Military Review

The death of the battleship "Szent István"

71

The dying Szent István (newsreel frame)


Since 1939, Navy Day in Italy has been celebrated on June 10, the anniversary of the sinking of the Austrian battleship Szent István during the First World War. This event, which forced the command of the Austrian fleet cancel the planned large-scale operation and return to the base, this article is devoted.

After commissioning in November – December 1915, the battleship Szent István repeatedly went to sea for firing training and sea trials. During the latter, going at maximum speed (less than twenty knots) after a sharp shift of the steering wheel at 35 degrees from the neutral position, the dreadnought heeled more than 19 degrees. Under the same conditions, the roll of three ships of the same type reached maximum values ​​from 8 degrees and 20 minutes to 11 degrees and 20 minutes. Since the shields of medium-caliber guns in the casemates had not yet been installed, water gushed freely into the ship. The first commander of the ship, Captain 1st Rank E. Grassberger, believed that such a significant roll was caused by the unsuccessful shape of the platform for the spotlights, but after the size of this platform was reduced, it was found that the metacentric height of the battleship increased by only 18 millimeters. Obviously, in this case, the influence of the unsuccessful shape of the propeller shaft brackets also affected, therefore, henceforth it was forbidden to shift the steering wheel at an angle greater than 10 degrees at high speed. During firing practice, a lack of tightness of riveted joints was discovered, which was a result of both the rush to build and the lack of experience in building large warships at the Ganz-Danubius company, at the shipyard of which Szent István was built at Fiume. All four battleships of the Viribus Unitis type were also found to have insufficient stability caused by deviations of the ship’s design from the original design, and with full displacement the Austrian dreadnoughts had a bow trim of 24 centimeters. On December 23, the ship was officially introduced into the 1st squadron (1. Geschwader).


Szent István after commissioning

March 15, 1916 "Szent István" first went beyond the boundaries of the water area of ​​Paula and, accompanied by three destroyers, headed towards the middle Adriatic, where it was supposed to conduct training firing near the island of Pago. Ships went at a speed of 12 knots, periodically increasing speed to 16 knots. Due to bad weather, training firing was not carried out, and only the next day the main caliber artillery and anti-aircraft artillery could fire.

At the end of August 1916, the Szent István entered the Pheasant Canal for carrying out torpedo fires, and a month later the ship’s motor boat, armed with a landing cannon, took part in taking the Italian submarine Gialito Pullino aground. On November 23, 1916, the crew of the battleship attended the coronation of the new Emperor Charles I. In 1917, the Szent István, along with the ships of the same type, accompanied a series of airborne alarms by taking several short-term exits to the Pheasant Canal for exercises. The most powerful air raid, lasting almost a day, took place on December 12, 1917, when the German emperor Wilhelm II visited the base of German submarines in the Field.

In January and February 1918, in the arsenals of Paula and Cattaro there were uprisings and riots of sailors, the suppression of which was accompanied by relatively small victims. To suppress the protests, a battleship division of the Erzherzog Karl type was sent to Cattaro, since the dreadnoughts were not used to suppress the protests.

Of the 937 days in service, Szent István spent 54 days at sea, and only once did the ship take part in a cruising operation that lasted two days. With other exits to the sea, the dreadnought did not move too far from Paula. Szent István has never been docked since its entry into service, and due to the previously mentioned drawbacks of the propeller brackets, it never made a full run.

After the riots in Cattaro, the red fleet of the Gäa floating base and the armored cruisers Sankt Georg and Kaiser Karl VI replaced the entire fleet management, and ships of no more value were withdrawn from the fleet. Moreover, almost all of the old admirals, including the fleet commander Admiral Maximilian Nyegovan, were retired. In place of the commander on February 27, 1918, bypassing many high-ranking officers of the fleet, a young dynamic rear admiral Miklos Horthy was appointed, which provoked optimism of Admiral Reinhard Scheer, commander of the German fleet of the High Seas. To increase the morale of the crews, the new fleet management decided to start the start of a large naval operation in the southern Adriatic Sea, where the ships of the Entente countries established the Otran barrier line, which made it difficult for the submarines of Austria-Hungary and Germany to enter the Mediterranean Sea. A year earlier, in May 1917, three Austrian light cruisers Novara, Saida and Helgoland, disguised as large English destroyers, under the command of Horthy, attacked enemy drifters, sinking or seriously injuring fourteen out of forty-seven.

Now the new commander-in-chief wanted to repeat his action, but this time with the support of the dreadnoughts, who were supposed to fall upon the allied forces to cover the Otransky barrage. Sea mines and nets were the main target of the two strike groups, since they seriously hindered the entry of Austrian and German submarines into the Mediterranean Sea, although their losses at this obstacle were relatively small.

The idea of ​​a combined attack of the Otransky boundary line did not belong to Admiral Horthy, but to the commander of the 1rd heavy division (armadillos of the Erzherzog Karl type) captain 11st rank E. Heisler. The latter suggested attacking the Otransky barrier line using his division. At the same time, high-speed cruisers (Rapidkreuzer) had to strike at the fence itself. The old battleships were powerful enough to repel possible counterattacks by the Entente cruisers based in Brindisi. Admiral Horthy ignored this suggestion because he wanted to remove the inexperienced dreadnought crews from the “lethargic dream”. This operation was to be accompanied by the advance of the Austro-Hungarian ground forces on the Italian front, which was planned to begin on June 1918, 15. Due to poor supply and tiredness of the army units, the beginning of the offensive had to be postponed until June XNUMX. However, the date on which the naval operation was scheduled to remain unchanged. In case the enemy ships attacked by the Austrians would be supported by the British battlecruisers, the admiral was about to oppose his dreadnoughts to them. In its final form, the plan provided for the simultaneous achievement of several goals, therefore, the forces involved for the operation were divided into separate groups, which included the following ships.

