Refusal of oil and gas: Norway was named the first in line


Climate Policy magazine has published a noteworthy study. It concludes that it is time for Norway to stop oil and gas production, since this country has all the infrastructure to carry out such a task.


Why do you want to start with Norway


The author of the study, Greg Mattitt, concludes that by 2050 the bulk of oil, gas and coal production should be stopped. Instead of these energy sources, it is proposed to use renewable sources, which will limit the increase in temperature on the planet to one and a half degrees. Norway is called the most prepared country for the abolition of oil and gas production. It is she who will “set the pace”, and then the turn of Great Britain, Canada and the USA will follow.

Norway has a wide and diverse economy that can attract oil workers to other sectors. Norway also has the world's largest pension fund,

- says Mattitt.

At the same time, Mattitt believes that Norway, as well as Great Britain, Canada and the United States, have all the resource opportunities to stop oil and gas production, since they do not depend on the extractive industry as much as third world countries depend on it.

For example, in Norway only 10% of the state budget is generated from oil revenues, while in Nigeria “oil money” makes up 40% of the budget, in Angola - 50% of the budget, in Iraq - 85% of the budget. It is clear that in the Russian Federation the share of the fuel and energy complex in the country's revenue generation is very high (28,5% in the oil sector).

Mattitt believes that if you start by reducing oil production in Asian and African countries, then their already not rich residents will become even poorer. A completely different picture in Norway, which can take care of its citizens.

Gulf monarchies have to tighten their belts


However, the researcher ignores another interesting nuance: the exploitation of natural resources in third world countries is very often carried out by corporations belonging to the same Western businessmen, or in the interests of the latter. And far from always, oil revenues go to national budgets for the benefit of the population: in the same Angola or Nigeria, millions of people live in terrifying poverty, but this is of little concern to local governments.

Mohamed Adov, head of the Power Shift Africa center in Nairobi (Kenya), also does not see the future for fossil fuel extraction. Already, in his opinion, there are countries that can move towards cleaner and more sustainable energy. The coronavirus pandemic provides excellent opportunities for changing the current situation in the global energy sector: national governments can initiate changes based on the experience of the events of recent months. Obviously, this refers to a reduction in transport links between countries and a general decrease in oil demand.


But there is another interesting nuance. For example, in the rich oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf, up to 70% of the budget is also formed through the exploitation of oil and gas fields. Oil and gas are the key to the economic miracle of Kuwait, Qatar, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain. The cessation of oil and gas production would become a national catastrophe for these states, since with all the large-scale investments in other sectors of the economy, so far they have not managed to reduce the dependence of their budgets on income from fuel production.

Meanwhile, the rejection of oil and gas production can really completely change the face of the global economy. Many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and even our country, in their income are very dependent on the exploitation of deposits and the export of oil, gas, coal. The “energy revolution” will hit their interests very hard, especially if it is conducted “from above”, under pressure from Western Europe and the USA.

On the other hand, no one is obliged to agree with the conclusions of European and American analysts and follow their recommendations. A gradual transition to renewable energy sources is needed, but it should not be carried out on a forced basis, under the supervision of whom the powers of the “environmental gendarmes” of the USA or the European Union have taken over.
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  1. Invoce 9 June 2020 14: 37 New
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    The countries of "Western democracy" oppose nuclear energy, against hydrocarbon raw materials ... By extracting and distributing the energy received from the sun and wind (geothermal sources, etc.), the whole world will slide not into the "golden" billion, but into the cave age .. . what
    1. Nasrat 9 June 2020 14: 59 New
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      "Climate Policy Magazine published a remarkable study. In him conclusion is made that Norway it's time to stop oil and gas productionbecause this country has all the infrastructure to carry out such a task. "

      Everything has already been decided for the Norwegians .... hehe ... it’s time, Norwegian brother to put off oil ... wassat Meanwhile, say the United States, they will increase oil and gas production ... wassat They do not intrusively remove competitors .... Norway will produce until the last barrel, until a fick appears from the wells, and if it is 2050 or 2250, only Svarog knows ...
      ps British magazine, if that ... good
      1. credo 9 June 2020 16: 09 New
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        Quote: Nasr
        "Climate Policy Magazine published a remarkable study. In him conclusion is made that Norway it's time to stop oil and gas productionbecause this country has all the infrastructure to carry out such a task. "

