either automatically makes a short energetic throw to evade a rocket / grenade, or issues an alarm signal with the display of protected positions on the overview screen, after which it is enough for the operator to poke at the selected position on the touch screen after which the machine will perform a protective maneuver automatically.

Of course, the operation of such systems should take into account the location of nearby allied combat vehicles and dismounted fighters.


Automatically (semi-automatically) performed evasion maneuver during an RPG or ATGM attack, performed in the direction of movement (1) or against the direction of movement (2)

When firing from hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers (RPGs) and anti-tank missile systems (ATGMs) from a distance of 500-5000 meters, depending on the distance and type of rocket / grenade, about 3-15 seconds will elapse between a shot and the moment it hits the combat vehicle, which can it is enough to carry out an energetic defensive maneuver both in automatic and in semi-automatic mode.

Conclusion


Advanced camouflage systems and increased maneuverability will not replace armor and active defense systems, but can complement them, significantly increasing the survival rate of promising ground combat vehicles on the battlefield.

The implementation of advanced active camouflage systems and the increased maneuverability of promising ground combat vehicles will help ensure the introduction of electric propulsion systems.
Author:
Photos used:
niistali.ru, andrei-bt.livejournal.com, integral-russia.ru, topwar.ru, darpa.mil
Articles from this series:
Fire support tanks, BMPT "Terminator" and the cycle of OODA John Boyd
Armored vehicles against infantry. Who is faster: a tank or infantry?
Increased situational awareness of armored combat vehicle crews
Ergonomics of workplaces and combat algorithms for promising armored vehicles
Unmanned systems for advanced armored vehicles
Fire support tanks, BMPT "Terminator" and the cycle of OODA John Boyd
Electric tank: prospects for the use of electric propulsion in ground combat equipment
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  1. KCA
    KCA 17 June 2020 07: 58 New
    +2
    3 kW per square meter of Ratnik-3 equipment, is it normal that the soldier’s diesel generator will be dragged by itself, or will it be self-propelled?
    1. Shopping
      17 June 2020 09: 21 New
      +1
      Quote: KCA
      3 kW per square meter of Ratnik-3 equipment, is it normal that the soldier’s diesel generator will be dragged by itself, or will it be self-propelled?


      Thank you, the typo in the material: not 3040 watts, but 30-40 watts.
      In addition, in theory, energy consumption should vary from the rate of change of the image, i.e. movement of a fighter. In other words, if a soldier is in position, or moves slowly, the picture will not be intensively updated, and energy consumption will decrease. It’s like in books with E-link displays - the more often you turn pages, the faster it discharges.
      1. prodi
        prodi 17 June 2020 11: 57 New
        0
        Well, there was infa that electrical activity itself is well monitored
        1. Shopping
          17 June 2020 14: 10 New
          +2
          Quote: prodi
          Well, there was infa that electrical activity itself is well monitored


          And what is the activity of Peltier elements that change the thermal background or electrochromic screens? And how far does it spread?
          1. prodi
            prodi 17 June 2020 14: 57 New
            0
            Yes, I vaguely imagine, most likely, these are magnetic fields recorded by radio irradiation and the general principle still applies there - who has the most power source
        2. Winnie76
          Winnie76 21 June 2020 12: 42 New
          0
          Quote: prodi
          Well, there was infa that electrical activity itself is well monitored

          Multimeter and indicator screwdriver
  2. nikon7717
    nikon7717 17 June 2020 08: 33 New
    +1
    For use in disguising movement, these things are definitely suitable. Imagine on the march the UAV sees not a column of tanks in the thermal imager, but a car. good
  3. Operator
    Operator 17 June 2020 11: 39 New
    0
    Armored vehicles masking tools work only in the parking lot without firing. Defense in battle and on the march is solely armor (from fragments) and active defense (from missiles and missiles).