Attacking groups (Angriffsgruppe “a” - “b”):

"A". Light cruisers Novara and Helgoland, fighters Tátra, Csepel and Triglav.
"B". Light cruisers Admiral Spaun and Saida, destroyers 84, 92, 98 and 99.

The cover forces, consisting of the following tactical support groups (Rückhaltgruppe “a” - “g”):

"A". The battleship "Viribus Unitis", fighters "Balaton" and "Orjen", destroyers 86, 90, 96 and 97;
"B". The battleship “Prinz Eugen”, fighters “Dukla” and “Uzsok”, destroyers 82, 89, 91 and 95;
"C". The battleship Erzherzog Ferdinand Max, the Turul fighter, destroyers 61, 66, 52, 56 and 50;
"D". The battleship Erzherzog Karl, the Huszár and Pandúr fighters, destroyers 75, 94 and 57;
"E". The battleship Erzherzog Friedrich, the Csikós and Uskoke fighters, the destroyers 53, 58 and one Kaiman type destroyer:
"F". The battleship Tegetthoff, the Velebit fighter, the destroyer 81 and three destroyers of the Kaiman type.
"G". The battleship Szent István, destroyers 76, 77, 78 and 80.

It was decided to send battleships of the Tegetthoff type to the sea from Paula as part of two groups, which, leaving the base, were to head south. The first group with dreadnoughts Viribus Unitis (the flag of Fleet Commander Admiral Horthy) and Prinz Eugen, escorted by seven ships, went to sea on June 2, heading for Slano, located north of Dubrovnik.

Another group with the dreadnoughts Tegetthoff and Szent István, whose commander, 1st-rank captain H. von Treffen, was also the commander of the entire group of ships, was to leave Paula on the evening of June 9 and go towards 15 knots Thayer Bay. They were accompanied by the Velebit fighter, as well as the destroyers Tb 76, 77, 78, 79, 81 and 87. According to the plan, after this group of ships reached Thayer Bay in the evening of June 10, they should head for Slano with so that on June 11, together with other ship groups, take part in the action.

The operation began under an unlucky star: when both battleships with flags lowered to half the masts were warming up steam boilers, a shell exploded on the Velebit fighter, resulting in the death of several crew members, in addition, a fatal organizational mistake was made earlier. For reasons of secrecy, the boom personnel were not notified in advance of the withdrawal of the connection, as a result of which the ships, which were awaiting the divorce of booms after giving an oral order, instead of 21:00 went to sea only at 22:15. The Velebit fighter went first, followed by the Szent István and Tegetthoff in the wake.


The battleships Szent István (left) and Tegetthoff

Destroyers guarded the compound on either side: Tb 79, 87 and 78 were on the left, Tb 77, 76 and 81 on the right.

They decided to make up for the time lost upon leaving Pula by increasing the connection speed to 17,5 knots. Shortly after midnight, the connection speed due to overheating of the flagship starboard turbine bearing was reduced to 12 knots for a while, but by 03:30, about nine miles southwest of Premuda, they were already at 14 knots. With increasing speed, due to the poor quality of coal and lack of experience among stokers, many of whom first went to sea, thick smoke poured from the chimneys of both dreadnoughts and sparks flew.

The death of the battleship "Szent István"

Campaign warrant (illustration from the report of the commander of the battleship Tegetthoff)

At the same time, a pair of Italian torpedo boats were at sea under the general command of Captain 3rd Rank L. Rizzo, who commanded the Ancon IV-based flotilla of MAS torpedo boats and had on board a battleship Wien, sunk by a torpedo boat MAS 9 in Trieste. Both boats, MAS 15 and MAS 21, were towed the day before by Italian destroyers 18 OS and 15 OS in tow to the Dalmatian islands.


Italian torpedo boats MAS 15 and MAS 21 in tow (fragment of a post-war production film)

The tasks of the boats included the search for Austrian steamers going south, as well as anti-submarine minefields, exhibited by the Austro-Hungarian fleet. Although no enemy mines were found and no enemy vessels were encountered, the squad leader decided to return to the designated meeting place with his destroyers at 02:05, but before that he decided to wait another half hour and then leave the patrol area. At 03:15, the Italians on the starboard side noticed a thick cloud of smoke approaching from the north. Torpedo boats at minimum speed headed towards the enemy’s formation, missed both lead ships (Velebit fighter and Tb 77 destroyer), after which they passed between Tb 77 and Tb 76 destroyers, and then, increasing speed from nine to twelve knots, fired torpedoes (probably A115 / 450, the weight of the warhead is 115 kg or A145).


The scheme of the torpedo attack of the Austrian compound (illustration from the Italian edition)

The torpedoes of the MAS 21, launched at Tegetthoff from a distance of 450-500 meters, failed. The trace of one of them (apparently drowned) was spotted on the dreadnought five hundred meters and disappeared, according to the assessment of the ship's commander, about one hundred and fifty meters from the ship. On the dreadnought and escort ships, it was considered that they were attacked by an Italian submarine, after which fire was fired on a suspicious item taken by observers as a periscope.

