Military Review

"The whole people have fun and rejoice." On public holidays of the Russian Empire

55

Today, someone in our country believes that Russians rest too much and often. Someone, on the contrary, declares that there could be more “red days” in the calendar. In such cases, supporters of both approaches, as a rule, resort to comparisons: how was this before? And if the number of holidays of Soviet times is still alive in the memory of many compatriots, then regarding the events that took place before 1917, there is much less clarity. Well, let's talk about them.


To start a conversation about the public holidays of the Russian Empire follows from the fact that such a concept in the country ... did not exist at all! No, the holidays, which were then called "non-public", were on the calendar, and there were more than one. However, they were all divided into two distinct categories: “royal days” and days of religious celebrations. If we recall that Orthodoxy had the status of a state religion in Russia, and the representatives of the Romanov reigning house ruled it as absolute monarchs, then these dates should be considered state holidays of the empire.

"For faith, the king and the Fatherland!"


At the same time, no memorable anniversaries, for example, the great military victories that Russian weapon it was glorified in a multitude, or, say, the annexation of certain lands, nobody thought of marking (in any case, regularly and permanently). No wonder that in the whole well-known formula: “For faith, the king and the Fatherland!” desperate land was mentioned in third place, last.

Consider the holiday calendar, taking as a basis the closest to us the last years of the empire, in more detail. Let's start with the days of the "king", of which there were ten in it. Four birthdays - of Emperor Nikolai Alexandrovich and two empresses, his wife Alexandra Fedorovna and his mother, Maria Fedorovna, as well as the heir to the throne - Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich. Accordingly, the same number of name days, or, in those terms, "namesake", the same radiant persons. The anniversary of the accession to the throne of the sovereign and the date of the sacred coronation of their imperial majesties: Nicholas and his wife were also separately celebrated.

There were, of course, much more church holidays. All of them were divided into twelve and great. Among the former were both non-transitory (that is, marked for years and centuries on the same calendar date) and transitional, which were tied to a certain number of days passed after one of the main church holidays, usually Easter. It is hardly worth listing here the Orthodox calendar, which is very rich in memorable dates: there isn’t enough space, and it’s useless. Let us dwell on the fact that on average it turned out 12-13 twelve and 6-7 great. Sometimes two holidays fell on one day, and generally “variations” were found in calendars of different years.

In general, the number of “non-public days” in the Russian Empire exceeded forty per year. After all, some holidays were celebrated for two to three days. "The whole people have fun and rejoice," as the song says. On Easter, the "vacation" lasted the whole decade. By the way, familiar to us on January 1, New Year's Day, was inactive solely because the dates marked on the church calendar fell on it again. All this weekend was fixed at the state level by a special law, which was signed on June 2, 1897 by Emperor Nicholas II. In accordance with the same document, it was not allowed to force people to celebrate “other religions” according to the Orthodox calendar, but it was prescribed and allowed to include holidays “according to the laws of their faith” in their work schedule.

Before someone begins to gasp, gasp and envy our ancestors, who had such a luxurious work schedule, let me remind you of something. First of all, all Saturdays in the Russian Empire were workers. This time. A mandatory weekend on Sunday, by the way, was established by the same imperial law, which was mentioned above. About 90% of the country's population were not talking about any annual paid vacations. The exception was civil servants (both military and state), as well as employees of state (state) industrial enterprises. They were granted leave on special request.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / Khodynka
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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 13 June 2020 17: 14 New
    +8
    In my opinion, it’s “sacrilege” to use a picture from the Khodynka field - during the coronation of Nicholas 2 ... when a mass of the People died in a crush !!! Something neater you need to be with illustrations!
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 13 June 2020 17: 23 New
      24
      Before someone starts to gasp, gasp and envy our ancestors ...
      ... а также сожалеть об отмене крепостного права" - не отчаивайтесь, исключительно "по просьбе населения", оно в скором времени будет восстановлено. fellow
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 13 June 2020 20: 26 New
        0
        А ещё можно праздновать "день гранёного стакана".
        Он, кстати, в 1943 году "родился".
        А ещё, оригинально в Киеве ( простите меня грешного, упомянул, хоть и зарекался) существует "день освобождения Киева" - каждую пятницу, когда "коренные" киевляне разъезжаются по родным сёлам и на дорогах пробки))))
      2. iouris
        iouris 14 June 2020 15: 03 New
        +1
        Humanity is developing in a spiral. After communism (any phase), immediately after there comes democracy (slavery): digitalization, however (digital socio-economic formation)! All people are equal and free, and each has approximately 1500 slaves.
    2. iouris
      iouris 13 June 2020 19: 19 New
      -12
      Organizational experience comes with such incidents. There is no other way. Therefore, the coronation is separate, the people separately. Nicholas II is not to blame. The then mayor of Moscow and the people, an avid freebie (not all) are to blame. Perhaps anti-government elements worked, or it was a successful court intrigue.
  2. Svarog
    Svarog 13 June 2020 17: 20 New
    19
    Let's start with the days of the "king", of which there were ten in it. Four birthdays - of Emperor Nikolai Alexandrovich and two empresses, his wife Alexandra Fedorovna and his mother, Maria Fedorovna, as well as the heir to the throne - Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich

    Does everything go towards expanding the holiday calendar? Perhaps the ground is being prepared to celebrate the birthday of Zero and his family ..
    Before someone begins to gasp, gasp and envy our ancestors, who had such a luxurious work schedule, let me remind you of something. First of all, all Saturdays in the Russian Empire were workers. This time

    Now, too, the majority began to work on Saturdays, for the same money ..
    About 90% of the country's population were not talking about any annual paid vacations. The exception was civil servants (both military and state), as well as employees of state (state) industrial enterprises. They were granted leave on special request.

    Верно, какие еще оплачиваемые отпуска для холопов.. "Плохие " коммунисты создали для людей человеческие условия.. а сегодняшние деятели стремятся вернуться туда.. где были холопы и дворяне.. что уже и происходит.. вот обнуленный уже на вечный трон полез..
    1. Thunderbringer
      Thunderbringer 13 June 2020 18: 36 New
      -15
      Quote: Svarog
      "Плохие " коммунисты создали для людей человеческие условия..

      And then, neither the Communists nor the USSR abruptly died.
      Either the conditions were not the same, or the people were not the same.
    2. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 13 June 2020 20: 27 New
      +1
      Нужно будет в полдень вставать и петь "Боже царя храни?"!! crying
      God forbid!
      1. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara 14 June 2020 12: 53 New
        +3
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        Нужно будет в полдень вставать и петь "Боже царя храни?"!! crying
        God forbid!

        Конечно не дай бог, царя уже нет. Надо будет вставать в 6 утра и петь "боже президента храни"
        1. sevryuk
          sevryuk 28 July 2020 10: 32 New
          -1
          Trump or what? How many hours do we have at this time?
  3. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 13 June 2020 17: 35 New
    -2
    "The whole people have fun and rejoice." On public holidays of the Russian Empire
    Let's catch up and overtake! A democratic and liberal government. repeat Russia Day, the Constitution, Unity did not seem to be? But they lived ..... repeat
  4. Guazdilla
    Guazdilla 13 June 2020 17: 43 New
    +2
    The anniversary of the accession to the throne of the sovereign and the date of the sacred coronation of their imperial majesties: Nicholas and his wife were also separately celebrated.

    The illustration given here causes very unpleasant associations with the Khodynka catastrophe.

    https://yandex.ru/images/search?text=давка%20на%20ходынском%20поле%20в%201896%20году&from=tabbar
    The whole nation rejoices and rejoices ”
    (((
  5. knn54
    knn54 13 June 2020 17: 59 New
    10
    - Fatherland was mentioned in third place, last.
    When the next emperor ascended, the military had to swear
    новому самодержцу.В рядах РККА было немало "бывших",которые ЧЕТЫРЕЖДЫ давали присягу:Александру 3,Николаю 2,Временному правительству и большевикам.
  6. demo
    demo 13 June 2020 18: 18 New
    +8
    Sometimes embarrassment happened.
    Во время Первой мировой была полуанекдотичная история, когда один российский генерал подзабыл о дне рождения любимого монарха и опомнился через пару дней. С гусарской находчивостью он отправил поздравительную телеграмму, начинающуюся словами: "Третий день пьём здоровье Вашего Величества!"

    I do not know how the fate of this general would have developed in the future, if not for the October Revolution.
    Now imagine if some general would not congratulate the GDP with a telegram?

    The number of holidays in the Russian Federation is excessive.
    But if civil servants are happy for an extra day off, then private workers are not very happy.
    But that is, that is.
    For now, let it be so.
    1. Thunderbringer
      Thunderbringer 13 June 2020 18: 39 New
      -19
      Quote: demo
      Now imagine if some general would not congratulate the GDP with a telegram?