        Everything has already been decided for the Norwegians .... hehe ... it’s time, Norwegian brother to put off oil ... wassat Meanwhile, say the United States, they will increase oil and gas production ... wassat They do not intrusively remove competitors .... Norway will produce until the last barrel, until a fick appears from the wells, and if it is 2050 or 2250, only Svarog knows ...
        ps British magazine, if that ... good

        It seems that the Anglo-Saxons are again practicing a multi-step approach to other countries, pushing them to reckless actions. It turns out that Holland will soon end up extracting these resources from the shores of Europe, England declares the same resources to be impoverished in its coastal waters, Russia is being blocked westward in all areas and only Norway has so far been free to supply resources to the EU, brazenly taking a piece of the pie from the poor USA. The mess.
        Well, if the USA set out to occupy the EU’s north with 100% of its gas and oil, then they will put pressure on everyone, despite the devotion or “love” of these countries to them.
        1. Tatyana 9 June 2020 16: 41 New
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          Quote: credo
          It seems that the Anglo-Saxons are again practicing a multi-step approach to other countries, pushing them to reckless actions. It turns out that Holland will soon end up extracting these resources from the shores of Europe, England declares the same resources to be impoverished in its coastal waters, Russia is being blocked westward in all areas, and only Norway has so far been free to supply resources to the EU, brazenly taking a piece of the pie from the poor USA. Disorder

          Interesting things come out with the Polish dream of raising the national sovereignty of Poland from Russian gas to Russia! Namely.

          After all, Poland was going to build the Norway-Poland gas pipeline through Denmark to protect its national sovereignty from Russia! And what happens?

          The Anglo-Saxons of the United States will also cover the rise of Poland’s national sovereignty on gas, as they say, with a “copper basin”!
          1. Russian Bear_2 9 June 2020 17: 11 New
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            It's okay, they will buy 100% democratic gas from the United States.
          2. credo 9 June 2020 17: 36 New
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            Quote: Tatiana
            Quote: credo
            It seems that the Anglo-Saxons are again practicing a multi-step approach to other countries, pushing them to reckless actions. It turns out that Holland will soon end up extracting these resources from the shores of Europe, England declares the same resources to be impoverished in its coastal waters, Russia is being blocked westward in all areas, and only Norway has so far been free to supply resources to the EU, brazenly taking a piece of the pie from the poor USA. Disorder

            Interesting things come out with the Polish dream of raising the national sovereignty of Poland from Russian gas to Russia! Namely.
            After all, Poland was going to build the Norway-Poland gas pipeline through Denmark to protect its national sovereignty from Russia! And what happens?

            The Anglo-Saxons of the United States will also cover the rise of Poland’s national sovereignty on gas, as they say, with a “copper basin”!

            Nothing will be wasted and everything will be in chocolate if you manage to break Norway.
            The procedure will be as follows after Norway adopts the Anglo-Saxon plan:
            - Norway is building a terminal for receiving American gas on the shores of the North or Norwegian Seas,
            - through the network of internal gas pipelines in Norway, "free and democratic" US gas flows through the gas pipeline from Norway to Poland,
            - through a network of former Russian (Soviet) gas pipelines on the territory of Poland, the molecules of the best gas in the world go to the Baltic States and Belarus, Ukraine, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, with access to Greece and Turkey.
        2. Civil 9 June 2020 19: 36 New
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          Insolent Anglo-Saxons or what ?! Do not buy our gas oil? Just so much investment went into production or something. Finally, there is no conscience.
      2. antivirus 9 June 2020 18: 53 New
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        still need to stop the production of cast iron and steel (nature is ruined by metallurgies) STARTING WITH SWEDEN.
    2. ANB
      ANB 9 June 2020 18: 53 New
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      . geothermal sources

      Electricity from a geothermal power plant comes out more expensive than from fuel oil, with imported fuel oil.
      1. Malyuta 9 June 2020 19: 12 New
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        Quote: ANB
        Electricity from a geothermal power plant comes out more expensive than from fuel oil, with imported fuel oil.

