Military Review

Tablets from Vindolanda. Roman soldiers wore underpants!

104

Invitation from Claudia Severus Sulpicia Lepidine, plate number 291. British museum


... and they wrote letters on it, as they cut it on the seal ...
Exodus 39: 30


Ancient writings tell. In our last article about excavations in Vindoland, we talked about finding there wooden signs that became the oldest written monuments in the UK. To date, more ancient tablets have been found, the so-called Bloomberg tablets. But we’ll talk about them some other time. And today, let the tablets from Vindolanda tell us about their contents, because they are a very rich source of information about life on the northern border of Roman Britain.

They look like this: these are thin wooden plates the size of a postcard, on which the text is written in black ink. They are dated I-II centuries of our era (that is, they are contemporaries of the construction of the wall of Hadrian). Although papyrus records were known from finds elsewhere in the Roman Empire, wooden ink-plaques were not found until 1973, when archaeologist Robin Birli discovered them in Vindoland, a Roman fort in northern England.

Tablets from Vindolanda. Roman soldiers wore underpants!

Fresco from Pompeii. It shows a wooden fold in the shape of a book in which they wrote on a surface covered with wax

Like the texts of the Novgorod birch bark letters, the texts of these tablets are completely unstructured, that is, they are random in nature. There are texts related to the life support of the fort, there are personal messages to the soldiers of the Vindolanda garrison, their families and slaves. They even found an invitation to some lady’s birthday party. The party took place around 100 AD, so this text is probably the oldest document that has been preserved to our time, written in Latin by a woman.


This is what the Roman "notebook" looked like

Almost all the plates are kept in the British Museum, but some were still on display in Vindoland. The texts of 752 tablets were translated and published in 2010. Moreover, the finds of tablets in Vindoland are still ongoing.

The wooden tablets found in Vindoland were made of different types of wood: birch, alder and oak, which grew here. But the stylus tablets, which were also found and which were intended for writing with a metal stylus on wax, were imported goods and were not made of local wood. The thickness of the plates is 0,25–3 mm, a typical size is 20 × 8 cm (the size of a modern postcard). They were folded in half, with an inscription to the inscription, and the ink was black, gum arabic and water. In the 1970s and 1980s alone, about 500 such tablets were dug, all thanks to the local oxygen-free soil in which the wood could be stored without decomposition.


The Romans borrowed the technology of writing on waxed wooden tablets from the Greeks. Image on a greek vessel. Berlin Museum

The first records discovered in March 1973 were delivered to the epigraphist Richard Wright, but the quick oxygenation of the tree led to the fact that they turned black and became unreadable. Then they were sent Alison Rutherford to the University of Newcastle School of Medicine for multispectral photography. Photographs were taken in infrared light, on which the text was first made out. But the result was still disappointing, since the texts at first could not be deciphered. And the reason was simple. None of the researchers simply knew this form of handwriting! However, Alan Bowman from the University of Manchester and David Thomas from the University of Durham were able to decrypt it.


Another fresco from Pompeii. It depicts a woman named Sappho after the famous Greek poetess. But whether it is in it is not known for sure. It is important that she holds writing accessories in her hands. National Archaeological Museum of Naples

Fort Vindolanda served as the base for the garrison before the construction of the Adrian wall, but most of the plates are somewhat older than the wall, which was started in 122 AD. In total, five periods were identified in the initial stories of this fort:

1. approx. 85–92 AD, the first fort was built.
2. approx. 92–97 AD, the fort was expanded.
3. approx. 97–103 AD, further expansion of the fort.
4. approx. 104–120 AD, a break and re-occupation of the fort.
5. approx. 120-130 years AD, the period when the wall of Hadrian was built.

It turned out that the tablets were made in periods 2 and 3 (c. 92–103 CE), and most were written before 102 AD They were used for official records of cases at the Vindoland camp and for the personal files of officers and their households. The largest group of texts refers to the correspondence of Flavius ​​Cerialis, prefect of the ninth cohort of the Batavians and his wife Sulpicia Lepidina. Several labels contain records of merchants and contractors. But who they are is not clear from the tablets. For example, a certain Octavian, the author of plate No. 343, is clearly a trader because he is engaged in the sale of wheat, hides and tendons, but all this does not prove that he is a civilian. He could well be one of the officers of the garrison, and even an ordinary.


