Military Review

Tassels without brushes and overalls mono: uniform of the Spanish Civil War

118
Tassels without brushes and overalls mono: uniform of the Spanish Civil War

Republican soldiers in battle


Uniforms are always interesting. Last time, we settled on the fact that uniform reform was carried out in the army of the Republic. But the fact was that on the side of the republic there were also many different kinds of volunteer formations of the Popular Front that fought: organizations of different political orientations, united in order to repulse the fascists.

The usual clothes of the fighters of such detachments was a work overalls (mono), sewn from cotton tarpaulin in gray, greenish and blue, and it was he who also became a kind of uniform for many militianos, not only men but also women. Pilots among the Republicans were also very popular, only without tassels, but in the end it was a man in a mono and a cap that became in Spain the personification of the image of a fighter for freedom of the republic.


Republican Armed Forces: 1 - anarchist police fighter, 1936; 2 - Cabo Guard Asalto, 1937; 3 - a female fighter of the detachment of the Union of Latin American students. Fig. Jeffrey Burne

New insignia also represented asterisks and their combination and were sewn on a uniform together with galloons. Officers were designated with gold horizontal galloon stripes over the toe of the cuff: the captain had three such stripes. At the headquarters officers, wider galloons crowned with a red star were under the toe. The brigadier and the sergeant were distinguished by a star without a fringing and with vertical red stripes over the cuff. The same signs were located near the cap left and right of the emblem of the military branch, while the star was attached to the top. The Cape Republicans were distinguished by a red chevron with an angle upwards at the bottom of their sleeves, but he was not supposed to have a star.


And other Spanish women did not need a uniform at all!

Political commissars had a red star in a red circle and narrow or wide red stripes by rank (by position) under it. They were duplicated on the chest valve and often supplemented with a red neckerchief, so the commissar was visible from afar!


Republican Army: 1 - soldier in winter uniform; 2 - brigade commander; 3 - Captive Captain of the Nationalist Army; 4 - soldier of the 5th Al-Hussein Regiment, winter uniforms. Fig. Jeffrey Burne

Republican generals wore three red stars on their chest and sleeves, arranged in a triangle, with a golden rod and a saber between them. The visors of their caps (as well as many officers) along the edge were edged with gold. The coat of arms of Spain shone with gold in front in the center of the circle, but there was a red star on the top above it. Also, top commanders and general staffists wore up to four faceted three-ray stars, which were attached over insignia. The brigade commander had one, the corps commander had three. The symbolism of the three rays was as follows: socialists, communists and all the others united against fascism!

The five-pointed star was also used in the Republican Navy. navy.

Officer ranks of the republican pilots were also indicated by the galuns. The pilots had “wings” on their chests slightly higher than the galloons, and even higher - a red star. The Air Force emblem was a golden flying eagle, covered by a four-bladed propeller, and looked more rich than the silver emblem of Franco.

Carabinieri and national guards also wore blue mono overalls and gray-green caps with red bands. The assault guards had a blue uniform with silver galloons, insignia and buttons. True, this was their full dress uniform, and in battle they fought all in the same mono, only gray, but in blue caps with silver embroidery. Ammunition was made of black or brown leather. The security forces used paramilitary uniforms, but it was easy to distinguish them by the fact that they were armed with Spanish automatic Mausers "Astra" with a wooden holster-butt.

Many items of uniforms, along with everything else, were delivered to Spain by the Soviet Union. Flight and tank helmets, overalls, boots, ammunition - all this went along with the supply of tanks and aircraft.

Here we digress a bit and recall how many Soviet military advisers arrived in Spain: people of different military specialties and different nationalities.


Interbrigadovtsy-British

Under the name of General Grishin, the head of the Soviet military intelligence corps commissioner Jan Berzin worked in Spain. Admiral don Nicholas (as he was called, although he was not an admiral) was actually a naval attache, Captain I rank Nikolai Kuznetsov, who became the future commissar and admiral of the fleet. General Douglas, Advisor for aviation, in fact, there was a commander Yakov Smushkevich. Commissioner Pablo Fritz was in fact Pavel Batov, the military adviser to Petrovich was Kirill Meretskov, and Colonel Malino was Rodion Malinovsky. The freedom of the Spanish Republic was fought by the commanders of the Red Army Latvian Paul Armen, Ossetians Haji Mamsurov, Italian Primo Djibelli, German Ernst Schacht and many others ... And different fate awaited all these "Spaniards" at home - someone received high posts and was awarded who Something - a term in the camp, or even a bullet in the back of the head. The penetrating book about the war in Spain was written by the "truth-maker" Mikhail Koltsov - and what is the result? He was shot in 1940 ...


