Military Review

Along with Greenpeace. Tomahawks demand corn

42

Tomahawk performed by Block IV. Source: ru.wikipedia.org


Bacteria in the military


The first attempts to replace the high-energy fuel JP-10, which, in particular, is used at the American Tomahawks, were made five years ago at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Joint Bioenergy Institute. In fact, it was a graduate work of Stephen Sarria under the direction of Associate Professor Pamela Peralta-Yahya. JP-10 came to the attention of scientists because of the high cost: now it is a top-level fuel at a price of $ 27 per 3,75 liters. This price is justified by the high energy density of the fuel due to, as chemists say, "hydrocarbons with stressed cyclic systems." Fuel belongs to the elite class HEDF (High energy density fuels) or fuel with high specific energy, which is now affordable only for military consumers. The combustion of JP-10 in engines allows you to get 20-30% more energy than using ordinary 98th gasoline. If you do not go into chemical details, one of the "chips" of such fuel are pinene molecules, which, as it turned out, are produced by coniferous trees. Moreover, pinen still smells of needles - without it, a real New Year tree would turn into a skillful fake.


The civilian industry could in the future become the main consumer of the fuel type JP-10. Source: pavia-simply.ru

To satisfy the US armed forces with artificial pinene as a component of the rocket JP-10, all the forests of North America would not be enough. Only in the Tomahawk about 460 kilograms of fuel are loaded. Therefore, the developers decided to use the services of bacteria. For this, a gene responsible for the synthesis of pinene from ordinary glucose was introduced into the microorganism (classical intestinal Escherichia coli). All that was left was to collect the “crop” in the form of bacteria metabolic products (yield about 36 mg / l), catalytically process and fill the Tomahawks tanks. Pamela Peralta-Yahya summarized the results of the study:

“We made a sustainable precursor to fuels with a high energy density that looks the same as what is currently produced from oil and can be used in existing jet engines.”

However, so far this technology has not found practical embodiment, largely due to the low productivity of modified bacteria.

The problem of accessibility of the JP-10 itself is important not only in military matters. If it were possible to get an inexpensive analogue of such high-energy fuel, then it could well be poured into the tanks of civilian liners. And this would seriously reduce the volume of fuel carried on board or flight range with all the ensuing economic bonuses. On average, military superfuel is 11% more efficient than the best aviation kerosene used in civilian traffic. The Pentagon is also not averse to replacing JP-8 with a synthetic and cheap analogue of JP-10, for example, with strategic B-52s. Attempts to create modified fuel compositions for the Americans have already been. Fifteen years ago, Syntroleum Corporation created a mixture of combustible JP-8 and FT-fuel synthesized from coal, which was even tested on a B-52 bomber. A little later, a similar was tested on the F18A Super Hornets. It was in an era of high oil prices and the production of liquid fuel from coal was somehow justified. Over time, shale oil appeared in the USA, the price of “black gold” rapidly went down, experiments with fuel compositions stopped for a while. All this once again proves that no environmental problems are the cause of the upcoming "synthetic revolution" in the military aviation and US rocket science - everything is explained by the banal economy.

Tomahawks require biofuels


There are about 4 thousand Tomahawk tactical missiles in the USA now. This is a large enough number to begin the development of a synthetic analogue of JP-10. Moreover, last year, the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (China) received results on artificial superfuel from lignocellulosic biomass. This is not the rarest raw material for biofuel - in the world bioethanol has long been obtained from it. The Chinese have developed a process based on the use of furfuryl alcohol, which allows to obtain fairly cheap analogues of JP-10. The data are given, now a ton of such fuel costs about 7 thousand dollars, and according to Chinese technologies the price should drop to 5,6 thousand. Officially, scientists declare exclusively civilian use of the development, but, of course, military aircraft and tactical missiles of China will become one of the consumers of bio -JP-10.

Along with Greenpeace. Tomahawks demand corn
Dr. Andrew Sutton. Source: lanl.gov

In the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States, researchers Cameron Moore and Andrew Sutton in April of this year patented a slightly different way to produce biofuels. Since 2017, Gevo has been a project partner, hoping to build on developments in the civilian sector. As you know, among the crops in the United States, the leading roles are traditionally corn. Every year, more than 20 million hectares of land are sown by this plant. Corn for Americans is not only canned goods in the supermarket and animal feed, but also bioethanol, which is bred to 50% of gasoline at gas stations. Moore and Sutton, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy, have created a JP-10 corn waste production cycle. First, bioethanol is obtained from corn, and only then superfuel is synthesized from the remaining bran with a yield of up to 65%. This significantly reduces the cost of new biofuels, and also dispenses with particularly dangerous reagents and waste.