        I am very sorry, but why bring fuel oil to where there are geothermal sources? For example, in New Zealand, geothermal power plants are fully operational, and Kamchatka will also use their geothermal zones. hi
        1. ANB
          ANB 9 June 2020 19: 27 New
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          . Kamchatka will also use their geothermal zones.

          I do not know how in New Zealand. I wrote about Kamchatka. Since Soviet times, the local thermal power station has been operating on imported fuel oil. And throughout the 90s, while Biryukov was the governor, fuel oil was not regularly delivered on time and regular outages began. More precisely, the inclusion. It stopped only Mashkovtsev. In the late 90s, they launched the Mutnovsky geothermal. But it didn’t get any better. I talked with an employee. Surprisingly, with free heat generation came out more expensive. It's all about an aggressive pair that eats pipes and equipment. And they are more expensive than regular heat, as they are made of special alloys.
          It all ended up stretching the gas pipeline to the TPP. But I already left when they did.
          1. Malyuta 9 June 2020 19: 49 New
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            Quote: ANB
            I do not know how in New Zealand.

            They account for 18% of total energy, namely geothermal.
            Quote: ANB
            I wrote about Kamchatka.

            Quote: ANB
            Surprisingly, with free heat generation came out more expensive.

            But this is just not surprising, this is Russia. hi
    3. Grading 10 June 2020 10: 40 New
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      Quote: Invoce
      The countries of "Western democracy" oppose nuclear energy, against hydrocarbon raw materials ... By extracting and distributing the energy received from the sun and wind (geothermal sources, etc.), the whole world will slide not into the "golden" billion, but into the cave age .. .

      I wonder which of you is right fund analytics or Invoce

      for me the answer is obvious good
  2. rocket757 9 June 2020 14: 39 New
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    A gradual transition to renewable energy sources is needed, but it should not be carried out on a forced basis, under the supervision of whom the powers of the “environmental gendarmes” of the USA or the European Union have taken over.

    We will see how it goes and what will happen ... if nothing extraordinary happens. Although, this is a task for our descendants.
  3. sergo1914 9 June 2020 14: 42 New
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    They have cod, salmon and shrimp. They will survive.
    1. Willywonka 9 June 2020 15: 09 New
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      In addition to cod, salmon, they have heavy water. In general, Norway is ranked 1st in terms of living standards in the world. ICE vehicles cease to function earlier than anyone else in Europe. EMNIP in the 30s. In general .... we are very far from them.
      1. Lexus 9 June 2020 15: 37 New
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        They have the Norwegian State Pension Fund, at the beginning of 2020, which contained ~ $ 1,1 trillion working for ALL citizens of the country (almost $ 200 thousand each !!!), and not for a narrow circle of homies. This is more than the inventory value of ALL Russian natural resources, together with forest inhabitants, according to the "inventory", subject to final privatization, "for their own". So, they will not be lost.
        1. pogis 9 June 2020 16: 50 New
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          Already opened for 20 lard $
          https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.rbc.ru/rbcnews/economics/09/05/2020/5eb5e8a39a79475a311065f8
          1. Lexus 9 June 2020 17: 14 New
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            Already opened for 20 lard $

            So what? The fund is needed in order to languish over it, like our "permanent"? They periodically, in times of crisis, naturally, drop in there. To do this, there is a special legal procedure with the participation of all branches of government. At the same time, they cannot spend more than the maximum established amount for a certain period, much less steal. All additional expenses only by the will of all citizens of the country are possible in exceptional cases. And with all this, the fund employs 500 employees in comparison with the 100th staff of the FIU. Report on financial and economic results in the public domain. Estimate.
            https://www.nbim.no/en/
            1. pogis 9 June 2020 17: 51 New
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              "... They periodically, in times of crisis, naturally, drop in there."
              I look, maybe, but the money was taken from there for the first time, this is me to the topic of the article about the suspension of oil and gas production by Norway.
              1. Lexus 10 June 2020 03: 46 New
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                I look, maybe, but the money was taken from there for the first time

                I’ll fix it a bit. Not that they are systematically taken.

                The fund cannot spend more than 3% of accumulated reserves per year. This fall (approx. 2019) Norway for the first time since 2017 years, the fund was printed out due to falling oil prices below budgeted levels. (C) Bloomberg

                In principle, they did not think about the diversification of revenues yesterday.