Republican Officer's Cap

The commander of the XI International Brigade was the Hungarian writer Mate Zalka - General Lukacs. Among the Inter-Bigad were Germans from the Telman Battalion, and Americans from the Lincoln Battalion, the British, French, and Poles: in all, representatives of 54 countries fought for the republic. Russians from the white emigration were also among them, although there were those who went to fight on the side of Franco. It is clear that many inter-brigade members dressed in the clothes that the Spaniards gave them. But many went about their own way. So, many Frenchmen went to war, taking with them their army service uniforms, the old leather ammunition of the 1916 model, and even just adopted, the 1936 model, and, of course, their own Adrian’s helmets of “the color of the horizon”. The British over their left elbow sewed their Union Jack, and the Germans flaunted triple Mauser pouches.

But for all the militias and partisans who fought in Spain, the uniform was simply not enough. Women milicianos generally wore ordinary dresses, workers wore jackets and plaid shirts over which bandoleers were worn. Windings were wound over striped trousers, and, of course, they tried to get hold of high laced boots, leggings and boots at all costs. But most often, instead of leather shoes, the defenders of the republic had to be content with alpargatas - something like slippers with a rope sole. Usually they were worn directly on white socks, soldierly wrapped on their ankles, while their legs were wrapped in soldier's windings. But it happened and fought barefoot ...


It’s very interesting to read this book too. And the language practice is great!

Perhaps the most colorful way looked three thousand anarchists of Buenaventura Durruti. They were dressed soundly, but very variegated: they wore both mono and breeches with leathers, imitating our commissars of the Civil War. Their main difference was the red-black neckerchiefs, which were sometimes replaced by a red-black patch on the headdress. The Milisianos of the Anarchists wore red and black caps on their heads. Having seen the Soviet films "Chapaev" and "We are from Kronstadt", many anarchists also began to wrap themselves in machine-gun ribbons. Unnecessary weapons they also carried a lot on themselves, but all in order to impress the pretty senorite. And they did honor not only Kropotkin and Bakunin, but also Old Man Makhno, and their battalions were named after them.


Someone in berets, some in caps, some in helmets ...


In a helmet and with a tie! Fighters of the Spanish Republican Army, 1937

Supporters of Trotsky fought on the Republican side. The red letters POUM (Workers' Party of Marxist Unity) flaunted on their uniforms, under a red star sewn on their chests. Then, right during the war, they were attacked by their own ... Many were imprisoned, and many were shot, and some of the Soviet military advisers simple contacts with POUM fighters then turned into a sentence under article 58 ...


It was very easy to recognize the guy in the helmet

The workers' militia created by the Communists could be recognized by the blue semi-overalls worn by both men and women, and the red caps with the abbreviation "People's Union". Another identification mark was a red bandage over the left elbow, which depicted a sickle and a hammer with arms crossed for some reason. In addition to the red cap, the headdress of the Republicans was the red cloth caps worn by the Catalan militia, and again the Basques. And the Basques were both for the Republicans and for the nationalists, so on the Northern Front they met "on both sides of the barricades."

The Milicianos from Andalusia wore wide-brimmed peasant straw hats, bandoleers that crossed on their chests, and ordinary peasant robes, which were very similar to Pancho Villa's Mexican rebels. Everything is like in the movie “Viva, Villa!”, Which in the 30s of the XX century was as popular as “Chapaev”.


A fairly detailed story about the Legion "Condor"

Italians Mussolini and Hitler Germans also fought on Spanish soil. German pilots from the Condor legion wore a German-style uniform, but sewn from mustard-beige in Spanish fabric. Ranks differed in stars over a pocket and in caps - like the Spaniards, but edged with military flowers of the Wehrmacht. German non-commissioned officers also received gold galloons in the Spanish manner. But the tankers had their black berets "decorated" with the traditional German "dead head", but along with a small swastika.


Asa Italians ...


And the Germans ...


And the Republican aces

Italian soldiers and officers in Spain usually fought in their national uniforms, since the Duce did not make a special secret of their nationality, but at the same time they often wore Spanish caps and helmets. Bersaliers could be recognized by bunches of cock feathers. Over the left elbow, Italian soldiers usually had colorful shields with the emblems of the divisions: “Superorditi”, “Littorio”, “Flamme Nere” and others. Patch and badges of distinction, as well as insignia on caps for the convenience of identifying them as Spaniards, again repeated the Spanish pattern, but on the other hand, curly buttonholes in the Italian style were sewn on their collars.


The Ebro River. The last battle for the republic


"Sweet couple"

PS Before us is pleased Franco’s victory. He gained power over Spain. Hitler also looks pleased: he was convinced that in Spain he outplayed all his opponents, this gave him confidence. And then ... then there was the Second World War!
Author:
Articles from this series:
Berets, caps and turbans: the uniform of the Spanish Civil War
118 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Grandfather
    Grandfather 21 June 2020 06: 26 New
    12
    and we had caps with a brush in the kindergarten. 60ies ...
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 21 June 2020 06: 50 New
      +4
      Quote: Dead Day
      and we had caps with a brush in the kindergarten. 60ies ...

      Well, they didn’t call caps, usually Spanish. Not only in kindergarten, in pioneer camps, too.
      1. lucul
        lucul 21 June 2020 10: 21 New
        +1
        Well, they didn’t call caps, usually Spanish.