Source: worldofchemicals.com

According to initial calculations, the total cost of corn fuel for Tomahawks will decrease by 50%, which can really become a revolution in the fuel industry. There are other more optimistic calculations: a gallon bio-JP-10 will cost about $ 11 instead of today's 27. Civil carriers hope that when the military works out super-fuel production technologies, refueling at the airports will also be filled with new high-energy kerosene. This will be very useful in the post-pandemic world, when people will be afraid of long-distance air travel: low ticket prices can be of help in this case. There is information about the test use of fuel compositions based on the new JP-10 on air routes from the USA to Australia. US expansion of corn acreage will also be one of the incentives for economic development. The Americans hope that with the introduction of the Sutton - Moore chemical cycle into mass production, there will be a mass of new jobs in agriculture. Taking into account the use of bioethanol production waste as a raw material, the staff of companies producing this fuel will expand. All around are some pluses. Los Alamos, of course, considers the reduction in the state’s dependence on external supplies of petroleum products to be the most important. And, of course, all this chemical-technological история Greenpeace activists are very fond of, although they have not yet admitted it.


Los Alamos National Laboratory. Source: ru.wikipedia.org

Among the obvious positive aspects of the emergence of the new bio-JP-10 technology, there are many disadvantages. Firstly, the Pentagon’s natural reduction in cost of tactical missile use by the Pentagon will be another trigger for American aggression. Secondly, as soon as businessmen feel that the Sutton - Moore cycle is really economically viable, a considerable part of the agricultural land will be sown with corn. This technical culture can partially crowd out the rest: wheat, soy, etc. With constant demand, limiting supply will increase the cost of products and reduce their availability for people. By the way, this is already observed in a number of countries that are actively using renewable energy sources such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. And finally, thirdly, to increase the yield of corn, it will be clearly not enough to simply expand the area and genetically modified seeds from the famous Monsanta. There will come a time of intemperance with chemical fertilizers, and here the notorious Greenspeed will have a ton of questions.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 10 June 2020 05: 31 New
    -5
    Should we expect that in the satellite countries of the United States corn production will now sharply increase, to the detriment of other crops?
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 10 June 2020 06: 18 New
      +4
      In the same (make less frequent use of it) Ukraine it is already grown for itself and for export in sufficient quantities. And, if the article says, then ... What can I say ... Here, some figures wrote a whole cycle from which moonshine can be brewed, and the Americans went further - rocket fuel that is more efficient than fossil hydrocarbons!
      1. svp67
        svp67 10 June 2020 06: 53 New
        -1
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        In the same (make less frequent use of it) Ukraine it is already grown for itself and for export in sufficient quantities.

        I know ... near the house there were whole huge fields of the Research Institute of Corn ... The boys made "raids" on them ... and then they cooked. Who knew that, over time, this will become a new source of fuel ...
        But here I am only worried about the great openness of all the information, as if it were not a “death”, an attempt to withdraw potential opponents to the side.
      2. KCA
        KCA 10 June 2020 06: 53 New
        +1
        I really, really doubt that fossil fuels were previously used in Axes with a flight range of more than 2000 km, I’m 100% sure that synthetics
        1. Evgeny Fedorov
          10 June 2020 06: 56 New
          +7
          And what synthetics, in your opinion, are made of? Oil, gas and coal are nothing more.
          1. KCA
            KCA 10 June 2020 07: 04 New
            0
            As an option not derived from hydrocarbons - Asymmetric dimethylhydrazine, rocket fuel after all? In general, from the synthesis of various fossil hydrocarbons, well, at least 50% of what surrounds us consists of, but do you have a keyboard with a mouse not made of liquid oil or methane?
            1. Evgeny Fedorov
              10 June 2020 07: 38 New
              +3
              A mouse with a keyboard is most likely polypropylene or the like. And this is made from natural gas. If you take dimethylhydrazine, then yes - it is not directly synthesized from oil (gas). But the raw materials for its production are just the products of multi-stage processing of various hydrocarbon fossils.