                Despite the fact that the fund uses high-risk investment instruments, it acts as carefully as possible. Sometimes the decisions of the Norwegian authorities are not too obvious. For example, in November 2017, the fund announced the sale of assets related to oil and gas. It would seem, why deprive yourself of such an attractive source of income? However, the fund decided to abandon the relevant investments, citing the fact that the Norwegian economy is so dependent on oil. If the hydrocarbon-based economy collapses, then Norway, the largest producer of this raw material in Western Europe, will suffer double damage as an exporter of oil and gas and as an investor.

                Thanks for the discussion. hi
      2. depressant 9 June 2020 15: 52 New
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        A couple of watched Norwegian films personally showed me that in terms of mentality, Norwegians are very similar to Russians. The Germans, the British, the French, and the rest are not alike, but the Norwegians are alike. Pleasant in everyday life - no redundancy, modest sufficiency. Hard workers. Nature is well maintained.
        1. Willywonka 9 June 2020 22: 55 New
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          They do not look like Russians in mentality. Norwegian culture is highly formed by Protestantism. And US Protestantism is primarily Protestantism of the outskirts of England + Norwegian Protestantism, and not centralized Protestantism of Germany. Hard workers? Well, this is inherent in religion. All Protestant countries with the highest rates of productivity and hours of work per year. The United States, for example, periodically competes with Japan on business hours.
          1. Liam 9 June 2020 23: 02 New
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            Quote: WillyWonka
            And US Protestantism is primarily Protestantism of the outskirts of England + Norwegian Protestantism, and not centralized Protestantism of Germany

            Seriously?
            According to demographers and national censuses, 42 to 58 million Americans (17–20% of the total) are of full or partial German origin (the second largest ethnic group in the United States after Hispanics)
            1. Willywonka 9 June 2020 23: 07 New
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              And here is the demography. Read Alex De Tocqueville - Democracy in America. What was Protestantism of the victorious Yankees in general?
              PS It was centralized Protestantism in Germany that could not resist what happened in '33. An analysis of the Yankee communities is not only in Tocqueville and Weber, but Huntington can also find the answer to this question.
    2. d4rkmesa 9 June 2020 15: 13 New
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      Fjords will be leased to the Chinese. True, before that they are still half a century at least.
  4. Uncle lee 9 June 2020 14: 50 New
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    (28,5% - oil sector).

    1. Lexus 9 June 2020 16: 08 New
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      good
      We will threaten the settlement with the Swede (C), "The Bronze Horseman.", Poem, A.S. Pushkin


      "Glory to Pinocchio!", Painting, Vasya Lozhkin (Alexey Kudelin), A wonderful folk artist
    2. WIKI 9 June 2020 16: 11 New
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      The author of the article famously plays with numbers. For Norway, Nigeria, Angola, Iraq, the budget is dependent on "oil money", and for Russia it is a share in raw material exports. The budget of our country in 2019 depended on 43% of oil and gas. That's why I do not like propaganda when they compare sour to long.
      1. Malyuta 9 June 2020 17: 33 New
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        Quote: WIKI
        The author of the article famously plays with numbers. For Norway, Nigeria, Angola, Iraq, the budget is dependent on "oil money", and for Russia it is a share in raw material exports. The budget of our country in 2019 depended on 43% of oil and gas. That's why I do not like propaganda when they compare sour to long.

        Manipulation of consciousness, however.
  5. Aleksey Aleksandrovich 9 June 2020 14: 52 New
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    How many windmills or solar panels do you need to replace an average power plant or hydroelectric power station?
    How, for example, to heat housing in Russia, where in most of the country half a year is winter? Can anyone clarify this?
    1. Gardamir 9 June 2020 15: 13 New
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      How much ... how
      The questions are important. But here is an example. Soviet television show. They argued the truth is not about oil, but about nuclear energy. Good, security. environmental friendliness. Then one professor stood up and said, if how much money and knowledge how much is invested in nuclear energy was invested in solar, we would have lived with other possibilities. The time is about 1985. That is, now not to laugh at the Tesla mask, but the results would already be invested. But this is a long-term project.
      1. bk0010 9 June 2020 15: 36 New
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        Quote: Gardamir
        Then one professor stood up and said, if how much money and knowledge how much is invested in nuclear energy was invested in solar, we would have lived with other possibilities.
        First, let the solar battery first generate more energy than it took to produce it, and then we will already swell resources into the solar energy industry. In the meantime, only research.
      2. Willywonka 9 June 2020 15: 41 New
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        And who is laughing at Tesla now? Only Toyota is inferior in value, I mean the value of the company. The Norwegians have the largest fleet of electric trains in the form of Tesla in Europe per capita.
    2. sergo1914 9 June 2020 17: 17 New
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      Quote: Alexey Alexandrovich
      How many windmills or solar panels do you need to replace an average power plant or hydroelectric power station?
      How, for example, to heat housing in Russia, where in most of the country half a year is winter? Can anyone clarify this?