In the Szent István, both torpedoes with the MAS 15 were fired from a distance of about 600 meters (in the report, Rizzo indicated that they were fired from a distance of about 300 meters). The launch was seen from the destroyer Tb 76, after which the latter began to pursue a torpedo boat, firing from a distance of 100-150 meters. For a short time, the destroyer Tb 81 joined the pursuit of the boats, but then, having lost sight of the Italians, it returned to its warrant. To break away from the chase, the MAS 15 boat dropped two depth charges into the wake, the second of which exploded, then the Italians made several sharp turns of 90 degrees, after which the Austrian destroyer disappeared from sight.

The flagship of the Szent István compound received a double torpedo hit at the lower edge of the main armor belt.


Distribution of torpedo hits in Szent István (reconstruction of engineer D. Frki)

According to Austrian reports, the set time for almost simultaneous torpedo strikes is 03:30 or so. According to Italian data, torpedoes (speed 20 meters per second) were released MAS 15 at 03:25, the course is 220 degrees.

The first explosion occurred in the midship region, in the immediate vicinity of the transverse waterproof bulkhead between boiler rooms No. 1 and No. 2, seriously damaging it. The epicenter of the second explosion defended closer to the stern, in the area of ​​the front of the engine room.

A large amount of water began to flow through the formed holes, the rear boiler room was soon flooded, and in a short period of time the roll to the starboard side reached 10 degrees.

The dreadnought managed to turn to the left side in order to avoid possible further torpedo hits on the affected starboard side. The Stop Machine command was received from the wheelhouse so that the generated steam could be directed to the needs of drainage facilities. Counterflooding of the compartments on the port side and the cellars of 152-mm guns reduced the roll to 7 degrees, pumps were launched, steam to which was supplied from six more boilers in the front boiler compartment.

Soon, the turbines were started, and a dreadnought course of 100 degrees at a speed of four and a half knots went to the nearby Gulf of Brgulie on the island of Molat, hoping to jump aground on a flat stretch of coast.

There was hope that Szent István could still be saved, but the bulkhead between the front and rear boiler rooms, being damaged by the explosion, began to turn in. The rivet heads popped out one after another, and more and more water came into the front boiler compartment from the rear through the slots and numerous holes designed to allow pipelines, ducts and electrical cables to pass through. Water penetrated the stern cellars of the main-caliber guns through the shaft seals of the right propeller, and many rivets passed water into neighboring compartments inside the hull. In a desperate struggle for the survivability of the ship, emergency teams tried to close the gaps with tarred wire harnesses and strengthen the explosion-deformed bulkhead with beams and beams.

The turbines had to be stopped again, since the steam generated by the four still functioning boilers was necessary for the pumps that pumped the water.

At 04:15 it began to grow light, an attempt to get tarpaulin plasters (four by four meters) was greatly hindered by both the significant roll of the ship and the stuck cables of plasters.

At 04:45, the Tegetthoff approached the distressed flagship anti-submarine zigzag. The signal “Get ready for towing” was given to him by Szent István ten minutes after the torpedoes hit, later it was added “Urgent”, but due to the long distance the signals were not understood. The request to help was sorted out only at 04:20, 55 minutes after the Italians torpedo attack, it took another 25 minutes for the dreadnought to come up for assistance.

Around 05:00 in the front boiler room the lights went out, and work continued under the dim lighting of the hand lamps. Meanwhile, the main-caliber towers (weight with armament and armor 652,9 tons) were turned barrels to the left side (work took 20 minutes) to use gun barrels as a counterweight, and their ammunition was thrown into the sea.

The Tegetthoff tried several times to take the sinking Szent István into tow, but only at 05:45, when the roll reached approximately 18 degrees, the Tegetthoff managed to deliver the tow rope, however, due to the danger of tipping over, the end of the bollard soon had to be turned away .


Meanwhile, the pressure in the last two operating steam boilers decreased, as a result of which the pumps and electric generators stopped. Water began to flow into the compartments with the turbines, and crew members who were there were ordered to climb to the upper deck. When the right side of the deck began to go under water, the ship's commander, through Lieutenant Reich, gave the order to leave the ship. As soon as the bulk of the crew left the ship, as at 6:05, having a roll of about 36 degrees, the battleship began to roll slowly to the starboard side and capsized when the roll reached 53,5 degrees. The ship’s commander and staff officers (1st rank captain Masyon, Lieutenant Niemann), several helmsmen and searchlights were thrown on the bridge. At 06:12, the Szent István hid under the water.


The escort and Tegetthoff ships that started the rescue operations picked up 1 people. The loss of the crew of the dead ship was 005 officers (one dead and three missing) and 4 lower ranks (85 dead, 13 missing), 72 people were injured.

After the loss of one of the four dreadnought, the fleet commander, considering the suddenness factor lost, gave the order to curtail the operation.

Afterword


Luigi Rizzo, being presented for the sinking of the battleship “Szent István” to the gold medal “Medaglia d'oro al valor militare” and already having such a gold medal for the sinking of the battleship “Wien”, as well as three silver medals “Medaglia d'argento al valor militare ”, received the Knight's Cross of the Military Order (Croce di Cavaliere Ordine militare di Savoia), because, according to Law No. 753 of May 25, 1915, it was forbidden to award more than three gold and / or silver medals to the same person. Luigi received his second gold medal only on May 27, 1923, after the repeal of the above law on June 15, 1922.

By order of the Szent István battleship commander, given shortly after the ship was blown up, the destroyer Tb 78 took aboard dreadnought crew members who succumbed to panic and jumped overboard immediately after the torpedo explosion. Later they will be put on trial.

Commander of the battleship “Tegetthoff” 1st-Class Captain H. von Perglas was removed from his post.