              There are even two hydrocarbon radicals hanging. He leads his family tree precisely from natural hydrocarbons.
              1. KCA
                KCA 10 June 2020 07: 47 New
                -2
                Well, corn and other crops are also natural hydrocarbons, and they have been able to drive fuel from them for a very long time, what is the American breakthrough? Can refueling an ax become $ 10 cheaper? At a price of more than a million, it’s like wiping dust off a room with a handkerchief so that it doesn’t interfere with flight
                1. Evgeny Fedorov
                  10 June 2020 07: 58 New
                  +4
                  The Americans have a “breakthrough” (so far at the level of technology demonstrator) in that of renewable source they learned how to synthesize high-energy fuel, which was previously used not even in military aviation, but in cruise missiles because of its high cost. The potential of the technology is such that if large-scale production is established, then JP-10 will remain for civilian airliners (at least in the form of an additive), which will allow them to fly farther and cheaper. This is, if briefly on the article.
                  1. KCA
                    KCA 10 June 2020 08: 26 New
                    -2
                    Oh, renewable energy sources were used, I somehow know only two of these, really working - hydroelectric power stations and now in Russia nuclear power plants, the rest is bullshit, how many hectares of corn need to be grown to refuel one ax? Is it compact corn, growing under the porch of the house? How old is the corn field without the use of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other crops to give? Two years or three? Well, etc., etc.
                  2. hohol95
                    hohol95 10 June 2020 08: 26 New
                    +1
                    Bioethanol: to health! | Popular Mechanics Magazine
                    Oleg Makarov
                    August 24 2010
                    Brazilian wizards of the fuel industry "extradite" from one burnt by the tropical sun hectare 7500 l of ethanol.
                    Another major producer of fuel bioethanol - USA - content with 3800 l / ha.
                    In Europe, sugar beet produces 5500 l / ha, however, production volumes are not yet comparable with either Brazil or the United States.

                    Americans need to switch to sugar beets!
                    And they are all busy with corn.
                    1. KCA
                      KCA 10 June 2020 08: 40 New
                      0
                      Is ethanol not bio? They drive him out of everything that foams, so I was told by an accountant from the Korystovsky distillery, when I, in response to the fact that they supply 100% alcohol to Crystal, I said you probably all the alcohol from wheat were baked so that in summer the car was fogged up with a glass, what kind of wheat that foams, we are driving from, I don’t remember how much Ostap Bender knew the recipes for moonshine, like not one hundred
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 10 June 2020 08: 51 New
                        +1
                        GOST R 51652-2000 Rectified ethyl alcohol from food raw materials. Specifications. (Canceled).
                        What is replaced is not clear.
                        4.2.1 Alcohols "Lux", "Extra" and "Basis" produced from various types of grain and a mixture of grain and potato (the amount of potato starch in the mixture should not exceed 35% during the production of Lux alcohol and 60% during the production of Extra and Basis alcohol).
                        Alfa alcohol is produced from wheat, rye, or from a mixture of wheat and rye.

                        It is allowed to establish requirements for the ratio of the composition of raw materials in the production of alcohol for export by the terms of the contract.
                        4.2.2 Alcohols of the highest purification and 1st grade, depending on the feedstock produce:
                        - from grain, potatoes or a mixture of grain and potatoes;
                        - from a mixture of grain, potato, sugar beet and molasses, raw sugar and other sugar and starch-containing raw materials in various ratios;
                        - from molasses;
                        - from the head fraction of ethyl alcohol obtained in the production of alcohol from food raw materials [1].
                        Note - Ethyl rectified alcohol produced from the head fraction of ethyl alcohol is not used for the production of vodka and alcoholic beverages.
                        In the production of rectified ethyl alcohol, auxiliary materials are used that are approved for use in the alcohol industry by the Russian Ministry of Health.

                        According to GOST, only vegetable raw materials! But GOSTs in our country are recommendatory in nature! Each plant also has its own technical specifications.
                      2. KCA
                        KCA 10 June 2020 09: 05 New
                        0
                        I was in Korystovo in 95 or 96, I don’t remember, but in those years, which GOST, which TU? If there is no sediment in vodka, you can already take a couple, beware of the sediment, but if the store is checked, you can sediment
                    2. hohol95
                      hohol95 10 June 2020 08: 54 New
                      0
                      At hydrolysis plants, up to 1 liters of ethyl alcohol are produced from 200 ton of wood, which allows replacing 1,5 tons of potatoes or 0,7 tons of grain.