        But the Chinese categorically refused to wear caps, it too reminded them of a female organ ...
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 21 June 2020 13: 52 New
          -4
          Quote: lucul
          But the Chinese categorically refused to wear caps, it too reminded them of a female organ ...

          Hello to perverts. What do helmets remind them of? request Nothing, but if you eat?repeat
          Pilot comforter comforter (I have not tried it myself, but I have an opinion) repeat
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 21 June 2020 16: 54 New
            11
            Hello to perverts.

            Well, in vain. laughing The chief of staff of my battalion, Major F.M. Davvydov clearly explained to the young people why the cap is called a garrison cap. He took off this cap from the head of the newbie and said: "The view from above has the appearance of that very female organ" (he called the organ). He turned the cap over and asked: "What is this? And this is a boat, so you get a cap." soldier
            But seriously, then our cap went from aviation to the tsar’s army, the pilot - cap. But only.

            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 22 June 2020 06: 38 New
              -3
              And what about the illustrations? Fig. No. 1 - an imbicillin who has no idea about a military uniform, (a cow and a saddle) to wear a condom on his head. fool Fig. Number 2 is a pretty decent hat that you can be proud of. smile
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 22 June 2020 15: 05 New
                +4
                Also imbecile with decibel? laughing
      2. BAI
        BAI 21 June 2020 10: 26 New
        +7
        Pioneer caps appeared just after the events in Spain. Hence the name - Spanish. I wanted to write about it, but I see - they have already said. Although the cap itself appeared in Russia in 1913, as a headdress for pilots. Pilots. Hence the name.
        1. Dr. Frankenstucker
          Dr. Frankenstucker 21 June 2020 23: 35 New
          -2
          Quote: BAI
          like a hat to pilots. Pilots. Hence the name.


          I think you are somewhat mistaken with the etymology. The term "pilot" itself was not in use in 1913. Have aviators this headdress was called not "cap", but "flight".
      3. Dr. Frankenstucker
        Dr. Frankenstucker 21 June 2020 23: 51 New
        -2
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        Well, they didn’t call caps, usually Spanish.


        the first time I've heard. They have always been called pilots. The Spanish flu had a very specific meaning. Always, and in Soviet times too.
    2. iouris
      iouris 21 June 2020 11: 07 New
      +2
      Quote: Dead Day
      and we had caps with a brush in the kindergarten

      Times are different now. Ours for you with a brush from Shpakovsky: "Above all ... cloudless sky"
    3. Fitter65
      Fitter65 21 June 2020 15: 14 New
      +2
      Quote: Dead Day
      and we had caps with a brush in the kindergarten. 60ies ...

      And in the early 70s, and in some pioneer camps, a cap with a brush and in the 80s met ...
    4. vladcub
      vladcub 21 June 2020 15: 23 New
      +2
      When I was a pioneer, I wore a cap with a tassel. In our country, no one called them "Spaniards".
      I have a photograph somewhere, where I am in such a cap
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 21 June 2020 06: 43 New
    +7
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. The photos are wonderful. As for the time, so simply amazing ...
    Now we often argue about the superiority of camouflage; in the armies, reforms are being carried out to carry signs with the help ...
    And then people just took rifles, threw a bandoleer on a dress / shirt and went to defend their homeland ...
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 21 June 2020 06: 52 New
      0
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Now we often argue about the superiority of camouflage, the army is carrying out reforms to transfer marks from pogogh .. And then people just took rifles, threw a bandoleer on a dress / shirt and went to defend their homeland.
      A loss, loss, the results of the battle will be compared? fool There are no trifles in battle.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 June 2020 07: 50 New
        11
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. The photos are wonderful. As for the time, so simply amazing ...
        Now we often argue about the superiority of camouflage; in the armies, reforms are being carried out to carry signs with the help ...
        And then people just took rifles, threw a bandoleer on a dress / shirt and went to defend their homeland ...