      Well, if all the exercise bikes and treadmills in Moscow fitness centers are connected to generators ...
  6. knn54 9 June 2020 14: 53 New
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    Gas and oil account for almost half of exports.
    Hydrocarbon production is declining, and investment is not expected because
    exploration and production on the shelf is a very expensive pleasure,
    and the influence of the greens in Norway is ahead of the rest.
  7. Evdokim 9 June 2020 15: 02 New
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    Climate Policy magazine has published a noteworthy study. /.../ Greg Mattitt, the author of the study, concludes that by 2050 the bulk of oil, gas and coal production should be stopped.

    What an ignorant dreamer. Just cosmic or comic scale fool. He sits in front of the monitor and knocks on the keys, flies into the world of his dreams and fantasies. The study is complete, you can even say clinical pseudo-scientific stupidity, with a claim to the whole world how to live. It tempts me to send him for a hitch to Agafya Lykova for billeting. wassat
    1. bk316 9 June 2020 15: 07 New
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      It tempts me to send him for a hitch to Agafya Lykova for billeting.

      That you can’t cut and burn wood .... Even worse than coal. So he’ll freeze there and freeze Agafya.
      1. Evdokim 9 June 2020 16: 17 New
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        Quote: bk316
        So he’ll freeze there and freeze Agafya.

        If he is there, he will not freeze, they will save.
        That's what he will do if he meets a bear there, by chance it turns out to be hungry, he will rub him about human rights, or about animal rights, and the environment. wassat
  8. bk316 9 June 2020 15: 10 New
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    Only if the terawatt at 500 will do TNP.
    But bad luck if this happens, then in Russia there will be from the bottom of TW 200-300
    Wow, the liberals should write about the needle, they will be talking about thermonuclear ....
  9. d4rkmesa 9 June 2020 15: 11 New
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    “For example, in Norway only 10% of the state budget is generated from oil revenues” - these are very crafty figures. Depending on the source, the score may vary significantly. There are also such estimates: "Norway is in the global top 7 exporters of crude oil. The oil and gas sector constitutes around 18% of Norwegian GDP and 62% of Norwegian exports" (European Commission website for help). Those. 2/3 of export is oil and gas, this cash flow cannot be replaced by anything at the moment. Although, this is a complaint to the author of the original, and not to the translator.
  10. Carnifexx 9 June 2020 15: 16 New
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    What kind of thing is it, Norway has less oil reserves than Azerbaijan (at the current rate of production, they will last 10 years) and less gas than Uzbekistan. They produce offshore, which is more expensive in cost, less return and few resources (relative to the pace of development) - it’s logical to look for other options, especially since there is no budget dependence on resources (they added up oil and gas profits to the fund and invested in blue chips).
    Passages in the comments in the style of "everything is clear, they were ordered by the imperialists", etc. have fun
  11. Mouse 9 June 2020 15: 26 New
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    Norway has a wide and diverse economy that can attract oil workers to other sectors. Norway also has the world's largest pension fund

    In other words...
    Erysipelas came out ... wink
  12. parusnik 9 June 2020 15: 51 New
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    Climate Policy magazine has published a noteworthy study. It concludes that it is time for Norway to stop oil and gas production, since this country has all the infrastructure to carry out such a task.
    .... Do the Norwegians know about this? And they agree it's time?
  13. Ravil_Asnafovich 9 June 2020 16: 21 New
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    Interestingly, but Greta rejoices?
  14. Shelest2000 9 June 2020 16: 33 New
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    It is clear that in the Russian Federation the share of the fuel and energy complex in the country's revenue generation is very high (28,5% in the oil sector).