      What telegram? During the 1st world?
      Quote: demo
      I do not know how the fate of this general would have developed in the future, if not for the October Revolution.

      There was no doubt what happened to his fate after the revolution. He was killed by the communists.
      1. Avior
        Avior 13 June 2020 19: 29 New
        +4
        Commercial use of the telegraph was already from the middle of the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, images were already transmitted by telegraph.
        During World War I there was nothing special in the telegraph; telegrams could be sent.
      2. demo
        demo 13 June 2020 21: 40 New
        +1
        The communists appeared later than the end of the revolution.
        Until 1952, the party was called the CPSU (B.).
        And its members, respectively, by the Bolsheviks.
        And before that, the party was called the RSDLP - hence the members were called Social Democrats.
        So you and the Communists got excited.
        And do not talk about the essence.
        The main thing in the title.

        Well, the first comment amused.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 14 June 2020 04: 15 New
          +2
          Quote: demo
          Until 1952, the party was called the CPSU (B.).
          And its members, respectively, by the Bolsheviks.

          Another "crap".
          With the advent of the name RCP (b), the name appeared - the communist. At least you recalled the “classics”:

          And there is also such information:
          How many of us have not heard the famous expression “If they kill me, consider me a communist”? And it entered the people exactly 74 years ago, on September 4, 1938, from the third page of issue 202 of the newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda. Then, in the articles “Stalin’s Pets” and “Communists of the Primorsky Army”, material was published about the Khasan battles - a series of clashes of 1938 between the Red Army and the Japanese imperial army, due to disputes over the ownership of the territory near Lake Khasan and the Tuman River.
          In those reports, the process of the entry of Red Army fighters into the Communists was described. Allegedly, before one of the attacks, the political instructor Dragunsky gathered the Red Army for a rally, after which all non-partisan soldiers wrote statements asking them to join the party, ending with the words “I’m non-partisan, but I’m going to be a communist, and if I die, I ask you to consider me a communist.” One of the following statements was quoted there: “If they kill me, consider me a communist, Red Army Comrade Markov wrote during the days of the fighting.”

          All you hi
          1. demo
            demo 14 June 2020 22: 51 New
            +2
            You, dear, have not quite the correct idea of ​​how and where the name of the Communist Party came from.
            Communism is a philosophical and theoretical definition of the relationship between man and the state.
            But at the time of the revolution of 17, there was no need to talk about building communism.
            It was also necessary to rebuild the entire state machine, to shoot a bunch of people. More crowds to drive out the country.
            And after the new state was formed - the RSFSR and it entered the union state as a member, it was announced that socialism was being built in the USSR.
            Nobody stuttered about communism.
            Well, besides the interesting characters in the video that you provided.
            All program documents referred only to socialism.
            Why?
            Yes, because the word communism caused a grinding of teeth all over the world.
            "Капитал" Маркса читали не только в нашей стране.
            And his ideas clearly did not find support in the minds of representatives of big business.
            Therefore, in order not to tease the geese and the party, for the time being, did not change its name.
            Indeed, all over the world the Social Democrats were present not only as marginal associations, but also as representatives of the authorities.
            Sweden, Austria, Bulgaria, etc.
            Those. Lenin and his comrades disguised themselves under the common safe name.
            But when the country decided that the world revolution was postponed indefinitely, when the country said goodbye to military communism (which negatively affected the image of the country abroad), with the NEP, healed the wounds of the Civil War when the Lenin Guard was sent to camps , or to the other world, then it was decided to rename the party in the CPSU (b).
            Not to the communist!
            It was too early to declare this.
            Ideology is one thing.
            And the real state of affairs is a little different.
      3. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara 14 June 2020 12: 57 New
        0
        [quote = Thunderbringer] [quote = demo] Now imagine if any general would not congratulate the GDP with a telegram? [/ quote]
        What telegram? During the 1st world?
        [quote = demo] [/ quote]
        Via telegram
    2. ANB
      ANB 13 June 2020 18: 40 New
      +6
      . But if civil servants are happy for an extra day off, then private workers are not very happy.