        HAU Leader! I’m a little bluffing: “I dug an ax out of the ground and went with him to avenge the offenders”!
        I am interested in another factor, but how many of the age category “20-30” can confidently hold “Kalashnikov” in their hands in order to “go to defend the Fatherland”?
        I think in order to have a mobilization reserve - it is necessary to create conditions for its formation!
        For example, what can a child be given by a profile teacher of labor or physical education, who has not served in the army in life safety classes?
        Essentially anticipating the debate, there must be one solution. All young people are obligated to serve urgent - regardless of their suitability for service. With the exception of category 1 and 2 disabled people.
        Maybe tough, but fair. Sometimes it becomes funny to see a two-meter roll with a white ticket and a diagnosis - allergy !!!
        Regards, Kote!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 21 June 2020 12: 18 New
          13
          I do not agree!
          Vlad, how do you imagine a diabetic or asthmatic in the Sun?
          Meanwhile, I talk a lot with this generation, and I can say that most people can handle weapons.
          Sorry, a small friendly joke: will you take your future son-in-law according to the principle you have designated, or will you trust the choice of your daughter?
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 June 2020 21: 16 New
            +6
            In the army it is not necessary to run, jump and learn to fight! Diabetic and asthmatic can safely repay Motherland debt in alternative service. In hospitals, technical support units, etc. Work at a metallurgical plant by a rolling mill involves a long experience. That is, asma does not interfere with work on a rolling mill, but it interferes with serving in the army. A person with diabetes can serve in the medical unit, or as a cook in the dining room of the military unit. At the same time get a military or other specialty at the time of mobilization. For example - a nurse.
            In fact, I am a supporter of the principle of the inevitability of military service. Knowing that your child will in any case serve as fathers, commanders will treat conscripts differently.
            On the second question, I suppose Anton, I will be the last in line, just for the cat, whose daughter will ask for advice about his chosen one.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 21 June 2020 21: 31 New
              +4
              On the second question. I have sons, that is: that brought, that and are glad laughing
              On the first: yes you are a Jew !!! laughing
              I will explain. In Israel, all citizens, regardless of gender, from 18 to 60, are considered military.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 June 2020 21: 47 New
                +5
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                On the second question. I have sons, that is: that brought, that and are glad laughing
                On the first: yes you are a Jew !!! laughing
                I will explain. In Israel, all citizens, regardless of gender, from 18 to 60, are considered military.

                Why not! The Institute of Citizenship is interesting in itself. Initially, it was the practice of Rome to give citizenship for service. Today, unfortunately, a purely economic imbalance of rights and obligations has been formed! An ordinary person pays taxes - for which he receives a social and legal environment. The existence of a natural implementation of the obligation to protect the homeland is an inapplicable principle of the existence of the state. Create conditions, I think it will not be worse. And then unfortunately today the system of stereotypes is working. Perhaps they do not need to be broken through the knee, but I think it makes sense to correct and give the opportunity to pay the debt to the Fatherland to the girls.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 21 June 2020 21: 57 New
                  +3
                  Hmmmm ... Interesting. I already thought a lot about this. A little later I will present to you my vision of Russian citizenship.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 21 June 2020 22: 26 New
                    +4
                    Essentially anticipating the debate, there must be one solution. All young people are obligated to serve urgent - regardless of their suitability for service. With the exception of category 1 and 2 disabled people.
                    Why can't people with disabilities serve? After all, there are Paralympic sports, why not be Paralympic troops? Control of a tank, for example, is easy to adapt to a one-legged or one-armed mechvod.
                    In fact, I am a supporter of the principle of the inevitability of military service.
                    Indeed, the service must be inevitable. And the fact that a diabetic or an asthmatic who dies in a gas mask will straighten his tail straight - well, the end justifies the means.
                    You can even form parts taking into account disability. Suppose half with the right hand, half with the left. And a support platoon with enuresis.
        2. kalibr
          21 June 2020 13: 29 New
          +7
          Recently, my granddaughter took the final test for life safety at Moscow College. Witte. Remotely, of course. Dismantled a Kalashnikov assault rifle. Before that, she had never held it in her hands. Well, with my help, I took it apart. With 80% of the students in her group, it was the same ... And shoot him ... ha ha!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 21 June 2020 17: 29 New
            +5
            I note, however, that operating the equipment is easier than maintaining it.
            1. Lexus
              Lexus 21 June 2020 23: 52 New
              +3
              Anton hi , yoksil-moxil, and a woman is easier to register than to care for and maintain. By nature, we are "riders", only life forces us to serve, groom and cherish. Otherwise, they will kick up and will not give ... Or they will fail. lol
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 22 June 2020 00: 05 New
                +3
                Alas, this is also true. Practice shows that random communications are cheaper than constant ones.
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 08 New
                  +3
                  Unfortunately. The appetites of tamed creatures know no bounds. He wore it in his arms, for a moment was distracted, hop, already on his neck ...
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 22 June 2020 00: 12 New
                    +3
                    It was so in my life, it was different. That which is "different" still hurts.
                    1. Lexus
                      Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 20 New
                      +3
                      It is necessary to brush off periodically. The one that holds the hand, at the same time, will remain. It hurts - it means alive.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 June 2020 00: 27 New
                        +2
                        If it's not "phantom" pain.
                      2. Lexus
                        Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 33 New
                        +2
                        Phantom pain is masochism. Drive the sadness-longing away! A good person always has a lot of friends - you can join hands and walk through "nonsense." Then rip off the "lamprey" and release the "SterLady". Your Goldfish will be different in the catch. wink
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 June 2020 00: 46 New
                        +2
                        Will not be, I released my Goldfish.
                      4. Lexus
                        Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 57 New
                        +2
                        There will be no

                        What kind of mood? Can not be so. There is no golden cap, my mother used to say. I always argued with her, but now I agree.

                        I unleashed a goldfish.