                      Wikipedia
                    3. KCA
                      KCA 10 June 2020 09: 11 New
                      0
                      In Soviet times, denatured alcohol was also driven out of sawdust, but this is ethanol, sawdust, bio-raw material, isn’t it?
                  3. Pavel57
                    Pavel57 11 June 2020 10: 51 New
                    0
                    Therefore, for the body, the correct vodka is not from rectifications, but from distillates.
              2. credo
                credo 11 June 2020 12: 12 New
                0
                Quote: Yevgeny Fedorov
                The Americans have a “breakthrough” (so far at the level of technology demonstrator) in that of renewable source they learned how to synthesize high-energy fuel, which was previously used not even in military aviation, but in cruise missiles because of its high cost. The potential of the technology is such that if large-scale production is established, then JP-10 will remain for civilian airliners (at least in the form of an additive), which will allow them to fly farther and cheaper. This is, if briefly on the article.

                I don’t presume to judge the “breakthrough nature” of this energy source, but I just want to note that based on statistics on world oil-based fuel consumption, the prospect of replacing it with “green” counterparts will probably require all the arable land in the world to be sown with corn, and then what will it eat Earth population.
                The second point is that agricultural crops are very dependent on weather conditions, in contrast to underground minerals, so the final result of using this “fuel” is not at all obvious.
          2. Maki Avellevich
            Maki Avellevich 13 June 2020 19: 42 New
            0
            Quote: Yevgeny Fedorov
            A mouse with a keyboard is most likely polypropylene or the like.

            Keyboard - ABS
            Mouse - ABS, PC / ABS
            1. Alanart
              Alanart 2 September 2020 13: 48 New
              0
              Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. And polycarbonate. Oil and gas.
  • Bar1
    Bar1 10 June 2020 07: 46 New
    +2
    will be sown with corn. This technical culture can partially crowd out the rest: wheat, soy, etc.


    green peas and sow ...
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 10 June 2020 05: 40 New
    0
    Along with Greenpeace. Tomahawks demand corn
    fool , what else to say. Environmentalists, do not care about a person? There is famine just around the corner ....
    as soon as businessmen feel that the Sutton-Moore cycle is indeed economically viable, a large part of the agricultural land will be sown with corn. This technical culture can partially crowd out the rest: wheat, soy, etc. With constant demand, limiting supply will increase the cost of products and reduce their availability for people.
  • lelik613
    lelik613 10 June 2020 05: 41 New
    0
    Pinen, pinen ... Honestly, ski.
    1. igordok
      igordok 10 June 2020 07: 24 New
      0
      Moreover, pinen still smells of needles - without it, a real New Year tree would turn into a skillful fake.

      Rather - The needles smell like pinen. recourse
  • Free wind
    Free wind 10 June 2020 06: 08 New
    +2
    That soy and rape scare, they say vile Americans plant them. Now corn, valiant patriots will scare.
    1. Constructor68
      Constructor68 10 June 2020 06: 39 New
      -1
      Now corn, valiant patriots will scare.

      If an article describing a potential technology for producing high-energy fuel could scare you, then this is already a psychiatrist laughing
  • rocket757
    rocket757 10 June 2020 07: 17 New
    0
    Good topic? To grow food crops, Schaub to make fuel for rockets fool
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 10 June 2020 13: 00 New
      +4
      They even grow upland forests.
      Genetic modified trees: grow faster, do not require much water, they have more trunk and branches and fewer leaves. At least on paper, at least on fuel.
      And, at the same time, oxygen is produced while they grow.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 10 June 2020 13: 04 New
        -1
        Well, yes, and the forests are growing beyond the fact that Schaub build fortifications? or for other purposes?
  • ALLxANDr
    ALLxANDr 10 June 2020 09: 15 New
    0
    There will come a time of intemperance with chemical fertilizers, and here the notorious Greenspeed will have a ton of questions.
    Greenpeace will have no questions. These are bioterrorists who are set against competitors in other countries. According to the principle: I see here, I do not see here.
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 10 June 2020 09: 24 New
    0
    All. The author is right.
    In America, before that, up to 30% of biofuel was in civilian life - now in the article they wrote about 50%, and about the approach of replacing expensive elite varieties with cheap ones ...