      But I’m glad, though a private worker. We have everything on TC.
      It all depends on whether you are a serious office or a sharashkin.
      By the way, on Saturdays I go out to work with pleasure, since it is paid extra in the 2nd size. True, they do not often withdraw.
      1. Antifreeze
        Antifreeze 13 June 2020 19: 57 New
        +9
        You are lucky with your place of work. Not every private trader will do that.
        1. Sergej1972
          Sergej1972 13 June 2020 20: 39 New
          0
          Так то, что фирма является "шарашкиной конторой", обычно сразу видно. Наверное, в малых городах выбора нет. Но в более-менее крупном городе нормальную фирму, работающую по ТК, можно найти.
    3. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 13 June 2020 20: 32 New
      +6
      Anecdote:
      The American and the Soviet citizen argue who has more holidays. On clicked.
      American:
      - Christmas, Thanksgiving, Independence Day ....
      Blown away, in general.
      Our:
      - New Year, Christmas, Old New Year, March XNUMX, day, metallurgist, builder's day, gunner's day .....
      All the time gives flickers, the American does not stand up and falls to his knees.
      Our man kicks, saying:
      - Prepaid expense! Pay! Thirteenth! ....)))
    4. Army soldier2
      Army soldier2 13 June 2020 22: 03 New
      +4
      A little clarification. We are talking about the commander of the Kiev Military District, General M.I. Dragomirov, who was considered one of the most witty people in Russia.
      На третий день после дня рождения Николая II командующий осознал, что подлецы подчиненные своевременно не представили проект верноподданной телеграммы и подписал текст "Третий день пьем за здоровье Вашего Величества". В ответ получил телеграмму, подписанную Николаем: "Пора бы и прекратить."
      His descendant told me about this.
    5. Cartalon
      Cartalon 14 June 2020 08: 00 New
      +1
      This anecdote is not related to the First World War; Dragomilov and Alexander the third appeared there.
  7. Masha
    Masha 13 June 2020 18: 25 New
    +3
    Let's hit hard work on happy holidays? wassat
    1. Mouse
      Mouse 13 June 2020 18: 44 New
      +2
      Enthusiasm is a relic of the past .... now everything is only for myself ....
      Capitalism ....
  8. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 13 June 2020 19: 06 New
    16
    As for working and non-working days, I met here a very characteristic time-table calendar for 1929, which is very instructive.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 13 June 2020 19: 50 New
      11
      Thank you Sergey for the calendar! To be honest, he breaks stereotypes !!!
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 13 June 2020 20: 08 New
        +6
        Yes, I was very surprised when I saw this scan.
      2. not main
        not main 13 June 2020 22: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        To be honest, he breaks stereotypes !!!

        Now that's for sure! I didn’t even think what it was!
    2. demo
      demo 13 June 2020 21: 44 New
      +4
      Interesting picture.
      Those. in the year 29 there were 6 religious holidays, the same number of revolutionary and one - New Year.
      And all was enough.
  9. Avior
    Avior 13 June 2020 19: 17 New
    +3
    . "Веселится и ликует весь народ", как поётся в дошедшей до нас песне.

    The song is generally not about a public holiday, but about the launch of a railway line.
    A song from the cycle about farewell to the motherland and departure abroad, if Che.
    О " дошедшей до на песне" отдельно улыбнуло. До нас и имя автора дошло вообще то.
    As for the chosen watercolor on the celebration of the coronation of Nicholas 2, nothing worse to illustrate and difficult to get along.
    The holiday was so organized that only 1400 people were trampled directly on the Khodynka field, the corpses were slightly cleared, and the holiday continued along the corpses remaining in the pits.
    But there were dead on the way home.
    . Moat, this terrible moat, these terrible wolf pits are full of corpses. Here the main place of death. Many of the people suffocated, still standing in the crowd, and fell already dead under the feet of those running behind, others died with signs of life under the feet of hundreds of people, died crushed; there were those who were strangled in a fight, near the booths, because of knots and mugs. Women in front of me lay with their braids torn out, with a scalped head.

    Many hundreds! And how many more were there who were not able to go and died on the way home. After all, after the corpses they were found in fields, in forests, near roads, twenty-five miles from Moscow, and how many died in hospitals and at home!
  10. bober1982
    bober1982 13 June 2020 19: 19 New
    +4
    Military motto For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland, and not a formula, as the author pointed out, formed at the end of 1812.
    And, the memorable anniversaries of our ancestors were celebrated very even in a big way.
    В честь коронации Екатерины II была выпущена медаль "За спасение Веры и Отечества"
    Similar examples can be given many from the reign and other autocrats, and not only in honor of the coronation.
    By the way, Paul I forbade the very word Fatherland, Alexander I canceled this ban.
    1. Antifreeze
      Antifreeze 13 June 2020 20: 02 New
      +8
      By the way, Paul I forbade the word Fatherland itself