    Defense from kinetic shells are reconnaissance and strike systems that destroy enemy receiver systems even before armored vehicles reach the attack line.
  4. demiurg
    demiurg 17 June 2020 13: 54 New
    +1
    Why are they surely trying to fasten the tank to the 120-125-152-155 babah?
    For the sake of the notorious 18% of destroyed enemy tanks?
    If we limit ourselves to 40-45-55-57mm, it is quite realistic to create a tank with security higher than Almaty and Abrams with a weight of 40 tons. Bunkers and enemy tanks can be destroyed with guided missiles.
    1. Alexander Samoilov
      Alexander Samoilov 17 June 2020 20: 16 New
      -2
      The armor has outlived itself. Until they become cheaper, heavy-duty nanomaterials. And the weapons are valid for a ground strike platform, preferably of the QN-506 type.
    2. igor novices
      igor novices 26 June 2020 07: 20 New
      0
      A projectile costs $ 2000, and a rocket costs $ 50000.
  5. Alexander Samoilov
    Alexander Samoilov 17 June 2020 20: 03 New
    -2
    At the same time, as an addition to armor protection, high dynamic characteristics and the possibility of intensive maneuvering can increase the survival rate of armored vehicles on the battlefield. And eat the fish and ... will not work. Either mobility or good armor. And given that even wearable anti-tank weapons are guaranteed to destroy any tank, the choice in favor of the latter cannot be called successful.
    1. Shopping
      17 June 2020 22: 55 New
      +5
      Quote: Alexander Samoilov
      At the same time, as an addition to armor protection, high dynamic characteristics and the possibility of intensive maneuvering can increase the survival rate of armored vehicles on the battlefield. And eat the fish and ... will not work. Either mobility or good armor. And given that even wearable anti-tank weapons are guaranteed to destroy any tank, the choice in favor of the latter cannot be called successful.


      Armor and mobility are fully compatible. It is quite possible to put a 3000 hp engine on the tank For a tank weighing 60 tons, it will be 50 hp. per ton, which is more than that of a tank weighing 45 tons and an engine of 1000 hp, which was a reality recently.

      Electric propulsion will further increase mobility.

      Wearable anti-tank weapons hit the tank is not guaranteed. And manual (not portable) and even worse.
      1. Alexander Samoilov
        Alexander Samoilov 18 June 2020 09: 15 New
        -1
        Quote: AVM
        It is quite possible to put a 3000 hp engine on the tank

        Theoretically, it was quite realistic to put YaSU on the tank back in the 50s. But costing and operational problems have not allowed them to appear so far. With the achieved specific power level of modern MBTs, a further increase in engine power has little effect on increasing the average speed of tanks, but negatively affects the cost, reliability, unification of units, fuel economy and temperature conditions of power plants. Check out - the book is written by practicing engineers, a must-read for anyone who wants to reasonably discuss the topic technically.

        Quote: AVM
        Wearable anti-tank weapons hit the tank is not guaranteed. And manual (not portable) and even worse
        Even “Panzerfaust” or “Bazooka” will pierce the side and stern of any modern MBT. Of course, DZ and screens hang on the sides, a grenade can get into the rink, but this is a completely different topic. The bare board makes its way through any of the oldest RPGs and this is a very unpleasant fact for a person sitting in a tank.lol If we turn to more modern anti-inflammatory drugs, the picture becomes completely bleak. We have many models of light weapons that can hit the roof of a cumulative TDP or impact core. They are delivered to position 2-3 (Javelin, Spike-LR, Spike-ER, BILL, HJ-12) or by one person (Spike-SR, Spike-MR, Mini-Spike, LMAT, NLAW). And there is such a thing, which is very unpleasant for any armored vehicles, as guided (including homing) mortar mines. The tank does not have protection from any of the above. Even the most advanced KAZs do not cover the upper hemisphere. If the tank units somewhere have to conduct a city battle with the enemy massively equipped with such means, the massacre of the first assault on Grozny will seem like a minor misunderstanding.
        1. Shopping
          18 June 2020 13: 46 New
          +1
          Quote: Alexander Samoilov
          Quote: AVM
          It is quite possible to put a 3000 hp engine on the tank

          Theoretically, it was quite realistic to put YaSU on the tank back in the 50s. But costing and operational problems have not allowed them to appear so far. With the achieved specific power level of modern MBTs, a further increase in engine power has little effect on increasing the average speed of tanks, but negatively affects the cost, reliability, unification of units, fuel economy and temperature conditions of power plants.