And this is how our Novgorod birch bark letters look like. And all thanks to the soil that has preserved the tree and birch bark for us!

The most famous document is the tablet number 291, written about 100 AD Claudia Severa, wife of the commander of a nearby fort, Sulpicia Lepidine, who contains her invitation to a birthday party. An invitation is one of the earliest known examples of a woman writing Latin text. It is interesting that on the tablet there are two styles of handwriting, with most of the text written with one hand (most likely, a housewife), but with a final greeting, apparently personally added by Claudia Severa herself (in the lower right part of the tablet).

The tablets are written in Latin letters and shed light on the literacy rate in Roman Britain. One of the tablets confirms that Roman soldiers wore underpants (subligaria), and also indicates high literacy in the Roman army.


Tablets from Vindolanda. British museum

Another small discovery concerned how the Romans called Aboriginal people. Before opening the tablets, historians could only guess if the Romans had any nickname for the British. It turns out that there was such a nickname. The Romans called them Brittunculi (short for Britto), that is, "little Britons." We found it on one of Vindolanda's tablets, and now we know what a derogatory or patronizing term was used in the Roman garrisons, which were based in Northern Britain, to describe the locals.

The originality of the texts from Vindolanda lies in the fact that they seem to be written in letters other than the Latin alphabet. Unusual or distorted forms of letters or extravagant ligatures, which can be found in Greek papyruses of the same period, are rarely found in the text, they are simply written in a slightly different way. Additional problems for transcription are the use of abbreviations such as “h” for a person (human), or “cos” for a consularis (consular), and the arbitrary separation of words at the end of lines due to the size of the plates.

On many tablets, the ink is very faded, so in some cases it is impossible to distinguish between what was written. Therefore, you have to turn to infrared photographs, which give a much more legible version of the writing than the original tablets. However, photographs contain marks that look like written, but they are not letters; in addition, they contain a lot of lines, dots and other dark marks that were not written. Therefore, some signs had to be interpreted in a very subjective way, based on the general sense of what was written.


Stela Flavia Solva from Norikum. In his hands he holds writing accessories. Archaeological Museum of Graz, Austria

Among the texts there are many letters. For example, the cavalry decurion Masculus wrote a letter to the prefect Flavius ​​Cerialis with a question about the exact instructions for his people the next day, including a polite request to send more beer to the garrison (which had consumed the entire previous beer supply). It is not clear why he did not do this verbally, but apparently a certain distance had cut them off, and the affairs of the service prevented them from meeting. The documents contain a lot of information about the various responsibilities that men performed in the fort. For example, they had to be bathhouse keepers, shoemakers, construction workers, plasterers. Among the people assigned to the garrison were doctors, cart and furnace rangers, and stoker bath attendants.

In addition to Vindolanda, wooden plaques with inscriptions were found in twenty Roman settlements of Great Britain. However, most of them were stylus tablets to write on their wax-covered pages.

The fact that the letters were sent from different places on the Adrian wall and beyond (Katerik, York and London) makes us ask why they were found in Vindoland more than in other places, but it is impossible to give an unambiguous answer. The fact is that the anaerobic soils found in Vindoland are not unique. Similar soils are found in other places, for example, in some areas of London. Perhaps, because of their fragility in other places, they were mechanically destroyed during excavations, because these "pieces of wood" simply did not attach importance.


Plaque from Magliano. And the Etruscans, for example, sometimes wrote on gold plates, as well as on metal lead tablets. Museum of Archeology of Florence