    Another kapets looms in the future for not China and not the Americas ...
  • Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 10 June 2020 09: 32 New
    -1
    So, the Chinese have independently developed extremely advanced fuels. Well ...
    It's time to forget about our technological superiority. We no longer have any young engineers of any serious level. We thus restructured our higher education so that their appearance was simply impossible. As soon as it became possible to buy an exam or a test, higher education disappeared. He is no more.
    And the Chinese people are massively receiving a REAL education and going to the future. Where we no longer have a road. We only produce slaves according to Mr. Gref's prescription. Do you remember? Mr. Gref repeatedly spoke on the subject of a comprehensive reduction in the study of mathematics and physics. This approach leads to a logical result - people who do not learn mathematics and physics (certainly in a bundle, these branches of Knowledge are useless without each other) do not have analytical thinking. There are no other ways than mathematics with physics for the development of analytical thinking.
    Such people cannot build and implement complex plans, so they need to constantly say what to do, otherwise they are doing ... well, it’s about what our government is. In general, slaves. And that’s all. Engineers and scientists, these people are not capable, in principle, except for science as humanitarian fun, of course. So our country will no longer develop new fuels with young brains. Forget it ...
  • Undecim
    Undecim 10 June 2020 09: 52 New
    +2
    For this, a gene responsible for the synthesis of pinene from ordinary glucose was introduced into the microorganism (classical intestinal Escherichia coli).
    The author is a little carried away. It was not a gene, but an enzyme, a protein molecule responsible for the synthesis of certain chemicals. In this case, pinene synthase and geranyl diphosphate synthase were used.
    And, of course, this whole chemical-technological story is to the liking of Greenpeace activists, although they have not admitted it yet.
    Greenpeace author dragged here in vain. First, when burning biofuels, as well as traditional fuels, carbon dioxide and water vapor are formed, contributing to the greenhouse effect.
    In addition, it has already been estimated that when corn is grown in the quantities necessary to replace biofuel with fuel from oil, the amount of harmful emissions and pollution will be greater than when using the same fuel from oil. Therefore, there is an intensive study of the possibility of obtaining biofuels using more productive processes.
    So the author paints the horrors of "cornization" in vain.
    1. Evgeny Fedorov
      10 June 2020 10: 12 New
      0
      Greenpeace author dragged here in vain. First, when burning biofuels, as well as traditional fuels, carbon dioxide and water vapor are formed, contributing to the greenhouse effect.
      Well, when growing corn during photosynthesis, water vapor is absorbed along with carbon dioxide. In theory, there should be a zero balance of emissions and consumption. This is the essence of fuel bioresources.
      The author is a little carried away. It was not a gene, but an enzyme, a protein molecule responsible for the synthesis of certain chemicals. In this case, pinene synthase and geranyl diphosphate synthase were used.
      Genes encode the amino acid sequence in enzyme proteins, so no way .. Want to say that an enzyme was just injected into a cell? The enzyme will work fine even without a cell - give pH and the required temperature.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 10 June 2020 10: 47 New
        0
        give pH and desired temperature.
        Only after you.
      2. garri-lin
        garri-lin 10 June 2020 20: 44 New
        0
        Well, overall a zero balance is possible. But the process of growing corn itself is also pollution. The same diesel tractor. I’m silent about chemistry in the earth.
  • iouris
    iouris 10 June 2020 14: 53 New
    0
    Again, “Bourbon” will be nothing to do.
  • dog of war
    dog of war 10 June 2020 21: 54 New
    0
    Green energy hit from an unexpected angle.
  • eklmn
    eklmn 11 June 2020 00: 54 New
    0
    Actually, in the USA, farmers grow corn for themselves (feed to their livestock), and if for sale, then on the recommendation of the US Department of Agriculture. He, the department, knows the state of agriculture in the country and abroad, therefore he gives tips to farmers for several years in advance. In addition, corn significantly spoils the soil, so alternation is needed. So none of the farmers will rush to grow corn “right now”, they will wait for the advice of specialists.
  • Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 11 June 2020 10: 41 New
    0
    In the photo, the green logo of the British Petroleum, after the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the use of bacteria that eat including people logo should be blood red like the blood of the people of Iraq where
    BP pump oil ...
  • 7,62h54
    7,62h54 11 June 2020 23: 26 New
    0
    Greta Tunberg will be pleased
  • AML
    AML 2 September 2020 14: 27 New
    0
    Quote: 7,62x54
    Greta Tunberg will be pleased

    The only contribution she can make to the health of the planet is with her carcass for fertilizing the fields. On good, even the will could scratch and assure the UN.