During the First World War, 97 Italian torpedoes were lost along with the ships they entered into ammunition, forty-five were lost in training firing, seven were lost for various reasons, fifty-six were used in unsuccessful combat attacks, the exact results of the firing of twelve are unknown, forty-four were hit on target.

In 2003, the first (of three) official Italian expedition took place, which included twelve IANTD instructors and divers who spent a total of 98 hours underwater at a depth of 67 meters. Among other things, it was found that, contrary to the widespread belief that “the three-gun towers, which kept gravity on their shoulder straps, immediately fell out of the ship and went to the bottom” (S. Vinogradov Linkori type “Viribus Unitis” type) towers of the main caliber the dreadnought remained in their places.

The results of a study of the remains of Szent István gave reason to put forward a well-founded assumption that this dreadnought was also attacked by the MAS 21 boat.

Sources of

Special issue No. 8 of the journal Marine-Arsenal (translation from German by the colleague NF68).
Report of the commander of the battleship "Szent István" captain 1st rank H. von Treffen.
Report of the commander of the battleship "Szent István" captain 1st rank H. von Perglas.
The report of the captain of the 3rd rank L. Rizzo.
A number of online resources.
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  1. bubalik
    bubalik 15 June 2020 18: 25
    10
    The dying Szent István (newsreel frame)
    ,,, when you look at such photos, a feeling of hopelessness arises. After all, nothing can be changed.

    The death of the battleship "Barham"

    Thanks for the article.
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 15 June 2020 19: 43
      +5
      Quote: bubalik
      when you look at such photos, a feeling of hopelessness arises. After all, nothing can be changed.

      It is always scary to watch ships and ships sink, the sea does not give a chance to survive.
    2. unknown
      unknown 15 June 2020 21: 09
      0
      Rather, the death of the battleship Barem.
      "Barham" is rather German.
      1. pmkemcity
        pmkemcity 16 June 2020 06: 55
        +2
        Quote: ignoto
        Rather, the death of the battleship Barem.
        "Barham" is rather German.

        And Valentin Maltsev will be "Valentine Malseff".
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 16 June 2020 15: 23
      +2
      Seryozha, hello and thanks for the video. hi
      So say after this about fate and the devil who pushed by the arm. I mean, the commander of the boat neither then nor much later could explain for what devil he described the coordinates that brought him directly to the side of the British battleship.
      In general, this story turns out like Bulgakov with Yeshua and Pilate: they will remember one and immediately remember the other. I mean, the mention of Barham immediately brings up the shadow of the Eastsee Baron.
  2. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 15 June 2020 18: 56
    +8
    good hi
    Actually, I personally like the Austro-Hungarian first and last dreadnoughts. Carrying very powerful weapons in a compact size, these ships were a decent rival for both the French Courbet and the entire line of Italian dreadnoughts. And given that the pasta are still the warriors, the four "Tegethoffs" could well be considered the master of the Adriatic. Although the ships had a number of design flaws, which would inevitably manifest themselves in limited sizes and displacement, it cannot be denied that the Austro-Hungarians, who did not have a decent design school and were driven into a tight framework of funding and restrictions, created a very nice battleship. Quite tolerable for butting among secondary seafarers. powers. Personally, I like smile
    Of course, the "Saint-Istvan", built by someone unknown, had a disgusting build quality, but it cannot be denied that the main contribution to the sinking of the battleship was played by compactness with a limited displacement, which did not allow to accommodate at least an adequate PTZ, which on these ships was based on erroneous conclusions of torpedo impact during hit. But ... Personally, I have always said and will continue to say that restrictions never lead to good, although small and relatively poor minor maritime countries have no choice. You have to be content with what you have according to the thickness of your wallet and technical capabilities.
    Valentine, thank you for the material. A very detailed and interesting description of the death of the ship smile
    Like stands hi !
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 15 June 2020 19: 55
      +6
      but it cannot be denied that the main contribution to the sinking of the battleship was played by compactness with limited displacement, which did not allow accommodating at least an adequate PTZ, which on these ships was based on erroneous conclusions of the impact of torpedoes upon impact

      In fairness, most Britons, even larger ones, would most likely have drowned from such greetings.
      And so I would give dearly for the duel of the Empress and the Austrian. The Austrian next to ours is rather weak, although we are also not a first-class naval power.
      1. Comrade
        16 June 2020 06: 57
        +4
        Quote: Engineer
        And so I would give dearly for the duel of the Empress and the Austrian. Austrian next to our weak

        Yes, let us recall the circumstances, how difficult it was to sink the "Empress Catherine the Great", although the Kingstones were previously discovered on it.