Today the tablets are kept in the British Museum, where their collection is exhibited in the gallery "Roman Britain" (Hall 49). They were included in the list of British archaeological finds selected by experts from the British Museum for the documentary Our Ten Treasures (BBC Television, 2003). Viewers were asked to vote for their favorite artifacts, and these tablets took first place among all the others.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Vindolanda: Roman soldiers lived here
Stibbert Museum in Florence: knights at arm's length
Spanish Cartagena: Museum of Military History
Maritime Museum of Lloret, Indianos Town
Royal Armory in Madrid. Weapons and Armor Collection of the Spanish Kings
Polish shells, Austrian hussars and Turkish fives
Cuirassiers in museums
Enemies of the Cuirassiers
With whom the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fought?
“A small discovery in the butt of an arquebus ...”
Horsemen of the Eighty Years War
Horses and saddles of the XVI-XVII centuries
“By people and by horses, not by aer”
Ordonance companies
“It's a miracle if someone is killed with a spear”
104 comments
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  1. Cowbra
    Cowbra 20 June 2020 05: 36 New
    -4
    If lacy, then Ukrainians definitely founded Rome winked
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 20 June 2020 08: 30 New
      10
      Is the roof going to the edge already? What does Ukraine have to do with it?
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 20 June 2020 08: 52 New
        0
        And in 2014, she jumped for lace underpants
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 20 June 2020 15: 54 New
          0
          Wow, how many skakuaz at VO! The minusers are clearly from Sumeria, they earn money. They would return the flags or something.
          1. Cowbra
            Cowbra 20 June 2020 17: 59 New
            -1
            Yes, they are already visible winked
  2. mark1
    mark1 20 June 2020 05: 46 New
    +8
    We started as shingles 2000 years ago so shaved
  3. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 20 June 2020 05: 59 New
    +4
    including a polite request to send even more beer to the garrison (which fully consumed the entire previous stock of beer).

    Well, they have a drink .. Or were they afraid to drink local water so as not to be poisoned by local people?
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 20 June 2020 08: 32 New
      +6
      “It is well known that the frog of the wife will not replace” (c).
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 June 2020 09: 06 New
        +6
        Exactly.
        "Ivan Tsarevich kissed the frog for the fifteenth time. And the guests all sneered:" Bitter! Bitterly!""
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 20 June 2020 09: 15 New
          +5
          The second association was: “Sand is an unimportant substitute for oats” (c).
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 20 June 2020 09: 20 New
            +6
            "Drinking a shmurdyak, my friend, is immoral!
            Drinking beer is an honor, old man! " (FROM)
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 20 June 2020 09: 25 New
              +6
              “Then we hit him three hundred” (c).
              1. Lexus
                Lexus 20 June 2020 12: 22 New
                +9
                Drinking beer is an honor, old man! " (FROM)

                “Then we hit him three hundred” (c).

                Anton, Sergey, welcome! hi I am in heaven? Around colleagues! They definitely won’t go to hell, because there is boiler equipment there - we’ll build the hitherto unknown largest moonshine, inaccessible to controlling / prohibiting organizations. laughing
                But Uncle Kostya will say that "three hundred" after beer is anti-scientific, and vice versa, "strict" drinks are supposed to "grind with beer." drinks
                Can I also mention in the field of citation a wonderful piece about ingenuity? repeat
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 20 June 2020 12: 31 New
                  +6
                  A good word is one of the components of paradise.

                  “Hell and paradise are not circles in the palace of the universe,
                  Hell and paradise are two halves of the soul ”(c).
                  1. Lexus
                    Lexus 20 June 2020 12: 36 New
                    12
                    Holders of sparkling humor and heaven is not boring, and hell is not terrible.
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 20 June 2020 15: 32 New
                  +6
                  Lyosha, hello! Best wishes to all friends! hi
                  But Uncle Kostya will say that "three hundred" after beer is unscientific

                  Nothing, friend, I will not say, just dying in this heat without any beer and everything else. So there are no thoughts about alcohol, it would only survive. Even the fan does not save. In short, we. our whole team, including the cat, all day we are looking only for a cooler angle and wait for night to fall.
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 20 June 2020 16: 03 New
                    +6
                    Hi Constantine!
                    A scientist cat, like this one?
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 20 June 2020 16: 10 New
                      +5
                      Hello, Sergey!
                      Well, of course, he can also use a typewriter, and indeed ... smile
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 20 June 2020 17: 24 New
                        +5
                        I respect smart cats. Regarding the drawing of a cat in the desert, which is so cultured that it uses the tray even there - my friend has a house with a decent plot, so his Scot runs to the tray instead of using his plot.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 June 2020 18: 17 New
                        +5
                        Our general expanse, the neighboring site is abandoned, there is generally a jungle. The cat in the house brought all the mice, so it constantly drags mice from there, less often rats, even less often birds. He doesn’t eat prey himself, but lays it on the porch, I suppose that he takes care of us, we must somehow feed those stupid people like us, who themselves cannot hunt. Care. )))
                      3. Alf
                        Alf 20 June 2020 22: 52 New
                        +3
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        He doesn’t eat prey himself, but lays it on the porch, I suppose that he takes care of us, we must somehow feed those stupid people like us, who themselves cannot hunt.