    Hmm ... And if you add gas, how much will it be? ..
    1. pogis 9 June 2020 16: 54 New
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      Do Norwegians have less?
      https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%AD%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D0%9D%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%B8
      1. Shelest2000 9 June 2020 17: 14 New
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        Yes, I am not interested in norgi at all. I do not live there.
        Here in 2016 I found

        In 2016, the Russian Federation retained its first place in the world in gas exports, the second in oil exports, and the third in coal exports.

        The fuel and energy complex remains an important source of replenishment of the budget. At the end of 2016, the share of the fuel and energy sector in the country's GDP amounted to 22,6 percent, oil and gas revenues in the federal budget 36 percent. The share of fuel and energy resources in the export of the Russian Federation of basic goods is 58,1 percent.

        The share of employees in the fuel and energy sector of the total number of employees amounted to 3,6 percent.

        Source: data from the Ministry of Energy of Russia, Ministry of Economic Development of Russia, Ministry of Finance of Russia, FCS of Russia.
        http://analitikaru.ru/2017/05/26/dolya-toplivno-energeticheskix-resursov-v-ekonomike-rossii-ostaetsya-lvinoj/
        1. pogis 9 June 2020 17: 54 New
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          Your suggestions?
          1. Shelest2000 10 June 2020 16: 55 New
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            If I voice them here, they’ll ban me forever laughing
  15. Pvi1206 9 June 2020 16: 39 New
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    "green" do not sleep .... while maintaining the current economic policy, Russia is unlikely to go for it ...
  16. Junior Private 9 June 2020 17: 34 New
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    Quote: lexus
    They have the Norwegian State Pension Fund, at the beginning of 2020 which contained ~ $ 1,1 trillion working for ALL citizens of the country (almost $ 200 thousand each !!!)

    And what is this talking about? What can all Norwegians be handed out two hundred thousand at a time and all of them will immediately become three times happier? This is not real. And if you mention ALL citizens, then be so kind as to write about their number, otherwise you are submitting information not on statistical terms.
    1. pogis 9 June 2020 17: 55 New
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      Approximately 5 ml. person.
  17. iouris 9 June 2020 18: 17 New
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    Will they switch to coal?
  18. Ryaruav 9 June 2020 19: 17 New
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    green energy to them (the West) in the ass, but with all these statements they don’t get a damn, just for a start, controlled thermonuclear energy is the guarantee of life (civilized) on the third pebble from the sun
  19. Revolver 10 June 2020 03: 17 New
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    And the fact that the Norwegians sold to many large companies, the same Chevron, offshore oil production rights, how is it? Forfeits there will be in the billions.
  20. dgonni 10 June 2020 09: 55 New
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    The author took and interpreted the article, in the hope that no one would read it.
    The main message in the article is that highly developed economies, and such is Norway, may be the first to stop the use and production of hydrocarbons, without social upheaval!
    The second message is that mining countries may require financial support, but on the condition that they diversify their production and economy!
    So Mr. Polonsky, some still read. Although you even hesitate to give a link :)
  21. Sancho_SP 10 June 2020 12: 21 New
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    Where does this schizoid thought come from, that someone will have something? While they are buying oil, they will produce it.
  22. APASUS 12 June 2020 13: 00 New
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    How critical is foreign policy and hydrocarbon production! That’s why the wars will not stop, only the factors of the lack of drinking water, food, etc. will be added.
  23. Selevc 12 June 2020 16: 11 New
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    Norway has a wide and diverse economy that can attract oil workers to other sectors. Norway also has the world's largest pension fund,
    It’s tin - people from other areas of the economy are invited to the world's largest pension fund to produce pensioners and make this fund even bigger !!!
    And far from always, oil revenues go to national budgets for the benefit of the population: in the same Angola or Nigeria, millions of people live in appalling poverty, but this is of little concern to local governments.
    Nuuuu Europe woke up after 300 years of robbing the rest of the world !!! If 100 years ago the same inhabitants of Angola and Nigeria were simply rudely robbed - they took away natural resources with the help of Colt and Winchester, now they are simply cleverly deceived - progress has been made over the past 100 years !!!
  24. Antifreeze 13 June 2020 19: 47 New
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    Poor Norwegians. Everyone has already decided for them.