                        And let him swim to himself. Real, from flesh and blood - such is needed for life and happiness. Yours.
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 June 2020 01: 05 New
                        +2
                        With all due respect to you, with all my buffoonery, I'm sorry! Publicly expose the soul, I will not. This is only my pain and love.
                      6. Lexus
                        Lexus 22 June 2020 01: 22 New
                        +2
                        Anything can happen in life, but "even the wisest of the wise is not given to know all the intricacies of fate" (C). Only one thing is true - to fight and never give up. There are things beyond our control, but they do not make us weaker. Retreat is not a defeat, but only an opportunity to gather strength and always go forward. And you will see that you are not alone in this striving ...
                      7. kalibr
                        22 June 2020 08: 07 New
                        +5
                        Yes, Alexey! The Japanese samurai, for example, thought so. The defeated clan never fought to the end, but always surrendered, gave up the children as hostages, just to survive. "What bends can be straightened!" they said. "Only the broken branch dries up!"
                      8. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 11: 58 New
                        +2
                        The defeated clan never fought to the end, but always surrendered, betraying children as hostages in order to survive.

                        Hojo at Kamakura did not succeed! request There was mass suicide, fanciful and diverse. Like in Saipan in 600 years ... what and so the famous family that ruled Japan for 150 years perished. hi
                      9. kalibr
                        22 June 2020 15: 22 New
                        +1
                        .... and fanatics have always been!
                      10. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 15: 56 New
                        +3
                        .... and fanatics have always been!

                        But did Hojo have a choice, Vyacheslav Olegovich, if the emperor Go-Daigo himself was marching on them? (of course, he didn’t personally lead the troops, but his commander Kusunoki Masashige) request For that war was carried out with the aim of removing the shogun of his comrades, so to speak, to the ground, and then - henceforth, to rule Mikado himself! hi
                        .... and fanatics have always been!

                        By the way, the power of the Hojo family was transferred from Minamoto, and it was they (Minamoto) who came up with the seppuku, EMNIP. Their opponents, Tyra, committed suicide differently, but no less fancifully.wink
                      11. kalibr
                        22 June 2020 18: 01 New
                        +3
                        And there have always been situations without a choice. But ... here comes the third factor: personality. For someone with a certain set of qualities, there is always a choice. For some, not always ... Hojo could come to the emperor to bow before him and ... ask him to conquer Hokkaido for him. And ... everyone would be happy. In any case, it would be worth trying. But the pride of the "Hojo bug" was superior to Fujiyama. And they always die on Fridays!
                      12. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 19: 18 New
                        +3
                        But the pride of the "Hojo bug" was superior to Fujiyama. And they always die on Fridays!

                        Friday.
                        Self-conceit surpasses mine -
                        I'll start to make hara-kiri ...

                        (unknown samurai, Kamakura, 1333).
  • Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 21 June 2020 13: 52 New
    +8
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    With the exception of category 1 and 2 disabled people.
    Maybe tough, but fair.

    You just don’t know how groups are changing now. With the 3rd they take off, from the second to the third they rearrange. On the commission, the visually impaired of the 2nd group, not even a fig sees his nose:
    - Can you light a gas stove?
    - Can.
    - A fried egg?
    - Can.
    It turns out that she already has the third group, instead of the second.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 21 June 2020 15: 04 New
    +1
    Namesake, correctly noted. That's just about: "with the exception of category 1 and 2 disabled people" is somewhat controversial
  • Harry cuper
    Harry cuper 21 June 2020 16: 56 New
    +2
    Why are armies sick and frail? They are still not suitable for service, they will only reduce the combat effectiveness of their unit.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 June 2020 21: 25 New
      +4
      Quote: Harry Cuper
      Why are armies sick and frail? They are still not suitable for service, they will only reduce the combat effectiveness of their unit.

      Last year he underwent fluorography at a hospital of the Russian Guard. Checkpoint - three people, another track sweep - two, a pass office - one! Do you think these six "moose" will see the machine? Only on oath. How much physical strength is needed to sweep the parade ground, to issue a pass?
      Yours!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 June 2020 23: 10 New
        +4
        Vlad! Well this is the Russian Guard! It's not even a "Vologda convoy"!
      2. Harry cuper
        Harry cuper 25 June 2020 18: 41 New
        -2
        With no less respect (I really like your comments) - to those "moose" laughing posts serving an alternative service. Or autosourcing - for the army it will be cheaper (in every sense).
  • Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 21 June 2020 09: 59 New
    11
    Considering how the Republicans fought, for the most part having a very vague idea of ​​military affairs, unlike their opponents - the Francoists (most of them military professionals, albeit in the Spanish iteration), the role of the uniform (or rather its absence) in the growth of losses of the Republicans Do not overestimate. Republicans knew how to die for their ideals, for the cause of the revolution, but practically did not know how to fight for them. As a result, they were quite naturally defeated (I mean purely military aspects).
  • kalibr
    21 June 2020 15: 42 New
    +4
    Quote: Leader of the Redskins
    And then people just took rifles, threw a bandoleer on a dress / shirt and went to defend their homeland ...