                        No, he just reports for feeding.
              2. bubalik
                bubalik 20 June 2020 17: 55 New
                +7
                in this heat

                Heat.
                The evening is near.
                Sake is already in the refrigerator ,,,
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 20 June 2020 18: 19 New
                  +6
                  Seryozha, hi. smile So they seem to be sipping warmed sake. Actually a nightmare ...
                  1. bubalik
                    bubalik 20 June 2020 18: 48 New
                    +5
                    sake warmed bread
                    ,,, wild people!
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 20 June 2020 20: 57 New
                    +6
                    Should we, gaijins, judge the high culture of sake consumption?
                2. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 20 June 2020 18: 52 New
                  +7
                  Of course, a nightmare. Professor Watanabe, when he saw my face after tasting sake (it is at room temperature), dragged me to the table, where there was cold whiskey. There I moved away from a specific Far Eastern drink. It was during a banquet after the ISFV-16 Congress in Okinawa in 2014.
                3. Catfish
                  Catfish 20 June 2020 19: 10 New
                  +6
                  Whiskey always twitched me and was drawn to let it out. I can't imagine how you can sip it. I haven't tried sake, and thank God. But I suspect that the notorious "Solntsedar" slipped softer.
                4. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 20 June 2020 19: 57 New
                  +3
                  Well, it all depends on the mood. After sake and viskar come down, sips it only in films they drink, and then, diluted with soda. And japa did not put vodka.
                5. Catfish
                  Catfish 20 June 2020 20: 28 New
                  +5
                  Yes, the mood and the possibilities ... I had a chance to drink some syringes, a rare abomination, there was nothing else, but there was a reason and there was a desire.
                6. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 10: 30 New
                  +1
                  Yes, the mood and the possibilities ... I had a chance to drink some syringes, a rare abomination, there was nothing else, but there was a reason and there was a desire.

                  I didn’t drink sake, but Greek vodka ouzo really liked it! drinks
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 20 June 2020 18: 55 New
        +5

        Strict Okinawan cat. Samurai, however.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 20 June 2020 19: 13 New
          +6
          No, we are local people, simple ... laughing
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 20 June 2020 19: 58 New
          +3
          Beautiful cat, sad only - hot, I guess.
        3. Catfish
          Catfish 20 June 2020 20: 13 New
          +3
          Yes, the heat annoys everyone. request
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 June 2020 20: 54 New
    +5
    Between us ronin, saying, sake is sometimes served warmed up.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 20 June 2020 21: 51 New
      +4
      ,,, after a hot sake

      Look carefully at the grass -
      Here was a green grasshopper, similar to the fruit of a cucumber.
      Ah yes the frog. laughing
  • Alf
    Alf 20 June 2020 22: 51 New
    +3
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Even the fan does not save.

    And do not put air conditioning? I once had +30 on the street, and in an apartment where 2 workers worked, only 20. I came, and there was a nonsense ... And beer in the refrigerator!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 21 June 2020 14: 46 New
      +2
      Conditioned in a two-story house, I barely scraped money for a fan. laughing And with beer I started ten years ago. drinks
      1. Alf
        Alf 21 June 2020 20: 57 New
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        And with beer I started ten years ago.

        Are you undermining the Russian economy? laughing
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 21 June 2020 20: 59 New
        +1
        How can one undermine what is impossible to discern in a microscope? laughing
      3. Alf
        Alf 21 June 2020 21: 00 New
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        How can one undermine what is impossible to discern in a microscope? laughing

        Perhaps this is one of the few sectors of the country's economy, which is and which pays taxes.
      4. Catfish
        Catfish 21 June 2020 21: 02 New
        +1
        ... which pays taxes.

        Well, thank God, this is without my participation.
      5. Alf
        Alf 21 June 2020 21: 04 New
        0
        Quote: Sea Cat
        ... which pays taxes.