        On the morning of June 18, 1918, on the destroyer destroyer Kerch, commanded by Krasnoenmore V. A. Kukel (former senior lieutenant), there were eight serviceable torpedoes, the first of which, from a distance of four cable and with the installation of one and a half meters, the destroyer Fidonisi was sunk. The explosion broke the ship in half, however, after a coup to the starboard side, the Fidonisi sank only eleven minutes later. Then came the turn of the battleship “Free Russia” (formerly “Empress Catherine the Great”), towed by the destroyer “Lieutenant Shestakov” and a motor boat at a distance of 2 meters from the coast. Approaching at about 16:30 p.m. "Kerch" from a distance of five cable ones, it fired two dash missiles at the dreadnought with the installation of three and a half meters. Both torpedoes were directed under the bow turret of the main caliber in order to cause detonation of the cellars. However, only one torpedo hit the intended place, having exploded in the vicinity of the cable box and the underskipper, the other went under the ship. The external effect of the explosion was insignificant, observers saw only a column of black smoke with a width of one and a half to two meters, rising no higher than the conning tower. About half an hour later, saving torpedoes, of which there were five left on the destroyer, a single torpedo was fired at Free Russia with a displacement towards the stern of two or three meters from the site of the first explosion. The torpedo hit the area of ​​the nose turbo dynamos, exploding with the same effect as the previous time. The fourth torpedo, fired from the previous - three and a half meters - installation, exploded under the aft tower of the main caliber. Despite the open kingstones and three torpedo explosions, the battleship lacked roll and trim. The fifth torpedo, with the installation of already four meters, fired into the midship area of ​​“Free Russia”, before reaching the target, turned around and went towards Kerch. The destroyer, maneuvering, three times avoided hitting its own torpedo, until the last, reaching the destroyer about one cable, turned back to the battleship, after which it was thrown to the surface where the charging compartment broke off and the torpedo sank. The sixth torpedo was fired immediately, with the same installation and guidance, according to observers, the hit fell into the intended place. As a result of the explosion above the ship, reaching the clutches of the masts, a column of white and black rose, with a predominance of white, smoke, which covered almost the entire ship with its base. According to the data of the krasvoenmor Podvysotsky (former midshipman), with a stopwatch recording the stages of the death of the battleship, after three minutes twenty seconds the slightly swaying "Free Russia" with a trim on the nose began to roll slowly and smoothly to the starboard side. Three minutes and forty-two seconds later, the dreadnought, which had turned upside down, from which all four towers had already torn down and went under water, stayed on the water upward with a keel. In this position, the ship, gradually plunging into the bow, lasted thirty-seven minutes, after which it sank at a depth of 38,4 (bow) - 42 (feed) meters.
        1. Dmitry V.
          Dmitry V. 16 June 2020 13: 05
          +5
          Quote: Comrade
          after three minutes twenty seconds, the slightly swaying “Free Russia” with a trim on the nose began to slowly and smoothly roll to the starboard side


          It is sad to read, the creative aspirations of designers, engineers, the work of thousands of builders, millions of gold rubles - and such an inglorious ending ...
          1. Comrade
            16 June 2020 16: 56
            +2
            Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
            It is sad to read, the creative aspirations of designers, engineers, the labor of thousands of builders, millions of gold rubles - and such an inglorious ending

            Yes, it's a shame.
            The day before, a referendum was held on the ships, the votes on the two dreadnought were distributed as follows.
            "Will" - 360 votes for the campaign to Sevastopol, 140 - for the sinking.
            "Free Russia" - 350 votes for the campaign to Sevastopol, 240 - for the sinking.
            On June 8, Raskolnikov arrived in Novorossiysk, who managed to influence the situation.
            By the way, dear colleague, the distribution of torpedo hits on the Empress. Yesterday did not work out.
        2. Andrew Matseevsky
          Andrew Matseevsky 26 June 2020 07: 06
          0
          Breaking does not build, the soul does not hurt.
    2. unknown
      unknown 15 June 2020 21: 11
      0
      The main structural defect is disgusting stability.
      1. Jura 27
        Jura 27 17 June 2020 11: 25
        0
        Quote: ignoto
        The main structural defect is disgusting stability.

        It is quite normal stability, the main cause of overkill, the wrong actions of the ship's composition on counter-flooding, the second most important reason is the small depth of the PTS (others, except the Germans, didn’t get better in those years).
    3. mmaxx
      mmaxx 16 June 2020 05: 01
      0
      In this case, the pasta still showed itself as a warrior. wink
    4. Comrade
      16 June 2020 06: 25
      +5
      Quote: Rurikovich
      thank you for the material. A very detailed and interesting description of the death of the ship

      Thank you for your appreciation, Andrew!
      I did my best :-)
      Quote: Rurikovich
      the four "Tegethoffs" could well be considered the master of the Adriatic.

      Definitely. Although it was not a lot with military training, I believe the Italians are no better.
      Quote: Rurikovich
      You have to be content with what you have according to the thickness of your wallet and technical capabilities.

      Ships are expensive. In short, then there the Rothschild Austrians were robbed in an adult way. They set prices too high, Vienna had no alternative, I had to take it.
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 16 June 2020 06: 51
        +1
        Quote: Comrade
        Although it was not a lot with military training, I believe the Italians are no better.

        At least the light forces acted more impudently and if it were not for the presence of the British, the Italians would generally be sitting in holes under the cover of coastal batteries. smile hi
  3. Kwas
    Kwas 15 June 2020 19: 37
    +3
    But the operation was in vain curtailed. The Italians did not know anything and were not ready. Perhaps missed compensation to receive. However, planning the operation leaves much to be desired. The dispersal of the fleet into small groups entailed a lack of escort, as a result of missed torpedo boats. By the way, as far as I remember, the boats were with electric motors, almost silent.
    1. Potter
      Potter 15 June 2020 20: 21
      +3
      No, these are standard MAS motor boats. The Grillo boats were powered by electric motors, designed to penetrate ports through booms. Equipped with something like caterpillars for booms crawling.
    2. Comrade
      16 June 2020 06: 36
      +2
      Quote: Kwas
      as far as I remember, the boats were with electric motors, almost silent.