    Yes, Nazarius, but those who wore jackets and shoulder straps ended up beating them. In general, I would advise you to read four books on the Spanish war. Two classics: Orwell J. "In Memory of Catalonia", Hemingway - "For Whom the Bell Tolls", his "Fifth Column", and ... my novel, the second book of his book "Three of them Ensk. Three from Ensk and" Pareto's Law ". The first three are quite difficult, but for me all the main characters remain alive and even succeed !!!
    1. Harry cuper
      Harry cuper 21 June 2020 17: 00 New
      +2
      "For Whom the Bell Tolls" is hard not because the main character dies. It is hard to read with what frenzy people of one country exterminate each other.
      1. kalibr
        21 June 2020 17: 20 New
        +3
        This is without a doubt true!
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 21 June 2020 17: 29 New
          +1
          I read "... the bell" and some other stories about Hemingway's Spain. I also mastered a couple of technical books dedicated to that period.
    2. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 22 June 2020 10: 11 New
      0
      those who wore overalls and epaulets eventually beat them

      Then it would be more logical to consider further comparatively and analytically - the military training system of each of the parties. The political foundations and the course of hostilities have long been well studied by professionals, the form and insignia is a particular aspect, fiction about that period is now not very popular, and good popular material on the training of military personnel is still waiting in the wings.
      1. kalibr
        22 June 2020 11: 34 New
        +1
        Quote: ycuce234-san
        and good popular material on training military personnel is still waiting in the wings.

        He will wait. You need a good knowledge of the language, you need the charters of the Francoists and Republicans, you need to live in Spain to personally dig into their archives and museums ... This is EXPENSIVE - paying for the result is miserable! And who will work of pure interest for the sake of themselves and at a loss? I understand another person - a candidate for a doctoral degree in military sciences. But ... who of these military men knows Spanish?
        1. ycuce234-san
          ycuce234-san 22 June 2020 14: 47 New
          0
          And who will work of pure interest for the sake of themselves and at a loss? I understand another person - a candidate for the degree


          It is possible to "exchange material" to work with native Spanish dissertators and doctoral students who write something based on Russian sources. It will also cost them a lot of travel, and during the coronavirus period it is generally impossible. From the pros it is cheap, from the minuses it is slow and you will have to build long chains of information barter.

          You need to search for those who wish through local scientific social networks and local thematic forums or special scientific social networks (https://theoryandpractice.ru/posts/5758-6-sotsialnykh-setey-dlya-uchenykh-obshchenie-s-inostrannymi-issledovatelyami-i-dostup- k-ikh-publikatsiyam) and negotiate broken English and with the help of computer translators. On the websites of many universities there are e-mails of departments and employees - it’s easy to write off in the first place.
          1. kalibr
            22 June 2020 15: 20 New
            +2
            Quote: ycuce234-san
            On the sites of many universities there are e-mails of departments and employees - it is generally easy to write off.

            If you knew how much time and effort it takes to obtain a simple permission from the museum to use photography from its website, then you would not be so optimistic. Even in good English, it takes a lot of time and patience. And to look in the local forums and through the websites of universities, what anyone needs to consider is complete nonsense. Time is money! Such expenses do not pay off.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 21 June 2020 08: 58 New
    +1
    Well, Spain has been neutral. There were of course these, with a blue division.
  • Cowbra
    Cowbra 21 June 2020 09: 24 New
    +1
    Someone in berets, some in caps, some in helmets

    The picture is called "Find Banderas". Smokes, hut!
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 21 June 2020 13: 19 New
      +7
      Quote: Cowbra
      Someone in berets, some in caps, some in helmets

      The picture is called "Find Banderas". Smokes, hut!