        Well, thank God, this is without my participation.

        And last night I supported the beer industry, drank a half a teapot of Zhigulevsky. True, during the inspection it turned out that it was made in Belarus. And it’s very good and not expensive. And our Samara has long been an outspoken city ..
      6. Catfish
        Catfish 21 June 2020 21: 23 New
        +1
        I, if I drank it recently, it’s only ours, Ryazan.
      7. Alf
        Alf 21 June 2020 21: 24 New
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I, if I drank it recently, it’s only ours, Ryazan.

        Patriot?
      8. Catfish
        Catfish 21 June 2020 21: 27 New
        +1
        No, it was just good. "Zhigulevskoe", I mean, and "Russian" is completely out of place.
      9. Alf
        Alf 21 June 2020 21: 29 New
        0
        Quote: Sea Cat
        No, it was just good. "Zhigulevskoe", I mean, and "Russian" is completely out of place.

        Zhiguli-Ryazan? It just sounds awesome. good
      10. Catfish
        Catfish 21 June 2020 21: 50 New
        +1
        It just sounds awesome.

        So it was drunk accordingly, I specially drove the guys to Moscow to try it - everything was just bastards. drinks
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 June 2020 20: 41 New
    +5
    "If I knew with whom I am going, with whom I drink vodka,
    He would fucking drive to Vologda "(C)
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 20 June 2020 21: 58 New
      +4
      “But these were still flowers” ​​(c).
  • Lexus
    Lexus 20 June 2020 12: 47 New
    +9
    "Ivan Tsarevich kissed the frog for the fifteenth time. And the guests all sneered:" Bitter! Bitterly!""

    Anton, judging by the minuses, you disturbed someone with a sore spot / wart. In the language of hopeless kisses. The poor things were looking for a frog princess, but apparently they were common toads. That’s why they are evil. request
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 June 2020 13: 18 New
      +4
      "We, too, will not be overly tactful,
      On our thorny path! "(C)
  • Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 20 June 2020 13: 56 New
    +6
    Drinking raw water can cause problems without the participation of Aboriginal people. The Romans captured the relationship and preferred alcohol. You won’t earn dysentery from him, at least.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 10: 33 New
      0
      The Romans captured the relationship and preferred alcohol. you can’t earn dysentery, at least.

      Nikita, I add: the gentlemen in the colonies in the 17th and early 20th centuries generally drank in black ... Yes, partly in order to earn nothing. drinks
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 22 June 2020 11: 58 New
        +1
        That's how they drank in sailing fleets) "the daily norm of a Dutch sailor of the Age of Sail was the standard 0.5 liters of gin with a strength of 38-43 degrees." (c) well, or 2 gallons of beer (7-8 liters).
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 12: 00 New
          0
          That's how they drank on sailing fleets

          yes, the "ancestors" turn out to be intricate! laughing I wonder how he then climbed the masts - after 0,5 gin? wink
          1. Ryazan87
            Ryazan87 22 June 2020 15: 24 New
            +1
            bad, I think) However, I knew one auto mechanic who (it was New Year's Eve) was dragged under his arms to repair the car, he fell asleep a couple of times in the process, but he did his job. When I had not seen it with my own eyes, I would not have believed it.
            By the way, now the daily allowance for alcoholic beverages of a sailor of the Royal Netherlands Navy is two standard cans of beer (0.66 liters). We, it seems, only give a little wine to submariners, the cup went with the empire.
            And a little about gentlemen and colonies.
            Memoirs of Lieutenant Colonel Igor Zhdarkin, in 1996 - 1998 was part of the peacekeeping contingent in the UN mission in Angola:
            "... I remembered well how, on our first business trip, an old local Portuguese said to us: Wednesday and Saturday at least one hundred grams of everything that burns, and preferably stronger, gin, whiskey, vodka, wine, local" kaporote ", except beer because it’s no use, it helps 90% to prevent malaria from developing, or to mild malaria.
            Of course, as some have said, this can lead to drunkenness, alcoholism, and the like. However, for some reason, no one brought anyone I know. They drank there - just out of necessity, so as not to get sick. "(C)
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 22 June 2020 16: 01 New
              0
              However, for some reason no one was brought in, whom I know. They drank there - just out of necessity, so as not to get sick.

              interesting! Did not know! good
  • avaks111
    avaks111 20 June 2020 06: 29 New
    +2
    First century? Isn’t it cool?
    1. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 20 June 2020 08: 33 New
      0
      Quote: avaks111
      First century? Isn’t it cool?

