Military Review

2 August 1945 in Potsdam, the conference of the Big Three ended

13
2 August 1945 in Potsdam, the conference of the Big Three ended

2 August 1945, in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam, was completed the 17-day conference of the victorious powers: the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom. It was the third and last meeting of the so-called. "Big Three": Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman and Winston Churchill. The great powers that triumphed in the war against the Third Reich made the most important decisions on the settlement of defeated Germany and liberated Europe. Moscow confirmed its promise no later than three months after Germany’s surrender to declare war on the Japanese Empire.

By the time the Berlin (Potsdam) Conference began, relations between the allies in the anti-Hitler coalition had deteriorated significantly. In the politics of the Western powers, anti-Soviet sentiments intensified, which was the result of a sharp change in the balance of forces in the world in favor of the USSR. However, the union did not break up, because the United States and Great Britain were very interested in the participation of the Soviet Union in the war against the Japanese empire. Without the participation of the USSR in the war in the Asia-Pacific region, the conflict could continue for another one or two years and lead to huge losses.

Conference

The first to attend the conference, July 15, was American President Harry Truman. On the same day, but a little later, British Premier Winston Churchill also flew in. On the afternoon of July 16, Joseph Stalin arrived by train. The conference of the great powers was held in Cecilienienhof Palace, which they began to build in 1913 year. The last residence of the Hohenzollerns was built by Kaiser Wilhelm II by the design of the architect Paul Schulz-Naumburg for his son Crown Prince Wilhelm and his wife Cecilia (from the dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerinsky).

Near the building, on Lake Jungfernsee, three warships were on duty - one from each great power. The president was elected American president. During the conference, W. Churchill was defeated in the election, and Berlin was succeeded by Labor Party leader Clement Richard Attlee. The USSR was represented not only by Stalin, but many famous Soviet people: Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, diplomat Andrei Gromyko, generals Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, admiral fleet Nikolai Kuznetsov.

July 24 Harry Truman, in order to exert psychological pressure on the leader of the Soviet Union, told Stalin in person during a personal meeting about conducting a new super-power test in the USA weapons (16 July 1945 was in the desert near Alamogordo in the state of New Mexico was tested the first nuclear bomb). However, Stalin reacted calmly. In the USSR, they knew about the American atomic project and themselves conducted work in the same direction. That same evening, Stalin instructed Molotov to talk with Igor Kurchatov, the chief scientific director of the atomic program, to accelerate work on the creation of Soviet nuclear weapons.

During the Berlin Conference, the basic political and economic principles were laid down, which should have guided the winning countries in the initial period when dealing with defeated Germany. The country decided to demilitarize, democratize and denazify in order to eliminate the source of the threat. Germany decided to completely disarm, destroy the entire military-industrial complex. At the same time, the National Socialist Party was liquidated and all Nazi and military agitation was prohibited, and measures to punish war criminals were envisaged. An agreement was reached on reparations, i.e. Germany’s liability for damages incurred by countries subject to its aggression. The USSR was to receive material assets from the Soviet zone of occupation. In addition, in favor of the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw a fourth of the industrial equipment, which was intended for reparations from the western occupation zones (American, British and French). The German naval and merchant fleet was divided into equal shares between all the victorious powers (including France). At the insistence of the Soviet side at the Berlin Conference, it was decided to create and publish lists of war criminals of the Third Reich, to transfer them to the international tribunal.

Solved and issues of post-war Europe, the new borders of Germany. The Soviet Union was handed over to Koenigsberg (from 1946 of the year - Kaliningrad) and the adjacent area. The structure of the Lithuanian SSR included a part of East Prussia (Klaipeda region). Most of the territories seized from Germany, became part of the Polish state. The western Polish border was established along the Oder-West Neisse line. In addition, the Poles were given a part of eastern Prussia and the city of Danzig (Gdansk). The Anglo-Saxons, especially Churchill, opposed the significant expansion of Poland at the expense of Germany. However, Stalin won this “battle”. Poland owes Stalin the fact that it included two thirds of Pomerania, part of East and West Prussia, and Silesia. The German population moved from the territories transferred to the USSR and Poland to Germany (including from Czechoslovakia and Hungary).

Attention was paid to the problems associated with the conclusion of peace agreements with former allies of Nazi Germany - Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland and the admission of these states to the UN. At the conference, the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the victor countries was established. He was to develop texts of peace treaties and take measures to establish diplomatic relations with the governments of the defeated countries. The American and British delegations again raised the issue of the entry of the Soviet Union in the war against the Japanese. The Soviet side confirmed that the USSR would enter the war in the previously scheduled time. De facto, with the tacit consent of England and the United States, Moscow’s rights to possession of South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands (they were reached at the Yalta Conference as part of agreements on the Far East) were confirmed.

22-23 in July Stalin and Molotov presented at the Berlin Conference the territorial claims of the Union to Turkey: Moscow intended to join the territories in Transcaucasia, which belonged to 1878 of the Russian Empire. The Soviet side also demanded a favorable regime for Soviet ships in the Black Sea straits. These claims were not supported by the British and American delegations.