      Yes, there was information that Ritso, in addition to the main gasoline one, had an electric motor there. But, apparently, the capacity of the battery was not large, and the Italians went on electricity, already when they came close to the marching warrant and began to "leak" between the destroyers.
      In addition, in the winter of 1917-1918, Rizo put on his boat a second gasoline engine.
  4. antivirus
    antivirus 15 June 2020 20: 05
    +1
    The Adriatic is not Azov, but the example of the struggle for such a trifle should teach us and tenacity in the struggle for even smaller trifles.
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 16 June 2020 13: 12
      +3
      Quote: antivirus
      The Adriatic is not Azov, but the example of the struggle for such a trifle should teach us and tenacity in the struggle for even smaller trifles.


      I saw a storm on the Adriatic - not in winter, in spring ...
      Yes, such that the Black Sea did not see this.
      Damn reckless you have to be that on a shell like a torpedo boat MAS go to the Adriatic.
      1. NF68
        NF68 16 June 2020 16: 52
        0
        Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
        Damn reckless you have to be that on a shell like a torpedo boat MAS go to the Adriatic.


        The Adriatic is a pretty calm sea. The Italian Navy is located not far from the places where the ships of both sides collided. This is not the North Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean.
  5. Bashkirkhan
    Bashkirkhan 15 June 2020 20: 14
    +7
    The pug filled up the elephant ... Thanks for the publication, it was interesting.
    1. Comrade
      16 June 2020 06: 41
      +5
      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      The pug filled up the elephant.

      That's right.
      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      Thanks for posting, it was interesting.

      Glad I liked it.
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 16 June 2020 13: 14
        +4
        Great story.
        I read about it, but that would be so informative - thanks for the pleasant reading.
  6. vladcub
    vladcub 15 June 2020 20: 16
    +4
    Valentin, thank you for your work, otherwise the history of the fleet "withered" without "Andrey from Chelyabinsk".
    Actually, if you think about it, the Italians pulled out Jack Pot with a dope: they drowned the dreadnought and thwarted the naval operation.
    Inconsistency of actions launched a chain that "drowned" the Austrian dreadnought
    1. Comrade
      16 June 2020 06: 47
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      Thank you for your work, otherwise the history of the fleet "withered" without "Andrey from Chelyabinsk".

      Alas, Svyatoslav, it is impossible to post more articles, almost all the time "eats up" work and everyday life.
      Quote: vladcub
      Actually, if you think about it, the Italians pulled the Jack Pot durik: drowned dreadnought

      As Gleb Zheglov said, "Whoever is lucky, the cock will blow away" :-)
      Yes, come out the Austrians on time, and could slip through.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 16 June 2020 12: 03
        +2
        Valentine, to my great chagrin, but I understand you: "work and be" - 2 predators. It's hard to say which one is worse
  7. Potter
    Potter 15 June 2020 20: 24
    +3
    The article is unambiguous like. An interesting moment in maritime history. Of course, outwardly strong štvanes with the company had a lot of structural defects. But this does not beg the Italians to win a bet on a new type of weapon - torpedo boats, and the courage of Italian boatmen.
    1. Comrade
      16 June 2020 06: 52
      +4
      Quote: Potter
      this does not beg the Italians to win a bet on a new type of weapon - torpedo boats, and the courage of Italian boatmen.

      Yes, Rizo certainly no one has surpassed. A man drowned an armadillo and a dreadnought.
      1. Trapperxnumx
        Trapperxnumx 16 June 2020 16: 57
        +3
        The most effective commander of a surface combat ship of the First World)
        1. Comrade
          16 June 2020 17: 56
          +3
          Quote: Trapper7
          The most effective commander of a surface combat ship of the First World War

          One hundred percent !
          The photo shows the crew of two torpedo boats attacking the Austrian dreadnoughts.
          The face in the center in a cap with a dark top.
  8. igordok
    igordok 15 June 2020 20: 28
    +3
    From childhood memories. Younger schoolboy. In the cinema in front of the hood. the film showed a documentary about torpedoes. With elements of animation and footage of the death of "Saint Istvan". I had no limit of delight. The feature film has somehow gone sideways.


    On board one of the ships was a cameraman to shoot the victory over the Italians. But it turned out the other way around, and these shots of the death of the pride of the Austro-Hungarian Navy became very famous.
    1. Comrade
      16 June 2020 06: 50
      +3
      Quote: igordok
      On board one of the ships was a cameraman to shoot the victory over the Italians.

      He was not the only one filming there. There was information that the Austrian plane was there, and was also filmed on film. And also the lieutenant from "Tegetgoff" took photographs.
  9. Cartalon
    Cartalon 15 June 2020 20: 34
    0
    Instead of helping the ground army before the decisive battle, the fleet goes to hell where the hell for what.
  10. albert
    albert 15 June 2020 21: 40
    +2
    Here is a good video about this battleship
    1. The comment was deleted.
  11. iouris
    iouris 15 June 2020 22: 08
    0
    Throughout the war, officers and sailors received good salaries, ate well, used wonderful dishes, and ... Not otherwise, the Englishwoman shit!
  12. Jura 27
    Jura 27 16 June 2020 09: 25
    +2
    [quote] [/ quote] Meanwhile, the main-caliber towers (weight with armament and armor 652,9 tons) were turned barrels to the left side (work took 20 minutes) to use gun barrels as a counterweight, [quote] [/ quot
    There is some senselessness, turning balanced towers aboard - it would be better if they flooded the left MOT, then they would have brought it to the base in tow of the LC.
    PTZ Austrians had to copy from the Germans, then the PTP would have been at an adequate distance from the side.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 16 June 2020 17: 03
      +2
      Patients in the book Tragedy of Errors had a description of the actions and death of this battleship. There he wrote that Germany gave the go-ahead for full access to all technical documentation and know-how of the German fleet, but the Austrians went their own way)
      1. Comrade
        16 June 2020 17: 26
        +2
        Quote: Trapper7
        Germany gave the go-ahead to AB for full access to all the technical documentation and know-how of the German fleet, but the Austrians went their own way)

        They were given the documentation for the Kaiser dreadnought, but the authority of Popper, chief designer of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, was stronger.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 16 June 2020 19: 38
          +1
          Not a weak conceit of this Popper if "Kaiser" does not come to him
    2. Comrade
      16 June 2020 17: 18
      +1
      Quote: Jura 27
      it would be better if they flooded the left MOT, then they would have brought it to the base in tow of the LC.