      When reading Shpakovsky, it is important to remember - [quote = kalibr It’s time for you to understand that no matter what you believe in yourself, it is important to be able to make others believe in it! [/ Quote]
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 20 June 2020 12: 16 New
      +6
      Who laid what?
      If I understand correctly, you doubt the correct dating of the tablets, right? Are you doing this "it was not a simple patamushta etawa" or do you have doubts about the accuracy of the dating method or the correctness of its application in this case?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 June 2020 16: 04 New
        +3
        Who laid what?
        "The city will be founded here."
        (The inscription on the pawnshop)
      2. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 20 June 2020 17: 49 New
        -4
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        If I understood correctly,

        No, it's wrong. I'm talking about Shpakovsky's "work", not dating.
        I can’t judge the dates, but I can’t judge the “creativity”.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 20 June 2020 18: 35 New
          +4
          Quote: Krasnoyarsk
          No, wrong.

          The question was addressed to avaks111.
          You are again unable to read. For those who are in doubt, there is an arrow next to the comment to see to whom exactly the interlocutor is addressed.
          Try to consult with someone from trusted people before writing your own answers.
          "What did this one want to say? And this one? And this one, by any chance, did not want to offend Russian national pride? No? It seemed to me ... Well, maybe this one? Not too?" Well, something like that. I think that if the person with whom you will consult is sober, then you will find many surprises. smile
          1. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 21 June 2020 19: 09 New
            0
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            The question was addressed to avaks111.

            I apologize hi Really. Missing out. Excuse me.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 21 June 2020 19: 47 New
              +3
              Is accepted. hi
              Although in this case there is no reason for apology.
              In fact, I’ll have a request if you will.
              Try to really read at least my messages carefully and you will see that there are not so many reasons for disagreements and disputes as you still thought.
              I’m not ironic right now and I’m not trying to hurt you in any way.
              hi
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 June 2020 06: 49 New
    +6
    A developed civilization with a large number of literate people.

    And then such a failure in the obscurantism of the Middle Ages ...
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 20 June 2020 06: 57 New
      -6
      Quote: Olgovich
      A developed civilization with a large number of literate people.

      And then such a failure in the obscurantism of the Middle Ages ...


      Went to a referendum? Zero emperor?
      1. AU Ivanov.
        AU Ivanov. 20 June 2020 07: 59 New
        +1
        Probably the opposite - they changed power like gloves.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 20 June 2020 08: 35 New
        -3
        Quote: sergo1914

        Went to a referendum? Zero emperor?

        For zeroing you to your beloved 1917-1991 Mr. Here there was a bunch of zeroed (and for good yes ) pre-councils, people's commissars, etc., as well as a huge number of "referendums" lol

        PS topic of the article, see? What about you? belay
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 20 June 2020 19: 51 New
      +6

      "And then such a failure in the obscurantism of the Middle Ages." ///
      ----
      The failure occurred due to the invasions of the Huns (Atilla), then the Vikings. And the plague.
      Cologne has an interesting historical museum. The artifacts show
      how smoothly Roman culture passed into colonies by Germanic tribes.
    3. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 21 June 2020 19: 13 New
      -1
      Quote: Olgovich
      A developed civilization with a large number of literate people.

      And then such a failure in the obscurantism of the Middle Ages ...

      It's just that historians are muddying something. Toli with dates (Scaliger-Petavius), or there was some kind of cataclysm, as a result of which civilization died and everyone started from the beginning.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 22 June 2020 07: 54 New
        0
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        It's just that historians are muddying something. Toli with dates (Scaliger-Petavius), or there was some kind of cataclysm, as a result of which civilization died and everyone started from the beginning.