          Nevertheless, the power is about 3000 hp. most likely to be achieved. For example, the MT 880-1300 engine was developed. The engine is a six-cylinder modification of the MT 883 Ka-523 diesel engine with a capacity of 2600 hp. for amphibian AAAV.

          But this is not so important. In electric transmission, everything can be implemented much more efficiently. Electric motors can be laid with a large power reserve - 3000-4000 hp (4 engines of 500 hp) than the one that the turbine + generator will give - 1500-2000 hp At the moment when it is necessary to make a sharp maneuver, electric motors receive an increased amount of energy from the generator and from the buffer batteries at the same time, i.e. constantly high power is not needed.

          Quote: Alexander Samoilov
          Quote: AVM
          Wearable anti-tank weapons hit the tank is not guaranteed. And manual (not portable) and even worse
          Even “Panzerfaust” or “Bazooka” will pierce the side and stern of any modern MBT. Of course, DZ and screens hang on the sides, a grenade can get into the rink, but this is a completely different topic. The bare board makes its way through any of the oldest RPGs and this is a very unpleasant fact for a person sitting in a tank.lol


          And why should he be naked? DZ should be on all sides, with a tandem preferably, screens, grids. In recent conflicts, there were half a dozen hits in the tank of the latest model from RPG-7 and Mukh. If the armor is removed, the tank will also penetrate from the grenade launcher, and from a heavy machine gun. Or they will reduce the dimensions of the RPG by making a double-triple-quadruple launch to increase the likelihood of hit and bypass KAZ.

          Quote: Alexander Samoilov
          If we turn to more modern anti-inflammatory drugs, the picture becomes completely bleak. We have many models of light weapons that can hit the roof of a cumulative TDP or impact core. They are delivered to position 2-3 (Javelin, Spike-LR, Spike-ER, BILL, HJ-12) or by one person (Spike-SR, Spike-MR, Mini-Spike, LMAT, NLAW).


          All these Javelin, Spike are worth hundreds of oil and have their limitations on guidance. Too smart, you can cheat. We will come back to this. And by the way, active IR / optical masking + countermeasures can greatly reduce the likelihood of them falling.

          Quote: Alexander Samoilov
          And there is such a thing, which is very unpleasant for any armored vehicles, as guided (including homing) mortar mines.


          Guided mines are 120 mm, this is a technique, not wearable items. They shoot with a laser backlight. They fly long enough. If the tank is equipped with equipment detecting LI, and the crew does not sleep, then they may well evade - fumes + maneuver.

          Quote: Alexander Samoilov
          The tank does not have protection from any of the above. Even the most advanced KAZs do not cover the upper hemisphere. If the tank units somewhere have to conduct a city battle with the enemy massively equipped with such means, the massacre of the first assault on Grozny will seem like a minor misunderstanding.


          So we are talking about promising armored vehicles. Let's talk about KAZ, and about the battles in the city.
          1. Alexander Samoilov
            Alexander Samoilov 18 June 2020 17: 43 New
            0
            Quote: AVM
            Nevertheless, the power is about 3000 hp. most likely to be achieved.

            Surely it will be. Only for some reason, engineers believe that this will not significantly increase mobility.
            Quote: AVM
            In electric transmission, everything can be implemented much more efficiently. Electric motors can be laid with a large margin of power
            Electric motors as applied to military equipment are of interest only with a reduced acoustic and infrared signature. In terms of economy and logistics, they will always be a nightmare. Full electric movement is an extremely expensive pleasure. Converting the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical work directly is much more efficient.
            Quote: AVM
            And why should he be naked? DZ should be on all sides, with a tandem preferably, screens, grids.
            And have you seen such a lot with the bars? No, me too at the parade! ) DZ tandem where? On the T-72B3? Okay. Let it be. So it reduces the probability of defeat by 0,5.
            Quote: AVM
            Guided mines are 120 mm, this is a technique, not wearable items.

            About 81-mm “Merlin” did not hear? good She is almost 40 years old.
            Quote: AVM
            So we are talking about promising armored vehicles.