      Ha ha ha ha! wink Also noticed? Second right in the top row !!!! laughing
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 June 2020 13: 29 New
        +5
        This is not Banderas, this is young Danny Trejo! laughing
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 21 June 2020 13: 33 New
          +5
          Machete? good No, well, right, this man is more like Banderos! bully
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 21 June 2020 13: 35 New
            +5
            Let's not argue! Let's get together on Goiko Mitice! laughing
            1. Lexus
              Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 22 New
              +1
              Banderas all noticed. And Mickey Rourke in the center missed. Again deuce! lol
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 22 June 2020 00: 35 New
                +2
                Well, to be honest, Nicolas Cage was filming there (in the center, smiling, wearing a helmet), and that guy, on the right in the corner, I don't remember the name in Pacific, played laughing
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 43 New
                  +1
                  "Pacific" probably did not look. But Cage is actually quite to the left. Neighs in a cap. winked
          2. Lexus
            Lexus 22 June 2020 00: 38 New
            +1
            Sergei, and to the left of Banderas - Hector (Eric Bana). tongue
  • Vladimir Mashkov
    Vladimir Mashkov 21 June 2020 10: 47 New
    +4
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich for interesting articles. It just so happened that I just recently read For Whom the Bell Tolls. And your articles (about Alcazar and "Jaime1" too) have become a wonderful addition.
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 13: 06 New
      +6
      Dear Vladimir! Finally, my novel "Three from Ensk" (part 1) came out on my website author.today. But the sequel is about to be released - Three from Ensk and "Pareto's Law". And there is half of the novel - the civil war in Spain ... Get in there and first read the first, then the second will just come out ... You will not regret it!
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 21 June 2020 17: 18 New
        +1
        Q. Oh, you advertise your book again
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 21 June 2020 17: 23 New
          +6
          Why not"?
        2. kalibr
          21 June 2020 17: 24 New
          +3
          Svyatoslav! And what's wrong with a good book? The Bible says: do what you want others to do with you. It is nice when a person shares a smile with you, a kind word, treats the berries gathered at his dacha. Is not it? Or am I wrong? But if all this is pleasant, then why not share the book, especially since it is really good? Aah, do you have to pay? Well, after all, the price is not comparable with the volume, as if you were buying it in a store. So I see nothing wrong with that!
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 21 June 2020 17: 32 New
            +1
            In general, you are right, but I would prefer to a freebie.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 21 June 2020 17: 47 New
              +4
              For free, it’s also possible, but there’s one thing ... Here, let’s say, I can’t stand the right-wingers who wind up to 1000% on any artwork. But without hesitation, I will pay the author the requested amount, which I did, in the case of Shpakovsky.
            2. kalibr
              21 June 2020 17: 57 New
              +3
              Svyatoslav! For free and I would prefer, but what is impossible is impossible. And then I can judge people here mainly by their comments, I know only a few more closely, and therefore I offer my books more insistently to those about whom I have a good opinion from the comments, that is, those who are really interested in them, useful and who can rate them. As they say do not like it - it would be an honor!
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 21 June 2020 22: 30 New
            +3
            And what's wrong with a good book? Any critical reviews?
            1. kalibr
              22 June 2020 08: 03 New
              0
              Yes, Victor Nikolaevich. Quite a lot of people read it both in Russia and abroad, and abroad it was read by Russian people who emigrated there. It was read by one of our colleagues in VO, who is sometimes published here. My colleagues at the university read it ... Yes, the editors Rosman, Eksmo, AST read it ... everyone liked the novel. But ... "too fat", "the penultimate topic on the monitoring list", "young people don't read", "little brutality", "no sex" ... Do you need sex? Then he is not there, only a rare hint sometimes ... But the books are really big: the first "Three from Ensk. Battle group" Iron Horse "- 810 pages, the second" Three from Ensk. Three from Ensk and "Pareto's Law" - 610 pages and the third "Three from Ensk. Emerald palms, golden sand ..." - 750. And now: the minimum size is 10 Austrian, and the maximum ... is a little more 12-13 ...
              1. Harry cuper
                Harry cuper 25 June 2020 18: 50 New
                -2
                Aha-aa ...
                little brutality
                ,
                no sex
                Book. Appendix # 1 "Brutality". Appendix # 2 "Intimacy" laughing
  • vladcub
    vladcub 21 June 2020 15: 17 New
    +1
    I read somewhere, now I don’t remember that the caps in the Red Army appeared under the influence of events in Spain
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 15: 36 New
      +1
      I also read somewhere that before ... But I won’t insist on that. The memory is not the same as in youth.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 21 June 2020 16: 35 New
        +7
        Good evening! In general, the cap in Russia appeared in 1913. As an element of clothing in the aeronautical parts. Oh! hi
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 21 June 2020 17: 33 New
          +2
          That's right. The word cap came from the PILOT. A folding cap that you can get out of your pocket, put on instead of a hot helmet and report to your superiors about the assignment.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 21 June 2020 17: 39 New
            +4
            Alternatively, in some sources, they were called * flights *. There were such things. soldier
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 21 June 2020 16: 48 New
      +4
      If we talk about the Red Army. May 16, 1919. It was located cadets command courses.
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 21 June 2020 15: 48 New
    +8
    "Then, right during the war, they were attacked by their own ... Many were imprisoned, and many were shot" ////
    ---
    They treated the anarchists in exactly the same way as the Trotskyists: they, too, were attacked by their own (communists).
    That is precisely why Franco won: the Communists, right during the fighting, began to crack down on their allies. Holes formed in the fronts, and the front collapsed.
    ----
    Orwell looked at it. He came to fight for the Communists, but after glancing at their absurd cruelties, he became a staunch anti-communist.
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 18: 16 New
      +5
      Quote: voyaka uh
      He came to fight for the Communists