        I do not think so ...
        This is a cyclical development, IMHO
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 22 June 2020 10: 56 New
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          This is a cyclical development, IMHO

          But the cyclical development must also be due to something.
          It can’t be that for no reason and suddenly - regression.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 June 2020 07: 58 New
    +7
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    After the first publication about Vindoland, I thought that it would be nice to see the material on the tablets. And so!!!
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 20 June 2020 13: 13 New
      +9
      Good article! The most for the weekend. I even noticed myself behind a laptop in the fourth picture. I can imagine how censorship worked in those days - a man wrote insanity, so his supervisory authorities removed the tablet, wrote it and returned it. No need to burn at all. winked
      The material confirms the hypothesis that even the Roman soldiers of the devil, when, in shorts, were more civilized than the current followers of Wahhabism and some individuals of the fair sex, who ignore this wardrobe item in every possible way, especially when they broke "off the chain" of self-isolation. I feel that today I will have one "unbelted barbarian", "completely" beaten off "from the hands" and eager for "punishment", to bring order and "pacify" with a club. repeat
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 June 2020 13: 19 New
        +5
        Despot! Tyrant!! Housebuilder !!! laughing
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 20 June 2020 13: 31 New
          +6
          Despot! Tyrant!! Housebuilder !!!

          Embarked on the path of self-sacrifice. Give this freedom - in a state of mind to spread the world around. And I cannot allow everything that is so dear to me to disappear "into a black hole." You will have to sweat, and not only, to restrain from destructive impulses in order to drive the energy of destruction, genie, into a bottle. Directly every night battle of Ra with Apophis. lol
    2. kalibr
      21 June 2020 12: 57 New
      +2
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      After the first publication about Vindoland, I thought that it would be nice to see the material on the tablets.

      And me too!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 June 2020 12: 59 New
        +2
        Glad your arrival from the cottage! laughing
        1. kalibr
          21 June 2020 21: 37 New
          +2
          Here, nothing from you, Anton, will not be hidden. You can't be so ... insightful. For three days there was no way. The berry has gone, you need to work in greenhouses, mow grass, stain the porch with a stain and varnish. Then the wires changed on the roof electric ... in a word complete communism, mental work - then physical - then all over again ...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 21 June 2020 21: 49 New
            +1
            All my trouble, Vyacheslav Olegovich, is that I can read "between the lines" and understand the psychology of the average Russian man. Let's face it, all this "dacha" didn’t fit you !!!
            1. kalibr
              22 June 2020 07: 50 New
              +2
              And here, Anton, you are wrong. I grew up in a huge garden, participated in all of his work. And in old age, a person returns to childhood and in this draws strength. With all my sores, this is the best medicine. Throw 20 thousand for a gymnastics course and 800 r. for a massage or work in the country? The answer is clear! And there I don’t think, and the brain is also resting. I sleep without pills ... I don’t drive a car either, because I won’t get out of the gym then! And here - also all his own. Now here we cook the jam from strawberries, foam with croutons. We still eat frozen carrots. Homemade wine ... Basil, watercress, arugula, I don’t even talk about radish. Cucumbers have already gone. Now, since we are not going anywhere, we hired a team of workers and made paths from tiles with a massive curb ... now we are walking along the avenue. Again, the work of the hands ... casement doors, painting, varnishing of the lattice upholstery of the veranda. Digging, weeding, mowing, sawing firewood. Well, this is facilitated: an electric brush cutter, an electric saw, an electric grinder ... So the work is efficient, diverse, but not very difficult. Again, a shower ... good for health. You need to take care of yourself and your ... readers!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 22 June 2020 07: 54 New
                +2
                Well and good!
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 20 June 2020 08: 31 New
    +7
    So since when do they drink beer in England? Then have you already used hops?
    The basic needs of people do not change much.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 20 June 2020 08: 45 New
    +3
    This round letter is very interesting. To read it, you need to plant it and twist it. Imagine a messenger comes to the ruler of the city. And asks the answer to the message. And in response he hears that he sent a message to x .... he turned, he could read with difficulty. There you have the war
    1. KLV
      KLV 20 June 2020 09: 56 New
      +1
      Strange post. You know very well how to read this letter, but you are not quite sure that the ruler of the city (the ruler of the city!) Can read fluently. Don't you find any oddities in this?
  • lucul
    lucul 20 June 2020 08: 47 New
    0
    That's interesting.
  • Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 20 June 2020 11: 17 New
    +7
    Vyacheslav Olegovich,
    very, very informative and interesting. That's how science is popular!
    Thank you!
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 20 June 2020 12: 03 New
    +7
    Fat plus, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Thank!
    Now I read the comments. smile
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 20 June 2020 12: 29 New
      +4
      There is nothing to read there, right here the article is not about the Bolsheviks or Kolchak) And not even about the great Tartaria from ocean to ocean.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 20 June 2020 13: 51 New
        +7
        But there is reliable, scientifically verified information, easy presentation and a pleasant atmosphere created by most comments.
        In my opinion, the media has four main tasks - warning, education, training and entertainment. Moreover, in that order, entertainment is the last thing. Unfortunately, we now have entertainment, entertainment, entertainment and a little bit of everything else. It is good that some media still devote at least a little time to education.
  • Slavutich
    Slavutich 20 June 2020 12: 38 New
    +1
    For the first time I learned about it:
    many thanks to the author!
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 20 June 2020 19: 47 New
    +8
    Very interesting stuff!
    ---
    I will add that between Roman Britain and Italy there was
    stable mail: letters and parcels of soldiers to relatives and vice versa
    reached the addressees in a couple of months.
    1. iouris
      iouris 21 June 2020 16: 25 New
      +1
      ... and there was a wired telephone connection. But in Russia they did not find ancient wires, and this means that they used only wireless communication there.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 21 June 2020 18: 09 New
        +5
        It is very easy. smile
        Letters of Roman legionnaires were found and read. Latin. And letters from their relatives to them with a list that they sent in a letter. They indicated when they were written.
  • Alex013
    Alex013 20 June 2020 20: 04 New
    +4
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for the article! Very interesting stuff. An additional plus - for an illustration with Novgorod birch bark letters)
    1. Alf
      Alf 20 June 2020 22: 57 New
      +2
      Quote: Alex013
      . An additional plus - for an illustration with Novgorod birch bark letters)