The Potsdam Conference was a real triumph of the USSR and Stalin personally. The Yalta and Berlin conferences laid the foundations for a new world order. The USSR became a superpower on which the solution of key world issues depended.
Author:
13 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Deniska999
    Deniska999 2 August 2012 07: 52
    +4
    Then the USSR was at the peak of its power
    1. VY16
      VY16 2 August 2012 08: 37
      +4
      Yes, under Stalin, the army had a strong spirit, and the Allies were afraid that the Soviet Union would not stop at Germany ... and a NATO bloc appeared.
  2. grizzlir
    grizzlir 2 August 2012 08: 41
    +2
    Great leaders and politicians. Despite their completely opposite political views, they knew how to agree among themselves. By the way, Churchill spoke very well of Stalin as the head of state and criticized the anti-Stalinist propaganda that had risen in the country after Stalin's death.
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 2 August 2012 10: 07
      +6
      They had no where to go, had to agree, because there was a kind of parity between them. Again, it was necessary to distribute the spheres of influence in the world and decide on Germany.
      So: on the one hand, the USSR and its most powerful military machine, which at that time could sweep away anything in its path, on the other, the USA and England, which were tied at that moment on the economy of the USSR (well, relatively of course), Japan, which had not yet been defeated. The United States at that moment needed to enlist the support of the USSR in a ground operation against Japan, and they even agreed to establish a Kom there. regime (because they understood perfectly well that after the passage of the Soviet army, a communist regime would certainly be established there). The United States itself at that time did not have sufficient ground forces, and it was not their "style" to lay down its soldiers.
      In general, the power of the Soviet Union’s military machine always amazes me — China has traveled around the road and car for a long enough time, and then they ran against the powerful Kwantung Army for a month! This is power.
    2. Morgan stanley
      Morgan stanley 2 August 2012 22: 06
      0
      Quote: grizzlir
      Great leaders and politicians. Despite their completely opposite political views, they knew how to agree among themselves.

      This is already in the past ... Name at least one Great Politician of the present times ... There are no such ...
  3. datur
    datur 2 August 2012 10: 05
    +5
    grizzlir, Churchill = this is a mean Anglo-Saxon toad!
    1. Drappier
      Drappier 2 August 2012 14: 32
      +1
      Quote: datur
      Churchill = this vile Anglo-Saxon toad!

      Hitler once said: "All over the world I am afraid of only two - Stalin and Churchill."
  4. borisst64
    borisst64 2 August 2012 10: 51
    +7
    600 thousand Soviet soldiers died in Poland, Stalin knocked out German territory for them, and they bastards want to demolish our monuments!
    1. Denzel13
      Denzel13 2 August 2012 12: 14
      +3
      Yes, to take away these territories from them so that they would think before opening their mouths.
  5. hv78yuhf
    hv78yuhf 2 August 2012 11: 48
    0
    An amazing country - amazing people, it was necessary to steal the database from specials. of services
    and put it on the Internet, I'm just amazed. And now everyone can find out information about each of us.
    When I saw it, I got scared at http://poisksng.tk
    because everyone has access to my phone numbers, addresses, personal correspondence in social services. networks.
    You never know what idiots there are. But I already figured out and deleted my page, which I advise you to and quickly !!!
  6. Kaa
    Kaa 2 August 2012 14: 45
    0
    Quote: Denzel13
    600 thousand Soviet soldiers died in Poland, Stalin knocked out German territory for them, and they bastards want to demolish our monuments!

    And an even greater traitor has not been invented than a traitor from his tribe. The more heinous is the blasphemy, for example, the transition from the orthodox, i.e. preserving its first origins, religion, into the "renovation", first, into the Catholic, then, into the Protestant (against what are we protesting, against God?), the more you need to pretend to be "faithful Catholics" (remember "Pan Volodyevsky", where blasphemy like "We would give the gentry to Jesus !!!!!"). Former Orthodox by birth Jeremiah Vishnevetsky was stopped ONLY by the plague during the bullying of the former fellow-believers, the Ukrainian Little Russians (who is comfortable with which name). A lot separates us from the Poles - these are, on their part, "dreams of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Mozha to Mozha", on the other hand, a purely Russian desire to forgive the lost sheep, according to the NEW TESTAMENT.
  7. xmike
    xmike 2 August 2012 14: 49
    0
    I propose to give Poland at the mercy of Germany, and then again "liberate"
  8. KOMOd Shpakov
    KOMOd Shpakov 2 August 2012 15: 25
    +1
    Solved and issues of post-war Europe, the new borders of Germany. The Soviet Union was handed over to Koenigsberg (from 1946 of the year - Kaliningrad) and the adjacent area. The structure of the Lithuanian SSR included a part of East Prussia (Klaipeda region). Most of the territories seized from Germany, became part of the Polish state. The western Polish border was established along the Oder-West Neisse line. In addition, the Poles were given a part of eastern Prussia and the city of Danzig (Gdansk). The Anglo-Saxons, especially Churchill, opposed the significant expansion of Poland at the expense of Germany. However, Stalin won this “battle”. Poland owes Stalin the fact that it included two thirds of Pomerania, part of East and West Prussia, and Silesia. The German population moved from the territories transferred to the USSR and Poland to Germany (including from Czechoslovakia and Hungary).



    And these so-called countries now also dare to bark at Russia and Stalin? Truly good does not go unpunished.
  9. pribolt
    pribolt 2 August 2012 23: 40
    0
    All this is the merit of Stalin.