      He just went to the POUM and hit like hens in the pluck!
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 21 June 2020 16: 26 New
    +3
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, why does the captured nationalist captain have a holster with a gun?
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 16: 28 New
      +4
      If I drew this drawing, I would answer you!
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 21 June 2020 16: 37 New
        +4
        Probably he still does not know that he is already in captivity. laughing
        Thanks for the article Vyacheslav Olegovich! Liked!
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 21 June 2020 16: 45 New
        +5
        Bravo. Well said
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 21 June 2020 16: 36 New
    +4
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, in which x / f is the republican form correctly shown? Is it to visualize the form?
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 17: 32 New
      +4
      This is a question. In 1940, Italians made a film about the protection of Alcatraz. Artistic ... I don’t know if it is on the Web and translated into Russian ... So there, most likely everything is right.
    2. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 21 June 2020 17: 37 New
      +3
      In general, few films have been made about Spain. And then, more often episodically ":
      In "Volunteers", "Officers", "Heads in the Clouds", there was also a Soviet film dedicated to Mate Zalka "Pseudonym Lukach", or something ... A couple of episodes from the GDR TV series ... The name of one is "Operation Fireball".
      1. kalibr
        21 June 2020 18: 01 New
        +3
        The picture "During the war" last year came out in Spain and was a great success. The film became a laureate of the national film award "Goya" in 5 nominations.
        1. kalibr
          21 June 2020 18: 08 New
          +5
          Siege of the Alcazar (Blockade of the Alcazar) / L'assedio dell'Alcazar (The Siege)
          Italy, Spain, 1940
          Director: Augusto Jenina
          Cast: Fosco Giachetti, Mireille Balen, Maria Denis, Rafael Calvo, Carlos Muñoz, Aldo Fiorelli, Andrea Kekki, Carlo Tamberlani, Silvio Bagolini, Guido Notari

          A film about the Republican siege of the Alcazar fortress in 1936. There are many films about the civil war shot by the Republicans. On the part of the Francoists - almost none. In this film, the Francoists believe in God and Franco, and the Communists, Anarchists, Republicans - desperate thugs. The film was awarded the Mussolini Cup at the Venice Film Festival in 1940.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 21 June 2020 23: 03 New
            +4
            “Salute, Maria!” - Soviet two-part black-and-white feature film-drama, staged at the Lenfilm film studio in 1970 by director Joseph Kheifits.
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 21 June 2020 18: 11 New
        +5
        * Front without mercy * you mean? Oh, eh, eh. Where is this GDR, DEFA and much more. The answer is in history, in memory. recourse
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 21 June 2020 21: 08 New
          +3
          Of the films listed, I watched only: "Officers" and even then I hardly remember "front without mercy"
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 21 June 2020 23: 03 New
            +2
            “Salute, Maria!” - Soviet two-part black-and-white feature film-drama, staged at the Lenfilm film studio in 1970 by director Joseph Kheifits.
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 21 June 2020 18: 19 New
        +2
        Leader, the GDR TV series, probably: "The stake is greater than life"?
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 21 June 2020 21: 19 New
          +2
          Comrades, I have sclerosis: I was thinking about Front, but I said Polish. Probably because I reviewed it last year.
          So excuse the sclerotic
  • vladcub
    vladcub 21 June 2020 17: 12 New
    +3
    Quote: kalibr
    I also read somewhere that before ... But I won’t insist on that. The memory is not the same as in youth.

    V.O., do you probably remember when Madrid fell? In the Red Army in the spring and summer of 1940, caps were introduced instead of budenovki.
    Respectfully Your Reader
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 17: 33 New
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      In the Red Army in the spring and summer of 1940, caps were introduced instead of budenovki.

      But our pilots most likely look like pilots of the tsar’s army pilots than the Spanish ...
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 21 June 2020 18: 31 New
        +2
        This is not surprising: the style is familiar and Stalin EVERYWHERE, where it was possible to copy the times of RI and with form.
        It seems that Golovanov wrote how in 1942 they chose the style of the new officer uniform and Stalin remembered: the field uniform of the Russian captain
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 21 June 2020 18: 01 New
    +3
    The brigade commander D.G. Pavlov (Pablo), very successfully participated in such operations as the battles of Mahadanoda, Jarama and Guadalajara (1937). Due to his direct fault, on June 22, 1941, our whole division was not in the field camps, where it should be according to the order of June 16, but on the territory of the Brest Fortress, which allowed the Wehrmacht to block it there and take Minsk in a week. The dispersal of troops was carried out in all border districts, except ZAPOVO. In a month D.G. Pavlov was shot by a court verdict. Naturally, in 1957, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR issued a ruling by which the sentence of July 22, 1941 was canceled due to newly discovered circumstances, and the case was dismissed for lack of corpus delicti (!)
    1. kalibr
      21 June 2020 18: 14 New
      +3
      This is special. There will be some more materials about Spain. And there will be about Pavlov in Spain ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 June 2020 21: 02 New
        +1
        It became interesting, but what about Starinov?
        1. kalibr
          21 June 2020 21: 07 New
          +1
          No, Anton. I have no information.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 21 June 2020 21: 16 New
            +1
            It's a pity. Starinov is the founder of domestic special operations.
            1. kalibr
              21 June 2020 21: 33 New
              +1
              Everyone has their own sources, Anton. To search for something in a hurry just to write as soon as possible ... this is "not our method." For example, I started studying Spain in 1992 ... But I haven't read anything about Starinov.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 21 June 2020 21: 40 New
                +3
                Vyacheslav Olegovich, I am the last one to blame you for not owning information!