      It seems, and okay, it will come down, who will sort it out there. 80% Dubaks ...
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 21 June 2020 00: 20 New
    +2
    The Roman soldiers wore underpants ... The Romans were a practical people, many barbarian items that had useful properties were used. The climate in Britain, especially on the Adrianov line, is certainly not the same as in Sunny Italy, especially since the Celts, Germans and other peoples who had their own traditions served in the army.
    Since the state was involved in providing the legionnaires with weapons and ammunition, then probably at the request of the mothers of the "soldiers' committee of mothers," the "Roman" home front service "decided to supplement the equipment of a limited contingent in Britain by introducing into the uniform wearing the second, cropped pants, worn under the ankle-length pants ...
    I wonder how this fact was established?
    wink
    Most likely, they found a plate - a statement of the issuance of the belongings of the "foreman of the 4th cohort" issued to the legionnaires after a trip to the baths.
    As archaeologists say, the greatest diversity in the "cultural layer" is brought by "non-cultured people".
    Wooden plaques were used because of accessibility, as wax ones were imported and probably expensive. I wonder how they could dissolve a tree on planks of such a thickness, almost veneer is obtained.
    Pure wax at a temperature below +20 is not plastic. When scratching with a stylus, there will be an expense - chips.
    With humidity, the wax may become moldy and darken.
    Recently I watched the doc series "8 days that shook Rome", it indicates the fact that under the ground of the racetrack many lead plates were found with scrawled notes and rolled into tubes. What prevented the use in Britain?
    1. Alf
      Alf 21 June 2020 00: 57 New
      +1
      Quote: Lynx2000
      What prevented use in Britain?

      Lack of lead?
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 21 June 2020 01: 32 New
        +1
        There is a lead figure in the British Museum. British scientists recourse set dating - 3800 BC
        Most likely, the lead went to the front - Adrian's shaft, to sling shells.
  • Revolver
    Revolver 21 June 2020 02: 33 New
    +3
    If you look at the picture from a Greek vase, you can see that even the ancient Greeks used laptops.
    tongue
  • iouris
    iouris 21 June 2020 16: 23 New
    +1
    ... and crosses. Well, so that they could not solve and contrast.
  • Antipatr
    Antipatr 8 September 2020 23: 37 New
    0
    Quote: Cowbra
    If lacy, then Ukrainians definitely founded Rome winked

    Not! It was founded by the Etruscan!