      Ну, Павел I был известен своей "выборочной" цензурой.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 13 June 2020 20: 08 New
        0
        Pavel Petrovich, so he fought with the French freethinkers, of course he went too far, and he was too suspicious.
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 14 June 2020 14: 22 New
          -4
          France brought progress to the peoples
          1. bober1982
            bober1982 14 June 2020 16: 34 New
            +1
            Quote: Kronos
            France brought progress to the peoples

            Guillotine?
            1. Kronos
              Kronos 14 June 2020 16: 39 New
              -3
              No idea of ​​freedom of equality and fraternity
              1. bober1982
                bober1982 14 June 2020 16: 42 New
                +1
                Quote: Kronos
                ideas of freedom of equality and fraternity

                Paul I, and tried to fight these ideas, he was not forgiven for this.
                1. Kronos
                  Kronos 14 June 2020 16: 42 New
                  -3
                  I do not argue the enemy of freedom suffered a deserved punishment
  11. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 13 June 2020 20: 02 New
    -4
    I already reported to true Russians, from new Russians.
    Good gentlemen ... You see, grief did not grab in both presses.
    I was grabbing. Therefore, I appreciate what is.
    Appreciate what is. After all, do not believe it, it can be many times worse.
    This is not some kind of agitation. This is a statement. hi
    1. tatra
      tatra 13 June 2020 21: 00 New
      +9
      Это и есть агитация ,причем в стиле запутинской пропаганды "а в СССР было всё плохо ,а при Ельцине было еще хуже ,чем при Путине ,а на Украине еще хуже ,чем в России ,а без Путина будет еще хуже ".
      1. Petrol cutter
        Petrol cutter 13 June 2020 21: 05 New
        -2
        So and ... In what place am I wrong? I would like to understand.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 14 June 2020 04: 24 New
          +5
          Quote: Benzorez
          I would like to understand.

          Here...
          Quote: Benzorez
          You see, grief did not grab in both presses.

          It is not customary in Russia to boast of one’s own grief and compare it with a stranger.
          People live for joy, and not then, to grieve with grains for grief.
          1. Petrol cutter
            Petrol cutter 14 June 2020 19: 40 New
            0
            "Не принято на Руси бахвалиться собственным горем и сравнивать его с чужим."
            Apparently you really do not understand the scale of the problem. Libo of my thoughts.
            What is accepted / not accepted ... Case ten.
            Our people did not join the Russian Federation so that the Russian Federation would suddenly take over and fall apart. For the sake of it is not clear to anyone, with some wise ideas.
      2. veritas
        veritas 13 June 2020 21: 54 New
        +7
        Quote: tatra
        без Путина будет еще хуже ".

        Without Putin, there will be no Russia at all, as the slabbers already say.
        1. Petrol cutter
          Petrol cutter 13 June 2020 22: 14 New
          -8
          By the way, they say it.
          You would have Tymoshenko in the presidency for four years to put.
          Then they would be imbued. What, how much, ball hockey.
          1. Greenwood
            Greenwood 14 June 2020 07: 19 New
            +3
            Why do we need Tymoshenko, we have Sobchak. wassat
            1. Petrol cutter
              Petrol cutter 14 June 2020 19: 46 New
              -1
              "Зачем нам Тимошенко, у нас Собчак есть."
              Sorry, but not only you have it, but for a minute we now have it. Since count two million people moved into the Russian Federation. You will laugh ...
      3. AU Ivanov.
        AU Ivanov. 14 June 2020 15: 27 New
        +2
        But this is not agitation, but a statement of fact: under the scoop we didn’t live very well, under Yeltsin it’s really bad. And I don’t think that the standard of living in Ukraine is higher than ours.
  12. demo
    demo 13 June 2020 22: 12 New
    +7
    I will help the author.

    Here is the real state of affairs with the holidays in 1911 in the Republic of Ingushetia.
  13. Brigadier
    Brigadier 14 June 2020 00: 22 New
    +6
    Похоже скоро у нас будет новый праздник - "Putin Amendment Day".

  14. alebor
    alebor 14 June 2020 14: 09 New
    +1
    an average of 12-13 twenties
    - Что то я этого не понял. Это шутка? Это примерно как сказать, что в пятерне человека в среднем 5-6 пальцев. Само название праздников "двунадесятые" говорит о том, что их ровно 12. Откуда мог взяться тринадцатый двунадесятый праздник?