            So then you need to talk about promising means of dealing with it. wink
            1. Shopping
              19 June 2020 11: 11 New
              0
              Quote: Alexander Samoilov
              Quote: AVM
              Nevertheless, the power is about 3000 hp. most likely to be achieved.

              Surely it will be. Only for some reason, engineers believe that this will not significantly increase mobility.


              Thanks for the information about the book, I studied it with interest, although it seems I read it once. But they talk about engine power in the context of speed. And the authors clearly love diesel engines and do not like gas turbine engines defending the T-90 against the T-80 (a bit like the unquenchable disputes of the Mi-28 against the Ka-50/52). Most interestingly, there are many counterarguments on the gas turbine engine / diesel engine. PMSM here works more like a principle - the best enemy of the good. Diesels have been developed for a long time, and a turbine, albeit a good thing, but expensive + must be invested in development and refinement. In itself, even if it is developed, it will not give radical advantages compared to a diesel engine. But complete with electric transmission, this is a question.

              By speed - I do not need it, I need acceleration so that the tank can rush off, go over the obstacle, and avoid getting into it.

              A direct analogy is civilian cars. There are cars with engine power of 200, 400, 600 hp, but they have a speed limit of 250 km / h. The question is, why then do we need a more powerful engine - pay more tax? The answer is acceleration, the ability to quickly make safe overtaking.

              One more example. Let’s develop a 200 lm LED. Of these, a light bulb of 1000 lm (5 LEDs) was scored. Then they developed a 250 lm LED, put them in a light bulb also 5 pcs., But limited the brightness to the same 1000 lm. It would seem that there is no point? But he is. LEDs have a characteristic number of lumens per watt (in fact, efficiency), and it is a difference from power. Those. the old LEDs gave 1000 lumens with an efficiency of 40%, and the new 60% due to the fact that they work not at the maximum, but at the optimal brightness level.

              With engines the same thing, at maximum power there will always be more consumption, less efficiency and less resource. Therefore, applying an engine of 3000 hp in 90% of cases we will remove 1000-1500 hp from it, which will significantly extend its service life and increase efficiency due to work in the optimal zone. And having the opportunity to expand it up to 3000 hp, if necessary, we can use them.

              The electric transmission will further increase the efficiency of the diesel / gas turbine, as it will rotate the generator at the most optimal fixed power. And the consumption peaks during acceleration and maneuvering will smooth the batteries + energy recovery during braking. Again, as in a car. You drive 90 km / h - a consumption of 7 liters. per 100 km, more or less - 9-12-14, etc.

              Quote: Alexander Samoilov
              Quote: AVM
              In electric transmission, everything can be implemented much more efficiently. Electric motors can be laid with a large margin of power
              Electric motors as applied to military equipment are of interest only with a reduced acoustic and infrared signature. In terms of economy and logistics, they will always be a nightmare. Full electric movement is an extremely expensive pleasure. Converting the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical work directly is much more efficient.


              Not a fact. Even when talking about comparing a turbine and a diesel engine, there are many pitfalls - cooling, oil, filters. It is worth removing one of the parameters, the diesel wins, add - the turbine. A comprehensive assessment of electrical transmission is even more difficult. Electric movement on batteries is not realistic in the near future. And in the diesel / turbine + generator + electric mode, the range will be comparable to that of a bunch of diesel + a large and complex gearbox.

              By the way, we are developing machines with electric transmission: https://vpk.name/library/f/knight.html

              Quote: Alexander Samoilov
              Quote: AVM
              And why should he be naked? DZ should be on all sides, with a tandem preferably, screens, grids.
              And have you seen such a lot with the bars? No, me too at the parade! ) DZ tandem where? On the T-72B3? Okay. Let it be. So it reduces the probability of defeat by 0,5.


              There cannot be one probability for all types of destructive agents. Different warheads, different speeds, different types of impact (kinetic, cumulative jet, core).

              The question is not that, I do not deny that the tank is vulnerable from the sides, and we will return to this in the article about armor, the question is that by abandoning the armor we will turn the equipment into a tin can, which is pierced by everything - heavy machine guns, under-barrel machine guns grenades, etc.