      Counter-flooding was there, but it did not help.
      By the way, with a roll of 39 degrees 30 minutes, the volume of water received was estimated at four thousand one hundred eighty-six tons.
      1. Jura 27
        Jura 27 17 June 2020 11: 04
        0
        Quote: Comrade
        Quote: Jura 27
        it would be better if they flooded the left MOT, then they would have brought it to the base in tow of the LC.

        Counter-flooding was there, but it did not help.
        By the way, with a roll of 39 degrees 30 minutes, the volume of water received was estimated at four thousand one hundred eighty-six tons.

        The wrong compartments were flooding, when flooding from an explosion opposite the right MOT, it was necessary to flood the left, everything else was ineffective. But, they wanted (at the beginning) to reach on their own, so they got to the bottom of the sea.
        1. Comrade
          17 June 2020 16: 42
          0
          Quote: Jura 27
          it was necessary to flood the left

          On the left side and flooded.
          1. Jura 27
            Jura 27 18 June 2020 06: 56
            0
            Quote: Comrade
            Quote: Jura 27
            it was necessary to flood the left

            On the left side and flooded.

            But not that, but only there was the necessary volume.
            1. Comrade
              18 June 2020 16: 24
              0
              Quote: Jura 27
              But not that, but only there was the necessary volume.

              And where on the diagram is the compartment that needed to be flooded?
              1. Jura 27
                Jura 27 19 June 2020 14: 25
                0
                Quote: Comrade
                Quote: Jura 27
                But not that, but only there was the necessary volume.

                And where on the diagram is the compartment that needed to be flooded?

                Marked in green (blue - flooding after the second hit).
  13. Catfish
    Catfish 16 June 2020 15: 45
    +2
    Dear Valentine hi , many thanks!
    Reading your article was a real pleasure. Written professionally, with knowledge of the subject and good language, it was easy and pleasant to read.
    This is how it happens, you seem to know about some story, as it seems to you, everything, but in reality it turns out that it's not very good. I had never heard of the descents to the sunken "Istvan", but they, in general, made the "discovery of the century" - the towers of the city. remained in their places, it turns out that the design of this battleship was not so bad, as was commonly believed earlier. Although, of course, a broken nose, like a sunken ship, says something about the strength of the hull.
    You do not know the case, what equipment did the Italians use? We went to the Black Sea to such a depth in simple air fans, but there was practically no time for some serious work in the mogul.
    1. Comrade
      16 June 2020 17: 51
      +2
      Thank you very much, Konstantin, on a kind word!
      Quote: Sea Cat
      I had never heard of the descents to the sunken "Istvan", but they, in general, made the "discovery of the century" - the towers of the city. stayed in their places, it turns out

      Yes, after the dreadnought capsized, it was thrown several times, and one might get the impression that the ship really "lightened". It turns out that he was thrown up for another reason.
      Quote: Sea Cat
      You do not know the case, what equipment did the Italians use?

      Without a clue, I’m not very versed in these matters.
      Here are a couple of videos, you can catch a glimpse of the equipment at the guys.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_abYMGEqaI
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PrgXyKrMcMc
      By the way, they also sank to "Wilhelm Gustlov". Eh, dive to our battleships in the Tsushima Strait!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 16 June 2020 17: 58
        +1
        Valentine, thanks for the links, right now, and I’ll climb to watch.
        About our battleships and I'm interested, I really don't know what depths in the strait and they are unlikely to be accessible for a simple scuba gear, otherwise everything would have been "slobbering" for a long time. smile
        1. Comrade
          16 June 2020 18: 08
          +1
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I’m also interested in our battleships, I really don’t know what depths in the strait

          The smallest depth on the fairway is 73 meters, and on average about 90 meters, and up to 100 meters.
          In principle, immersion is possible, or a serious risk?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 16 June 2020 18: 17
            0
            Then it’s more than strange that ours still haven’t gone there, modern rebreathers quite allow us to work normally at a depth of 300 meters, and there’s a risk that he’s stuck with levers on the AVM’s lung just right at any time, went out together my friend’s apparatus, but then I myself was to blame, I didn’t do something from what was necessary to do.
            Maybe there are some near-bottom currents in the strait, the devil knows, we need to dig around and look for information, I can't believe something that the Japanese did not climb there.
            1. Comrade
              16 June 2020 18: 28
              +2
              Quote: Sea Cat
              Then it’s more than strange that ours still haven’t gone there

              I read that ours examined "Prince Suvorov" back in the sixties. We paid attention to the high quality of the manufacture of the main caliber shells.
              Quote: Sea Cat
              I don’t believe something that the Japanese did not climb there.