              Of course, without KAZ, tank survival will be greatly reduced. But if we refuse the armor, then the enemy will do so many small-sized and cheap anti-tank weapons that more than one KAZ will not cope with them, they will stupidly score.

              By the way, from that book:
              During the demonstration shelling on the T-90, six shells were fired from another tank from a distance of 200 m (two hundred!), After which the vehicle arrived at its observation deck under its own power. Shooting was carried out by the most modern at that time sub-caliber and cumulative shells. They also carried out firing from hand anti-tank grenade launchers on the sides. And again the same result: the armor is not broken ...


              According to the assessment in 2003 of the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces N.V. Kormiltseva, according to the results of military operations in Chechnya, the tank turned out to be the most effective model of armored personnel carrier in real combat conditions T-72, with reliable armor and dynamic protection, withstanding from 3 to 5 hits RPG grenades


              According to Russian experts [3], the significant reduction in the mass of combat vehicles (up to 18–20 tons) outlined in the United States due to the requirements of air mobility cannot meet the requirements for their survivability. Such machines can be hit (damaged) even by the remnants of missiles and shells deformed on approach; a combat vehicle of such mass cannot absorb (extinguish) their residual energy.

              Quote: Alexander Samoilov
              Quote: AVM
              Guided mines are 120 mm, this is a technique, not wearable items.

              About 81-mm “Merlin” did not hear? good She is almost 40 years old.
              Quote: AVM
              So we are talking about promising armored vehicles.


              By the way, no thanks, interesting thing. But like all guided weapons, its effectiveness can be significantly reduced by electronic warfare, camouflage, and promising KAZ.

              Quote: Alexander Samoilov
              So then you need to talk about promising means of dealing with it. wink


              We will talk for sure hi
  6. sen
    sen 18 June 2020 06: 22 New
    +1
    The author did not say anything about the interference system to protect the tank. This is not just a curtain. Infrared traps to protect against Javelina type anti-tank systems. Laser for the failure of the TVP (the most powerful effect at wavelengths of 0,53 (the most dangerous), 0,69 and 1,06 microns) and temporary eye damage. Spotlight pulsating interference to blind the enemy.
    1. Shopping
      18 June 2020 07: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: sen
      The author did not say anything about the interference system to protect the tank. This is not just a curtain. Infrared traps to protect against Javelina type anti-tank systems. Laser for the failure of the TVP (the most powerful effect at wavelengths of 0,53 (the most dangerous), 0,69 and 1,06 microns) and temporary eye damage. Spotlight pulsating interference to blind the enemy.


      Armor and active protective equipment in another material.
  7. businessv
    businessv 18 June 2020 14: 00 New
    +2
    Advanced camouflage systems and increased maneuverability will not replace armor and active defense systems, but can complement them, significantly increasing the survival rate of promising ground combat vehicles on the battlefield.
    Andrey, thanks for the interesting, sensible article! hi
  8. sen
    sen 18 June 2020 14: 31 New
    +2
    Tank maneuvers in Syria.
    "Carousel", during which a tank platoon fires, moving in a circle. While the first machine shoots at the discovered targets, the second, being in the shelter, prepares to take a firing position, and the third replenishes the ammunition. An additional advantage of this technique, which provides a high density of fire, is the ability to mislead the enemy regarding the true number of vehicles participating in the battle.
    A modernized version of the "carousel" using the fourth tank, which is waiting in secret position to identify the "carousel" of the enemy target, and then destroys it.
    Another tactical method is the so-called "Syrian rampart", which combines firepower and maneuverability. “An important factor here will be to ensure the protection of combat vehicles from the effects of anti-tank weapons used by the enemy. Tanks or other vehicles move one after another within 20-100 meters, firing at a particular sector.
    Another tactical maneuver is to fire one tank from two firing positions - the main and the spare. It is important that he does not linger on any of them for more than 3-5 seconds. The main purpose of this technique is an attempt to provoke the enemy, reveal his position and evaluate the strength.
    1. sen
      sen 18 June 2020 17: 23 New
      +2
      Forgot to indicate the source.
      https://zvezdaweekly.ru/news/t/201812131026-W8xqD.html