              They climb only if they manage to profit. They dived to the "Petropavlovsk", because they were looking for the squadron's cash desk, to the "Pearl" in Penang they dived, so then the cruiser's money box disappeared. Ours then from Vladivostok then removed the valuable from the cruiser, they missed it, but the money chest is not there. The Japanese kidnapped.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 16 June 2020 18: 35
                +1
                And when were ours from Vladik in Penang? I haven't heard anything about it. And in general it is somehow strange that we have not yet organized a comprehensive expedition to the Tsushima Strait. Look, Western guys climb all sorts of "Bismarcks" with "Lusitania" (and these are some depths !!!), but ours don't even itch.
                1. Comrade
                  16 June 2020 18: 44
                  +2
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  And when were our from Vladik in Penang?

                  In December 1914, an auxiliary cruiser "Oryol" arrived there with 21 divers on board and four vehicles and supplies.
                  Descent of a diver at the side of the "Eagle".
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 16 June 2020 18: 55
                    +1
                    I wonder what they raised from there? The guns from the cruiser seemed to be raised by all and sundry, and our okromya cash desks, what were they looking for?
                    1. Comrade
                      16 June 2020 19: 21
                      +2
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      I wonder what they raised from there?

                      Aft gun, machine gun, six daytime optical sights, eight nightly telescopes and a searchlight.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 June 2020 19: 28
                        +2
                        Hmm ... Was it worth it to fence the garden and drive a whole auxiliary cruiser there? request
                      2. Comrade
                        16 June 2020 19: 55
                        +2
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        But was it worth it to fence the garden and drive a whole auxiliary cruiser there?

                        So I thought about it laughing
                        Maybe they just didn’t know what condition the cruiser was in?
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 16 June 2020 20: 23
                        +1
                        But still, it makes no sense to spend money and time on lifting and repairing, in order to bring the old man into operation by the end of the war?
            2. Divmor
              Divmor 16 June 2020 20: 56
              +2
              All major projects to find known ships by Western researchers were simultaneously research projects of the US Navy. They just don't write about the latter. During the immersion on the Titanic, research was carried out on underwater communication with the submarine. While searching for the Edinburgh cruiser, the British and Yankees were stirring up something against our submarine detection system. It seems that they wanted to detonate the charges at depth and initiate the operation of acoustic buoys. There was an undisclosed scandal. I have no doubt that the Japanese who plunged into the Dmitry Donskoy cruiser are associated with the Japanese Navy. Maybe at the same time the communication lines were repaired or the acoustic buoys on the Tsushima barrage were checked. Therefore, the Americans, British and Japanese in any underwater explorer see primarily a spy, and in ours - especially. And they do not allow expeditions to Tsushima. They just don't let me in. K.A. Shopotov, on the wave of "warming", fought for 10 years since 1995 to organize an expedition to Tsushima. All to no avail. Therefore, they did not examine (officially) the EBR of the 2nd squadron, and not because they were lazy or there was no money.
      2. Divmor
        Divmor 16 June 2020 20: 45
        +1
        By diving on the EBR of the 2nd Pacific squadron, lying at the bottom of the Tsushima Strait. According to the late retired Rear Admiral Konstantin Antonovich Shopotov, the former head and scientific leader of the underwater archaeological expedition "Memory of the Baltic", the United States and Japan will not allow diving in the Tsushima Strait. Just in the battle area, they have deployed an anti-submarine barrage from a system of sonar buoys, communication cables and (possibly) guided bottom mines. And the Yankees are terrified of opening this system. On the Russians, they will not be allowed to Tsushima under any sauce and regardless of the costs.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 16 June 2020 21: 09
          +1
          Thank you, Dmitry! hi Now everything is clear about the strait, but for some reason they themselves do not really go around there. Are they afraid that our people will make a fuss for disturbing the peace of the "war graves"? So the staff always did not care about any noise. Or are they just not interested in it?
        2. Jura 27
          Jura 27 17 June 2020 11: 08
          +2
          [/ quote] In Russian, they will not be allowed to enter Tsushima under any sauce and regardless of the cost. [quote]

          There, in fact, international waters, in which no one can prohibit diving. Money is only needed, but it is enough, only to dive to zero.
      3. Jura 27
        Jura 27 17 June 2020 11: 21
        0
        [/ quote] The smallest depth at the fairway is 73 meters, and on average about 90, and up to 100 meters. [quote]

        The map shows more than one hundred meters in the battle area. For modern tools, this is not depth.
  • deddem
    deddem 16 June 2020 17: 46
    +2
    Quote: Trapper7
    Patients in the book Tragedy of Errors had a description of the actions and death of this battleship. There he wrote that Germany gave the go-ahead for full access to all technical documentation and know-how of the German fleet, but the Austrians went their own way)


    Yes, even if they had not gone their own way - the domestic political compromise, the result of which was Istvan (an order to curious handicraftsmen from Danubius in exchange for a vote by the Hungarian parliament for the sea budget), no one would have canceled.
  • Doctor Evil
    Doctor Evil 16 June 2020 18: 07
    +1
    Great article. I read it with pleasure. I ask the author to accept my sincere thanks.
    1. Comrade
      16 June 2020 18: 31
      0
      Thank you, Ilya, very nice!
  • Comrade
    16 June 2020 18: 31
    +1
    Quote: Sea Cat
    risk, he with any descent under water there

    I read that two or three disappeared, they were immersed in the "Empress Catherine". Then we found only spare scuba gear. Maybe they got inside and couldn't get out?
  • Former naval person
    Former naval person 17 June 2020 20: 17
    0
    I was fortunate enough to speak personally with the last member of the Saint Stephen crew about half a year before his death.
  • Alexey Tyushin
    Alexey Tyushin 23 August 2020 19: 22
    0
    Interesting article...